Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 2013

, *, **
doi:10.4236/aces.2013.***** Published Online ** 2013 (!
Low Temperature Glycerolysis as A High FFA Pre-
Treatmet !etho" #or $io"iesel Pro"uctio
Go"liste G% &om'e
, A'raham &% Temu
, Hassa !% (a)a'u
, Go"will *% !rema
a" &eat Teog Lee
"epart#ent o$ %he#ical and &ining 'ngineering( %ollege o$ 'ngineering and )echnolog*(
+ni,ersit* o$ "ar es -alaa#( "ar es salaa#( )an.ania.
"epart#ent o$ 'nerg* 'ngineering( %ollege o$ 'ngineering and )echnolog*(
+ni,ersit* o$ "ar es -alaa#( "ar es salaa#( )an.ania

-chool o$ %he#ical 'ngineering( +ni,ersiti -ains &ala*sia( Pinang( &ala*sia
'#ail:*/o#be0li, ch/*
1ecei,ed **** 2013
2 no,el low te#perature gl*cerol*sis process $or lowering $ree $att* acid (332! in crude atropha oil $or al/ali
catal*.ed transesteri$ication has been de,eloped. )he response sur$ace #ethodolog* (1-&! based on central co#posite
design within was used to #odel and opti#i.e the gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* under three reaction ,ariables na#el*4
reaction ti#e( te#perature and gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio. )he opti#u# conditions $or highest gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* o$
56.678 were $ound to be te#perature o$ 69
%( reaction ti#e o$ 73 #inutes and 2.24 g/g gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio.
)hese conditions lower the high $ree $att* acid o$ crude atropha oil $ro# 4.948 to 0.06948 which is below 38
reco##ended $or al/ali catal*.ed transesteri$ication. )he pre:treated crude atropha oil was then transesteri$ied using
ho#ogeneous base transesteri$ication resulting to a con,ersion o$ 57.678. )he $uel properties o$ atropha biodiesel
obtained were $ound to be co#parable to those o$ 2-)& "6791 and '; 14214 standards. )he process can also utili.e
the crude gl*cerol $ro# the transesteri$ication reaction( hence lowering the cost o$ biodiesel. )he gl*cerol*sis is easier
i#ple#ented than acid esteri$ication thereb* a,oiding the need $or neutrali.ation and alcohol re#o,al step.
&eywor"s+ <iodiesel4 =l*cerol*sis4 3ree 3att* 2cid4 1e:esteri$ication
1% ,tro"uctio
)he use o$ edible grade oils as $eedstoc/ $or $uel
co#pete with $ood suppl* in the long:ter# and accounts
$or the higher price o$ biodiesel( as the cost o$ raw
#aterials accounts $or 60 to 608 o$ the total cost o$
biodiesel $uel . 2n alternati,e wa* o$ reducing the
biodiesel production costs is to use less e>pensi,e
$eedstoc/s which do not co#pete with $ood suppl* and
land $or $ood culti,ation such as non:edible oils( ani#al
$ats( waste $ood oil and b*:products o$ re?ning ,egetable
oils . )ransesteri?cation reaction can be uncatal*sed(
base:catal*.ed( acid:catal*.ed( or en.*#e:catal*.ed. )he
ho#ogeneous base:catal*.ed transesteri$ication process
is widel* used industriall* due to the $act that it is
/ineticall* #uch $aster and it has been pro,en to be
econo#icall* ,iable . 2ccording to the report b* on the
status o$ biodiesel production technolog*( #ost o$ the
co##erciali.ed biodiesel production technolog*
a ho#ogeneous base:catal*.ed transesteri$ication.
@owe,er( the #ain drawbac/ o$ this technolog* is its
sensiti,it* to the purit* o$ the reactants being ,er*
sensiti,e to both water and $ree $att* acids content . &ost
o$ non:edible oil $eedstoc/s are high in $ree $att* acids
and cannot easil* undergo ho#ogeneous base
transesteri?cation to produce biodiesel due to concurrent
soap $or#ation o$ the $ree $att* acids with the catal*st.
