# Ultimate Limit State Design of

Steel Structures
Lecture 3
STR 552
Dr. Maha Moddather
Structural Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering – Cairo University
mahamoddather@eng.cu.edu.eg
Spring 2013
Design Philosophy.
Limit State Design.
LAST LECTURE
Advantages of Limit State Design Method.
General Design Requirements.
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Stability Requirements and Calculations.
Second-Order Effects.
Outline
Local Buckling & Classification of Sections.
Design of Tension Members.
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Buckling Length of members with Well-
Defined End Conditions
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Effective Buckling Length of Compression
Members
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Effective Buckling Length of Compression
Members
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Truss with a Compression Member Laterally
Unbraced
For a simply supported truss, with laterally unsupported compression
chords and with no cross-frames but with each end of the truss
adequately restrained, the effective buckling length (KL), shall be taken
equal to 0.75 of the truss span.
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Truss with a Compression Member Laterally
Unbraced
For a bridge truss where the compression chord is laterally restrained
by U-frames composed of the cross girders and verticals of the trusses,
the effective buckling length of the compression chord (ℓ
b
) is:
Where:
E : The Young’s modulus (t/cm
2
).
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E : The Young’s modulus (t/cm
2
).
I
y
: The moment of inertia of the chord member about the Y-Y
axis (cm
4
).
a : The distance between the U-frames (cm).
δ : The flexibility of the U-frame: the lateral deflection near the mid-
span at the level of the considered chord’s centroid due to a unit load
acting laterally at each chord connected to the U-frame. The unit load is
applied only at the point at which δ is being calculated. The direction of
each unit load shall produce a maximum value for δ (cm).
Truss with a Compression Member Laterally
Unbraced
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The U-frame is considered to be free and unconnected at all points
except at each point of intersection between cross girder and vertical of
the truss where this joint is considered to be rigidly connected.
Truss with a Compression Member Laterally
Unbraced
In case of symmetrical U-frame with constant moment of inertia for
each of the cross girder and the verticals through their own length, δ
may be taken from:
Where:
d
1
: The distance from the centroid of the compression chord to the
nearest face of the cross girder of the U-frame.
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nearest face of the cross girder of the U-frame.
d
2
: The distance from the centroid of the compression chord to the
centroidal axis of the cross girder of the U-frame.
I
1
: The second moment of area of the vertical member forming the
arm of the U-frame about the axis of bending.
I
2
: The second moment of area of the cross girder about the axis of
bending.
B :The distance between centres of consecutive main girders
connected by the U-frame.
Truss with a Compression Member Laterally
Unbraced
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Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beams
Generally, a beam resists transverse loads by bending action.
In a typical building frame, main beams are employed to span
between adjacent columns; secondary beams when used – transmit the
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floor loading on to the main beams.
In general, it is necessary to consider only the bending effects in
such cases, any torsional loading effects being relatively insignificant.
Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beams
If the laterally unrestrained length of the compression flange of the
beam is relatively long, then a phenomenon, known as lateral
buckling or lateral torsional buckling of the beam may take place. The
beam would fail well before it could attain its full moment capacity.
This phenomenon has a close similarity to the Euler buckling of
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This phenomenon has a close similarity to the Euler buckling of
columns, triggering collapse before attaining its squash load (full
Lateral buckling of beams has to be accounted for at all stages of
construction, to eliminate the possibility of premature collapse of the
structure or component
Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beams
For example, in the construction of steel-concrete composite
buildings, steel beams are designed to attain their full moment
capacity based on the assumption that the flooring would provide the
necessary lateral restraint to the beams.
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However, during the erection stage of the structure, beams may not
receive as much lateral support from the floors as they get after the
concrete hardens. Hence, at this stage, they are prone to lateral
buckling, which has to be consciously prevented.
Main Failure Modes of Hot Rolled Beams
1. Excessive bending triggering collapse
This is the basic failure mode provided:
(a) the beam is prevented from buckling laterally,
(b) the component elements are at least compact, so that they do
not buckle locally.
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not buckle locally.
Such “stocky” beams will collapse by plastic hinge formation.
σ
y
σ
y
Main Failure Modes of Hot Rolled Beams
2. Lateral torsional buckling of long beams which are not
suitably braced in the lateral direction.(i.e. “un
restrained” beams)
Failure occurs by a combination of lateral deflection and twist. The
proportions of the beam, support conditions and the way the load is
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proportions of the beam, support conditions and the way the load is
applied are all factors, which affect failure by lateral torsional
buckling.
