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Historical
Photographic
Processes
(PMA
305)
 Technical
Supplement:
Procedures,
Formulary,
and
Assignments
 Edward
Stapel
 
 MAKING
DIGITAL
NEGATIVES
FOR
CONTACT
PRINTING
 1.

Any
method
or
format
will
work
for
making
digital
negatives
as
long
as
you
make
 sure
that
your
image
will
give
you
300ppi
at
desired
image
size.

Keep
this
in
 mind
when
scanning,
etc.
 2. If
your
image
is
in
color,
desaturate
it
to
grayscale
(or
convert
it
to
grayscale
‐
but
 this
sometimes
throws
away
useful
data).
 3. Alter
your
image
as
you
like.
 4. Adjust
curves
to
give
you
an
image
with
punchy
contrast.

In
Zone
System
 parlance,
this
would
be
equivalent
to
a
normal
exposure
with
N+1
development.

 Basically,
you
want
beefier
midtones
and
some
extra
contrast
in
the
highlights.

 You
may
prefer
to
load
the
cyanotype,
platinum/palladium,
or
gum
curve
 provided
for
your
use
(these
curves
are
not
fool‐proof
–
you
may
want
to
 perform
further
tweaking).
 5. When
you
are
satisfied
with
your
image
go
to
Image
>
Rotate
Canvas
>
Flip
 Horizontal.

This
will
flip
your
image
so
that
when
you
print
it
emulsion
to
 emulsion
it
will
come
out
oriented
properly.
 6. Then
go
to
Image
>
Adjustments
>
Invert
(or
Apple+I).

This
will
invert
your
 positive
to
a
negative.
 7. Save
your
image
to
a
jump
drive
or
CD
and
then
print
it
out
onto
transparency
 material.
This
can
be
done
either
at
the
Design
Collaborative
or
you
can
take
 your
files
to
a
copy
shop
and
have
them
printed
onto
transparency
material
 (Staples
or
Kinkos,
etc.).
OR
print
out
a
nice,
clean
print
onto
paper,
head
to
a
 Xerox
machine,
and
make
copies
onto
transparency
material.
 8. Take
care
of
your
outputted
materials
‐
store
them
in
plastic
sleeves.

Covering
 the
emulsion
side
with
a
piece
of
plain
paper
is
also
a
good
idea.

These
materials
 are
quite
delicate
and
can
get
dings,
creases,
and
“half‐moons”
in
them
very
 easily.

Remember,
these
are
negatives,
and
you
should
treat
them
carefully.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 3‐COLOR
CYANOTYPE‐GUM
PRINTING
 For
this
printing
process
we
will
use
a
combination
of
cyanotype
and
gum
pigments
to
 replicate
a
full
color
print,
mimicking
a
rudimentary
CMYK
print
process.

The
cyanotype
 layer
will
contain
cyan
(C)
and
black
(K)
information.

Subsequent
yellow
and
crimson
 gum
bicrhromate
layers
will
carry
the
yellow
(Y)
and
magenta
(M)
information.

The
first
 step
is
to
make
digital
RGB
color
separations
in
Photoshop.
 
 1. Any
method
or
format
will
work
for
making
digital
negatives
as
long
as
you
make
 sure
that
your
image
will
give
you
300ppi
at
desired
image
size.

Keep
this
in
 mind
when
shooting
and/or
scanning.
 2. You
will
need
a
color
image
for
this
process
 3. Alter
your
image
as
you
like.
 4. Keep
your
image
size
in
the
4x5
range
for
your
first
attempt.
 5. Curves
adjustments:
Option
1:
Load
a
gum
printing
curve.
OR
Option
2:
Do
step
6
 and
then
apply
a
cyanotype
curve
to
the
Red
channel
and
a
gum
curve
to
the
 Blue
and
Green
channels.
Option
2
is
more
“accurate.”
 6. Go
to
the
Channels
palette
>
submenu
>
Split
Channels
 7. Then
go
to
Image
>
Adjustments
>
Invert
(or
Apple+I).

This
will
invert
your
 positives
to
negatives.
 8. Open
a
new
document
(Apple
N)
with
dimensions
8.5”
x
10”
at
300ppi,
RGB.
 9. Drag
your
3
channels
into
this
new
space.

