11.1
Time varying Electromagnetic Fields
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.2
Time varying Electromagnetic Fields
Up to this point we have concentrated on static (or slowly
varying) fields. When charge and current distributions vary in
time two new phenomena appear:
(a). Time varying magnetic fields appear to generate
electric fields.
(b). Time varying electric fields appear to generate
magnetic fields.
The following sections concentrate on describing these effects
and modifying Maxwell’s equations to take account of them.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.3
Motional EMF.
Consider a small length dL of a good conductor moving
through a constant uniform magnetic field.
B
v
F=q (v × ×× × B)
Each charge moving with the wire will
feel a force due to its motion through
the field.
The force will tend to separate positive
charges (usually relatively immobile
ions consisting of nuclei plus bound
electrons) from negative charges
(typically mobile conduction electrons)
leading to a net electric field in the
wire.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.4
In effect motion of a wire in a magnetic field induces an emf
in the wire which produces a potential difference between the
ends of a finite length of wire, just as the emf in a battery
produces a charge separation resulting in the potential
difference between the terminals of a battery. In this case the
ultimate source of the energy is the kinetic energy of the wire.
B
v
F=q (v × ×× × B)
δL
The emf, δε, induced in the
small element δL is just the work
done per unit charge by the
magnetic force in moving a
charge along δL

( ) ( )
( )
dt dt dt
m
δφ
δ δ δε − =
⋅
− = ⋅ − = × ⋅ − = ⋅ × =
S B S
B L v B L B v
δ δ
+
vδt
δS
S B δ δφ ⋅ =
m
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.5
Now suppose the section δL is part of a closed curve C that is
moving, or changing shape as shown.
The total emf induced in the entire loop is just the sum of the
elemental emfs induced in each of the small elements δL.
The change in magnetic flux through the surface bounded by
C in time dt is the sum of the elemental fluxes δφ
m
C
C’
dL
vdt
B
δS = vdt × δL
( )
dt
d
dt
d
d EMF
m
φ
ε − =
⋅
− = =
∫
∫
S B d
Thus the motional emf is given by
dt
d
EMF
m
motion
φ
− =
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.6
In other words, the motional emf induced in a moving or
changing loop is equal in magnitude to the rate of change of
magnetic flux through the loop.
The –ve sign is consistent with our definition of the relation
between the direction of a bounding curve and the sense of a
surface normal to the surface bounded by the curve.
C
C’
dL
vdt
B
δS = vdt × δL
dt
d
EMF
m
motion
φ
− =
Note: The energy corresponding to the emf is
supplied by the kinetic energy of the elements of the
loop (or the work done by an external force to change
the loop). The magnetic force, in effect redistributes the
total momentum of a charge so that its component
along the direction of the element grows at the expense
of the component perpendicular to it. The electric
forces between the ions and electrons in the moving
wire serve to restore the component in the direction of
motion, in the act transferring energy from the ions to
the mobile electrons.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.7
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law.
Now suppose that the closed loop in the last section remains
fixed (not moving or changing shape) but that the magnetic
field in the vicinity of the loop is changing.
This situation was investigated by Faraday in the early 19
th
century who found that there was, in fact, an emf induced in
the loop.
He also found that the emf was related to the rate of change of
magnetic flux through the loop in the same way as the
motional EMF.
dt
d
EMF
m
induction
φ
− =
This is Faraday’s law.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.8
Lenz’s Law
The –ve sign goes with the definition of the loop and surface
directions to give Lenz’s law, which states that
The emf induced in a loop by a changing magnetic flux would
cause a current to flow in such a way as to oppose the change
in flux through the loop.
dt
d
EMF
m
induction
φ
− =
φ
m
φ
m
+ δφ
m
 δφ
m
δφ
m
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.9
In a sense Faraday’s law is more fundamental than the
motional emf result, since the motional effect really becomes
apparent only when there are wires or similar systems with
complex internal fields to make the effect apparent.
The effects of electromagnetic induction, however, can be felt
at a given point by a single charge.
The interpretation is that a changing magnetic field in a region
is accompanied by a changing induced electric field (in
addition to any electric fields due to charge distributions).
In terms of this component of the electric field, E
induced
, the
emf around any fixed closed curve, C, is
∫
⋅ =
C
induced induced
d EMF r E
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.10
But the electric field produced by a charge distribution has
zero circulation (the conservation condition) so it can be
added to the RHS above without changing anything:
∫ ∫ ∫
⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ =
C
total
C
charge
C
induced induced
d d d EMF r E r E r E
Since this term is always zero
It is then easy to write Faraday’s law
in integral form :
This is the modification of the conservation
condition required for time varying fields.
In this equation S is any surface bounded by
the closed curve C
∫ ∫
⋅ − = ⋅
S C
d
dt
d
d S B r E
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.11
Since S is arbitrary we can use Stokes’ theorem to reexpress
Faraday’s law in differential form.
Provided the curve C is static
∫ ∫
⋅
∂
∂
= ⋅
S S
d
t
d
dt
d
S
B
S B
Stokes’ theorem gives
∫ ∫
⋅ × ∇ = ⋅
S C
d d S E r E
So that, after a little algebra
0 = ⋅