)he e>cessi,e a#ounts o$ soap $or#ed signi?cantl*
inter$ere with the washing process b* $or#ing e#ulsions(
thus leading to substantial *ield losses . )he reaction can
onl* tolerate 332 content o$ up to 38 in the $eedstoc/
without a$$ecting the process negati,el* as suggested b* .
3ree $att* acid lower than 38 is reco##ended $or
higher con,ersion e$$icienc* . Pre:treat#ents o$ non:
edible oils $or lowering o$ the 332 in $eedstoc/ $or base
catal*.ed transesteri$ication is there$ore ine,itable.
)he che#ical re:esteri$ication (gl*cerol*sis! process has
the capabilit* o$ con,erting the $ree $att* acid bac/ to
their respecti,e gl*ceride #olecule. )his techniAue
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
in,ol,es adding gl*cerol to the high 332s $eedstoc/ and
heating it to te#perature o$ about 200
%( with a #etallic
catal*st such as .inc chloride and .inc dust or without
catal*st. )he gl*cerol reacts with the 332s to $or#
#onogl*cerides( digl*cerides and trigl*cerides . Dt
produces a low 332s $eedstoc/ that can be processed
using traditional ho#ogeneous base transesteri$ication
techniAue. )he ad,antage o$ this approach is that no
alcohol is needed during the pre:treat#ent and the water
$or#ed $ro# the reaction can be i##ediatel* ,apori.ed
and ,ented $ro# the reaction #i>ture. 2lso the process
has the potential o$ gl*cerol( a b*:product $ro#
transesteri$ication thereb* lowering the cost o$ biodiesel.
@owe,er( the drawbac/s o$ this #ethod are its high
te#perature reAuire#ent( relati,el* slow reaction rate
and being li#ited b* eAuilibriu#( ha,ing two liAuid
phases( where the solubilit* o$ gl*cerin is rather li#ited
in trigl*cerides . )his has li#ited the application o$
gl*cerol*sis in pre:treat#ent o$ 332s $or biodiesel
"espite o$ its potentialit* in lowering high 332(
gl*cerol*sis process has been co##onl* used to produce
#onogl*cerides (&=! and digl*cerides ("=!( which are
widel* used as sur$actants and e#ulsi$iers in $ood(
cos#etic( and phar#aceutical products . )he
gl*cerol*sis process can be carried out ,ia en.*#atic(
al/aline and acid catal*.ed reactions . &ost o$ the
e>isting literature on gl*cerol*sis is on the production o$
&= and "= and high te#perature and low
pressure in the process. )he literature also shows that the
i#portant ,ariables that a$$ect the gl*cerol*sis reaction
with respect to &= and "= production( are reaction
te#perature( t*pe and a#ount o$ catal*st( #olar ratio o$
gl*cerol to oil( the #i>ing intensit* and the reaction
ti#e .
Dn this stud*( the low te#perature base catal*.ed
gl*cerol*sis has been tried $or the $irst ti#e with the
application o$ sur$ace response #ethodolog* to opti#i.e
pre:treat#ent o$ high 332 in atropha oil $or the
production o$ biodiesel ,ia ho#ogeneous base catal*st.
3or the $irst ti#e( the gl*cerol*sis has been done at low
te#perature and without application o$ pressure and
co#pared with the e>isting literature.
2% !aterial a" !etho"s
2%1% !aterials
Eatropha curcas seeds were purchased $ro# the $ree
#ar/et in 2rusha( )an.ania. )he crude oil was e>tracted
#echanicall* at the +ni,ersit* o$ "ar es salaa#( using
%hinese oil e>peller( &odel FG-:120 with a capacit* $or
200:300 /g/h. )he dar/ greenish *ellow color oil
e>tracted was allowed to settle $or 24h be$ore it was
care$ull* decanted. )he oil was then anal*.ed using
2O%- &ethods and was $ound to ha,e 4.948 o$ $ree
$att* acid( 161.6 #g/g o$ saponi$ication( 0.128 #oisture
content and an o>idati,e stabilit* o$ 14.9h. 2ll che#icals
used in the e>peri#ents such as #ethanol (55.98!(
sulphuric acid (558 pure! and gl*cerol (H558!( ;aO@
(558! in pellet $or# were o$ anal*tical grade.