MAKE
SURE
YOU
KEEP
TRACK
OF
 THESE
CHANNELS.

It’s
a
good
idea
to
name
each
layer
as
you
drag
it
in
and
then
 use
the
text
tool
to
label
your
channels
R,
G,
and
B.


 10. Then
go
to
Image
>
Rotate
Canvas
>
Flip
Horizontal.

This
will
flip
your
images
so
 that
when
your
print
them
emulsion
to
emulsion
they
will
come
out
properly
 oriented.

Reposition
your
images
‐
you
should
be
able
to
fit
3
images
onto
one
 page.
 11. Save
your
image
to
a
jump
drive
or
CD
and
then
print
it
out
onto
transparency
 material
(I
recommend
Pictorico).
 12. Cut
your
negatives
apart
making
sure
that
you
don’t
cut
off
the
letters
(RGB)
that
 identify
each
channel.
 13. Take
care
of
your
outputted
materials
‐
store
them
in
plastic
sleeves.

Covering
 the
emulsion
side
with
a
piece
of
plain
paper
is
also
a
good
idea.

These
materials
 are
quite
delicate
and
can
get
dings,
creases,
and
“half‐moons”
in
them
very
 easily.

Remember,
these
are
negatives,
and
you
should
treat
them
carefully.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 It
is
VERY
important
that
you
keep
track
or
your
channels
and
print
them
in
the
proper
 order.
 
 Print
layers
will
be
made
in
the
following
order
with
specified
channel:
 
 1.
Red
Channel
to
print
cyanotype
layer
(C,K)
 
 2.
Blue
Channel
to
print
yellow
emulsion

(Y)
 
 3.
Green
Channel
to
print
red
(crimson)
emulsion
(M)
 
 Your
initial
cyanotype
layer
should
be
printed
to
roughly
50%
‐
75%
of
the
time
required
 for
full
cyanotype
print
density.
 
 You
will
need
to
make
multiple
layers
of
Y
and
M
layers
to
achieve
your
final
desired
 print
density
and
color
balance.
Don’t
expect
to
make
images
that
look
like
“true”
color
 prints.
Accept
the
results
you
get
and
be
prepared
to
experiment.
 
 
 CYANOTYPE
FORMULAE
 
 Solution
A
 
 Potassium
Ferricyanide
 
 8g
 
 Distilled
water
(room
temp.)










100ml
 
 Solution
B
 
 Ferric
Ammonium
Citrate
(green)
 20g
 
 Distilled
water

(room
temp.)
 










100ml
 
 Mix
the
two
solutions
separately,
and
store
in
brown
glass
bottles
away
from
strong
 light.

Over
a
period
of
time
(months)
both
chemical
solutions
will
break
down.

The
 ferric
ammonium
citrate
may
form
a
mold.

If
this
happens,
strain
it
through
a
coffee
 filter.

The
mold
does
not
affect
the
solution.

If
the
potassium
ferricyanide
breaks
down
 it
should
be
replaced.


 


Mix
A
and
B
1:1
for
use.

1ml
A
+
1ml
B
=
4x5
print



 
 
 
 


CYANOTYPE
PRINTING
ASSIGNMENT
 
 For
this
assignment
you
will
need:
 Negatives
for
printing
 Paper
–

140lb.
Watercolor,
Rives
BFK,
or
similar
 Scrap
mat
board
or
cardboard
–
11x14
 Pencil
 Drafting
tape
 Foam
brush
 
 The
process:
 Cut
a
piece
of
paper
larger
than
your
negative
by
roughly
2
inches
in
both
dimensions.
 Tape
paper
to
mat
board
and
mark
area
for
negative
with
pencil
 Coat
paper
according
to
process
described
below
 
 Coating
cyanotype:
 
 1. Measure
out
emulsion
into
small
cup
(1ml
of
A
+
1ml
of
B
for
4x5)
 2. Pour
emulsion
across
paper
 3. Quickly
and
evenly
spread
emulsion
with
foam
brush
 
 Dry
paper
carefully
with
hair
dryer
set
to
LOW
 Sandwich
negative
and
paper
in
contact
printer

 Place
contact
printer
into
exposure
table
–
exposure
times
will
vary

 
 Development:
 