Main Failure Modes of Hot Rolled Beams
3. Failure by local buckling of a flange in compression or
web due to shear or web under compression due to
Unlikely for hot rolled sections, which are generally stocky.
Fabricated box sections may require flange stiffening to prevent
premature collapse. Web stiffening may be required for plate
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premature collapse. Web stiffening may be required for plate
girders to prevent shear buckling. Load bearing stiffeners are
sometimes needed under point loads to resist web buckling.
Main Failure Modes of Hot Rolled Beams
4. Local failure by (1) shear yield of web (2) local crushing
of web (3) buckling of thin flanges
Shear yield can only occur in very short spans and suitable web
stiffeners will have to be designed.
Local crushing is possible when concentrated loads act on
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Local crushing is possible when concentrated loads act on
unstiffened thin webs. Suitable stiffeners can be designed.
Main Failure Modes of Hot Rolled Beams
4. Local failure by (1) shear yield of web (2) local crushing
of web (3) buckling of thin flanges
Buckling of Thin Flanges: This is a problem only when very wide
flanges are employed. Welding of additional flange plates will
reduce the plate b / t ratio and thus flange buckling failure can be
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reduce the plate b / t ratio and thus flange buckling failure can be
avoided.
Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
It is well known that slender members under compression are
prone to instability. When slender structural elements are loaded
in their strong planes, they have a tendency to fail by buckling in
their weaker planes. Both axially loaded columns and transversely
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their weaker planes. Both axially loaded columns and transversely
loaded beams exhibit closely similar failure characteristics due to
buckling.
Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
Consider a simply supported and laterally unsupported (except
at ends) beam of “short-span” subjected to incremental transverse
load at its mid section. The beam will deflect downwards i.e. in the
direction of the load.
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Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
The direction of the load and the direction of movement of the
beam are the same. This is similar to a short column under axial
compression.
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Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
On the other hand, a “long-span” beam, when incrementally
loaded will first deflect downwards, and when the load exceeds a
particular value, it will tilt sideways due to instability of the
compression flange and rotate about the longitudinal axis.
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compression flange and rotate about the longitudinal axis.
Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
Displacement and rotation that take place as the midsection of
the beam undergoes lateral torsional buckling.
The characteristic feature of lateral buckling is that the entire
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The characteristic feature of lateral buckling is that the entire
cross section rotates as a rigid disc without any cross sectional
distortion. This behaviour is very similar to an axially compressed
long column, which after initial shortening in the axial direction,
deflects laterally when it buckles.
Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
In the case of axially loaded columns, the deflection takes place
sideways and the column buckles in a pure flexural mode.
A beam, under transverse loads, has a part of its cross section in
compression and the other in tension. The part under compression
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compression and the other in tension. The part under compression
becomes unstable while the tensile stresses elsewhere tend to
stabilize the beam and keep it straight.
Thus, beams when loaded exactly in the plane of the web, at a
particular load, will fail suddenly by deflecting sideways and then
twisting about its longitudinal axis.
Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
This form of instability is more complex (compared to column
instability) since the lateral buckling problem is 3-dimensional in
nature. It involves coupled lateral deflection and twist.
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When the beam deflects laterally, the applied moment exerts a
torque about the deflected longitudinal axis, which causes the
beam to twist. The bending moment at which a beam fails by
lateral buckling when subjected to a uniform end moment is called
its elastic critical moment (M
cr
).
Similarity of Column Buckling and Lateral
Buckling of Beams
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Column Buckling
Beam Buckling
Factors Affecting Lateral Stability
The elastic critical moment (M
cr
) is applicable only to a beam of
I section which is simply supported and subjected to end moments.
This case is considered as the basic case. In practical situations,
support conditions, beam cross section, loading etc. vary from the
basic case.
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Factors affecting on the lateral stability include:
Support Conditions.
Effective Length.
Level of Application of Transverse Loads.
Effect of Cross-Sectional Shape.
Factors Affecting Lateral Stability
Support Conditions:
Lateral buckling involves three kinds of deformations, namely
lateral bending, twisting and warping, it is feasible to think of
various types of end conditions.