2%2% -.perimetal Proce"ure
2%3% /hemical (e-esteri#icatio 0Glycerolysis)
1esponse sur$ace #ethodolog* (1-&! was e#plo*ed to
in,estigate the ,ariation o$ gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* with
respect to operating para#eters including te#perature(
ti#e( and gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio. )he co#position o$
the three ,ariables was designed b* central co#posite
design (%%"! approach. 2 24 $ull:$actorial central
co#posite design (%%"! $or three independent ,ariables
at ?,e le,els was e#plo*ed and the total nu#ber o$
e>peri#ents was 20 I ( 2
J 2/ J 6!( where / is the
nu#ber o$ independent ,ariables . =l*cerol*sis reaction
was carried out in a glass batch reactor eAuipped with
DC2 1K20 #echanical digital stirrer and <arnstead <D
electro ther#al heating instru#ent.
%rude atropha oil was heated and #aintained at a gi,en
set te#perature. ;aO@ catal*st 1.798 wt o$ oil was
dissol,ed in gl*cerol be$ore #i>ing with oil at 600 rp#
using DC2 1K20 #echanical digital stirrer. )he
e>peri#ental $actors selected $or opti#i.ation and their
respecti,e ,alues are pro,ided in Ta'le 1. )he ,ariables
were generated using "esign:'>pertL 7 so$tware based
on the preli#inar* trial e>peri#ents.
Ta'le 1+ -.perimetal rages a" le1els o# the i"epe"et 1aria'les
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
2aria'les /o"ig 3it Le1el
41%56 41 0 1 1%56
)e#perature 2
% 30 42 60 76 50
=l*cerol to oil #ass ratio < g/g 0.66 1 1.9 2 2.34
)i#e % #in 39 49 60 79 69
'>peri#ents were carried out in a rando# #anner to
#ini#i.e the e$$ects o$ the uncontrolled $actors. )he
reaction product #i>ture was then poured into a
separating $unnel and allowed to settle $or 3 hours. )he
top la*er co#prised o$ oil( whereas the botto# la*er
contained gl*cerol( dissol,ed catal*st and other #inor
co#ponents $ro# the oil. )he $inal a#ount o$ 332 was
established and the gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* was
deter#ined using 'Auation (1!.
1 1008
η= − ×
 
 ÷
 

I =l*cerol*sis e$$icienc*
• 332initial I 3ree $att* acid o$ crude oil
• 332$inalI 3ree $att* acid o$ crude oil a$ter pre:
)he "esign:'>pertL 7 (-tat:'ase Dnc.( &inneapolis(
+-2! statistical so$tware was used $or regression and
graphical anal*sis o$ the data obtained. )he gl*cerol*sis
e$$icienc* was calculated using eAuation (1!. )he
gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* as response ,ariable was ?tted in
a second:order #odel in order to correlate the response
,ariable to the independent ,ariable. )he Aualit* o$ ?t $or
the #odel was e,aluated b* the coe$?cients o$
deter#ination (1
! and its regression coe$?cient
signi?cance 2;OM2 was chec/ed with 3isherNs test (3:
test! . 1esponse sur$aces were de,eloped using a
Auadratic pol*no#ial eAuation obtained $ro# regression
anal*sis o$ e>peri#ental data.
3% Pro"uctio o# $io"iesel
Pre:treated oil with low 332 was heated to 60O% in the
transesteri?cation glass batch reactor( as shown in
Figure 1 and stirred at 600rp# with DC2 1K20
#echanical digital stirrer. )he sodiu# h*dro>ide
(;aO@! catal*st
1.778 based on oil weight was dissol,ed in the reAuired
a#ount o$ #ethanol (#ethanol: oil I 5.3:1! using ultra
sonic bath el#asonic -@079'P at 90
% and added to oil.
)he reaction was conducted $or 2 hours a$ter which the
resulting product was put into a separating $unnel and
allowed to settle $or 3 hours( where two phases were
distinct4 biodiesel on top and the gl*cerol at the botto#.
)he two phases were separated and the e>cess #ethanol
in biodiesel was reco,ered b* using a rotar,ap.
