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Published by

National Curriculum and Textbook Board

69-70, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka - 1000
(All rights reserved by the publisher)
Trial Edition
First Edition: November, 2012
Md. Mosle Uddin Sarkar
Jahirul Islam Bhuiyan Shetu
National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka
To be distributed at free of cost by the Government of the People's Republic
of Bangladesh under the Third Primary Education Development Program
Printed by: Mousumi Of- set Press, 38 Banglabazar, Dhaka.
A child is a great wonder. There is no end to the thinking about his world of wonder. A child is a subject
of contemplation for educationists, scientists, philosophers, child specialists, psychologists --- for all
intellectuals. The fundamental principles of child education outlined in the National Education Policy
2010 have been defined in the light of these contemplations. The curriculum for primary education has
been revised to develop a child on the potentials of his innate amazement, unbounded curiosity, endless
joy and enthusiasm. Keeping in view the all round development of children's potentials, the aims and
objectives of primary education were modified in the revised curriculum of 2011. Utmost considerations
have been given to the total development of children in determining all aspects beginning from the
terminal competencies of primary education to the subject wise terminal competencies, grade and subject
based achievable competencies and finally to the learning outcomes. On this perspective each step of the
curriculum has been carefully followed in the newly developed textbook.
The society and environment of Bangladesh, tradition, culture, the history of liberation war, basic needs,
children right, duties and responsibilities of children, sense of cooperation and compassion toward all
walks of people of the society, attaining the qualities for becoming good citizens of the society, being
respectful to the culture and occupation of others, proper use and maintenance of resources, social
environment and disaster, population and human resources all these issues have been introduced in the
book in the context of Bangladesh.
Although revision of curriculum is a continuous process, bringing basic changes into the curriculum
depends on some other matters as well. Especially teaching the learners a new topic is related to the
acquiring knowledge on the topic by the teachers. Despite this challenge, issues like how children can
manage unfavourable conditions or disasters have been introduced. Besides, a number of new topics have
been included to create sense of acceptability and develop a sense of harmony in the minds of the children
for the people of all walks of the society, professionals, rich-poor, and children with special ability.
Keeping the security of the children in mind, relevant idea has been provided in this book so that
awareness can be developed in the minds of the children in the respective issues. Exercises with planned
activities along with colourful pictures have been designed in such a way so that through pleasure and
without memorization children can grasp the topics very easily.
It is noteworthy that the biography of the Father of the nation, the true history of the Liberation War and
the related facts presented in the book comply with the constitution of the country. Constitution has been
followed in the usage of the term 'ethnic minority' in this book. The improvement of curriculum is a
constant process. The text books are composed on the basis of curriculum. It is worth mentioning that in
2009, Government of Bangladesh took a great step through the introduction of four colours in the text
books which make the books more attractive and endurable helping the learners to be more keen,
inquisitive and attentive. Consequently, this time too this text book has been published in a short time
under the light of the revised curriculum using four colours/pictures along with improved papers. Special
attention has been given to make the contents of the book, as far as possible, plain and lucid to our tender
aged learners.
Despite the relentless, careful efforts of the associated people, the book may not be completely error free.
Therefore, for the further development and enhancement of the book, any constructive and rational
advice will be taken into serious consideration.
I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and thanks to those who have facilitated at various steps of
writing, editing, evaluating and publishing of this book. We will consider all our efforts successful if the
children for whom this book has been prepared are benefited.
Professor Md. Mostafa Kamaluddin
National Curriculum and Textbook Board, Dhaka
Chapter Subject Page
One Our Liberation War 1
Two Our Bangladesh: The British Rule 14
Three Historical Places and Monuments of Bangladesh 23
Four Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry 34
Five Population of Bangladesh 48
Six Climate and Disaster 56
Seven Human Rights 65
Eight Our Duties and Responsibilities 71
Nine We All Are Equal 79
Ten Democratic Attitude 83
Eleven Gender Equality 88
Twelve Some Minor Races and their Cultures in Bangladesh 95
Thirteen Bangladesh and the Rest of the World 104
Chapter One
Our Liberation War
The great Liberation War in 1971 is a very glorious history for our
nation. We have already learned about different movements and struggles
that took place before the Liberation War. Among them some of the
notable events are mentioned in the following chart:
1952 Language Movement.
1966 Six-Point Movement.
1969 Mass Upsurge.
1970 Awami League's overwhelming victory in general election.
25th March, 1971 Barbaric genocide by Pakistani armed forces.
26th March, 1971 Beginning of the great Liberation War by the
declaration of Bangabandhu.
Since the birth of Pakistan in 1947, the rulers of West Pakistan have ruled
and exploited the people of the then East Pakistan for long 23 years. To
get rid of the domination and exploitation, our Liberation War started on
26 March, 1971. The undisputed leader of this war was the Father of the
Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. After his call the Bengali
nation got involved in war against the Pakistani regime. All Bengali men
and women including farmers, laborers, students, teachers and the
Bengali members of armed forces participated in this war. The nine
months long war ended on 16th December, 1971 when the Pakistani
Army surrendered at the Race Course ground and we achieved the final
victory. Independent Bangladesh is emerged in the world's atlas.
Formation of Mujibnagar Government
Within few days after the war, on 10th April, 1971, Bangladesh's interim
government was formed, known as Mujibnagar Government. This
government took oath on 17th April on Meherpur district's Baidyanathtala
village (current Mujibnagar Upazila) at a place named Aambagan.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was appointed as the president of
this Government. But at that time he was being held captive at a jail in
West Pakistan. In his absence, the vice-president Syed Nazrul Islam
played the role of acting president. Tajuddin Ahmed became the Prime
Minister. This government played very crucial role in conducting the
Liberation War and creating public opinions and getting supports from
both home and abroad. Since the formation of this government a large
number of people participated in the armed war to liberate the country.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Tajuddin Ahmed Syed Nazrul Islam
Muktibahini (Freedom Fighter s)
To operate the Liberation War Mujibnagar government constituted
Muktibahini on 11 July, 1971. Colonel
Muhammad Ataul Goni Osmani (later
General) was appointed as the Commander-
in-Chief and group captain A K Khondoker
was appointed as the Deputy Chief of
Muktibahini. Lt. Colonel Abdur Rob was
made the Chief of Armed forces. For the
operation of War of Liberation this time
Bangladesh was divided into 11 sectors. The
following map shows the 11 sectors of
Bangladesh at a glance:
Our Liberation War
General Muhammad Ataul Goni Osmani
Sector 1: Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts
and up to Feni River.
Sector 2: Noakhali, Comilla, Akhaura, Vairab
and parts of Faridpur and Dhaka district.
Sector 3: Akhaura, east of Vairab rail line to
Comilla district, Habiganj, Kishoreganj and
parts of Dhaka district.
Sector 4: Eastern parts of Sylhet district,
Khowai, Daoki road on eastern and northern
sides of Shayestaganj rail line.
Sector 5: Western parts of Sylhet, from Daoki
road of Sylhet up to Sunamganj and borderline
of greater Mymensingh.
Sector 6: Entire Rangpur and Thakurgaon
district excluding the riparian areas of
Sector 7: Entire Rajshahi, Dinajpur excluding
Thakurgaon, and entire Pabna and Bogra
district excluding riparian areas of
Sector 8: Entire Kushtia and Jessore districts,
parts of Faridpur and from Daulatpur Satkhira
road up to Khulna district.
Sector 9: Entire southern regions of Khulna
district including Satkhira Daulatpur road and
greater Barisal and Patuakhali districts.
Sector 10: Inland waterways and coastal sea
regions, Chittagong and Chalna.
Sector 11: Entire Mymensingh region except
Sectors of Liberation war
There were some sub-sectors under these sectors. Apart from this the
battlefield was also divided into three brigade forces. These were 'Z
force', 'S force' and 'K force'. The commander of 'Z force' was Major
Ziaur Rahman followed by Major K M Shafiullah of 'S force' and Major
Khaled Mosharrof of 'K force'. Moreover Bangladesh Liberation Force
(BLF) was formed nearly at the end of the war.
Muktibahini was formed by combined participation of military and civil
people. The regular liberation force consisted of the military officers and
soldiers. They were called 'Muktifouz'. On the other hand the irregular
force was formed with the representative of different strata of civil people.
Some small battalions were also formed within the different regions of the
country. Bongobir Kader Siddiki's "Kaderiya Bahini" and Mofazzal
Hossain Chowdhury Maya's "Maya Bahini" are the most notable among
them. The freedom fighters were trained in different regions of the
country and in different places of India. Many women also took training
for the war. Guerilla attack and frontal war was our main war strategy.
The fearless freedom fighters managed to hold steady resistance and
attack the Pakistani military for nine months using this strategy.
Combatant freedom fighters
Bangladesh and Global Studies
During the war numerous common people stood beside the freedom
fighters by taking risks of their lives. They inspired the freedom fighters
to keep fighting by
helping them with food,
shelter, information and
other essentials. Women
played very important
roles in these tasks.
Moreover, cultural
activists played vital
roles in performing
similar tasks. The ethnic
minorities of this country
actively participated in
this war. Muktibahini
and numerous freedom-
hungry people took all
kinds of risks and created
resistance against the
Pakistani military both in
cities and villages. The
Liberation War took the
momentum through the participation of all segments of people.
"Joy Bangla" was the most favorite slogan of the freedom fighters. They
used this slogan to express their joys for victories in the battlefield. They
used this slogan to know their whereabouts in the warzones. The Pakistani
invaders used to get very scared whenever they heard "Joy Bangla".
Genocide by Pakistani Forces
From the very beginning of the war the Pakistani military showed extreme
cruelty to eliminate the Bangalees (Bengalis). Massacre of the Pakistani
military began on the dark night of 25th March when they suddenly
attacked and took lives of many helpless Bangalees. The operation was
named 'Operation Searchlight'. Thousands of unarmed Bangalees around
the country including Dhaka were indiscriminately massacred at that night.
Mass murders by the Pakistani military continued for the next nine months.
Women freedom fighters
Our Liberation War
They also carried out indiscriminate looting and unjust arrests. Many
villages were burned down. The Pakistani raiders did not spare men,
women, children or elderly. They killed millions of people and turned
numerous places of
Bangladesh into slaughter
land. The Bangalees fled
their houses fearing the
murders, tortures and
loots by the Pakistani
military. This time more
than 10 million
Bangladeshi took refuge
in India.
Most of the people of
Bangladesh were in
support of independence;
yet some people of this country were against the liberation war and
collaborated with the Pakistani army. Some of the major organizations of
these people were named 'Shanti Committee', 'Rajakaar', 'Al Badr' and 'Al
Shams'. They made lists
of the freedom fighters,
their families and those
who supported the war
and gave the names to the
Pakistani raiders. They
gave directions, Bangalee
language meanings and
helped the Pakistani
military to carry out their
torture rampage. Their
torture often was more
brutal than Pakistani army.
Conceding the defeat, the Pakistani military and their collaborators took a
plan to make this country out of intellectuals. Many of our talented artists,
Tyranny and oppression of Pakistani military and Rajakars
People leaving their houses in search of safer shelters
Bangladesh and Global Studies
litterateur, teachers, intellectuals, physicians and journalists were captured
and murdered from 10th December till 14th December. Among them were
Professor Govindachandra Dev, Professor Munir Chowdhury, Professor
Jyotirmoy Guho Thakurta, Professor Santosh Chandra Bhattacharjee,
Professor Mofazzal Haider Chowdhury, Professor Anwar Pasha, Professor
Rashidul Hasan, Journalist Selina Parvin, Dr Aleem Chowdhury, Dr Fazley
Rabbi, Dr Golam Murtaza, Dr Azharul Haque and many more. We observe
'Shahid Buddhijibi Dibosh' every year on 14th December in memory of
these intellectual martyrs.
The Sur render of Pakistani Force
The Pakistani military was unable to win even after carrying out many
brutal killings, tortures and repressions. They became scared by continuous
attacks of our combative freedom fighters. The liberation war became
strong on November and December of 1971. Our neighboring country India
has supported us in the war from the beginning. The Indian government
provided food, clothes, shelters and medicines to the Bangalees vulnerable
refugees in their country. They also gave military support at the end of the
Dr Aleem Chowdhury
Prof. Munir Chowdhury Prof. Jyotirmoy Guho Thakurta Prof. Rashidul Hasan
Dr Azharul Haque Journalist Selina Parvin
Our Liberation War
Prof. Govindachandra Dev
war. This supporting military force from India was called 'Mitrabahini'.
Muktibahini and Mitrabahini formed another separate military force on 21st
November, 1971. After Pakistani military attacked India on 3rd December,
the combined force of
Muktibahini and Mitrabahini
attacked Pakistan by land,
water and air roots. Pakistani
force was bound to surrender
on this strong attack. On the
afternoon of 16th December,
1971 the Chief of Pakistani
army Lieutenant General
Niyazi and the Chief of the
combined military Lieutenant
General Jagjit Singh Arora
signed a document of
surrender at the Race Course
ground of Dhaka. A new independent country named 'Bangladesh' was
emerged. Since then every year we celebrate our Victory Day.
Surrender of Pakistani military
Victory celebration of freedom fighters
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Damages Caused by the War
A country achieving its independence through a war of only nine months
is a very rare case. Although the time was short, this war was very brutal.
The loss of property and other things were infinite and irreparable. Almost
three million people lost their lives and many more were injured. More
than one crore people became homeless. Pakistani military and their
collaborators burned down numerous houses and shops. They destroyed
our roads, bridges and ports. Schools, colleges, universities, banks, offices
and factories were closed. All these made "Sonar Bangla" very miserable.
Significance of the Liber ation War
We achieved our country through the Liberation War. We are the citizens
of an independent country in this world because of this war. We got our
own land and our flag. Irrespective of nationality, race, religion and
gender all segment of people participated in this war. Thus the liberation
war is for everyone and everyone has equal right in this country. It is our
responsibility to make this country beautiful. We will also have to
remember the sacrifice of so many people during the war. We must not
forget those millions of freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives
including those who are still alive with injury. The contribution of
common people who supported the freedom fighters is also enormous.
We will always love our country like the freedom fighters.
Hardinge Bridge of Bangladesh destroyed in war
Our Liberation War
National Titles of the Freedom Fighter s
For bravery and courage of the freedom fighters, they were given some
certain gallantry titles by the Government of Bangladesh. They are as follows:
1. Bir shrestho : This is the highest award given for bravery. It was given
to those who fought with endless bravery and died for their country in the
liberation war. Seven people were given this title.
2. Bir Uttam : This is the second award given to those who showed
courage and sacrificed in the war.
3. Bir Bikr am : This is the third award given to those who showed
courage and sacrificed in the war.
4. Bir Protik : This is the fourth award given to those who showed
courage and sacrificed in the war.
Numerous people contributed in the war. We respect all of them.
Flight Lieutenant Motiur Rahman
Sipahi Mostafa Kamal
Squadron Leader Ruhul Amin
Lance Naik Munsi Abdur Rauf
Lance Naik Nur Mohammad Sheikh
Captain Mohiuddin Jahangir
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Sipahi Hamidur Rahman
1. The first interim government of Bangladesh was formed on 10th
April, 1971. It is known as Mujibnagar government.