The supports should either completely prevent or offer no
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The supports should either completely prevent or offer no
resistance to each type of deformation.
Solutions for partial restraint conditions are complicated. The
effect of various support conditions is taken into account by way of
a parameter called effective length.
Factors Affecting Lateral Stability
Effective Length:
The concept of effective length incorporates the various types of
support conditions.
For the beam with simply supported end conditions and no
intermediate lateral restraint, the effective length is equal to the
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intermediate lateral restraint, the effective length is equal to the
actual length between the supports.
When a greater amount of lateral and torsional restraints is
provided at supports, the effective length is less than the actual
length and alternatively, the length becomes more when there is
less restraint.
Factors Affecting Lateral Stability
Effective Length:
The effective length factor would indirectly account for the
increased lateral and torsional rigidities provided by the restraints.
Torsional restraint prevents rotation about the longitudinal axis.
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Warping restraint prevents rotation of the flange in its plane.
Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beam
Simply Supported Beams:
The effective buckling length of compression flange of simply
supported beams shall be considered as follows :
1. Compression Flange With No Intermediate Lateral Support:
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Free to rotate in plan at bearings
Not free to rotate in plan at
bearings
Not free to rotate in plan at
bearings
Restraint against Torsion
Web or Flange cleats.
Bearing stiffeners acting in conjunction with the bearing of the
beam.
Lateral end frames or other external supports to the ends of the
compression flanges.
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Beams being built into walls.
The end restraint element shall be able to safely resist in addition to wind
and other external applied loads, a horizontal force a compression force
acting at the bearing in a direction normal to the compression flange of
the beam at the level of centroid and having a value equal to 2.5% of the
maximum force occurring in the flange.
Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beam
Simply Supported Beams: 2. Compression Flange With
Intermediate Lateral Support:
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Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beam
Cantilever Beams with Intermediate Lateral Supports:
The effective buckling length of compression flange of cantilever
beams with intermediate lateral supports shall be similar to that of
simply supported beams having lateral supports.
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Buckling Length of Compression Flange of
Beam
Cantilever Beams without Intermediate Lateral Supports:
The effective buckling length of compression flange of cantilever
beams without intermediate lateral supports shall be according to
Table 4.10. The loading condition (normal or destabilizing) is
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defined by the point of application of the load.
Destabilizing load conditions exist when a load is applied to the
top flange of a beam or cantilever and both the load and the flange
are free to deflect laterally (and possibly rotationally also) relative
to the centroid of the beam.
Factors Affecting Lateral Stability
Level of Load Application:
The lateral stability of a transversely loaded beam is dependent
on the arrangement of the loads as well as the level of application
of the loads with respect to the centroid of the cross section.
A load applied above the centroid of the cross section causes an
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additional overturning moment and becomes more critical than the
case when the load is applied at the centroid.
On the other hand, if the load is applied below the centroid, it
produces a stabilising effect. Thus, a load applied below or above
the centroid can change the buckling load by ± 40%.
Factors Affecting Lateral Stability
Level of Load Application:
The figure shows a centrally loaded beam experiencing either
destabilising or restoring effect when the cross section is twisted.
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Buckling Length of Compression Flange of Beam
Cantilever Beams without Intermediate Lateral Supports:
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Buckling Length of Compression Flange of Beam
At Support:
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Buckling Length of Compression Flange of Beam
At Tip of Cantilever:
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Local Buckling
Cross-sections subject to compression due to axial load or bending
moment should be classified into Class 1 compact, Class 2 non-
compact, Class 3 slender, depending on their width to thickness ratios
of section elements and hence, their susceptibility against local
buckling.
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Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local
buckling influences their section capacity, without calculating their
local buckling resistance.
Local Buckling
Adistinction should be made between the following two types of
element,
(a) Outstand elements are attached to adjacent elements at one
edge only while the other edge being free.
(b) Internal elements are attached to other elements on both
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(b) Internal elements are attached to other elements on both
longitudinal edges and including:
Webs comprising internal elements perpendicular to
the axis of bending.
Flanges comprising internal elements parallel to the
axis of bending.
Local Buckling
Class 1: Compact Sections
Cross-sections with plastic moment capacity. The plastic moment
capacity can be developed, without local buckling of any of their
compression elements.
For a section to qualify as a compact section:
σ
y
σ
y
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Its flanges must be continuously connected to the web or
webs.