Figure 1+ Trasesteri#icatio e.perimetal setup
7% Fuel Properties
)he biodiesel $uel properties na#el*( gross calori?c
,alue( densit* at 19
%( /ine#atic ,iscosit* at 40
iodine ,alue( o>idation stabilit*( pour point( acid ,alue(
and 32&' content were deter#ined as per 2-)&
"6791 and '; 14214 standards .
8% (esults a" *iscussios
8%1% Glycerolysis
)he response sur$ace design *ielded a total o$ 20 runs in a
rando# order with their corresponding gl*cerol*sis
e$$iciencies as presented in Ta'le 2.
Ta'le 2+ -.perimetal "esig a" their correspo"ig results%
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
1un Point
Pe,el o$ ,ariables (2ctual! '$$icienc*
)e#perature( 2
=l*cerol to oil #ass ratio( <
)i#e( %
1 %entre 60 1.90 60 51.700 0.406
2 %entre 60 1.90 60 51.605 0.403
3 %entre 60 1.90 60 51.700 0.406
4 %entre 60 1.90 60 50.203 0.462
9 %entre 60 1.90 60 51.620 0.412
6 %entre 60 1.90 60 51.969 0.419
7 2>ial 60 2.34 60 57.260 0.134
6 2>ial 60 0.66 60 67.973 0.611
5 2>ial 50 1.90 60 53.662 0.311
10 2>ial 60 1.90 39 54.660 0.263
11 2>ial 30 1.90 60 69.020 0.737
12 2>ial 60 1.90 69 57.236 0.136
13 3act 76 1.00 49 51.422 0.422
14 3act 76 2.00 49 57.660 0.104
19 3act 76 2.00 79 56.262 0.069
16 3act 42 2.00 49 51.220 0.432
17 3act 42 1.00 79 50.226 0.461
16 3act 42 1.00 49 63.354 0.617
15 3act 76 1.00 79 65.049 0.935
20 3act 42 2.00 79 57.744 0.111
2 Auadratic #odel was suggested due to its highest order
pol*no#ial with signi$icance additional ter#s and non:
aliased #odel. )he #odel eAuation based on the actual
,alues $or the gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* is e>pressed b*
'Auation (2!.

3 3 2 2 3 2
66.72 0.63 0.97 0.36 4.65 7.05 10 0.04 2.43 10 1.20 6.67 10 A B C AB AC BC A B C η
− − −
= − + − + − × + − × + + × (2)
)he results o$ 2;OM2 and ?tness o$ the Auadratic
#odel as well as the e$$ect o$ indi,idual ter#s and their
interaction on the chosen responses are presented in
Ta'le 3.
)he 3isher 3:test (3#odel I 39.09! with a ,er* low
probabilit* ,alue Q(P#odel H3! R0.0001S shows a ,er* high
signi?cance o$ the regression #odel at 598 con?dence
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
Ta'le 3+ Aalysis o# 1ariace 0A9:2A; #or mo"el regressio
-ources o$
-u# o$
"egrees o$
3:,alue P:,alue
Prob H 3
&odel 320.93 5 39.61 39.09 H 0.0001
2:)e#perature 95.59 1 95.59 95.01 H 0.0001
<:&ass 1atio (g/g ( 164.27 1 164.27 161.66 H 0.0001
%:)i#e (#in ( 16.06 1 16.06 17.75 0.0016
2< 0.019 1 0.019 0.019 0.5042
2% 25.36 1 25.36 26.52 0.0003
<% 0.76 1 0.76 0.79 0.4063
6.53 1 6.53 6.75 0.0142
1.30 1 1.30 1.26 0.2646
34.40 1 34.40 33.66 0.0002
1esidual 10.16 10 1.02
Pac/ o$ 3it 6.31 9 1.66 4.9 0.0623
Pure 'rror 1.69 9 0.37
%or )otal 330.65 15
-td. de, . 1.01 1:-Auared 0.5653
&ean 52.16 2dusted 1
%oe$$icient o$
Mariation (%M (
1.05 Predicted 1
P1'-- 67.67 2deAuate Precision 20.122
)he TP:,alueT less than 0.09 indicated that the particular
#odel ter# is statisticall* signi?cant. Dn Ta'le 3 all the
three #odel ter#s studied i.e. te#perature (2!( gl*cerol
to oil #ass ratio (<! and reaction ti#e (%! were $ound to
ha,e signi?cant inUuence on the e$$icienc* o$
gl*cerol*sis. )he interaction between te#perature and
ti#e and Auadratic ter#s 2
and %
were also $ound to be
signi?cant. )he relati,el* low ,alue o$ the coe$?cient o$
,ariation (%MI1.05 8! indicates a good precision and
reliabilit* o$ the e>peri#ents carried out. )he lac/ o$ ?t
test with p:,alue o$ 0.0623( was not signi?cant (p:
,alueH0.09 is not signi?cant! de#onstrating that the
#odel satis$actoril* ?tted the e>peri#ental data.