 1. Remove
paper
and
negative
from
contact
printer
 2. Place
“print”
in
tray
and
gently
run
water
over
surface
to
“develop”
image
for
 roughly
1
minute.
 3. Then
place
print
into
developing
bath
(water
with
“acid”
added
to
it
=
10ml
stop
 directly
from
box
OR
10ml
white
vinegar
per
1
liter
of
water)
–
gently
agitate
for
 5
minutes
(this
bath
should
be
dumped
and
re‐mixed
every
10
prints
or
so
–
 when
the
water
gets
really
blue,
dump
it)
(we
add
acid
because
the
water
in
 Chester
is
hard
–
you
may
not
need
to
add
acid
elsewhere)

 4. Wash
print
in
gently
running
water
for
10
minutes
 5. Lay
print
face
up
on
screen
to
dry
(DO
NOT
SQUEEGEE
PRINTS)
 
 Due:
4
lovely
cyanotype
prints
 
 You
are
encouraged
to
use
both
film
and
alternative
negatives.
 
 
 


PLATINUM
PALLADIUM
PRINTING
 
 Mixing
and
Coating:
 The
chemicals
used
to
make
your
Platinum/Palladium
print
come
pre‐mixed.

You
will
 use
a
combination
of
4
solutions
to
make
your
emulsion:
Sensitizer
#1
(1),
Sensitizer
 #2(2),
Platinum
(Pt),
and
Palladium
(Pd).

These
solutions
are
measured
in
drops
using
a
 specific
TOTAL
number
of
drops
for
a
given
print
size
with
a
slightly
higher
number
of
 drops
of
metals
(Pt
and
Pd)
than
sensitizers
(1and
2).


 
 Contrast
can
be
controlled
by
adjusting
the
ratio
of
1
and
2
within
the
overall
total
 number
of
drops:
more
1
and
less
2
DECREASES
contrast
and
more
2
and
less
1
 INCREASES
contrast.

Be
aware
that
increasing
the
ratio
of
2
will
result
in
a
“slower”
 emulsion
(longer
exposure
time)
AND
using
too
much
2
in
your
emulsion
can
result
in
a
 “grainy”
appearance.
 
 When
mixing
your
emulsion,
use
a
combination
of
platinum
and
palladium
to
take
 advantage
of
palladium’s
“speed”
and
platinum’s
“depth.”

Your
metal
ratio
should
be
a
 MAJORITY
of
palladium
with
a
touch
of
platinum.

PLEASE
CONSERVE
PLATINUM.

 Excessive
use
of
platinum
is
wasteful
and
increasing
its
amount
in
your
emulsion
will
 result
in
a
“slower”
emulsion
(longer
exposure
time).
 
 For
a
4x5
print
use
13
TOTAL
drops.
 For
a
5x7
print
use
20
TOTAL
drops.
 For
an
8x10
print
use
38
TOTAL
drops.
 
 A
good
place
to
start:


 1
 2
 Pt
 Pd
 
 
 
 
 4x5
 4
 2
 2
 
5
 
 
 
 
 5x7
 8
 2
 3
 
9
 
 
 
 









8x10
 14
 4
 4
 16
 
 Pour
you
emulsion
mixture
onto
your
paper
and
quickly
spread
the
liquid
around
with
a
 hake
brush.
 
 Dry
with
a
hair
dryer,
put
in
a
contact
printer
with
your
negative
and
expose.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Development
and
Clearing:
 There
are
a
variety
of
developers
and
clearing
agents
that
can
be
used
for
making
 Platinum/Palladium
prints.

We
will
be
using
Ammonium
Citrate
as
our
developer
and
 EDTA
as
our
clearing
bath.


 
 Developer
is
pre‐mixed
and
is
used
straight.


 Clearing
bath
is
1
TBS
of
EDTA
per
quart
of
water.
 
 After
coating
and
exposure
your
“print”
is
very
vulnerable.

Any
water
or
other
 substance
that
comes
into
contact
with
your
emulsion
will
dissolve
that
area,
resulting
 in
a
blotchy
print.
 