The limiting width-to-thickness ratios (λ
p
) of compression
members must be smaller than a limiting value.
The unbraced length should not exceed a certain value.
Local Buckling
Class 2: Non-Compact Sections
Cross-sections that can achieve yield moment capacity without
local buckling of any of their compression elements.
For a section to qualify as a non-compact section:
The limiting width-to-thickness ratios (λ
r
) of compression
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r
members must be smaller than a limiting value.
σ
y
σ
y
Local Buckling
Class 3: Slender Sections
Those Cross-sections that can not achieve yield moment capacity
without local buckling of any of their compression elements.
When any of the compression elements of a cross-section is
classified as class 3, the whole cross section shall be designed as
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class 3 cross section.
Slender sections shall be designed same as non-compact sections
except that the section properties used in design shall (b
e
) based on
the effective width be of compression elements.
b
e
= ρ b
Local Buckling
Class 3: Slender Sections
b
e
= ρ b
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Local Buckling
Class 3: Slender Sections
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Local Buckling
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Local Buckling
Effective Width and Buckling
Factor for Stiffened Compression
Elements
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Local Buckling
Effective Width and Buckling
Factor for Unstiffened
Compression Elements
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Design of Tension Members
Tension member are structural elements subjected to axial
tensile forces.
Generally they are used in:
Truss members
Bracing for building and bridges
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Bracing for building and bridges
Cables such as:
Suspended roof systems.
Suspension.
Bridges.
Design of Tension Members
Any cross sectional configuration may be used, circular rod
and rolled angle shapes are frequently used.
Other shapes may be used when large load must be resisted.
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The stress in an axially loaded tension member is given by:
f = P/A
Where:
P: the magnitude of load.
A: the cross sectional area normal to the load.
Design of Tension Members
The stress in a tension member is uniform throughout the
cross-section except:
Near the point of application of load, and
At the cross-section with holes for bolts.
The cross sectional area will be reduced by amount equal to
the area removed by holes.
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the area removed by holes.
Tension members are frequently connected at their ends with
bolts.
The typical design problem is to select a member with
sufficient cross sectional area:
Factored load < factored strength
Design of Tension Members
Consider an 8 x 0.5 cm bar connected to a gusset plate and
M16 Bolts
A
net
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Area of Bar at section (a-a) = 8 x 0.5 = 4 cm
2
Area of Bar at section (b-b) = [8 – 2x(1.6+0.2)]x0.5 = 2.2 cm
2
A
gross
Design of Tension Members
Atension member can fail by reaching one of two limit states:
Excessive deformation:
Excessive deformation can occur due to the yielding of the
gross section along the length of the member.
To prevent excessive deformation, the stress at the gross
sectional area must be smaller than yielding stress (f < F
y
)
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y
Fracture:
Fracture of the net section can occur if the stress at the net
section reaches the ultimate stress F
u
.
To prevent Fracture, the stress at the net sectional area
must be smaller than ultimate stress (f < F
u
).
Design of Tension Members
The nominal strength in yielding is:
P
n
= F
y
* A
g
And the nominal strength in fracture is:
P
n
= F
u
* A
e
Where A is the effective net area: A ≤ A
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Where A
e
is the effective net area: A
e
≤ A
n
The resistance factor Φ = Φ
t
is smaller for fracture than for
yielding reflecting the more serious nature of reaching the limit
state of fracture:
For yielding Φ
t
=0.85
For fracture Φ
t
=0.70
Design of Tension Members
Why is fracture (& not yielding) the relevant limit state at the
net section?
Yielding will occur first in the net section. However, the
deformations induced by yielding will be localized around the
net section. These localized deformations will not cause
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net section. These localized deformations will not cause
excessive deformations in the complete tension member. Hence,
yielding at the net section will not be a failure limit state.
Design of Tension Members
Example:
F
D.L.
= 5 ton
F
L.L.
= 10 ton
F
W.L.
= 3 ton
Using St.37, choose a suitable section.
2.0 m
2.0 m
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F
ult
= 1.4 x F
D.L.
= 1.4 x 5 = 7 ton
F
ult
= 1.2 x F
D.L.
+ 1.6 x F
L.L
= 1.2 x 5 + 1.6 x 10 = 22 ton
F
ult
= 1.2 x F
D.L.