Dnsigni?cant lac/ o$ ?t is good( since a signi?cant lac/ o$
?t indicates that there #ight be contribution in the
regressor:response relationship that is not accounted $or
b* the #odel . )he ,alue o$ the deter#ination coe$?cient
I 0.5653 #eans onl* 3.0798 o$ the total ,ariations
not e>plained b* the #odel. )he ,alue o$ the adusted
deter#ination coe$?cient (2d.1
I 0.5416! is also ,er*
high which supports the #odel .
5% -##ects o# parameters o glycerolysis e##iciecy
Figure 2a shows the response o$ the interacti,e $actors
o$ te#perature and #ass ratio a$ter 60 #inutes o$
reaction. )he three di#ension response sur$ace plots
indicate that gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* increases directl*
and proportionall* to both reaction te#perature and
gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio a$ter 60 #inutes o$ reaction
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
! a ( ! b (
! c
Figure 2: '$$ect o$ reaction te#perature( ti#e and gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio on atropha oil gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc*
Dn Figure 2'( the e$$icienc* o$ gl*cerol*sis increases
with ti#e at low reaction te#perature4 this #eans
operating at low te#perature( sa* roo# te#perature(
% would reAuire longer ti#e to achie,e high
e$$icienc*. 2t high reaction te#perature( high
gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* can be obtained within short
reaction ti#e. )his is due to the $act that( an*
te#perature increase $or the reaction will increase
#ass trans$er in the phase containing trigl*cerides to
the gl*cerin phase and increases solubilit* o$ both
phases . 2t an* gi,en gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio(
gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* $ollows a cur,ilinear
relationship with reaction ti#e at when the reaction
te#perature is $i>ed at 60
%( this #eans high
gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* can be attained b* operating at
the #a>i#u# gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio and reaction
ti#e at 2.34g/g and 69 #inutes respecti,el* as in
Figure 2c.
<% :ptimi=atio a" mo"el 1ali"atio #or )atropha
oil glycerolysis e##iciecy
)he process opti#i.ation was done using the nu#erical
$eatures o$ the "esign:'>pertL 7. )he para#eters
in,ol,ed in opti#i.ation were set within the range
between low and high while the gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc*
was set at #a>i#u# ,alue. )he so$tware predicted the
$ollowing opti#u# conditions( na#el*( te#perature o$
%( gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio o$ 2.24g/g and reaction
ti#e o$ 73#in gi,ing a gl*cerol*sis e$$icienc* o$
55.728. )he opti#u# conditions were tried
e>peri#entall* and ga,e an a,erage gl*cerol*sis
e$$icienc* o$ 56.678 (corresponding to 0.06948 o$
332! which is 1.098 less than the predicted ,alue o$
-e,eral authors ha,e wor/ed on the gl*cerol*sis as a
pre:treat#ent o$ high $ree $att* acid with acidic
catal*sts as su##aries in Ta'le 7. @owe,er( the* all
used te#perature abo,e 120
% and #ore than 120
#inutes o$ reaction ti#e. )he application o$ base
catal*st which is said to be #ore e$$ecti,e has #ade it
possible to run the gl*cerol*sis at low te#perature in
this stud* .