2. Muktibahini was formed by Mujibnagar government in order to
operate the war.
3. During the war Bangladesh was divided into 11 sectors and the
battlefield was divided into 3 brigade forces.
4. Muktibahini was formed by combination of military and civil people.
There were some regional forces too. They are all freedom fighters.
5. Irrespective of religion, ethnicity, gender all participated in the war of
6. 14th December is 'Shahid Buddhijibi Dibosh' (Intellectual Day for
7. On 16th December of 1971 Pakistani military surrendered. This is
our Victory Day.
8. Three Million people lost lives in the Liberation war.
9. Birsreshtho, Bir Uttam, Bir Bikram and Bir Protik are four national
titles given to freedom fighters for their bravery and sacrifices in the
Planned Activities
1. Fill in the box below:
Name of military forces in favour of Liberation War Name of military forces against Liberation War
a. a.
b. b.
c. c.
2. Collect pictures of the liberation war and arrange an exhibition under
teacher's supervision.
3. Play an act on the story of the Liberation War.
4. Collect photos of the martyrs and make a photo album.
5. Invite a freedom fighter from your area in your classroom and listen
to his/her experiences.
Our Liberation War
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 When did Mujibnagar government take oath?
a. 25th April, 1971 b. 10th April, 1971
c. 17th April, 1971 d. 20th April, 1972
1.2 Who was the president of Mujibnagar government?
a. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman b. Syed Nazrul Islam
c. Tajuddin Ahmed d. Maulana Bhashani
1.3 Who was the chief of Z Brigade Force?
a. Major K MShafiullah b. Major Ziaur Rahman
c. Major Khaled Mosharraf d. Colonel Osmani
1.4 On which date do we observe Shahid Buddhijibi Dibosh ?
a. 7th March b. 26th March
c. 17th April d. 14th December
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words
a. _________________ was the president of Mujibnagar government.
b. Muktibahini was formed by combined participation of military and
civil ______________.
c. Almost _______________ people lost lives at the Liberation War.
d. A ____________ was formed by merging of Muktibahini and
Mitrabahini on 21st November of 1971.
3. Cross match the correct answers:
a. Chief of Muktibahini
b. Bangladeshi collaborator
supporting Pakistan
c. Highest national title given for
bravery and courage in war
d. Chief of Joint force
Lt. General Jagjit Singh Arora
Colonel Ataul Goni Osmani
Bir Bikram
Bangladesh and Global Studies
4. Answer briefly:
a. Where and when was Mujibnagar government formed ? Who were
the members ?
b. Describe the importance of Mujibnagar government in our liberation
c. Who formed the Muktibahini ?
d. How did ordinary people participate in the liberation war ?
e. What kind of tortures and oppressions carried out by Pakistani army
during the liberation war ?
f. Why do we observe Shahid Buddhijibi Dibosh on 14th December ?
g. Describe the significance of Liberation War.
Our Liberation War
Chapter Two
Our Bangladesh: The Br itish Rule
The British came to Bengal to do trading. Apart from the British, the
Portuguese, Dutch, French and other European merchants also came to
this land for trading. Gradually they started to interfere in local politics
and rules in order to get benefits in their own trades. Among all these
European powers, only the British survived the competition. The British
rule started in Bengal from 23rd June, 1757 through the battle of Palashi.
As a consequence the Bengal lost its political freedom. This rule also
brought massive changes in Bengali society and culture. The British ruled
this country for about 200 years (1757-1947 AD).
The Battle of Palashi
Siraj-ud-Daulah was the last independent Nawab of Bengal. He was the
grandson of Nawab Alibardi Khan. Siraj-ud-Daulah became Nawab of
Bengal only at the age of 22 after the death of Nawab Alibardi Khan in
1756. As soon as he ascended the
throne, the young Nawab had to face
many conspiracies and rivalries. On
one hand he had to face the gradual
growing power of the English, on the
other the conspiracy by his close people
like his aunt Ghaseti Begum and the
commander-in-chief of his army Mir
Zafar Ali. In addition the influential
merchants like Rai Durlabh and Jagat
Seth planned conspiracies against him.
At this time the organization of British
merchants in Bengal was named British
East India Company. The British had
many disagreements with the Nawab
for various reasons. The opposition
Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah
forces of Nawab made an alliance with English as part of conspiracy. All of
them kept trying to dislodge the
Nawab. A a result finally the
British and the Nawab's army
had a battle on the borders of
Palashi on 23rd June, 1757. The
Nawab lost because of his army
chief Mir Zafar's betrayal on the
battlefield. Later Nawab Siraj-
ud-Daulah was murdered. The
British rule in the Bengal was
introduced because of this war.
The Br itish Rule
The British merchants did not
take over the rule of Bengal as
they lack experience of ruling a
country. They rule the country
with the help of local people
who were loyal to them. At
first the throne was given to
Mir Zafar and later to Mir Quasim. Mir Qasim was freedom lover and as a
consequence he had wars twice against the English. He lost in the battle of
Baksar on 1764 and since then the British took control over the Bengal
government. East India Company ruled over the Bengal for a century
from 1757 till 1857. This period is known as the Company Rule. The first
governor of Company was Lord Clive. After almost 100 years there was a
sepahi mutiny against the company's policy and exploitation. Although the
English were able to suppress the mutiny, the administration was not same
as before. In 1858 the British government annulled the Company rule and
took over the administration, continued till 1947.
One of the policies of the British rule was 'Divide and Rule'. They used to
take advantage by differentiating between religion, caste, nationality and
rationality among people and making them fight against each other to
fulfill their vested interests.
Battle of Palashi
Our Bangladesh: The British Rule
The Impact of Br itish Rule in Bengal
The main objective of the British rule was exploitation and making profit.
During the 200 years of British rule huge amount of wealth and resources
were drained out from the country. The agriculture and loom, the
backbone of Bengal economy, were almost destroyed. Industries and
businesses of the Bengal were also damaged in many ways. Numerous
craftsmen became unemployed. During the Company rule there was a
devastating famine occurred in Bengal in 1770 (Bengali year 1176). This
is known as 'Chhiyattor er Monnontor'.
At this time majority of the Bengal people was farmers and poor. On the
other hand a small number of Zamindars were rich and had special
advantages. The women were in a backward position. In this situation the
British introduced English education. Schools, colleges and universities
were established for expansion of education. Communication became
improved with the introduction of trains and telegraph. Education was
more easily spread due to development of printing press. Gradually an
English educated class of people was formed in Bengal due to
introduction of modern and English education. A portion of these people
started to become conscious. They started to become aware of many of the
existing society's prejudice and bad customs. These people helped to
create Bengal renaissance in the 19th century. There was a social reform
and expansion of education, literature and science. Some of the
contributors of renaissance were Raja Ram Mohan Rai, Iswarchandra
Bidyasagar, and Michael Madhusudan Dutta and others. Sir Syed Ahmed
Khan, Nawab Abdul Latif and Syed Amir Ali played important roles in
improving the society and education for the Muslims.
Raja Ram Mohan Rai Iswarchandra Bidyasagar Nawab Abdul Latif Syed Amir Ali
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Movement against the Br itish Rule
The people of Bengal did not just accept the rule of the British without
resistance. Several resistance movements held by the Bengals since the late
18th century till 19th century. Among them Fakir-Sannyasi mutiny,
Titumir's mutiny, Forayezi movement, Saotaal mutiny are prominent. The
story of Titumir's bamboo fort is still highly talked. Titumir built a fort
with bamboos in Narkelbariya village of Chobbish Porgona district in the
West Bengal of present India. The fort was made to get rid of exploitations
and tortures of the British and the Zamindars. He died during the war.
The SIpahi mutiny of 1857 was the first anti-British freedom fight. The
main objective of this mutiny was to end the era of British rule and to make
India independent. This sipahi mutiny which started from the Bengal began
to spread around many places of the British-occupied India. The first
mutiny in the West Bengal was led by sipahi Mangal Pandey in Barrackpur.
The British controlled this mutiny very rigorously. Many innocent people
Bamboo Fort of Titumir
Our Bangladesh: The British Rule
were executed indiscriminately. The rebel sipahi of Bengals were executed
in Dhaka's Bahadur Shah Park.
Although the sipahi were defeated but
the fall of the East India Company
began from this mutiny. Since this
mutiny the rule of Queen Elizabeth of
the British was started.
As a result of advanced education and
renaissance the sense of nationality
has been developed in Bengal or India
in the 19th century. This has helped to
form a political party 'Indian National
Congress' in 1885. The British
government decided to divide the
Bengal province in 1905 to stop the
nationalist movement. A new province
was formed taking East Bengal and
Assam together. There was an intense
movement against this division of the Bengal. Thus the British were forced
to annul their attempt to divide the Bengal province in 1911. Meanwhile,
in 1906 a political party named Indian Muslim League was formed to put
forward the claims and demands of the Muslim society. The people of
Bengal started to become conscious about their homeland when the British
wanted to divide the Bengal province. As a result Home-Rule (Swaraj)
movement, Non-cooperation (Oshohojog) movement and Armed Youth
Master-da Suryasen Pritilata Waddedar Khudiram
Memorial built in Bahadur Shah Park
Bangladesh and Global Studies
mutiny occurred. The sacrifice and courage of Khudiram, Master-da
Suryasen and Pritilata Waddedar during armed youth movement is ever
remembered. Khudiram and Master-da Suryasen were executed for taking
part in campaign against the British rulers. After the end of the successful
campaign Pritilata voluntarily sacrificed her life when she was caught by
the British. Moreover, many Bengali leaders also played important roles in
n a t i o n a l
i nde pe nde nc e
m o v e m e n t .
Among them
Netaji Subhas
Chandra Bose,
Ch i t y a r a n j a n
Das, Sher-e-
Bangla A K
Fazlul Haque are
prominent. The
British were
forced to leave this country at one point because of these diversified and
continuous movements against them. The writings of Bankimchandra
Chatterjee, Shorot Chandra Chatterjee, Poet Rabindra Nath Thakur and
Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam inspired the Bengalis even more to fight for their
land and rights. Begum Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, the pioneer of women's
liberation movement, worked very hard to spread education among the
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Sher-e-Bangla A K Fazlul Haque
Rabindra Nath Thakur Kazi Nazrul Islam
Begum Roquia Sakhawat Hussain
Our Bangladesh: The British Rule
women of the undivided Bengal. In 1947 India became independent and
two separate states were formed namely India and Pakistan. The East
Bengal, now Bangladesh, became part of the then Pakistan.
1. The Battle of Palashi between Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah and British
East India Company took place in 23rd June, 1757.
2. Sipahi mutiny occurred in 1857. The leader of this mutiny in the
Bengal was Sipahi Mangal Pandey.
3. The British ruled this country for almost 200 years (1757-1947AD).
4. India became independent in 1947. Two nations named India and
Pakistan was formed. East Bengal, now Bangladesh, was included in
the then Pakistan.
Planned Activity
1. Fill in the box below:
a. East India Company
b. Year and date of the Battle of Palashi
c. Year 1857
d. What did Bidyasagar do?
e. Year 1947
2. Write names of three people in the box below:
Social Reformer Politician/Revolutionary
a. a.
b. b.
c. c.
3. Make a chart of all the important events during the British rule.
4. Play an act on Siraj-ud-Daulah and The Battle of Palashi.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 When did the Battle of Palashi happen?
a. 1st January, 1755 b. 30th October, 1756
c. 23rd June, 1756 d. 23rd June, 1757
1.2 What happened in the year 1905?
a. Sipahi mutiny b. Division of Bengal
c. Division of India d. Fakir-Sannyasi mutiny
1.3 Who was involved in renaissance?
a. Khudiram b. Chittaranjan Das
c. Titumir d. Ishwarchandra Bidyasagar
1.4 On which year did India become independent?
a. 1945 b. 1947
c. 1949 d. 1950
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
a. Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula was the last _________________ Nawab of
the Bengal.
b. The British ruled this country for almost _______________ years.
c. The sipahi mutiny in 1857 was the biggest planned anti British
________________ campaign.
d. People became conscious because of advanced education and
3. Cross-match the correct answers:
a. Company's rule
b. First governor of East India Company
c. Bamboo fort of Titumir is situated in
d. Pritilata fought
Lord Clive
1757-1857 AD
against Pakistani
against the British
Our Bangladesh: The British Rule
4. Answer briefly:
a. Why did the Battle of Palashi take place? What was the result of this
b. What was the impact of British rule upon the economy and
education of the Bengal?
c. Describe the importance of the sipahi mutiny in 1857.
d. How did Titumir, Suryasen and Pritilata contribute in the freedom
campaign against the British?
e. What was the result of renaissance in Bengal?
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Three
Histor ical Places and Monuments of
Bangladesh is our beloved motherland. The history and heritage of this
country are very rich. People of different ethnicity and religion have been
living here for ages. Many rulers reined this country. Many historic places
have been built. There are many monuments in different sites of the
country. Now we will learn about some historical places and monuments.
Mahasthangar is a famous historic site of Bangladesh. This carries
evidence of history of Bangladesh since 400 years BC to the next 1500
AD. The ruins of the most ancient and largest city of Bangladesh,
Pundranagar, situated here. This city was built during the Maurya
Dynasty. It is situated in the western banks of Korotoa river, thirteen
kilometers away from Bogra city. There are important monuments of
ancient heritage in this place. Numerous historic monuments have been
discovered after digging the soils of Mahasthangar. A Brahmin inscription
was found here. It is the most ancient inscription of the Bengal. Plates and
sculptures made terracotta, gold and silver coins and stone and glass beads
were also found here. Religious antiquities like 'Govinda Bhita',
'Lakshindarer Medh' and 'Gokul Medh' have been found in Mahasthangar.
An old shattered fortress is also be seen here. At the eastern side of the
fortress there is Korotoa river and at the three sides there are sign of wide
ditches. There are still many broken stones inside the fortress. A special
kind of stone was found here named 'Khodai Pathor'. This stone is 3.35
meters long and 0.91 meters wide. At the south east corner of
Mahasthangar there is a one domed mosque which was built during the
Mughal period. It is known as the Mahasthangar Mosque.
In the box below, write four names of monuments found in Mahasthangar:
1. 2.
3. 4.
Many monuments are kept in the museum of Mahasthangar. Some of the
historic findings are also kept in Borendra Museum of Rajshahi and the
National Museum in Dhaka.