 1. Place
exposed
“print”
in
clean,
dry
tray.

Quickly
and
evenly
pour
developer
over
 print
–
development
is
complete
after
20
seconds
or
so.
After
development,
 carefully
pour
developer
back
into
its
pitcher
 2. Prints
are
to
be
cleared
by
pouring
clearing
bath
into
the
tray
over
the
print.
 Prints
are
to
be
cleared
in
3
successive
baths
of
clearing
agent
–
5
minutes
each.
 3. Wash
prints
for
15
minutes
and
lay
on
screen
to
dry.
**
 
 **
If
you
are
using
Canson
Vidalon
Vellum
or
Bienfang
360
you
should
set
up
your
own
 wash
tray
and
monitor
the
print
as
it
washes.
These
papers
are
very
delicate
and
can
get
 crumple,
ripped,
or
creased
in
the
wash
if
left
unattended.
Also,
these
papers
tend
to
 curl
when
they
dry.
If
they
don’t
want
to
flatten
out
properly,
gently
steam
them
until
 they
soften
slightly
and
place
them
between
to
book,
taking
care
not
to
mar
the
print
 surface.
 
 FYI:
the
kits
used
in
the
class
come
from
Bostick
and
Sullivan
(bostick‐sullivan.com).
 They
include
the
2
sensitizing
liquids
(1
and
2),
the
two
metals
(Pt
3
and
Pd
4),
 developer,
and
clearing
agent.
Currently,
they
cost
$198.75
and
should
make
35
8x10
 prints.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


PLATINUM
PALLADIUM
PRINTING
ASSIGNMENT
 
 For
this
assignment
you
will
need:
 
 Typical
alt.
process
supplies
plus
the
following:
 
 
 Hake
brush
dedicated
to
Pt/Pd
printing
 
 
 Small
jam
or
pasta
jar
 
 
 1
flat
bottom
photo
tray,
or
similar,
roughly
11x14,
dedicated
to
Pt/Pd
 
 
 Paper
Towels
 
 Paper:
 A
variety
of
papers
can
be
used
for
this
process
–
look
for
smooth
surface
 (hot
press)
acid‐free
paper.
I
will
supply
a
few
different
types
of
paper
for
 you
to
try
 
 Negatives:
 Ideal
negatives
for
platinum/palladium
printing
should
be
a
little
dense
and
punchy.

 Pinhole
negatives
work
great!

A
negative
that
prints
on
silver
gelatin
paper
with
a
#1
or
 #1
1/2
filter
will
print
nicely
in
platinum/palladium.

In
Zone
System
parlance,
that
would
 be
adding
+1
to
your
development
time
(ie:
N
development
would
become
N+1,
or
N‐2
 development
would
become
N‐1,
etc.).
 
 Due
in
critique:
6
lovely
prints
using
at
least
two
different
kinds
of
paper
 
 
 GUM
BICHROMATE
FORMULAE
 
 Potassium
Dichromate
 
 
 80g
 Distilled
water
at
120°
F
 
 









500ml
 
 Gum
Arabic
comes
in
two
forms:
dry
powder
and
prepared
liquid.

We
will
be
using
the
 prepared
liquid,
however,
for
your
information,
here’s
the
dry
powder
formula.
 
 Gum
Arabic
 
 
 
 
 150g
 Distilled
water
at
room
temp.
 
 
 500ml
 
 If
clumps
form,
strain
through
cheese
cloth
 
 Potassium
metabisulfite
 
 
 



5g
 Distilled
water

 
 
 
 500ml
 
 Clearing
bath:
 Water
with
“acid”
added
to
it
–
10ml
of
stop
directly
from
box
OR
10ml
white
vinegar
 per
1
liter
of
water
–
gently
agitate
for
5
minutes
(this
bath
should
be
dumped
and
re‐ mixed
every
10
prints
or
so
–
when
the
water
gets
really
blue,
dump
it)
(we
add
acid
 because
the
water
in
Chester
is
hard
–
you
may
not
need
to
add
it
elsewhere)


GUM
BIRCHROMATE
PRINTING
PROCEDURE
 
 Pre‐soak
your
Paper:
 
 Water
color
paper
(140
lb
Arches
or
similar)
 
 Any
heavy
acid
free
fine
art
paper
will
work
(Rives
BFK)
 Soak
paper
until
it
is
saturated
–
this
usually
take
a
couple
of
minutes.

Lay
paper
on
 screens
or
hang
to
dry.
 
 Low‐tech
negative
registration:
 Lay
your
negative
on
your
paper.

Mark
the
corners
with
pencil.