¹

\

∂
∂
+ × ∇
∫
S
d
t
S
B
E
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.12
But S is arbitrary, so that the integrand must be zero
everywhere, and hence
This is Faraday’s law in differential form
t ∂
∂
− = × ∇
B
E
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.13
Example: EMF Induced in a Loop Near a Long Straight
Wire
Consider a long straight wire carrying a time varying current ;
calculate the emf induced in a rectangular loop as shown.
The magnetic field outside the wire is given by
I(t)
C
B(r)
r
a
b
L
r
I
r
π
µ
2
ˆ
) (
0
θ B =
The total flux through the loop shown is then

¹

\

= = ⋅ =
∫ ∫ ∫
a
b LI
drdz
r
I
d
L b
a S
m
ln
2 2
0
0 0
π
µ
π
µ
φ S B
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.14
The emf induced in the loop is
I(t)
C
B(r)
r
a
b
L
dt
dI
a
b L
d
t
t
EMF
S
m

¹

\

− =
⋅
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
− =
∫
ln
2
0
π
µ
φ
S B
For example if L = 1m, a = 2m, b = 3m, and I = 1000cos(100πt) A
V ) 100 sin( 10 55 . 2
) 100 sin( 1000
2
3
ln
2
1 10 4
4
7
t
t EMF
π
π π
π
π
−
−
× =

¹

\

× ×
=
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.15
Mutual Inductance.
When the magnetic flux produced by current in a circuit links
a second circuit, there will be an emf induced in the second
circuit.
Since the field from the first circuit is proportional to the
current in the circuit and the emf in the second circuit is
proportional to the rate of change of this field, it follows that
we should be able to write an equation of the form :
dt
dI
M EMF
1
2
− =
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.16
or more, usually where we think of a potential V
2
that appears
between two points in the second circuit du to the induced
emfs
dt
dI
M V
1
2
=
In this equation Mis a geometric constant which depends on
the shape and size of the two circuits but is independent of the
currents and potentials.
M is the mutual inductance of the two circuits.
Note that Mcan be a +ve or a –ve number depending on the
definition of the directions of the loops in the circuits.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.17
In the example given above the mutual inductance of the two
circuits is easily calculated since
I
1
(t)
C
a
b
L
~
+
V
2
dt
dI
a
b L
V
1 0
2
ln
2