War i-Bateshwar
Wari and Bateshwar are two neighboring villages located in the
Norshingdi district. Few years back very important archaeological site
was found which is known as "Wari-Bateshwar". Like Mahasthangar, it is
an ancient historical monument of Bengal. It is thought that during 4th
BC a civilization was formed in the Maurya Dynasty. This region was
connected with sea trade. Printed currency has been found spread all over
around some kilometer of that area. Some weapons and beads of stone
were also found. Research is still going on in Wari Bateshwar. More and
more ancient monuments are hoped to be found here in near future.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Pahar pur
Paharpur is situated in Bodolgachi Upazila of Naogaon district in Rajshahi
division. An archaeological evidence of Pala dynasty is found here. This
archaeological place is almost 24 meters high with an area of 0.10 square
kilometers or 10 hectares. The most important antiquity of Paharpur is
known as 'Swampur Mahabihar'. It was built in the period of King
Dharmapala (approximate 781-821AD). There are 177 secret chambers
surrounding the convent. In the center there is a tall temple. There are
Historical Places and Monuments of Bangladesh
Ancient ruins of Paharpur
many small temples and ponds around it. Moreover there are signs of
kitchen, dining room, brick drains and a well. Inside the ruins of
Paharpur some images of terracotta statue were found. Most of them are
statues of animals Bengal. Also some lime soil and metal sculptures were
found. The antiquities of Paharpur are one of the unique historic
monuments of ancient Bengal's religion and culture. Every year many
local and foreign tourists visit Paharpur. There is a museum and restroom
for the travelers.
In the box below, let we write the names of four monuments found in
1. 2.
3. 4.
Mynamati is situated eight kilometers south west from Comilla city. The
legend of King Manik Chandra's wife, Mynamati is related to this place.
The ancient monuments of Mynamati carry the historic prominence of
400 years of south-eastern Bengal for eight to twelve centuries. Many
archaeological places are found here. Among them the notable are
'Shalbon Bihar', 'Kutila Mura', 'Raanir Bungalow', 'Ananda Bihar',
'Rupban Mura', 'Bhoj Bihar' and 'Mynamati Dhibi'. Many monuments of
the Bengal Buddhists civilization were found here. Apart from the
monuments of Buddhist religion many statues of Jain and Hindu gods
were also found.
The monuments indicate that there was good facility to practice
education in that period. There are signs of residential accommodation
facilities for teacher and students. The temples had beautiful artistries.
Terracotta plates were used on the outer walls and different rooms of the
temple for its beautification. The Terracotta plates had images of
miraculous animals and mythological sceneries. Among these the most
attractive images and sceneries are of real creatures like lions, weasel
Bangladesh and Global Studies
fighting a cobra snake, horse, running elephant, swan in the lotus, etc.
There were also notable sceneries warriors with swords in hand, men and
women in dancing position etc. Many gold, silver and bronze coins were
found in Mynamati. Stone sculptures and terracotta plates of inscriptions
have been found.
Lets write some of the names of monuments found in Mynamati in the
box below:
A museum is built in Mynamati, where many monuments have been kept.
Historical Places and Monuments of Bangladesh
Panam City
Sonar gaon
Sonargaon is another historic location of Bangladesh. It is 27 kilometers
south east from Dhaka at the western shore of Meghna river. It is
currently within Narayanganj district. It was the capital city of the Bengal
Sultans in the medieval age at the period of Muslim rule. It was the
capital of Isa Khan and his son Musa Khan, the most powerful among the
twelve Bhuiya of the Mughal Empire. It was the famous business center
at that time. Some of the monuments of those glorious days can still be
found here and there in Sonargaon. Among them the notable are huge
lake, soil mass, destroyed fort, mosque and the ruins of Panam City.
Tomb of Giasuddin Azam Shah
There is the tomb of
Sultan Giasuddin
Azam Shah in
Sonargaon. There are
also the tombs of five
other priests. When
Dhaka was established
as the capital city
during the period of
Tomb of Giasuddin Azam Shah
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Mughal Subedar Shayestha Khan, the importance of Sonargaon gradually
started to decrease.
Shilpacharya Jainul Abedin made a museum of folk art in 1975 so that
the pride of Sonargaon lasts.
Lalbagh For t
The fort of Lalbagh is
one of the notable historic
monuments. It is situated
at the south west end of
the current Old Dhaka
near the Buriganga river.
The construction of this
fort began 1678 during
Dhaka's Subedar by
Shahjada Mohammad
Azam, son of Mughal
Emperor Aurangazeb. He
could not finish his work
Folk Museum in Sonargaon
Lalbagh Fort
Historical Places and Monuments of Bangladesh
because he had to leave Dhaka. So it remained incomplete. There are two
entrance paths at the north and south sides of the fort. At the south
entrance there are many secret tunnels to exit. There is a court hall named
'Diwan-e-Aam', three domed mosque and a pond inside the fort. There is
also the tomb of Pori Bibi, daughter of Shayestha Khan.
The specialty of the Lalbagh fort is that it is completely made of bricks.
There are high brick walls around it. There is an open space in the center of
the fort. The Mughal rulers used to live in beautiful tents in the open space.
There is a small two-storied palace. It has been made a museum now.
Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil was the palace of the nawabs of Dhaka. It is situated in
Kumartuli at the bank of Buriganga river. It was built by Zamindar
Sheikh Enayetullah, the owner of Zamalpur Porgona of Barisal during the
Mughal period. The French people bought it from Matiullah, son of
Enayetullah, and turned it into trade center. Dhaka's Nawab Khaja
Aleemullah bought if from the French in 1830 and turned it into palace
again. Nawab Abdul Gani named it Ahsan Manzil after his son
Ahsan Manzil
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Ahsanullah. Ahsan Manzil is one of the most notable architectural
monuments of Bangladesh. There is a long corridors at the south and
north end of the palace. There is a beautiful dome named 'Kumud Koli'.
'Jalsa Ghar', 'Darbar Hall' and 'Rang Mahal' are the most illustrious rooms
of Ahsan Manzil. Ahsan Manzil lost its significance after the abolition of
the Zamindari system. In 1985, Bangladesh government has taken over as
supervisor of Ahsan Manzil in order to keep its historic importance.
Currently Ahsan Manzil has been turned into a museum.
Apart from the monuments mentioned above there are some small
historic monuments in different places of Bangladesh. These monuments
carry the significance of our ancient civilization and culture. These
monuments make us feel proud. We will visit these historic sites and
monuments. We will do our best to preserve all these.
1. Mahasthangar carries evidence of history of Bangladesh since 400
years BC to the next 1500 years.
2. Wari-Bateshwar is an ancient historic heritage like Mahasthangar.
3. An archaeological place of the kings of Pala Empire was found in
4. There was good facility to practice education in Mynamati.
5. Sonargaon was the capital city of the Bengal sultan in the medieval
age at the period of Muslim rule.
6. Lalbagh Fort was built in the period of prince (shahzada) Mohammad
Azam, son of the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb.
7. Nawab Abdul Gani named Ahsan Manzil after his son Ahsanullah.
Planned Activities
1. Make a list of various monuments found in the archaeological sites of
2. Collect photos of the historic places of Bangladesh.
Historical Places and Monuments of Bangladesh
Wari Bateshwar
Lalbag Fort
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 Ruins of which ancient city of the Bengal is in Mahasthangar ?
a. Panam City b. Pundranagar
c. Pandua d. Vasubihar
1.2 What was found within few kilometers around Wari-Bateshwar ?
a. Printed currency b. Terracotta plates
c. Shields of steel d. Brass utensils
1.3 In which king's period 'Shompur Mahabihar' was built ?
a. Gopal b. Devpal
c. Dharmapal d. Mahipal
1.4 Where is Bangladesh's folklore museum located ?
a. Paharpur b. Moynamoti
c. Wari Bateshwar d. Sonargaon
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
a. A __________ inscription was found in Mahasthangar.
b. Many monuments of _____________ civilization were found in
c. High walls made of ____________ were found surrounding Lalbagh
d. There is a beautiful _____________ named Kumud Koli in Ahsan
3. Cross Match with right answers:
a. Naoga district's Bodolgachi Upazila
b. Khodai Pathor
c. Weapons and bullets of stone
d. Gold, silver and bronze coins
Bangladesh and Global Studies
4. Answer briefly:
a. Describe some of the historic monuments of Mahasthangar.
b. What monuments were found in Shompur Bihar?
c. What images were there in the terracotta of Moynamoti?
d. Of which period's historic monuments were found in Sonargaon?
e. Describe the monuments of Lalbagh Fort.
f. Why should we be respectful towards the historic monuments of
Historical Places and Monuments of Bangladesh
Chapter Four
Economy of Bangladesh: Agr iculture and
Industr y
Bangladesh is a developing country. Agriculture, industry, exports,
imports etc. play important roles in the economy of Bangladesh. Now we
will learn about of agriculture, industry, exports and imports of
Agr iculture of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is an agriculture dominant country. Most of the people are
involved in agriculture. About 80% of Bangladesh's population is directly
or indirectly depended on agriculture. The agriculture sector works as the
main source of food supply for the densely populated Bangladesh.
Moreover, a significant amount of this country's export revenue comes
from agricultural products. Agriculture sector contributes 20% of the net
national income of Bangladesh's current fiscal year (2011-2012).
Main Agr icultur al Products
Various agricultural products are produced in Bangladesh. Among these
some are agricultural food products and some are agricultural cash
products. We will learn hear about the agricultural food products and
agricultural cash products.
Agr icultur al Food Products
Paddy, wheat, maize, potato, oilseed and spices are main agricultural
food products. The details of these products are given below.
Rice is the main food of the people of Bangladesh. So paddy is the main
crop of Bangladesh. The climate of all regions of Bangladesh is suitable
for cultivating paddy. Therefore paddy is cultivated everywhere in this
country. In Bangladesh three types of paddy is cultivated: Aush, Amon
and Boro. The technique of paddy cultivation is improving day by day.
As a result, annual paddy production keeps increasing. In each year 3.4
crore metric tons rice is extracted from the paddy crops in Bangladesh.
Most of the domestic demand of rice can be met by the produced paddy
in our own country.
Food, made of wheat is getting increased popularity in Bangladesh. As a
result there is an increase in cultivation of wheat. Wheat is cultivated in
winter. Generally wheat is cultivated most in the north and west regions
of Bangladesh. Every year Bangladesh produces almost one million
Paddy Field
Wheat Field
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
metric tons of wheat. However, almost 0.5 million metric tons of wheat
needs to be imported yearly to meet the demand of this country.
Pulse is another important agricultural product. Many kinds of pulses are
produced here. Some of them are 'chhola', 'moshur', 'motor', 'muug',
'maskolai', 'khesari', 'orhhor' etc. Pulses are cultivated more in north and
west regions of Bangladesh. Around 0.7-0.8 million metric tons of pulses
are produced every year in Bangladesh. However, there is a demand of
3.5 to 4 million metric tons of pulses in Bangladesh every year. Therefore
a large amount of pulses are imported from abroad.
In many countries potato is the main food. Potato is an important food in
Bangladesh too. The fertile and sandy-loamy soil of this country is
suitable for cultivating potato. Different kinds of potatoes are produced
here. However, round potatoes and sweet potatoes are cultivated more.
Every year about 4 million metric ton potatoes of different varieties are
produced here.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Oil is one of the very significant food requirements. In Bangladesh there
is a high demand of edible oil every year. Generally oilseeds that are
cultivated in this country are mustard oil, almond oil and linseed oil. In
total Bangladesh produces nearly 0.5 million metric tons of oil every
year. The local oilseed production can only partially fulfill the demand of
oil. Thus large quantity of oil needs to be imported from overseas.
Different types of spices are produced in Bangladesh. Among them the
especially mentionable are onion, garlic, ginger and chili. These crops
fulfill most of the demand of spice in our country. However some amount
of spices needs to be imported too.
Chilly Field
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
Mustard Field
Cash Crops
The main cash crops of Bangladesh are- jute, tea and tobacco. The major
amount that is earned from exporting agricultural products comes from
these three crops.
Jute is the main cash crop in Bangladesh. The highest amount of jute in
the world is produced in Bangladesh. Bangladesh earns a large amount
of foreign currency every year by exporting jute and jute products. Thus
jute is called the 'Golden Fiber' in Bangladesh. The soil and the climate of
this country are especially suitable for cultivating jute. Jute is cultivated
in all regions of the country. However, it is mainly grown in the districts
of greater Dhaka, Mymensigh, Faridpur, Comilla, Pabna, Kushtia, Jessore
and Khulna. Every year about 4.5 million metric tons of jute is produced
in Bangladesh. A large number of people of this country are involved in
jute cultivation and trading. As a result the major part of economy of
people of Bangladesh depends on jute.
Jute Field
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Like jute, tea also plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh.
The climate of Bangladesh is suitable for cultivating tea. Tea is mostly
produced in the districts of east and south regions of Bangladesh. Among
these Sylhet, Chittagong and Chittagong hill tracts of are mostly
prominent. However, recently tea cultivation started in the districts of
Dinajpur and Panchagar. There are many tea gardens in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh produces huge amount of tea every year. After fulfilling the
needs of our country, a large amount of tea is exported to foreign
countries. The tea of Bangladesh is famous in foreign countries.
Bangladesh earns a lot of foreign currency from exporting tea.
Tobacco is cultivated in many regions of Bangladesh. But most of the
tobaccos are produced in Rangpur, Dinajpur, Lalmonirhat, Kushtia,
Meherpur, Chuadanga, Jhinaidaha, Manikganj, Bandarban, and Cox's
Bazar. In these regions various kinds of local and foreign tobaccos are
produced. Tobacco is usually used in making cigarettes and biri. It is also
used to make scented tobaccos. Bangladesh earns a significant amount of
foreign currency every year by exporting tobaccos and tobacco products.
However, tobacco is harmful for human health. Thus cultivation of
tobacco is discouraged.
Tea Garden
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
Apart from these cash crops cotton, betel nut, silk, rubber etc are also
produced. The farmers of Bangladesh are also involved in some
productive activities such as cultivation of apple plums (apple kool),
strawberries, fish and poultry rearing.
Industr ies of Bangladesh
Industries play an important role in every country's economy. In the
current fiscal year (2011-2012) about 30% national income of Bangladesh
is contributed by industries. The industrial system of Bangladesh is still
comparatively weak. However, gradually it is spreading. The leading
industries of Bangladesh are - jute industry, garments industry, sugar
industry, pharmaceutical industry, compost industry, paper industry and
leather industry. We will now learn about these.
Jute Industr y
There are numerous jute mills in Bangladesh. The mills are mainly
situated in Narayangonj, Chandpur, Khulna, Daulatpur including river
banks of others areas. Various types of jute products are produced in these
factories. Among these hessian, sacks and different kinds of gunny bags
are prominent. Carpets are made of jute. Recently clothes are being made
from thread of jute. These products fulfill the demands of this country.
These are exported as well. That brings a lot of foreign currency into our
country. Numerous people of Bangladesh are involved in jute industry.
Jute Industry
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Textile Industr y
Textile industries are established in different places of Bangladesh to
fulfill the demand of 15 Crore people. But most of the Textile industries
are situated in Dhaka, Narayanganj and neighbouring districts.
Bangladesh is unable to meet the demand of clothing of her country. Thus
some textile products need to be imported.
Gar ments Industr y
Currently one of the most important industries of Bangladesh is garments
industry. Garments factories are established in different places of
Bangladesh. Garments are made in these factories. Most of these
garments are exported to foreign countries. Few million women and men
work in garments factories of Bangladesh. This country earns lots of
foreign currencies by exporting garment products.