+1.6 x F
L.L
+ 0.8 x F
W.L
= 1.2 x 5 + 1.6 x 10 + 0.8 x 3 =
24.4 ton
F
ult
= 1.2 x F
D.L.
+0.5 x F
L.L
+ 1.3 x F
W.L
= 1.2 x 5 + 0.5 x 10 + 1.3 x 3 =
14.9 ton
Design of Tension Members
Example:
F
D.L.
= 5 ton
F
L.L.
= 10 ton
F
W.L.
= 3 ton
Try 2 < 60x6 Welded
2.0 m
2.0 m
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Try 2 < 60x6 Welded
A
gross
= 2x6.91 = 13.82 cm
2
Kl/r = 1x283 / 1.8 = 159 < 300
P
u
= 0.85 x 2.4x 13.82 = 28.2 ton
Or = 0.7 x 3.7 x 13.82 = 35.8 ton
P
u
= 28.2 ton > 24.4 ton O.K.
Design of Tension Members
Example:
F
D.L.
= 5 ton
F
L.L.
= 10 ton
F
W.L.
= 3 ton
Try 2 < 60x6 Bolted M16
2.0 m
2.0 m
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Try 2 < 60x6 Bolted M16
A
gross
= 2x6.91 = 13.82 cm
2
A
net
= 13.82 – 2x1.8x0.6
= 11.66 cm
2
Kl/r = 1x283 / 1.8 = 159 < 300
P
u
= 0.85 x 2.4x 13.82 = 28.2 ton
Or = 0.7 x 3.7 x 11.66 = 30.2 ton
P
u
= 28.2 ton > 24.4 ton O.K.
Design of Tension Members
Example:
F
D.L.
= 5 ton
F
L.L.
= 10 ton
F
W.L.
= 3 ton
Try 1 < 100x10 Bolted M20
2.0 m
2.0 m
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Try 1 < 100x10 Bolted M20
A
gross
= 19.2 cm
2
A
e
= U x A
net
= 0.75 (19.2 -2.2x1)
= 12.75 cm
2
Kl/r = 1x283 / 2 = 141.5 < 300
P
u
= 0.85 x 2.4x 19.2 = 39.2 ton
Or = 0.7 x 3.7 x 12.75 = 33.02 ton
P
u
= 33.02 ton > 24.4 ton O.K.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area
The connection has a significant influence on the performance of
a tension member. A connection almost always weakens the
member, and a measure of its influence is called joint efficiency.
Joint efficiency is a function of:
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Joint efficiency is a function of:
Material ductility.
Fastener spacing.
Stress concentration at holes.
Fabrication procedure.
Shear lag.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area
All factors contribute to reducing the effectiveness but shear lag
is the most important.
Shear lag occurs when the tension force is not transferred
simultaneously to all elements of the cross-section. This will
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simultaneously to all elements of the cross-section. This will
occur when some elements of the cross-section are not
connected.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area
A consequence of this partial connection is that the connected
element becomes overloaded and the unconnected part is not
fully stressed.
Lengthening the connection region will reduce this effect
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Munse and Chesson (1963) suggests that shear lag can be
accounted for by using a reduced or effective net area A
e
.
Shear lag affects both bolted and welded connections.
Thus, the effective net area concept applied to both types of
connections.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area
For bolted connection, the effective net area is A
e
= UA
n
For welded connection, the effective net area is A
e
= UA
g
Where, the reduction factor U is given by:
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Where, x is the distance from the centroid of the connected area
to the plane of the connection, and L is the length of the
connection.
If the member has two symmetrically located planes of
connection, x is measured from the centroid of the nearest one -
half of the area.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area
The distance L is defined as the length of the connection in
the direction of load.
For bolted connections, L is measured from the center of
the bolt at one end to the center of the bolt at the other end.
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the bolt at one end to the center of the bolt at the other end.
For welded connections, it is measured from one end of the
connection to other.
If there are weld segments of different length in the
direction of load, L is the length of the longest segment.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area
For welded connection is by longitudinal welds at the ends as
shown in the figure below, then A
e
= UAg
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Where, U = 1.0 for L ≥ w
U = 0.87 for 1.5 w ≤ L < 2 w
U = 0.75 forw ≤ L < 1.5 w
L = length of the pair of welds ≥ w
w = distance between the welds or width of plate/bar
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
For a bolted tension member, A maximum net area can be
achieved if the bolts are placed in a single line.