¹

\

=
π
µ
Hence

¹

\

=
a
b
L
M ln
2
0
π
µ
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.18
It is a general rule that the mutual inductance for voltage in
circuit 2 given current in circuit1 is the same as the mutual
inductance for voltage in circuit 1 given current in circuit 2:
dt
dI
M V
dt
dI
M V
2
1
1
2
= ⇒ =
Unfortunately it is usually very hard to calculate the mutual
inductance for more complicated geometries, and M is more
easily measured than calculated.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.19
Self Inductance.
Consider a circuit carrying a time varying current I(t).
The current produces a magnetic field in the vicinity of the
circuit which will induce emfs in the circuit itself.
If the size of the circuit is relatively small the magnetic field
over the region of occupied by the circuit is directly
proportional to the instantaneous current in the circuit.
It follows that, for a given geometry, the emfs induced in the
circuit must be directly proportional to dI(t)/dt.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.20
Thus we can write
dt
dI
L V
1
1
=
where L is a (positive) constant (the Self Inductance of the
circuit) and V
1
is the (scalar) potential difference between
two points in the circuit.
The units of inductance are Vs/A or Wb/A or Henry (H).
As with mutual inductance it can be difficult to calculate self
inductance so the value is often simply measured.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.21
Example 1: Selfinductance of a Long Solenoid:
The traditional inductor consists of a coil of wire wound on a
cylindrical former.
The windings are closely spaced and, as a first approximation
we assume that the magnetic field inside the solenoid is given
by the ideal result derived earlier:
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
<
=
a r
a r
l
NI
r
; 0
;
ˆ
) (
0
z
B
µ
l
I
N
2a
~
+
V
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.22
The magnetic flux through each loop is constant, and equal to
l
I
N
2a
~
+
V
l
NI
a
m
0
2
µ
π φ =
Therefore an emf = dφ
m
/dt will be
induced in each loop due to the
changing current in the coil.
Since the loops are in series the emfs
add and the total potential difference
across the ends of the coil will be
dt
dI
l
N
a N
dt
d
N V
m 0
2
µ
π
φ
= =
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.23
From this, and the definition of selfinductance, the expression
for the self inductance of the coil can be obtained
l
I
N
2a
~
+
V
Real solenoids have finite diameter wires, are
of finite length and may have gaps between the
coils and a considerable pitch.
These effect the details of the result above
(approximations exist for more realistic coils)
but the general features (the area, length and N
dependence) are broadly correct.
l
N a
L
2 2
0
π µ
=
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.24
Example 2: Self inductance of a Coaxial Cable – High
Frequency Limit:
We have already calculated the magnetic fields inside a coaxial
cable so it is relatively straightforward to calculate the self
inductance per unit length of the cable.
This is best studied in two cases, a high frequency limit, in
which all the current flows on the surface of the conductors,
and a low frequency limit in which the current flow is uniform
inside the conductors.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.25
Start with the high frequency limit; the magnetic field is :
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
< <
<
=
b r
b r a r
a r
I
r
; 0
; 1
; 0
2
ˆ
) (
0
π
µ
θ B
Consider a length δz of the cable and construct a loop, C, as
shown.
δz
b
a
I
~
V
+
C
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.26
The total magnetic flux through this loop is
Since the magnetic flux inside the inner conductor is zero, the
emf is the same for all such curves and we can reasonably
assume that the contribution to the potential between the inner
and outer conductor due to induction arises from this flux .
δz
b
a
I
~
V
+

¹

\

= = ⋅ =
∫ ∫
a
b I
z dr
r
I
z d
b
a S
m
ln
2 2
0 0
π
µ
δ
π
µ
δ δφ S B
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.27
hence the self inductance per unit length at high frequencies is
δz
b
a
I
~
V
+
dt
dI
L
dt
dI
a
b
z
dt
d
V
m
δ
π
µ
δ
δφ
δ =

¹

\

= = ln
2
0

¹

\

=
a
b
z
L
ln
2
0
π
µ
δ
δ
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.28
Example 3: Self inductance of a Coaxial Cable – Low
Frequency Limit:
The examples studied so far may have obscured a few points
since the current flow is easy to idealise, especially since we can
usually ignore the effect of distributed currents in the wires.
This example illustrates the problems that can arise when the
finite width of the conductors in a circuit cannot be ignored.
In the lowfrequency limit the current is distributed almost
uniformly across the cross section of the inner conductor (we
will continue to idealise the outer conductor as a thin cylinder),
so the flux inside the inner conductor needs to be included in the
flux linking the loop C.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.29
The problem is that if we choose the location of the side of the
loop inside the inner conductor to be at a different radial position
inside the wire, the total flux linking the loop is different, so the
emf generated is different and there is no clear unique emf to
associate with the potential difference between the inner and
outer conductors.
δz
b
a
I
~
V
+
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.30
Method 1: Flux Linkage:
One quick (but not very rigorous) way to handle this is to
introduce the idea of flux linkage.
The idea is that the contribution of a given flux to the potential
difference is proportional to the fraction of the current in the
circuit that the flux links.
In the examples above all the flux linked (ie. circled) all of the
current so no weighting for partial linkage was needed.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.31
Inside the inner conductor, in the low frequency limit, some of
the flux links only a fraction of the current.
flux lines such as F
1
link all of the current,
but lines such as F
2
link only a fraction (r/a)
2
of the total current.
Splitting the inner conductor into concentric thin cylinders of
width dr, the contribution of the flux between r and r+dr to the
total flux linkage is a product of the flux and this weighting
factor,
a
F
1
F
2
r
zdr r B
a
r
d δ φ ) (
~
2

¹

\

=
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.32
The contribution to the total flux linkage due to the flux inside
the inner conductor is
a
F
1
F
2
r
4
1
2
2
0 ) (
~
0
0
2
0
2
0
2
π
µ
δ
π
µ
δ
δ φ δ
I
z
dr
a
r I
a
r
z
zdr r B
a
r
a
a
inner
=