Sugar Industr y
Sugar is also an important industry of Bangladesh. There are fifteen
governmental sugar mills in Bangladesh. There are also some private
sugar mills. Among these the sugar mills of Faridpur, Jaipurhat,
Mobarakganj, Natore, Rajshahi, Rangpur and North Bengal suger mill
are particularly important. Almost 0.2 million metric tons of sugar is
produced every year in Bangladesh. However, there is a demand of
Garments Factory
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
around 1.4 million metric tons of sugar in this country. As a result
Bangladesh needs to import a huge amount of sugar every year.
Fer tilizer Industr y
There are fertilizer industries in Fenchuganj, Ghorashal, Ashuganj,
Chittagong, Tarakandi and other places of Bangladesh. The amount of
fertilizers produced in these factories is unable to fulfill the total demands
of this country. As a result huge amount of fertilizer need to be imported.
Paper Industr y
There are some paper mills in Bangladesh. The government own paper
mills are situated in Chandraghona, Khulna and Pakshi. Some private
paper mills have been established in areas of the country. The papers
produced in these factories mostly fulfill the demands of this country.
However, some papers need to be imported from abroad.
Cement Industr y
There are number of cement industries in Bangladesh. Among these the
industries such as Chatak cement, Shah cement, Meghna cement, Akij
cement, Lafarge Surma cement and Holcim cement industries are
particularly important. Most of the demand of this country is fulfilled by
these industries.
Phar maceutical Industr y
Bangladesh is advanced in pharmaceutical industry. High quality
medicines are produced here. The medicines of Bangladesh are also
exported in foreign countries. The mentionable medicine factories of this
country are ACI, Opsonin, Square Pharma, Beximco Pharma etc.
Small and Cottage Industr ies
There are many kinds of small and cottage industries in Bangladesh.
Among these industries leather, soap, biri, loom, silk, pottery, brass and
wood industries are particularly important. These industries have been
fulfilling the daily needs of people of this country since ages. Huge
number of people is getting employment in these industries. Small and
cottage industries have been playing crucial role in Bangladesh economy.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Leather Industr y
Leather industry is one of the notable industries of Bangladesh. Shoes,
bags etc are made of animal skins in these industries. The leather
produced goods are also exported in abroad.
Soap Industr y
Soap is used for washing and cleaning purposes. Every day there is huge
demand of soap in this country. The soap factories fulfill these demands.
Tobacco Industr y
Cigarettes, biri and scented tobacco (jorda) etc are produced in tobacco
industries of Bangladesh. Smoking tobacco is harmful for health. Still
many people are chain smokers. Every day there is a demand of millions of
cigarettes and biri in Bangladesh. This demand is fulfilled by the tobacco
industries. The tobacco products of this country are also imported abroad.
Loom Industr y
Loom industry is an ancient industry of Bangladesh. There is a high
demand of loom in our country. There are lots of loom in towns and
villages of Bangladesh. Amajor portion of clothes demand in this country
is made of loom. Jamdani, Tangail saree, Monipuri saree are notable
among clothes weaved in loom. Moreover, lungi, towels (gamcsa), bed
sheets (chador) etc are weaved in loom. Many people employed through
these industries are maintaining their livelihoods.
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
Silk Industr y
Cocoons are cultivated in the northern regions of Bangladesh. Silk is
extracted from these cocoons. Sarees and clothes are made with silk
threads. This industry fulfills our demand for our favorite clothing.
Wood Industr y
Many wood products are used in Bangladesh. Among these palang,
khaat, chouki (bed), sofa, almirah (cupboard), chair, table and bench are
notable. Houses are also made of wood. Therefore a number of wood
industries are established in different places of Bangladesh. The wood of
Sundarban, Chittagong hill tracts and hilly regions of Sylhet are mainly
used in these industries.
Potter Industr y
Potter industry is closely related to the civilization, culture and economy
of Bangladesh. Products made of clay are still used in many purposes in
our society. For example clay pitchers, plates and dishes, tubs, flower
vase, dolls etc. The potter industry fulfills this demand.
Br ass Industr y
We use products made of brass in many purposes. Brass industry fulfills
this demand. Islampur of Jamalpur district, Kagmari of Tangail district
and Dhamrai of Dhaka district are famous for brass industry.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Expor t-Impor t Goods
The significance of exports and imports on the economy of Bangladesh is
enormous. Bangladesh imports various types of goods from foreign
countries. They also export many goods.
Impor ted Goods
Bangladesh needs to import many goods every year. The main imported
goods are different machineries, raw materials for industries, food
products, and petroleum and petrol products.
Expor ted Goods
Bangladesh exports some goods every year. Among these frozen foods,
readymade garments, raw jute, jute products, leather, tea etc are
particularly important. Bangladesh import more goods than exports. Thus
there is an economic imbalance between import and export in
Both the agriculture and industrial sectors contribute in the economy of
Bangladesh. We need to increase production in agriculture to make our
economy stronger. The industrial system also needs to be stronger. We
need to increase exports and decrease import. Only then Bangladesh
would be able to develop. Apart from various types of products,
Bangladesh also exports manpower which also earns a lot of foreign
exchange to our country.
Chittagong Sea Port
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
1. About 80% people of Bangladesh are directly or indirectly depend on
2. Paddy, wheat, maize, potato, oilseed and spices are main national
agricultural food products.
3. The main agricultural cash crops of Bangladesh are jute, tea and
4. The leading industries of Bangladesh are - jute industry, garments
industry, sugar industry, pharmaceutical industry, fertilizer industry,
paper industry and leather industry.
5. Small and cottage industries play significant role in the economy of
6. Every year Bangladesh imports various types of goods from foreign
countries. Many goods are also exported from Bangladesh.
Planned Activities
1. Make a list of the main agricultural and industrial products of
2. Make a list of the main export and import goods of Bangladesh.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 Which is the main national food crop of Bangladesh?
a. Paddy b. Wheat
c. Maize d. Potato
1.2 Which country produces the largest amount of jute?
a. India b. China
c. Bangladesh d. Nepal
1.3 Exporting which good Bangladesh earns the highest amount of
foreign currency?
a. Tea b. Tobacco
c. Sugar d. Garments
Bangladesh and Global Studies
1.4 What is the percentage of contribution of industries in the national
income of Bangladesh?
a. 20% b. 25%
c. 30% d. 35%
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words
a. Bangladesh is a ______________________based country.
b. In many countries _________________________ is the main food.
c. Bangladesh earns ________________________ by exporting
agricultural cash crops.
d. There is economic _______________ in the exports and imports of
3. Cross match the correct answers
a. Most of the people of Bangladesh
b. Bangladesh's food made of wheat
c. Jute, tea and tobacco
d. Bangladesh's small and cottage
4. Answer briefly
a. Write the names of main agricultural products of Bangladesh.
b. Describe two agricultural cash crops of Bangladesh.
c. Mention the contributions of industries on economy of Bangladesh.
d. Describe the importance of garments industry in Bangladesh.
e. Write about the importance of small and cottage industries in
f. Write the names of main export-import goods of Bangladesh.
agricultural cash crop
Loom, silk, brass and potter
Food products, readymade garments,
raw materials of industries
Has earned popularity
Is involved in agriculture
Economy of Bangladesh: Agriculture and Industry
Chapter Five
Population of Bangladesh
We have learned about the number of population, causes of population
density and growth of Bangladesh, in class four. In this chapter we will
discuss about the impact of high growth population on basic needs of the
population of Bangladesh. We will also learn about human resources
ways to transform population of Bangladesh to human resources.
The Impact of population growth on basic needs
We know food, clothing, home, education, health etc. are the basic needs
of human beings. In developing countries like Bangladesh it is almost
impossible to fulfill the basic needs of the excessive population. This
effects the total population of the country.
Impact of population growth on food
Every year Bangladesh experiences about 2.5 million tons of food
deficits. Excessive population is one of the main causes of food deficit in
Bangladesh. As a result, despite being an agricultural country,
Bangladesh faces food deficiency. Population is far higher compared to
our available lands. Thus we have to import food from foreign countries
to fulfill the demand of food for our excessive population. Due to
demand of human settlement for excessive population, our farming land
is also declining. If there is lack of food children and the poor people
suffer from malnutrition. There is acute crisis of pure drinking water as
well. The crises of food and drinking water stand as barrier for the
development of our future generation.
Impact of population growth on clothing
Clothing is one among many basic needs of human population. But the
parents cannot afford to buy essential clothing for their children when if
the number of family members in high. Many children do not want to go
to school because they do not have proper dresses.
Impact of population growth on housing
According to the data of United Nations there are about 1 million
homeless people in Bangladesh. At the current rate of population growth
every year additional houses are required for meeting the demand of at
least 0.3 million growing population. The government is unable to provide
additional houses because of scarcity of resources. The picture below
shows the inhumane conditions of homeless people living in the city.
Impact of population growth on education
The educated population is the most unique resource of a country. But
more than half of the population of Bangladesh is illiterate. Despite
some successes in education, the literacy rate of education is not
increasing as expected. The main cause of this is lack of resources
compared to population. Therefore necessary class rooms, teachers and
Floating people in cities
Bangladesh and Global Studies
other related facilities are not been given in the education sector.
Moreover many poor parents are unable to send their children to schools.
Thus many children are not able to enroll in school or they have to be
dropped out before they complete education.
Impact of excessive population on health
There is a negative impact on our health due to high growth of
population. Fulfilling the nutrition demand of the excessive population is
getting restricted. It has become almost impossible for the state to ensure
health care services for everyone. Almost half of the population of
Bangladesh is getting deprived from health care services. There is only
one trained physician for every 4043 people. Compared to the available
services in the hospitals or community clinics, number of patients is high.
As a result many people are deprived from proper health care services.
Impact of population growth of standar d of living
The standard of living is determined by the availability of food, clothing,
housing, health care etc. We have discussed on this topic earlier. Because
of excessive population poverty reduction is interrupted, unemployment
is increasing and the living standard is not improving. It is difficult to
arrange sufficient transportation for the excessive population. Increase of
social unrest and barrier to development are also related with high growth
Excessive people in various transports
Population of Bangladesh
population. Excessive population is also a barrier for the development of
woman. Expansion of women's education is precondition for women's
development. Increase in employment is required. Social status needs to
be increased. Women's participation in decision-making is also necessary.
But women's development is hampered because they need to spend more
time and resources in birth and caring.
Impact of population growth on environment
Currently the environmental problem of Bangladesh is a mostly
discussed issue. Because of the demand of excessive population, many
chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides are used for additional production
of crops. These are polluting the water of ponds and rivers. Moreover, the
inhabitants of overcrowded are also polluting the environment in many
ways. People are cutting down trees of forests to make houses or to earn a
living. Excessive underground water is extracted from for meeting the
demand of growing population. Due to ever growing population, the
existing environment and climate are changing. As a result, this country
is moving towards a great crisis.
Human Resources
Human resources and natural resources are two of the three elements of a
country's economic development. The third one is capital. However, for
utilizing natural resources and capital we need to develop human
resources. Human resource is the labour force of a country. Although
Houses are built through cutting down trees of forests Water and air being polluted by industries and factories
Bangladesh and Global Studies
People being trained in technical training centers
Bangladesh lacks adequate capital, she is enriched by natural and human
resources. However, experts believe economic development can be
achieved by transforming the excessive population to skilled human
Ways of tr ansfor m population into human resources
Even though there is not adequate capital in Bangladesh, there is
sufficient population. It is possible to transform the population into
human capital by making them skilled. The proper utilization of capital
and resources depend on skilled human resource. Therefore, skilled
human resource is one of the most essential and major precondition for
developing the economy. If the excessive population of Bangladesh is
transformed into skilled human population will be supportive for
economic development, not a challenge for the country. Some means for
developing skill human
resources are discussed
Education: Education is
the fundamental element
of human resource
development. By
massive improvement of
education system, it is
possible to create skilled
human resources.
Therefore, government
has to give proper
attention for improving
the human resources through updating the education system. There is a need
for expansion of vocational training programs for developing job-oriented
education system.
Skill development: The prerequisites of improving the skills of
manpower are: education, training and health care services and increasing
their working capacities and qualities.
Population of Bangladesh
Solution of population problem
More resources often are required in order to increase the skills of
growing population. But if the population is reasonable it is possible to
make them skilled using the limited resources. The quality of education
and training can be maintained if the population is reasonable. However,
to solve the current population problem, it is necessary to provide
required education and training. If that can be done this population can be
transformed into skilled human resources.
Improving the living standar ds
The major elements of good health are proper housing, better
environment and quality of standard living, balanced and nutritious food,
etc. The excess population can be turned into human resources by
providing proper food and nutrition, environment-friendly housing and
good health care services.
Manpower planning
Proper planning and implementation are needed to develop skilled human
resources of the population of Bangladesh. We need to continuously work
on achieving this aim.
Increasing employment oppor tunities
Unemployment is acute in Bangladesh as there is scarcity of skilled
labour force. Human resources can be improved and unemployment rate
can be reduced if enough importance is given on increasing employment
opportunities and improving skills of the workers.
Expor ting Manpower
If we able to increase the skills of labour forces, it is possible to
transform this huge human population into human resources. Some
countries around the world have capital or natural resources but they lack
skilled manpower. If Bangladesh can export its skilled manpower in these
countries, the economy of the country will be rich. Those who are going
abroad sometimes they are unable to earn much foreign exchange due to
lack of skills. Many of them return experiencing deceived. If skilled
population with good training go to overseas will be able to earn huge
Bangladesh and Global Studies
foreign currency and the condition of Bangladesh will be improved.
Other than these there are many ways to transform human population into
human resources.
1. The basic needs of people cannot be fulfilled if the country's
population is too high.
2. There are opportunities to transform human population of Bangladesh
to human resources.
3. It is possible to have economic growth by transforming the growing
population into skilled human resources.
4. There is scope to earn lot of foreign currencies by exporting skilled
Planned Activity
1. Based on your own observation, identify and describe the impacts of
excessive population on basic needs and living standards of people.
2. Give your ideas on the contents through demonstrating pictures,
charts, etc.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 Which of these is not a determinant of living standard?
a. Food b. Clothing
c. Status d. Health care
1.2 How many elements are there for economic development of the
a. One b. Two
c. Three d. Four
1.3 Which is not one of the main ways of transforming population into
human resources?
a. Education b. Training
c. Recreation d. Exporting human resources
Population of Bangladesh
Determines the living standard
of people
Is the major talked about issue
The rate of education is not
'Human capital' can be developed
1.4 What quantity of food deficit is there in Bangladesh every year?
a. Almost 2.5 million b. Almost 2.4 million
c.Almost 2.6 million d. Almost 2 million
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words
a. Our population compared to our land is ____________________.
b. Increase of human population _______________ impact on our
c. There is one trained physician for every _____________ number of
people in Bangladesh.
d.Human resource is a country's ___________________.