Using
two
thumbtacks,
 punch
holes
through
opposite
corners
of
your
negative
(these
holes
will
be
used
to
line
 up
your
negative
for
successive
print
layers).


 
 Mixing
emulsion
and
exposing
your
print:
 Determine
the
color(s)
of
pigment
for
your
print.

It’s
generally
a
good
idea
to
coat
your
 layers
going
from
lightest
pigment
to
darkest.
 
 For
an
8x10
print:
Mix
1/2
gram
of
pigment
(a
small
blob
the
size
of
a
pencil
eraser)
with
 6ml
of
gum
Arabic
solution.

Add
6ml
of
potassium
dichromate
solution.

Coat
paper
 quickly
and
evenly.

Dry
the
emulsion
with
a
hair
dryer.
 
 Line
up
your
negative
with
the
tacks,
tape
your
negative
in
place
using
drafting
tape,
 and
remove
tacks.

 
 Put
your
negative/paper
sandwich
into
a
printing
frame
and
expose
to
UV
light
for
10‐30
 minutes.
 
 Clearing
your
print:
 During
exposure,
the
gum
dichromate
solution
hardens
where
is
has
been
struck
by
light
 (shadow
areas).

The
highlight
areas
receive
less
light
and
thus
don’t
harden
as
much.

 The
clearing
baths
will
remove
the
“soft”
areas
(highlights).
 
 Clear
print
in
3
successive
trays
of
clearing
bath.

Print
should
be
laid
face
down
in
 clearing
bath
1
and
not
disturbed
for
a
couple
of
minutes.

The
emulsion
is
very
delicate
 at
this
stage
–
it
can
also
be
manipulated.

Prints
should
be
place
in
two
more
trays
of
 clearing
bath
(5
min.
each)
to
clear
the
chemicals.

After
the
third
clearing
bath,
give
 your
print
a
short,
gentle
rinse,
then
dry
gently
with
a
hair
dryer
and
repeat
emulsion
 coating
procedures.

Multiple
layers
are
often
required
to
achieve
desired
image
quality.
 
 When
all
printing
is
complete,
spray
surface
of
print
with
potassium
metabisulfite,
let
sit
 one
minute,
then
wash
10
minutes.
(This
step
is
necessary
only
if
you
see
staining.)
 
 
 


GUM
BICHROMATE
PRINTING
ASSIGNMENT
 
 For
this
assignment
you
will
need
typical
historical
process
supplies
plus
the
following:
 
 Watercolor
pigments
(with
watercolor
pigements,
you
get
what
you
pay
for:
Winsor
&
 Newton
and
Sennelier
are
the
best
and
most
expensive,
Grumbacher
Academy
and
 Cottman
are
cheaper,
but
will
work)
 Suggested
pigments:
 
 *
Cadmium
Yellow
Deep
(Y)
 
 *
Alizerin
Crimson
(M)

 
 *
Burnt
Umber
 
 *
Burnt
Siena
 
 Cobalt
Blue
 
 Neutral
Tint
 Foam
brushes
 Palette
knife,
plastic
knife,
or
similar
 White
palette
or
plate
 Paper:

 Water
color
paper
(140
lb
Arches
or
similar)
 
 Any
heavy
acid
free
fine
art
paper
will
work
(Rives
BFK)
 
 **
Paper
must
be
pre‐soaked
and
dried
before
printing
so
that
it
will
shrink
before
 printing
–
if
you
do
not
do
this
your
gum
layers
will
not
line
up.

 
 Negatives:
 Ideal
negatives
for
gum
bichromate
printing
are
hard
to
define.

You
can
create
 negatives,
conventionally
or
digitally,
for
specific
areas
of
your
print,
or
for
specific
 pigments
(this
will
make
more
sense
once
you
start
printing).

If
you
are
working
 digitally,
you
may
use
the
gum
curve
–
but
remember:
it’s
not
foolproof.
As
is
the
case
 with
the
other
processes
covered
in
this
class,
a
normal
or
dense
negative
will
work
 better
than
a
thin
negative.
 
 Due
in
critique:

 4
lovely
prints
as
listed
below:
 
 2
prints
that
are
a
build
up
of
gum
layers
 
 1
print
that
is
a
3‐color
cyanotype‐gum
print
 

 1
print
that
is
a
cyanotype
or
platinum/palladium
print
with
gum
layer(s)
added