The connecting bolts can be staggered for several reasons:
(1) To get more capacity by increasing the effective net area
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(2) To achieve a smaller connection length
(3) To fit the geometry of the tension connection itself.
For a tension member with staggered bolt holes, the
relationship f = P/A does not apply and the stresses are a
combination of tensile and shearing stresses on the inclined
portion b-c.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
For a tension member with staggered bolt holes, the
relationship f = P/A does not apply and the stresses are a
combination of tensile and shearing stresses on the inclined
portion b-c.
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Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
Net section fracture can occur along any zig-zag or straight
line. For example, fracture can occur along the inclined path
a-b-c-d in the figure above. However, all possibilities must be
examined.
Empirical methods have been developed to calculate the
net section fracture strength.
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net section fracture strength.
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
where, d is the diameter of hole to be deducted
s
2
/4g is added for each gage space in the chain being
considered.
s is the longitudinal spacing (pitch) of the bolt holes in the
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s is the longitudinal spacing (pitch) of the bolt holes in the
g is the transverse spacing (gage) of the bolt holes
Net area (A
n
) = net width x plate thickness
Effective net area (A
e
) = U A
n
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
Compute the smallest net area for the plate shown below: The
holes are for M16 bolts.
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Hole Diameter = 1.6 + 0.2 = 1.8 cm
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
For line a-b-d-e
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Net Width = 16 – 2 x 1.8 = 12.4 cm
Design of Tension Members
Effective Net Area: Staggered Fasteners
For line a-b-c-d-e
Dr. Maha Moddather
Net Width = 16 – 3 x 1.8 + (3
2
+3
2
)/4x5 = 11.5 cm
Governs
Net Area = 11.5 x Thickness of Plate
Design of Tension Members
Block Shear
For some connection configurations, the tension member
can fail due to ‘tear-out’ of material at the connected end.
This is called block shear.
For example, the single angle tension member connected
as shown in the Figure below is susceptible to the
phenomenon of block shear.
Dr. Maha Moddather
phenomenon of block shear.
Design of Tension Members
Block Shear
Block shear strength is determined as the sum of the shear
strength on a failure path and the tensile strength on a
perpendicular segment.
Block shear strength = net section fracture strength on shear path
Dr. Maha Moddather
Block shear strength = net section fracture strength on shear path
+ gross yielding strength on the tension path
OR
Block shear strength = gross yielding strength of the shear path
+ net section fracture strength of the tension path
Design of Tension Members
Block Shear
Which of the two calculations above governs?
When F
u
A
nt
≥ 0.6F
u
A
nv
φ
v
R
n
= φ
v
(0.6 F
y
A
gv
+ F
u
A
nt
) ≤ φ
v
(0.6 F
u
A
nv
+ F
u
A
nt
)
When Fu Ant < 0.6Fu Anv;
φ R = φ (0.6 F A + F A ) ≤ φ (0.6 F A + F A )
Dr. Maha Moddather
φ
v
R
n
= φ
v
(0.6 F
u
A
nv
+ F
y
A
gt
) ≤ φ
v
(0.6 F
u
A
nv
+ F
u
A
nt
)
Where, φ
v
= 0.70
A
gv
: Gross area subject to shear
A
gt
: Gross area subject to tension
A
nv
: Net area subject to shear
A
nt
: Net area subject to tension
Design of Tension Members
Example
2<60x60x6
3M16
Bolt Edge Distance = 30 mm
Bolt Interior Distance = 50 mm
A
gv
= 13 x 0.6 = 7.8 cm
2
A
nv
= (13-2.5x1.8) x 0.6 = 5.1 cm
2
Dr. Maha Moddather
A
nv
= (13-2.5x1.8) x 0.6 = 5.1 cm
A
gt
= (a-t)/2 x t = (6-0.6)/2 x 0.6 = 1.62 cm
2
A
nt
= 1.62 – 0.5x1.8x0.6 = 1.08 cm
2
φ
v
R
n
= 0.7 (0.6 x2.4x 7.8 + 3.7x 1.08) = 10.65 cm
2
φ
v
R
n
= 0.7 (0.6 x3.7x5.1 + 2.4x 1.62) = 10.65 cm
2
P
u
= 2 x 10.65 =21.3 ton
2 angles back to back