3. Cross match the following
a. Although there is success in education
b. By increasing skills of human resources
c. Environment problem in Bangladesh
d. Food, clothing, housing and health care
of the country constitute
4. Answer briefly.
a. What are the basic needs of human?
b. Write the impacts of population growth on food.
c. What are the problems in education excessive population?
d. What is manpower?
e. Write the ways to transform a population into human resource.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Six
Climate and Disaster
Climate and Disaster
Various kinds of disaster occur in different countries of the world due to
natural and social causes. The weather and climate is changing for many
reasons in the whole world. As a result many kinds of disaster are
occurring or increasing. We will learn about weather, climate and disaster
in this chapter.
Weather and Climate
Weather is the average of air, temperature, rainfall etc of a certain
location within a small period of time, i.e. 1 to 7 days. Generally the
average weather of more than thirty years is called climate.
Causes of climate change
The world climate is changing for many reasons. Factories, smokes
emitted by vehicles, decline of forests and jungles, decaying of rivers,
filling the reservoirs, etc are some of the causes for degradation of nature.
Global warming causes melting of ice and rise of the sea level water.
Climate change occurs due to different activities of human.
Impact of climate change in Bangladesh
Climate change causes different impacts in Bangladesh. Such as -
Increase of average temperature
Occurrence of heavy rainfall or less rainfall
Increasing number of tornados
Frequent occurrence of severe floods
Damaging agricultural land due to increase of salinity
Trees and animals are getting destroyed
Ground water level is going down.
Climate Change is causing many more such problems in Bangladesh. As
a result Bangladesh is facing various disasters.
Disaster is a severe situation. Disaster causes harms to humans, animals,
resources and environment. The amount of damages is so huge that it is
almost impossible to compensate with a country's own resources.
Impact of disaster on individual, family, society and environment
We have already learned that climate is changing because of various
human activities and natural causes. Due to climate change Bangladesh
has become one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Every
year heavy rainfall, flood, tornado, tidal surge etc are occurring because
of climate change. Environment is also getting damaged, such as - forests
are getting destroyed, fertility of farming lands is getting spoiled and
water and air is becoming polluted. Thus we need to be specially
prepared for facing the disasters.
It is estimated that by the year 2050, 20% of Bangladesh will go under
the seas. This may reduce the production of food, crops and other goods.
Environment will be damaged and billions of people will be homeless.
There are frequent attacks of tornados caused by climate change like Aila
and Sidr. People are losing their houses. They are leaving their own areas
and staying somewhere else. Problems like unemployment, density of
population, etc are also increasing to a greater extent because of climate
induced disasters.
Flood and tornados harm humans, animals, fishes and other creatures,
crops, houses, trees, roads and everything. In times of these disasters
people face a lot of troubles in getting shelter, water, food, health care,
employment and many other necessities. Children cannot go to schools.
As a result there education is hampered. Water enters into houses during
floods and tornados. Many people have to leave their houses and go to
shelters. Many families often make platforms on high roads or dams and
stay there. Many people become sick because of scarcity of food and
pure water. Among these most diseases are caused by water, such as -
diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease etc. Many people are forced to come to
city from villages and live a life as floating population after losing all
their possessions due to disasters.
Climate and Disaster
Disaster prone areas of Bangladesh
In Class Four, we have learned about some of the major disasters of
Bangladesh such as flood, tornado, tidal surge and fire. Now we will
learn about some more disasters like - river bank erosion, drought and
earthquake. Different kinds of disasters occur in almost 64% of areas in
Bangladesh. Among these southern coastal areas, northern region, chor,
haor and the river bank areas are especially mentionable.
River bank erosion
In Bangladesh, there are large number of rivers and their branches. The
banks of these rivers become eroded for many reasons. These occur due
to natural as well as human activities. Among the natural reasons there
are ebb and flow, earthquakes, etc. Human activities, on the other hand,
include unplanned river excavation, sand extraction, cutting down trees
near the rivers etc. Although flood happens due to natural causes but the
human activities increases its intensity. Severe flooding is one of the
major causes of river erosion. During floods river erosion becomes very
extreme. As a result, agricultural land, houses, locality and even a whole
village get grabbed by the river. According to government estimate, every
year 10000 hectares of land become eroded due to river erosion. Millions
Riverbank erosion
Bangladesh and Global Studies
of people become homeless. Social life becomes interrupted. Education
of children becomes hampered.
Drought occurs due to dry weather for longer periods and insufficient
rainfall. High population, unplanned development, cutting down trees, air
pollution etc makes the atmosphere of Bangladesh dry. These also causes
Cox's Bazar
Feni Lakshmipur
Dr ought-pr one ar eas of
Climate and Disaster
decline in rainfall. All of these causing increase in drought in the northern
districts of Bangladesh. Due to climate change the temperature of drought
prone regions becomes high. Wells, lakes and canals become dry. The
normal flow of
rivers reduces.
The ground
water level
goes down and
the humidity of
the earth
reduces. It
becomes hard
to cultivate
crops in the
fields. Fodder
for cattle
p o p u l a t i o n
b e c o m e s
scarce. Most of
the people of north regions of Bangladesh directly rely on rain for drinking
water, farming and rearing animals. Thus drought is a severe disaster to
them. Children cannot go to schools and study properly because of excessive
Drought prone region
People of drought affected regions
Bangladesh and Global Studies
heat. Many of them suffer from fever, diarrhea, measles, influenza,
dysentery and many other diseases. Ducks and chickens die. There is not
much work during droughts. As a result many people lose their income.
Ear thquake
Nowadays, mild and medium earthquakes are occurring in Bangladesh.
Scientists say small earthquakes are forecasts of massive earthquake.
There will be a lot of damage if a mass earthquake happens. We need to
be prepared for facing the earthquake. Steps should be taken to construct
earthquake tolerant houses. Damages can be reduced in this way.
Let us know what we need to do during earthquake:
Stay completely calm.
Do not get terrified and run here and there.
Cover your head with a pillow if in bed.
Take refuge under a wooden table or any other strong furniture.
Stay away from balcony, cupboards, windows or any hanging photo
Stand near a beam if in a building.
After the first earthquake ends, get out of the houses making a line and
stay in an open space.
First aid must be kept in house.
Discuss about the risks of earthquake and what to do in times of
earthquake with friends, classmates, teachers and relatives.
An area destroyed by earthquake
Climate and Disaster
Apart from these disasters
there are also norwester,
tornado, tidal surge, cold
wave, arsenic contamination
in ground water, water
logging, increase in salinity
etc occur in Bangladesh.
The trends of these disasters
are increasing because of
climate change and
resources are becoming
destroyed. Thus we will be
prepared to face every
disaster. We will not do
anything that will cause
environmental imbalance,
change in climate and causes
disaster. Whenever we get
any forecast of disaster we
will announce over mike in
our locality and make them
People are made aware of possible disaster using loudspeeker
Preparing to face disaster
Preparing to face disaster
Bangladesh and Global Studies
1. Climatic change is occurring regularly due to different natural and
social activities.
2. Climate change is causing different kinds of disasters in the world.
3. The normal life of human population becomes hampered because of
all these disasters.
4. We will try to learn about these disasters properly and take
preparation to face them.
Planned Activity
1. The students will prepare a team and write a short article (highest one
page) about disaster in their area and will present it to the class.
2. Students will demonstrate their collected information and photos of
disasters in class.
3. Student will present a mock of their skill on how to face disaster.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 By which year 20% of Bangladesh may go under water?
a. 2020 b. 2030
c. 2040 d. 2050
1.2 What happens because of dry weather and insufficient rainfall?
a. Flood b. Drought
c. River erosion d. Earthquake
1.3 How many hectares of land are destroyed because of Riverbank
a. 7000 b. 8000
c. 9000 d. 10000
1.4 Scarcity of which causes drought?
a. Air b. Water
c. Livestock d. Crops
Climate and Disaster
Are signs of massive earthquakes
Is increasing chances of drought
Climate change occurs
We should plant trees
Has been marked as the most disaster
prone countries in the world
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words
a. Increase in salinity of land is causing _____________ to agricultural
b. Climate change causes the tendency of disaster to _____________ .
c. During drought many people's ______________ becomes stop.
d. Stay completely ______________ during earthquake.
3. Cross match the following words
a. Due to climatic change,
b. In the districts of northern
regions of Bangladesh
c. Surrounding the houses
d. Small earthquakes
4. Answer briefly
a. What is weather and climate ?
b. What damages are caused due to climate change ?
c. What problems happen because of drought ?
d. What problems are the children facing because of different disasters ?
e. What points should we remember in managing earthquakes ?
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Seven
Human Rights
Human Rights
We are humans. As humans we have the rights to live a healthy and
beautiful life. We need some facilities for this. For example - we study.
We move freely. Express our ideas. Follow our own religions. When we
fall into trouble the law enforcing agencies help us to get rid of the
problems. As members of society we need more such facilities. Access to
these rights, necessary for people to live smooth lives, are called 'Human
Rights'. On 10th December, 1948 United Nations declared these rights of
people as 'Universal Declaration of Human Rights'. According to this
declaration people in all countries around the world irrespective of their
race, religion, age, gender, and financial status have the rights to have
access to these.
Our r ights as humans
We will learn about some basic human rights in the chart below:
All people born free
Rights to move freely
Equal status and rights for all in
the society
Right to have education
Right to have security for everyone
Not violating or torturing anyone
Not arresting or hold captive
anyone for one's own will
In our country everyone has these rights irrespective to race, religion and
All people are equal before law
Everyone has the right to have
equal wage
Right to have justice
Rights to property
Right to follow one's own religion
Right to freedom of expressing
ideas and speech
Equal rights for women and men
Significance of Human Rights
The human rights help people to make a good life for them. Create
scopes for one to live in society with ability and dignity through
becoming educated. It helps to enhance a person's good qualities. Create
harmony among people. It helps to establish peace in the society. Thus
there is no alternative of human rights to have a free, healthy and to make
a sound society.
We get the human rights from our family, society and the state. It is the
duty for all of us to implement these rights. We will try to have these
rights in every aspects of our life. We will also have to keep in mind that
we don't hamper rights of other people. We should never do any work
that would affect someone's rights.
Some of the activities that violate the human r ights
We have learned that human rights are applicable for all of us. Thus we
should respect everyone's human rights. Let us think properly - do we
follow these rights?
Too often we hear about violation of human rights in our society.
Sometimes we do things that violate the human rights for not being
aware. Let us read about some of the examples of violation of rights in
our society.
Many people are deprived
from education in our
country, especially the
children. Many children are
bound to work because of
poverty. Children work in
agricultural land, brick kilns
farms in villages. In towns
children work in households,
shops and factories. Many
children just roam around in
streets. Child labors usually don't get the opportunity to study. Not only
children, many elderly people are also deprived from education. Yet
A child carrying bricks over his head
Bangladesh and Global Studies
education is one of the major human rights. Thus everyone should be
given scope to become educated.
Sometimes we hurt children or others for very tiny or no reason at all.
Generally the domestic helpers are victims of such kind of incidents. They
are often are not given the food, cloth, health care and other facilities that
of other members of the home get. These violate their human rights. Such
injustice behavior should not be shown to any human.
Women and children are being victims of human trafficking too often
from our country. They are forced to do various risky and inhuman
activities. Many get hurt while doing these jobs. Some even die.
Members of their families also become very hurt for this. Trafficking of
women and children are violation of human rights. We must inform the
police or others if we encounter such incidents.
According to human rights all
women and men have equal
rights irrespective of race,
religion and colour. But in
many cases it is not followed.
In our society there is gender
discrimination in education,
food, wages and other context.
Socially and physically
challenged people also face
Domestic Helper being tortured Women and children are being trafficked
More wage is given to men and less to women
Human Rights
discriminated. It is our duty to give everyone the equal rights. There
should not be any discrimination among human beings.
Human rights are violated in many more ways in our society like the
above. Too often we get to know about these incidents in newspapers and
radio-televisions. These incidents should not be occurred. We will have to
be aware about protecting human rights of everyone.
Write about what we should do to protect everyone's human rights in the
box below
Violation of human rights is a despicable act. We must respect everyone's
rights for the welfare of all people and equal development in the world.
Our society will be more beautiful if all of us make a habit to follow
these. For this we will work to protect the human rights of all. If anyone
in home, school and neighborhood do anything that violates the human
rights we will make them aware of it. We will protest if it is necessary.
We will abide by
the laws enacted
by t he
government. We
will participate in
different activities
in establishing
human rights. It is
our duty as
People giving slogans with festoons to protect human rights
Bangladesh and Global Studies
1. The rights required for people to live properly as human beings are
called human rights. These are strongly required to live a healthy and
beautiful life.
2. These rights are equally applicable to all people irrespective of race,
religion and colour.
3. We will respect human rights of all in society and be aware to protect
Planned Activities
1. Teachers in consultation with students will highlight the
commitments for not to break human rights. At the end of the
chapter oath will be taken from students to follow the commitments.
Children will write the commitments in posters and will hang those
in the classroom.
2. Exercise the positive attitudes through group play on implementation
of human rights.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer.
1.1 What is Human Right ?
a. Rights of the people in lower class b. Rights as humans
c. Children's rights d. Rights of the people in upper class
1.2 In which year did United Nations approve 'The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights'?
a. 1940 b. 1945
c. 1948 d. 1950
1.3 Which is an example of Human Rights?
a. Torturing people b. Hold captive
c. Child Trafficking d. Freedom of Speech
Human Rights
Violation of human rights
Should be respected
United Nations
All are equal
Basic human rights
1.4 Which is a violation of human rights?
a. Providing security b. Able to follow religion
c. Equal rights for all d. Not providing chance for education
1.5 Whose responsibility is it to implement human rights?
a. Family and state b. Family and society
c. State and society d. Family, society and state
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
a. As humans we all have the right to live ______________________.
b. The rights required for humans to live properly are called _________ .
c. All people have the rights to have their own _______________
d. Human rights improve people's good ______________________.
e. Violation of human right is a ______________________ task.
3. Cross match the words.
a. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
b. Before law
c. Women and children trafficking
d. Everyone's human right
e. Right to education
4. Answer briefly.
a. What is Human Right ?
b. Write the necessity of human rights.
c. Why should women and children trafficking be combat ?
d. How can we practice human rights in our homes ?
e. What should we do to protect human rights ?
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Eight
Our Duties and Responsibilities
As a member of the society citizen of state we enjoy different kinds of
facilities and rights. Rights and responsibilities are closely linked. Thus
we have some duties and responsibilities towards society and the state.
As children it is our duty to keep ourselves safe. If we children grow up
properly then our family, society and country will be benefitted. We will
grow up as active citizens in future. We will be successful to work for the
society and the country.
This is why we must know about our duties and responsibilities. In this
chapter we will learn about our duties and responsibilities toward the
society and state. We will learn what should we do to protect ourselves.