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
Ta'le 7+ The e##ect o# chemical re-esteri#icatio o the #ial amout o# FFA
)*pe o$
)*pe o$ %atal*st '>cess =l*cerol
<ran oil
6 200 P:toluene sulphonic
90 19.3 1.6
<ran oil
6 200 P:toluene sulphonic
90 20.9 3.1
<ran oil
4 200 -n%l2 70 24.3 3.0
seed oil
6 200 -n%l2 4.3 37.65 1.9
4 200 -O4
/GrO2V2l2O3 70 44.42 0.71
<%1% Trasesteri>catio
)he transesteri$ication process gi,es a con,ersion o$
57.6738( $ollowing the al/ali:catal*.ed
transesteri$ication using the pre:treated atropha oil with
0.06948 o$ 332. )he $uel properties o$ biodiesel tested
are su##ari.ed in Ta'le 8. Dt can be seen that atropha
biodiesel $uel properties are within the li#its prescribed
in the 2#erican and 'uropean standards $or biodiesel i.e.
2-)& "6791 and '; 14214 standards respecti,el*.
Ta'le 8+ Fuel properties o# )atropha 'io"iesel
Property 3it ?atropha
$io"iesel sta"ar"s
2-)& "6791 '; 14214
Miscosit* at 40
% ##2/s 4.0 1.5 V 6.0 3.9 : 9.0
2cid ,alue #gCO@/g 0.074 H 0.6 H 0.9
=ross %alori?c ,alue &E//g 35.670 ;ot speci?ed ;ot speci?ed
Dodine Malue g D2/100g 109.5 ;ot speci?ed H 120
32&' content 8 57.673 ;ot speci?ed R 56.9
"ensit* at 19
% /g/#3 0.6703 ;ot speci?ed 0.660 : 0.500
O>idation stabilit*( at 110
% h 6.24 ;ot speci?ed R 6
6% /oclusios
)he stud* re,ealed that the che#ical re:esteri$ication
(gl*cerol*sis! can be used as a pre:treat#ent #ethod $or
high 332 $eedstoc/ $or biodiesel production. )he high
332 (4.948! le,el o$ crude atropha oil could be reduced
to 0.0694 with 73 #inutes( gl*cerol to oil #ass ratio o$
2.24g/g at 69
% as opti#u# conditions $or gl*cerol*sis.
)he gl*cerol*sis has shown a potential to reduce the 332
to less than 38 which is reAuired $or al/ali:catal*.ed
transesteri$ication. 2l/ali:catal*.ed transesteri$ication o$
the pre:treated oil produced biodiesel with $uel properties
that satis$* both the 2-)& "6791 and '; 14214
standards $or biodiesel. =l*cerol*sis can utili.e the
gl*cerol $ro# the transesteri$ication process and thus
lowering the cost o$ biodiesel production.
@% AcAowle"gemets
)he authors wish to ac/nowledge the +ni,ersiti -ains
&ala*sia $or laborator* wor/ and '-'P1D) proect at
+ni,ersit* o$ "ar es -alaa# under $or $inancial support
Q1S 2. <. %hhetri( &. -. )ango( -. &. <udge( C. %.
Katts( and &. 1. Dsla#( T;on:edible plant oils
as new sources $or biodiesel production(T
International Journal of Molecular Sciences,
,ol. 5( ;o. 2( p. 165( 2006.
%op*right B 2013 -ci1es. ACES
=. =. CO&<' ET AL.
Q2S ). Crawc.*/( T<iodiesel:alternati,e $uel #a/es
inroads but hurdles re#ain(T Inform, ,ol. 7( ;o.
6( pp. 601:619( 1556.
Q3S G. @elwani( &. 1. Oth#an( ;. 2.i.( K. E. ;.
3ernando( and E. Ci#( T)echnologies $or
production o$ biodiesel $ocusing on green
catal*tic techniAues: 2 re,iew(T Fuel
Processing Technology, ,ol. 50( ;o. 12( pp.
1902:1914( 2005.
Q4S ". <aco,s/*( K. CWrbit.( &. &ittelbach( and
&. KWrgetter( T<iodiesel production:
technologies and 'uropean pro,iders(T 1eport
)35:<6( 2007.
Q9S F. Ghang( &. 2. "ube( ". ". &cPean( and &.
Cates( T<iodiesel production $ro# waste
coo/ing oil: 1. Process design and technological
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