¹

\


¹

\

=

¹

\

=
∫
∫
The total flux linkage is then the sum of the outer flux (which
needed no weighting and so is the same as in the high frequency
limit) and the inner flux (which did).
( )
dt
dI
L
dt
dI
a
b
z
dt
d
V
outer inner
δ
π
µ
π
µ
δ
δφ φ δ
=


¹

\


¹

\

+ =
+
= ln
2 8
~
0 0
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.33
From this the inductance per unit length can be obtained
a
F
1
F
2
r
Interestingly, the inductance per unit length due to the internal
flux is independent of the size of the wire.
outer inner
z
L
z
L
a
b
z
L

¹

\

+

¹

\

=

¹

\

+ =
δ
δ
δ
δ
π
µ
π
µ
δ
δ
ln
2 8
0 0
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.34
Method 2: Induced fields.
The problem with the approach above is that, although it works,
physically at least, it is not at all obvious why it works.
A more direct approach is to think in terms of the induced
electric fields in the conductor.
This produces the same result in an approximation that should be
valid at the low frequency limit.
We shall not pursue this question here.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.35
The Energy Density of a Magnetic Field
While it is not possible to simply associate a potential energy
with the effect of the magnetic force on a charge (since it does
not of itself change the kinetic energy of a charged particle), it is
possible to associate an energy with the magnetic field itself.
This is in analogy with the identification of the energy density of
an electric field derived earlier.
We proceed in a similar fashion by considering a simple system
or which it is easy to calculate both the energy required to
establish the magnetic field and the field itself.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.36
The field of a long solenoid is idea for this purpose.
The magnetic field at time t, B(t) is related to the current, I(t), in
a solenoid with N/L turns per unit length by
L
t NI
t
) (
ˆ
) (
0
µ
z B =
Increasing the current by an amount dI in a time dt will change
the flux through each turn of the solenoid by
( ) ) ( ) (
0
t dI
L
NA
t AB d d
m
µ
φ = =
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.37
This change in flux induces a backemf in each loop which must
be opposed by an applied emf in order to increase the current.
The total applied emf (assuming perfectly conducting wires) is
equal to
The power supplied is
dt
t dI
L
A N
dt
d
N t V
m
) (
) (
2
0
µ φ
= =
dt
t dI
t I
L
A N
t V t I t p
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
0
µ
= =
The total energy required to increase the current to a value I(t) at
time t, is
2
2
0
) (
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
) (
) ( ) ( I
L
A N
IdI
L
A N
dt
dt
t dI
t I
L
A N
dt t p U
t I t t
µ µ µ
= = = =
∫ ∫ ∫
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.38
This can be rewritten in terms of the magnetic field in the
solenoid to give
Thus the energy density of the magnetic field is, tentatively,
identified with
2
0
2
0
0
2 2
B
µ
µ
µ
Vol
L
NI AL
U =

¹

\

=
2
0
2
1
B
µ
= =
Vol
U
u
m
Or equivalently
2
0
2
H
µ
=
m
u
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.39
Vector Potential and Electric Fields
The original definition of scalar potential is not adequate for
electric fields generated changing magnetic fields.
To see this consider the differential form of Faraday’s law
t ∂
∂
− = × ∇
B
E
If then
φ −∇ = E
0 ≡ ∇ × −∇ = × ∇ φ E
and thus, if Faraday’s law is true, then
0 =
∂
∂
t
B
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.40
In other words, a scalar potential cannot be used to represent the
part of the electric field due to changing B fields.
This is not really surprising since potential energy (and hence
potential) can really only be defined for conservative fields and
the induced field from Faraday’s law is clearly not conservative.
Rather than give up the potential representation of fields, which
is very convenient in handling the “constraint” type equations for
static fields, it is better to extend the relationship to include the
nonconservative part of the E field.
HET316 Electromagnetic Waves: Time Varying B Fields
11.41
Note that
so that
Then Faraday’s law is
Clearly one way of extending the relation between electric field
and potential is to add a term to the definition proportional to
A B × ∇ =
t t ∂
∂
× ∇ =
∂
∂ A B

¹

\

∂
∂
− × ∇ = × ∇
t
A
E

¹

\

∂
∂
−
t
A
t ∂
∂
− −∇ =
A
E φ
Faraday’s law follows directly
from this definition.