Our duties and responsibilities towar ds the society
We are the members of society. It is duty for all of us to make the society
beautiful and disciplined. All of us should work together for this. We
should abide by the rules and regulations, behavior of the society. There
are many kinds of resources in the society (such as roads, bridges,
transport, trees, crops, ponds, parks, clubs etc), which make our life
easier and beautiful. It is our duty to protect these. We will work for the
development of the society. We will respect the elderly and love the
younger people. There are many troubled people in our society. We will
show our empathy and extend cooperation to them. We will stay away
from all activities that affect peace in the society. We will not harm
anyone. We will try to help everyone. If we perform these duties properly
our society will be a better place to live in. As a result the members of
the society will be able to live a proper life.
Let us think and write about what are more responsibilities we can
perfom towards the society and write below
Our duties and responsibilities towar ds the state
As citizens of state we have many responsibilities and duties. Such as -
Being devoted to the nation
This is one of the main duties for us being a citizen. We will respect the
rules of the state. We will give our country more importance than
anything else.
Abide by the laws
There are many laws and sanctions to maintain peace and order of the
country. The government also composes different laws from time to time.
It is a duty as citizens to abide by these laws. We will never disobey
these laws. If we don't obey the laws we will be punished.
Pay taxes regular ly
Lot of capital is required to run a state. This money is required to
maintain many organizations and for providing various facilities to the
citizens. Government does these with revenue earned from the taxes paid
by citizens. Thus it is the citizens' duty to pay taxes regularly.
Casting votes
Citizens above 18 years can cast votes in our country. Through this the
citizens participate in ruling of the country. Casting votes is a very
important duty of all citizens. We should vote honest and worthy people
for ensuring good governance in the country.
Help to make the state per for m efficiently
The government takes many programs to administer state. Our duty as
citizens is to help the government to implement these programs
successfully. Hence, we will observe our duties properly that have been
given to us.
Get educated
Literate citizen are highly required in order to develop the country. It is a
responsibility of every parent to make their children educated. To study
with concentration is our responsibility.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Duties and responsibilities of children to keep them safe
Remaining safe out of home
Every day we do different types of activity outside of our homes. We
often face some accidents while doing these. Let us read two stories of
such incidents below.
Incident 1
Rakib went outside alone to play with his friends. Evening passed into
night, but Rakib did not return. Rakib's parent informed the police. The
police rescued Rakib after ten days from a village. It is known that two
strangers took Rakib to a shop and gave him an ice cream which made
him unconscious. They took him away and kept him captive and asked
for 10 million taka ransom money from Rakib's family.
Incident 2
Bipasha was going to school with her mother. To reach school quickly
they crossed the road by walking instead of using the over bridge in front
of the school. A speedy bus came and hit them. As a result, Bipasha and
her mother became severely injured. They had to stay in hospital for
many days. This has affected her studies very badly.
What did we learn from these two incidents? Discuss with friends.
We hear about these types of incidents too often. The consequences can
be even worse because of accidents like these. We should not go
anywhere with strangers. We should not eat anything from strangers. If
any stranger forces to go somewhere or eat something we should inform
the people around us. This way we can get rid of many dangers.
Accidents in the road can occur for many reasons. Moving carelessly is
one of the main reasons of accidents. Not following traffic rules also
cause accidents. For example - many times we walk in the middle of the
road instead of using the footpaths. Although there are zebra-crossings
we cross the road using any place without using the zebra-crossing.
Our Duties and Responsibilities
Sometimes we cross the road in the middle of roads. There are over
bridges in different roads, but we try to cross roads without using them.
Many people face accidents everyday for all these reasons. We can be
victims of these accidents too. We will have to be aware of our safety
when we move on the road. We will have to become habituated with the
rules of using roads. Thus we need to do the following activities:
Lets follow the road r ules to move
We will cross the roads
by zebra-crossing after
observing both sides of
the roads
We will walk on
footpaths and not in the
middle of the road
We will use over-bridge to
cross the roads
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Safety precautions at home
We often face many accidents at our homes. We make injuries in hands-
legs while playing with knives and scissors or while using them
carelessly. Some get electric shocks while touch a wire with wet hands or
when are bare footed. Sometimes many people take wrong medicines or
pesticides mistakenly or due to lack of awareness. There life can be
risked because of these. Many people forget to off the gas stoves, which
causes gas leakages. When the stove is being lighted the fire may cause
burn to our bodies or spreads around the home. It is also often heard that
stove made with soil causing such accidents if not handled properly. We
will have to be alert about these matters. Let us write about how we can
be alert to avoid accidents in the box below.
Nowadays, stealing and robbery are happening in many houses,
especially in the cities. Many times people's lives are threatened. We will
have to stay alert about this. We will have to keep our houses locked
properly. If any stranger comes and knock the door we should not open
the door. Those of us whose parents do
jobs or go out for work should be more
aware about it. Then we can stay
somewhat safe.
We will have to keep a first aid kit in
our house. We can provide primary
treatment at home first if anyone gets
hurt. Then we should take the patient to
hospital promptly.
Our Duties and Responsibilities
First Aid Box
Safety precautions in school and play grounds
There can be accidents in schools and play grounds too. Sometimes we
jump on chairs, tables and desks. Climb up walls and trees. Use the
swings and other playing
items carelessly. These can
cause into injuries by falling
down and bruise arms, legs,
head or any part of body.
Some get into ponds or other
water courses without
knowing how to swim. As a
result many get drowned. We
do many such activities
taking such risks and become
victims of accidents.
Children should not do
anything that hampers their
safety. It is our first duty to keep ourselves safe. All of us should be
aware of these facts.
1. We have different duties towards the society and the state. We should
follow them properly.
2. Children can become victims of accidents within and outside homes.
3. We have to be aware so that the children do not get hurt at homes,
streets, schools, play grounds etc.
Planned Activity
1. Make a list of duties and responsibilities towards the society and the
2. Make a list of ways to keep the children safe through group activities.
3. Play act on our duties and responsibilities and practice the techniques
to maintain safety.
A kid falling off the wall
Bangladesh and Global Studies
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 Which is a negligence of our duties towards the society?
a. Following the rules b. Protecting wealth
c. Cooperating others d. To harm others
1.2 In our country people of which age can cast votes?
a. 18 b. 20
c. 22 d. 24
1.3 What type of people should be voted for having good governance
in country?
a. Honest and compatible person b Rich and famous person
c. People of own party d. Influential person
1.4 What we should not do while moving on the road?
a. Using zebra-crossing b. Using over bridge
c. Using the footpaths d. Walking in the middle of the roads
1.5 What kind of citizen is needed for the development of country?
a. Educated b. Illiterate
c. Businessman d. Political leader
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words
a. Rights and ____________________ are closely linked.
b. We will show________________ towards the socially troubled
c. There will be ______________ in the society if we break the laws.
d. We should keep a __________________ box in all of our homes.
e. We should cross the road using __________________.
f. We should walk on _______________ instead of walking in the
middle of the road.
Our Duties and Responsibilities
3. Cross match the correct answers
a. If we walk carelessly in the roads
b. If we follow the traffic rules
c. To vote honest and compatible person
d. Responsibility is closely connected to
e. If something that hampers security
4. Answer briefly
a. Write five of your social responsibilities.
b. Why should the citizens of a state pay tax regularly ?
c. Write about the moral of the story of Rakib's incident.
d. How should we move in the roads to stay safe ?
e. Do you follow the safety rules in the roads? If not then write what
should be done ?
f. What should those do whose parents do job or work outside ?
We can walk safely in the roads
Should be abide by the state
We will have accidents
We should not do it
Citizen's duty
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Nine
We All Are Equal
There are different types of people around us. Class mates in same class
are not exactly the same. There are some similarities as well as
dissimilarities among them. For example - some of us like to talk too
much and some prefer keeping quiet. Some love to paint, some love to
learn music and some are good in sports. Each of us has different talents
and our behaviors are also different. But some have very different
behaviors. These friends with different behaviors do not usually want to
be our friends and they also do not wish play together. They always
remain quiet and they do not prefer to become noisy as of other but
staying alone. They do not respond when are called by their names. They
do not look at other people's eyes. Among them there are many who
cannot tolerate other people's touch. So they get angry if anyone tries to
show them affection and they look like they do not understand love. If
they like anything they just pull ones hands and take to it instead of
uttering anything. These friends of ours cannot talk normally sometimes
because they cannot remember many words. Sometimes they utter same
words over and over again. Sometimes they talk in third person instead of
talking in first person; for example - they say "Raju wants rice" instead of
saying "I want rice". They do same works repetitively, like - switching on
and off a switch over and over again, or rotating head, moving fingers in
front of the eyes, swinging their body etc.
This behavior causes by a developmental problem called "autism".
Children who suffer from this disorder are called "autistic children". This
is not a disease that can be cured by treatment. We can help them have to
a normal life by doing research about their problems.
Let us know about some characteristics of autism:
But let us keep in mind some of these symptoms are just temporary in
some children. Thus just by few symptoms we should not think of a child
autistic. Only the experts can detect autism by doing some tests and
observing their behaviour.
autistic children are
highly talented in certain
things like, painting, doing
mathematics and
They are
addicted to a certain toy
and always keeps it
with them
autistic children
can study just like
normal student
children are in
good physical
They want
to do everything in
the same process; if there
is a change in their daily
life routine they get
very hyper
They are sensitive
to light, sound, speed, touch,
smell or taste. (For example - some
children have sensitive skin so they don't
want to wear certain clothes)
Even if they
do not play with a
certain toy they will hold it
tightly and smell it or keep
looking at it for hours
Bangladesh and Global Studies
By now we have understood what autism is. There might be some friends
in our school or class who are like this. We know about their problem;
now think how can we support them? We will not do anything with them
that get hurt or become excited. So we will find out what our friends like
and what they hate. We all will help them together. We will keep in mind
that they do not get disturbed. We will also help our class teachers so that
they can take special care of these children. Then all of them would be
able to become developed equal to us.
1. Behaviors of autistic children are slightly different but some have
very different behaviors.
2. These friends always keep quiet. They don't respond when called by
their names. Many don't look directly into others eyes.
3. Some autistic children possess excellent talents.
4. We will help our class teachers so that they can take special care of
these children. Then, with the help of us, all of them would be able
to become developed equal to us.
Planned Activities
1. Make a list of characteristics of an autistic child.
2. Play a friendly act on these friends.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 How do the autistic friends behave ?
a. Play with everybody
b. Become everybody's friends
c. Stays calm with self-overwhelmed
d. Always get along with everyone
We All Are Equal
1.2 Which is a characteristic of an autistic friend ?
a. Sometimes they becomes too excited by hearing normal sound
b. Behaves good with everyone
c. Likes to hear everyone talking
d. Keeps their things tidy
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
a. Autistic friends do not want to ______________________ with us.
b. They ________________ if anyone tries to show affection to them.
c. The children are very ____________________ to light, sound, speed,
smell or taste.
d. Sometimes they get ___________________ by normal sounds too.
3. Cross match the words.
a. Detecting autistic child
b. Autism
c. Talents of autistic children
4. Answer briefly.
a. Which children are called autistic children ?
b. Mention two characteristics of autistic friends.
c. How can you help the autistic friends in your class ?
Problem in eyes
Is a development problem
By tests and observations
Singing, painting
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Ten
Democr atic Attitude
We do different type of work every day. We have to make many decisions
while doing these works. Different people give different opinions while
making a decision. But it is not possible to make decisions according to
everyone's varying suggestions. On the other hand decision of only one
person might not be the write one too. Others might object to the decision.
That is why unity is required. Decision has to be taken following the
opinions of majority of the people. That decision has to be obeyed. Making
a decision based on the opinions of majority of people and obeying the
decision, is called democratic attitude. Democratic attitude is an individual
and social quality. All members of a society should have such quality.
Let us read an example on how we can behave in democratic ways.
There will be election to select a class captain in the class. Teacher asked
which students are willing to be class captains. Five students showed
willingness to participate. But only two students can become class
captain. The teacher got an idea. He wrote the names of the interested
students on the board. He gave all the students two pieces of paper and
told them to write two names of
students from the board and drop the
papers in a box. After everyone cast
their votes the teacher opened the
paper and counted who got how
many votes. He then wrote them in
the board beside the names. The one
who received the highest votes was
made the class captain 1 and who
got the second highest votes was made the class captain 2. Everyone
accepted these two leaders happily as they have been elected based on
opinions of all of them.
What have we learned from the story above? Discuss with our friends
and write in copy.
Democratic practice in electing class captain
Many times in school, play grounds and many places we work in groups.
We need to select a group leader to work as a team. The team needs to
work under the leadership of the group leader. We should show
democratic attitudes in selecting group leader just the way the class
captains were selected. The group leader has to be elected based on
agreed opinions of majority members of the group.
Democracy means rules of the people. The meaning of this word is to
respect everyone's opinions and take decision on the basis of the opinion
of majority. No one is forced to do anything in democracy. Decision is
taken on basis of the opinions of majority and thus everyone remains
happy. They learn to be tolerant of others' opinions and learn to become
tolerant. They learn to get along with each other which help the society
to have peace and tranquility. Therefore, democratic attitude is essential
for maintaining peace in the society. Democracy allows people to express
their opinions freely and also to participate in elections.
Bangladesh is a democratic country. Democracy is the main principle of
ruling our state. The people of this country have struggled long to
establish democracy. Thus as a citizen of this country all of us should have
democratic attitudes. We will show democratic behavior in home, school,
play grounds etc. Through this democracy of our country will be stronger.
Pr acticing democr atic attitudes at home
We will show democratic
attitudes at our homes. We
will discuss the issues listed
below with our parents and
siblings and take decisions
Where and how to go for
vacation ?
What to buy for the home ?
How to decorate the rooms ?
What to do in festivals ?
Democratic attitude in family
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Pr acticing democr atic attitudes in classroom and school
We will show democratic attitudes in our classrooms and schools too. We
will do different activities
based on the decisions of the
majority. Various activities
of the classroom like -
organizing chairs, tables and
benches, decorating the
classroom, cleaning etc
should be discussed with
classmates. We will
complete the activities by
taking opinions of majority.
Different programs of
school, such as - cultural
program, sports, picnic etc
should also be discussed
with classmates and make
decisions. To run the
programs efficiently we
have to take opinions of
everyone and we should
help each other.
Like this we will show democratic behavior in every aspects of life. Then
our country will transform into a better democratic state.
1. Democratic behavior is a personal and social quality.
2. Decisions are taken based upon opinions of majority. This brings
peace in the society.
3. We have to achieve and exercise democratic attitudes to make run our
society smoothly.
Democratic attitude in teamwork
Democratic attitude in teamwork
Democratic Attitude
Planned Activities
1. Elect a leader while doing academic activities of class in a group.
2. Use democratic way to elect a class captain.
3. Play an act to show democratic attitudes on any matter.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer.
1.1 What is basis of taking decisions in democratic system?
a. One's opinion b. Opinion of team leader
c. Opinions of 2-3 persons d. Opinions of majority
1.2 What is the meaning of democracy?
a. Rule of the family b. Rules of one person
c. Rules of a political party d. Rules of People
1.3 Which is not acceptable in democracy?
a. Imposing an opinion on someone forcefully b. Endurance
c. Tolerant of others' opinions d. Peace and harmony
1.4 Where should we practice democratic behavior?
a. Home b. School
c. Classroom d. Everywhere
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
a. Democracy is to take decision on the _____________________ of
b. Democracy means ___________________ rule.
c. We will exercise _______________________ in every aspects of
d. Democracy is the main principle of ruling our _____________.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
3. Cross match the following words.
a. Based on opinion of majority
b. Democratic behavior
c. The principle of ruling the state
of Bangladesh
d.Team leader should be elected
4. Answer briefly.
a. What is democratic attitude ?
b. Why should the members of the society be democratic ?
c. How does democracy help to form a peaceful society ?
d. As a citizen of Bangladesh why do we need to have democratic
attitudes ?
e. How can we practice democracy in our homes ?
Decision should be taken
Rule of people
Is a social quality
In a democratic way
Democratic Attitude
Chapter Eleven
Gender Equality
A country's development depends on her population. And population
consists of both male and female. We have already learned that there are
people of different occupation, class and age in the society. They grow up
as a male child or a female child with other members in the family. In a
family there are mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters and other relatives. Of
them some are males and some are females. There are also male and
female teachers in schools. In this way women and men are playing
different roles from their own positions in this society. About 49%, i.e.
half of the people of Bangladesh are women. Without equal participation
of women and men the development of a country becomes interrupted. If
women and men do not enjoy equal opportunities and rights, the overall
development of the country does not occur. In this context poet Kazi
Nazrul Islam said,
"Everything that is great in the world,
must be credited half to women, and half to men."
(E prithibir ja kischu sundar chiro kolyankar
Ordhek taar koriasce nari, ordhek taar nor.)
Recently gender equality has become a very important issue in our
country. There was a time when the schools had very small number of
female students. Girls were not enrolled in schools due to social barriers.
The main cause this was the lower social status of women.
Here we can mention about Begum Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, the
pioneer of women's liberation movement. A century ago she said, "We
constitute one half of the society. If we are left behind, how can the
society progress? If a person's one leg is tied, how far can he walk? The
interests of men and women are not different; they are the same for both".
Now we will learn about Begum Roquia.
Begum Roquia
Begum Roquia was born in Pairaband village of Rangpur district in the
year 1880. She grew an interest on education in her childhood seeing her
brothers studying. But at that time the
Bengali Muslim women did not have the
opportunity to study. Seeing her
attraction to education, her elder brother
started to teach her at home. After her
marriage her education became spanned
with the support of her husband.
Gradually she wrote numerous articles
and books. In these writings she made
outstanding contributions in making
people aware of gender equality and
women's educational rights. After few
months of her husband's death in 1905
Begum Roquia opened a girls school at
Bhagolpur named after her husband,
"Sakhawat Memorial Girls' School". Initially the number of students in
this school was only five. Later on, this school was built in Kolkata
where the number of students was eight. Begum Roquia used to go from
door to door to request and appeal the parents to send their daughters to
school as of their sons. The school was acknowledged as primary school
in 1915 when the number of students was increased and reached to fifth
grade. Because of Begum Roquia's tireless efforts, the women gradually
started to get the light of education. She had the concept that a society
and country can achieve overall development while women and men are
cooperative and supportive to each other; not by creating divisions and
discriminations between them. In 1932 this great woman passed away.
We can see from Begum Roquia's life that with the help of two men, her
brother and husband, she was able to make such great contribution to the
society. Although Begum Roquia has said about gender equality hundred
years ago, even today it has not been fully implemented in Bangladesh. In
Begum Roquia
Gender Equality
this society girl children and women are deprived from their rights in many
ways. People behave differently to female and male children. Household
works such as -
making the house
tidy, looking after
younger siblings,
helping mother in
cooking are done by
the girls. Usually
boys are not asked
to do these works.
Girls and boys are
not treated equally
in case of games
and giving gifts as well. For example - girls are given dolls and boys are
given balls. Due to such differential behavior towards boys and girls from
early childhood, they started to think of them differently as human beings.
For many reasons girls discontinue study or drop out from schools earlier
than boys.
Gradually positive
changes are made in
different international
and local policies.
Various policies like --
education for all or
universal primary
education, poverty
reduction programs,
employing 60% of
female teachers in
primary schools etc have resulted into girls and boys getting equal
opportunities in primary education. When grown up these students are
participating in the development of society as humans, not as a male or a
Brother and sister together tidies the room
Girls and boys studying in classroom together
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Not only in schools or higher education sectors, women and men are
playing their different roles in all sectors of the society. Some are
involved in farming. Some do business. Some work as teachers. Some
work in industries and factories. Some do job and some live on daily
wage. In this manner women and men are equally contributing in all
sectors. However, in some places men and women don't get equal status
and wages. Women's rights are hampered in many other ways. Since
1910 International Women's Day is observed worldwide to reduce the
social and economic differences between men and women. Let us know
about the story of this day.
Inter national Women' s Day
In New York of United States
of America, women and men
used to work together in a
sewing factory. But they did
not get fair wages even after
working 12 hours daily. On
8th March of 1857 the female
laborers of the factory got onto
street with their demands for
fair wages and eight hours of
work. At that time the police
attacked and arrested many of
them. Keeping this date in
mind thousands of female
laborers held a protest meeting
to stop child labor and getting
voting rights for women in
1908. On 1910 in an
international socialists
conference, German woman
leader Clara Zetkin declared
8th March as international
International Womens Day being observed
Gender Equality
women's day. Later on UN declared 8th March as International Women's
Day. On this day programs are held on different issues to create
awareness in society including ensuring women's rights. Many proposals
are also submitted to achieve gender equality.
Violence against women
Apart from International Women's Day there are many other charters and
policies to maintain equality among the genders. The main objective of
these charters is to make recognition of women's rights as part of human
rights. But we often get the news of violence against women. As a result
women's rights are diminished.
According to the World Health Organization (2012), in Bangladesh,
every one hour at least one woman is being a victim of violence. The
main reason of violence against women is because of the low social
status of women compared to men. Moreover, lack of education, poverty,
economic dependence, different kind of prejudice etc, are also some of
the causes.
The effect of violence against women is very harmful. Like - if a girl
becomes victim of domestic violence then it will affect her both
physically and mentally. The mothers who are subject to torture due to
domestic violence, the children's physical and psychological growth are
interrupted. Oppressed women cannot go to work in time; so they
become financially looser.
A crucial reason of violence against woman at household level is dowry.
This is spread in the society like a disease. Because of demand for dowry,
female children are treated as burden. Girls are being harassed many
ways in the streets while going to schools and returning from school.
This kind of torture has negative effect on the society. If we become that
much sincere in ensuring gender equality and equal rights at home,
school and every sphere of society, only then violence against women
may be stopped.
Therefore, since childhood we should not differentiate between boys and
girls; rather we should treat them as humans. We will help our parents in
Bangladesh and Global Studies
our house for the betterment of the society. We will not consider any
work specifically for boys or girls. We will be respectful to all the
women members of the family and society. We will do our own tasks. We
will study and play with all students irrespective of gender. We will stay
alert so that no girl gets humiliated in family, school or streets. In this
way we can become real human provided both boys and girls are able to
stay together.
1. We will not see a person as a boy or girl, but as a human.
2. Not by creating divisions and discrimination between female and
male rather on the basis of cooperation and sympathy, a society or a
country can have overall development.
3. 8th March is observed as International Women's Day to ensure the
rights of women.
4. Violence against women is harmful both for human and the society.
Planned Activity
1. Highlight the significance of gender equity and equal rights
irrespective of men and women by narrating stories, acting,
examples, observing women's day etc.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer.
1.1 What is in the core of a country's development?
a. Government b. Environment
c. Population d. Geographic condition
1.2 What is the name of the school founded by Begum Roquia?
a. Sakhawat Girls School b. Sakhawat Memorial Girls School
c. Sakhawat Memorial School d. Begum Roquia Girls School
1.3 which day is observed as International Women's Day?
a. 8th January b. 8th February
c. 8th March d. 8th April
Gender Equality
In the year 1932
Country's development is interrupted
With only five students
German women leader
In the year 1880
1.4 Since which year did International Women's Day being observed ?
a. 1910 b. 1920
c. 1930 d. 1940
1.5 Usually who do the job of cleaning the house, looking after
younger siblings, helping mother to cook ?
a. Son b. Daughter
c. Son and daughter d. Elders
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
a. In a society the boy child and girl child in the family are grown up
with different _______________ with others.
b. Begum Roquia was born in the year ___________in Payrabond
village of Rangpur.
c. One of the main reasons of torture of women through domestic
violence is ________________.
d. In primary school _____ % women are being employed as teachers.
3. Cross match the following words.
a. If there is no equal participation
of men and women
b. Begum Roquia started school
c. Begum Roquia died on
d. Clara Zetkin
e. Sakhawat Memorial Girls School
4. Answer briefly.
a. Briefly write about the contribution of Begum Roquia in women's
b. What sort of treatment is done towards the male child and female
child in our society ?
c. Briefly describe about women's day.
d. What are the main reasons of violence against women ?
e. What are the negative effects of violence against women ?
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Chapter Twelve
Some Minor Races and their Cultures in
There are many minor races in Bangladesh. In the hilly regions there are
11 nationalities who have been living here since ancient times. They are
Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Mro, Tanchangya, Bawm, Pankho, Chak,
Khyang, Khumi and Lushai. In the north and the north east part of greater
Mymensingh there are Garo, Hazang and Koch. And in greater Sylhet
there are Khasi, Patro
and Moni puri
population. Moreover,
in the north and north
west regions of
Bangladesh especially
in Dinajpur, Rangpur,
Rajshahi, Bogura,
Pabna, some small
ethnic minorities such
as - Saontal, Oraon,
Mahali, Malo, Munda,
Malpahari etc. live. In
addition, in the south
east regions of the
country like Cox's
Bazar, Patuakhali and
Barguna there is
Rakhain population.
There are some more
minor races in
Bangladesh for
example, Rajbangshi,
Suryabangshi Burman, Dalu, Hadi, Mahato, Banai, Pathor, Koal etc. Let
us see the locations of these minor races in the map.
Locations of some minor r aces
in Bangladesh
In Class 4 we have learned briefly about the culture of four minor races
such as Chakma, Marma, Saontal and Monipuri. Now we will learn about
some more minor races such as Garo, Khasi, Mro, Tripura and Oraons
those who live in both hills and plain lands.
Garo people live in the districts of greater Mymensingh, Tangail and
Netrakona and some places of Haluwaghat and surroundings. However,
there are some garos in greater Sylhet and Sunamganj districts. The Garo
people likes to identify themselves as 'achikmandi' or hilly people.
In the past the Garo used to build their houses at the bottom of the hills or
near the river banks. These houses were usually large and two fold long
shaped. These houses were called 'nokmandi'. Now a days these
traditional houses are not available. Now they make normal houses with
corrugated iron sheets or traditional houses that built in the plain lands of
Social System
Garos society is matriarchal. This means the mother is the head of the
family and the daughters inherit the ancestral property. On the other hand,
the father looks after the family. After marriage he stays at the wives'
houses with in law's and do the family affairs. Although the matrilineal
customs is prevailing but just like the Bengali society, their cultural
attitude and practices are also changing.
The Garos speak in 'Obeng' language but this language doesn't have any
written form.
Most of the Garos are now Christians. They celebrate the Christmas and
all other festivals of the Christian religion. The name of the traditional
religion of the Garos is 'Sangsarek'. Some people in Modhupur of Tangail
district are the followers of this religion.
Food Habit
The Garos eat meat, fish, and vegetables with rice, just like the normal
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Bengali dishes. Their speciality is the dishes made with the stem of soft
The Garo women's traditional dress is called 'Unfang' and 'dokbanda or
Dokshari'. The men wear shirt, lungi and dhoti.
The name of the main festival of Garos is 'Wangala'. This is the symbol
of sun and is celebrated in the honor of god 'Sazlong', symbol of fertile
soil. They put oblation on their farming lands and then the children,
women and men get involved in joyful festives.
The Khasis live in the district of Sylhet, Molvibazar, Srimangal and
Habiganj. It is assumed that there was a kindgdom named Jayanta or
Jaintiya in the past. It is thought that the Khasis used to live in this
Social System
The Khasis have matriarchal society. Their clan, tribe and lineage are
grown following the matriarchal ancestor. Traditionally the youngest
daughter inherits most of the property of the family. They maintain a very
plain and simple life. The Khasis usually maintain their livelihood on
Festival of the Garo
Some Minor Races and their Cultures in Bangladesh
farming. But a sect of population, called 'Nar' or 'Pnar', who subsist by
cultivating betel leaves. Apiculture is also important part of their livelihood.
Food Habits
The main foods of Khasis are rice, meat, dry fish, honey etc. They find
betel nut and betel leaves very sacred. They entertain their guests with
betel, betel leaves and tea.
The Khasis worship different gods. Name of their chief god is 'Ublei
Nangthau' whom they think to be the creator of Earth. They consider their
father as god and adore him.
The Khasi girls wear a blouse type cloth and lungi named 'Kazim Pin'.
The men wear shirt without pocket and a lungi, called 'Fungo Marung'.
The Khasis have their own language called 'Mon Kheme'. But there is no
written alphabets of this language.
Dance and music are very popular in the Khasi society. In all types of
occasions like - puja festival, wedding, drought, heavy rainfall,
destruction of crops, funeral etc. they arrange festivals of dance and song.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Khasi mother and child
The Mros are the 4th largest tribe of hill region. The Mros call
themselves 'Mro' or 'Marusa', but the Bengali people sometimes call them
'Murang'. They live in the upazilas of Ruma, Thanchi, Lama and
Alikadam of Bandarban district. Mros can be seen in the Chimbook hill,
situated near the Bandarban city.
Social System
There are many
groups and tribes in
Mro society. The
head of the Mro
family is the father.
They have village-
based social
organization. The
Mros call their
house as 'kim'.
Usually the build
their houses with
bamboo wall with
straw roof along
with bamboo platform.
The cloth that all the girls irrespective of their age, wear around their
waist is called 'wanglai'. The men wear short white cloths.
Food Habit
The main food of Mros are rice, dry fish and various types of meat. The
name of the most delicious food they eat is called 'Nappi'.
Mros are generally Buddhists. Some of them are the followers of
Christian religion. The name of their traditional religion is 'Torai'. They
also have a religious sect called 'krama'.
Mro women, men and child
Some Minor Races and their Cultures in Bangladesh
Tripura women performing dance
The Mros celebrate various customs and festivals in the occasions of
birth, wedding, death etc. One of the rituals in Mro society is to pierce
the ear of both boys and girls when they become 3 years old.
Tr ipur a
Tripura people live in the districts of Rangamati, Khagrachori and
Bandarban of Bangladesh. But most of them live in the district of
Khagrachori. Moreover, some Tripura people live in the districts of
Sylhet, Comilla and Chittagong.
Social System
Tripura people live in a collective group. They call their group as 'dafa'.
There are total 36 'dafa'. Among them
16 are located in Bangladesh 20 are in
the Tripura state of India. Tripura
people belong to patriarchal society. But
their lineage is count from both the
decent. For example - son belongs to
father's clan and daughter belongs to
mother's clan. Inheritance of property is
determine in this way. In general, the
houses of Tripura are better elevated
than the houses of Chakma and Marma.
They use stairs to climb up to their
The Tripura people of Chittagong hill
tracts are the followers of orthodox
religion. They observe the durga puja of
Hindu religion. They also adore some of
their own gods and goddesses. For
example, they worship 'ker' for the
betterment of all village people.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Tripura boys and girls wear various cloths of different colors and designs.
The lower part of the women's clothes are called 'rinai' and upper part is
called 'risa'. The men wear dhoti, towel, lungi and shirt. The women wear
various types of bead jewelleries and ear rings called 'natong'.
Tripura people follow many ritualistic occasions in the eve of birth,
death, wedding and other programs. They celebrate 'boishu' on the last
two days of year and the first day of New Year in the Bengali year. In
this occasions, they visit villages, and the young girls wear flowers on
their ears, display necklaces, made of money, use beads necklace and
'kuchibala' in hand and get involved in joyful festivals. The most
attractive part of 'boishu' festival is the 'ghoroya nritya'. The children of
Tripura love to play with a type of seed called 'khila' (gila) or 'sukui'.
They call it 'sukui thunmung'. They also play ha-du-du and dariyabandha.
Or aon
The Oraon live in the
districts of Dinajpur,
Rangpur, Rajshahi
etc. of North Bengal.
Most of these people's
language is 'kudukh'.
Social System
Oraon society has few
tribes. In Bangladesh
they have three tribes
called 'haat sangiya',
'opar sangiya' and
'katriya'. Oraon society is patriarchal. In the rural area they have one village
leader whom they call 'Mahato'. Although the houses of Oraon are very
simple but there are some very beautiful designs on it. Oraon people are
depended on farming. Many also work as coolies or daily wage laborers.
Oraon women at work
Some Minor Races and their Cultures in Bangladesh
Oraons worship various gods. They believe 'dharmi' or 'dharmesh' is the
creator of the world.
In every month and every season the Oraons celebrate different religious
initiation festivals. Their main festival is 'fagua' which is celebrated on
the last day of Falgun.
The men wear dhoti, lungi, pant, shirt, pajama-panjabi etc. The women
wear saree and blouse made of coarse cloths.
Food Habit
The main food of Oraon is rice. They also eat vegetables, fish, meat of
animals and birds including other food.
In this chapter we became familiar with some minor races who live in the
hills and plain lands of Bangladesh. There are many more small ethnic
groups of people. We all study and play together. We will try to know
each other in many ways. We will participate to each other's festival and
occasions. We will show our respect to each other's tradition and culture.
We all love Bangladesh. We will work together for this country's
1. In our country there are many minor races including Garo, Khasi,
Mro, Tripura and Oraon.
2. Every ethnic group has its own society, culture and ritualistic
3. We will respect the cultural tradition of minor races.
4. We will respect each other's tradition and culture.
Planned Activity
1. Make a list of different religions and minor races of Bangladesh.
2. Demonstrate an act or a story showing how we can stay close and
help each other, maintain friendship, sympathy and empathy.
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Delicious food of the Mros
Dress of women of Mro
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 Which minor races is known as 'achikmandi'?
a. Mro b. Garo
c. Tripura d. Oraon
1.2 What religion does the Mro society generally follow?
a. Christian b. Orthodox
c. Sansarek d. Buddhism
1.3 How many groups of Oraon are in Bangladesh?
a. One b. Two
c. Three d. Four
1.4 Which is the main attraction of 'Boishu' festival?
a. 'Ghoroya Nrity' b. 'Faguwa'
c. 'Wangala' d. 'Ker'
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
a. The name of the traditional cloth of the Garo women is __________.
b. The name of the main god of Khasi is ________________.
c. In the Mro society houses are called ____________________.
d. Tripura people celebrate ____________________ in the New Year.
3. Cross match the following words.
a. 'Wanglai'
b. The society of Oraons
c. 'Nappi'
d. The Khasi tribe
e. Name of the great festival of the Garo
4. Answer briefly.
a. Describe the houses of Garo.
b. Write about the society of the Khasi.
c. Where do the Mro ethnic people live ?
d. Describe the festivals of Tripuara.
e. Why should we be respectful towards all the ethnic group of people ?
Some Minor Races and their Cultures in Bangladesh
Chapter Thir teen
Bangladesh and the Rest of the Wor ld
There are 196 countries including Bangladesh in the world. Among these
some countries are very near or close to us. But most of them are situated
far away. The countries that are located outside our country are called the
Rest of the World. This world consists of our country and the rest of the
Political map of the Earth
Impor tance of fr iendship and brother hood among different
countr ies of the wor ld
Alliance and brotherhood among countries of the world is very essential.
As men cannot survive without each others' support, similarly different
states of world cannot survive without each others' support. Different
countries of the world are dependent on each other for various purposes.
This is how alliance, friendship and supportive relations have been
developed within countries.
This cooperative relationship among countries is very essential for
maintaining world peace and global development. There is no alternative
of brotherhood and alliance among different countries for promoting
social and economic development and reducing hunger and poverty.
Many countries have formed different organizations which assure co
operation among nations and these organizations also helping their own
country to develop. The United Nations and SAARC are such
organizations. SAARC is a regional cooperative organization. This is
formed by some of the countries situated within the same region as
neighbors. On the other hand, the United Nation is an international
cooperative organization. Any
independent country can be the
member of this organization.
United Nations
There have been two World Wars till
now. Crores (millions) of people of
different states have lost their lives.
Many more were injured. We know
about the atrocity of dropping of nuclear bombs in Japan during World
War II. Millions of people were dead because of it. Numerous people were
injured and handicapped. Other nations of the world were also incurred
losses. The gruesomeness of the Second World War make frightened the
people of all states. They get the perception that there is no alternative of
peace for protecting the human population. As a result, with the
cooperation of all countries to establish peace of the world, United Nations
Flag of the United Nations
Bangladesh and the Rest of the World
was formed on 24th October, 1945. United Nations is an international or
global organization. Any independent country of this world can become a
member of UN. Bangladesh got the membership of United Nations on 17th
September of 1974. At present, there are 193 member countries of UN. The
head office of UN is situated in New York, America.
Objectives of the United Nations
United Nations has been formed with some great intentions to be
achieved. The objectives are as follows:
1. To make peace in the world.
2. To make alliance among different nations or among different countries.
3. To make economic, social and cultural cooperation among different
4. To show respect to the liberty and basic rights of all people irrespective
of ethnicity, religion and caste.
5. To settle the ongoing disputes among different countries.
Headquarter of the United Nations
Bangladesh and Global Studies
United Nation is doing various programs in order to achieve her
objectives. It has six branches. The programs of UN are run through these
branches. We will now know about the structures and tasks of different
The Gener al Assembly
All the state members are the members of General Assembly. The
number of current members is 193. The General Assembly deliver
important decisions including appointment of Secretary General, new
membership for a state, cancelling the membership of a state, conducting
election for electing members for its different branch, discussing the
problems of different countries of the world etc. The General Assembly
calls a meeting in every year. The member nations cast votes and elect a
president for the General Assembly. In 1986 Bangladesh acted as the
president of the General Assembly.
The Secur ity Council
This is the defense council of United Nation. It is the duty of this council
to maintain peace and security of the world. It has five permanent
members these are United Kingdom, United States of America, Russia,
France and China. Ten states are also made temporary members of this
council for every two years. Bangladesh performed her responsibility
twice as temporary member of this council.
The Security Council tries to resolves any dispute through negotiations
that arise among different states. If this doesn't work the council uses
military power to bring back peace. The UN has no military of its own.
The UN uses the military power of her member states. Bangladesh
military's participation in UN peace keeping army has been praiseworthy.
The soldiers of Bangladesh have earned reputation by discharging their
duties in Bosnia, Kuwait, Congo, and Sierra Leone with bravery and
devotion. Many brave soldiers of Bangladesh sacrificed their lives on the
mission to protect the peace in many countries.
The Economic and Social Council
The task of this council is to improve the living standard of different
Bangladesh and the Rest of the World
nations. The council's major tasks include economic and social
programme, such as resolve the unemployment problem, eradication of
illiteracy, reducing poverty, establishing children's rights and human
rights, improving the women's social condition etc.
The Tr usteeship Council
The objective of this council is to facilitate the independence to the
people of under developed and under privileged regions so that they can
rule their own.
The Inter national Cour t of Justice
Any nation can ask for justice in this court regarding to any dispute
including the border dispute with any neighboring country. The member
states normally accept whatever the judgment is given by this court. In
2012, the International Court of Justice gave a judgment regarding to the
maritime dispute of Bangladesh with Myanmar. Consequently,
Bangladesh regained its possession on a big portion of the Bay of Bengal.
The Secretar iat of United Nations
All the administrative tasks of the United Nations are done by the
Secretariat. The secretariat is constituted with the secretary general,
other officers and staffs of the UN. Ban Ki-moon is the current secretary
general of UN. He is a citizen of South Korea.
The Role of Development Or ganizations of the United Nations
We learned that UN perform different development activities for its
member states. The UN has many organizations. The UN runs these
development programs in different nations through these. We will now
learn more about some of these organizations and their tasks.
United Nations Children' s Fund (UNICEF)
UNICEF works for the development of children in the world. UNICEF is
the abbreviation for United Nations International Children's Emergency
Fund. In short, it is called United Nations Children's fund or UNICEF. Its
head office is situated in New York, U.S.A. There are many activities of
UNICEF in Bangladesh and many other countries.
UNICEF works for promoting primary education for children, supplying
Bangladesh and Global Studies
pure drinking water in the
villages, providing sanitary
latrines, providing health care
for children and mothers,
providing preventive
vaccines for children etc. in
villages. UNICEF is
concerned about securing the
rights of children globally. In
Bangladesh UNICEF are
running many welfare
projects for children.
UNICEF helps to provide health care to mother and children, prevent
children from diseases,
overcome the malnutrition
of children, ensure the
education of children and
so on.
United Nations
Development Progr am
Its main objective is to
manage the development
works in different countries
and coordinate them with
the UN. The UN is working
in Bangladesh for
improving the environment,
reducing the poverty, etc.
Giving vaccine to a child
Bangladesh and the Rest of the World
Developmental work
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultur al
Or ganization (UNESCO)
This organization of United Nations works for welfare of children and
other people. The head office of UNESCO is situated in Paris, France. All
member states of UN, including Bangladesh, are member of UNESCO.
This organization works for improving, developing and conserving
education, science and culture of the member states. By the initiative of
UNESCO, 21st February was declared as the International Mother
language Day. Besides, UNESCO is helping to conserve the Sundarbans,
Sixty Domes Mosque(Shat Gombuj Mosjid) and Paharpur.
Food and Agr iculture Or ganization (FAO)
Food is the basic need of human being. There is a scarcity of food in the
world. FAO was
formed to resolve
the global food
crises. Its head
office is situated
in Rome, Italy.
FAO works for
managing the
challenge of food
scarcity and
improving the
health and
nutrition of
Bangladesh. A
Centre for
Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific was established in
Bangladesh by the initiative of FAO. This organization provides food in
times of shortage of food caused by natural disasters.
Wor ld Health Or ganization (WHO)
World Health Organization was formed in order to improve people's
Lv`weZi Y
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Food distribution
health. Its objective is to make
people aware of health and
diseases and to promote health
education and training. Every
year World Health Day is
observed on 7th April to make
people aware of necessity and
precaution about health.
Bangladesh is a member
country of WHO. This
organization is working to improve health of the women and children, their
nutrition, family planning etc.
This organization has helped
to eradicate small pox from
Wor ld Bank (WB)
World Bank is situated in
Washington, United States.
World Bank provides funds in
various nations' development
programs. Bangladesh gets
financial support for
education, communication etc from World Bank.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooper ation (SAARC)
SAARC was formed by seven countries of the south Asia on 8th
December, 1985. Later on Afghanistan joined in.
Eight countries of south Asia are its member. The
countries include: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan,
Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and
Afghanistan. The full name of SAARC is South
Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. In
brief it is called SAARC.
Educational activities
Logo of SAARC
Bangladesh and the Rest of the World
The aims and objectives of for ming the SAARC
The main objective of SAARC is to improve the living standards of
people of the member nations by their combined effort and cooperation.
There are some more objectives too. These are:
1. Rapidly develop the economic, social and cultural status of the member
2. To help the member countries to become self reliant.
3. To develop the countries by establishing cooperative relationships with
different organizations.
4. To create brotherhood and mutual friendship among the member countries.
5. To protect the freedom of the member countries and geo-political integrity.
6. To make sure that one nation does not interfere in another nation's internal
Map of SAARC countries
Bangladesh and Global Studies
Sri Lanka
1. To create alliance, brotherhood and cooperation among member
countries is essential for ensuring world peace and development.
2. United Nation is an international cooperative organization trying to
establish peace globally.
3. SAARC is a regional cooperative organization which consists of
eight South Asian countries. Its aim is to promote economic and
social development among the member nations.
Planned Activities
1. Identify the SAARC nations on a map.
2. Make a list of United Nations' tasks.
3. Use the media to collect information on current projects of SAARC
and United Nations.
1. Tick ( ) the correct answer:
1.1 What is the main objective of the United Nation ?
a. Ensuring peace in the World b. Children's development
c. Economic development d. Development of Trade and Commerce
1.2 Which organization's target is to improve the living standards of
the member nations ?
a. United Nations b. SAARC
1.3 Which is the work of World Bank ?
a. Fulfilling the demand of food
b. Improving the health situation of World Population
c. Electing the secretary general
d. Providing loans and assistance
Bangladesh and the Rest of the World
1.4 Which section of United Nations does the administrative work ?
a. The General Assembly b. The Trusteeship Council
c. The Secretariat d. The Security Council
1.5 Whose duty is it to conduct and coordinate the development
projects of different countries ?
a. UNDP b. FAO
c. UNESCO d. World Bank
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.
a. The nations of the world cannot ____________ without each other's
b. The brotherhood and cooperation within the nations is essential in
making _________________.
c. The objective of SAARC is to improve the __________________
standard of the member nations.
d. It is the duty of ________________ council to protect world peace.
e. UNICEF works for ________________ development of the world.
3. Cross match the following words.
a. Bangladesh became the member of UN on
b. Gave the judgment on Bangladesh and
Myanmar's conflict on maritime boundary
c. The Secretary General of United Nations
d. Regional cooperative organization
4. Answer briefly.
a. Why are brotherhood and alliance required between nations ?
b. What is the aim of forming SAARC ?
c. Mention the reason of founding United Nations.
d. What does Economic and Social Council of the United Nations
work for its member nations ?
e. Distinguish between the objectives of SAARC and United Nation.
In the year 2012
Citizen of South Korea
International Court
The End
Bangladesh and Global Studies
National Cur r iculum and Textbook Boar d, Dhaka
Academic Year 2013, B G S - 5
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