Math 311 Homework 11 Solution

p. 239 1. (c) Since
z −sinz
z
=
1
z
_
z −

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n+1
_
=
1
z
_

n=1
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n+1
_
=

n=1
(−1)
n+1
(2n + 1)!
z
2n
we have
Res
z=0
z −sinz
z
= 0
(d) Since
cot z
z
4
=
1
z
4
cos z
sinz
=
1
z
5
_

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n)!
z
2n
__

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n
_
−1
=
1
z
5
_
1 −
z
2
2
+
z
4
24
−...
__
1 −
z
2
6
+
z
4
120
−...
_
−1
=
1
z
5
_
1 −
z
2
2
+
z
4
24
−...
__
1 +
z
2
6
+
7
360
z
4
−...
_
we have
Res
z=0
cot z
z
4
=
7
360

1
12
+
1
24
= −
1
45
(e) Since
sinhz
z
4
(1 −z
2
)
=
e
z
−e
−z
2z
4
(1 −z
2
)
=
1
2z
4
_

n=0
z
n
n!

n=0
(−1)
n
z
n
n!
__

n=0
z
2n
_
=
1
2z
4
_

n=0
2z
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
__

n=0
z
2n
_
=
1
z
3
_

n=0
z
2n
(2n + 1)!
__

n=0
z
2n
_
=
1
z
3
_
1 +
z
2
6
+...
_
_
1 +z
2
+...
_
we have
Res
z=0
sinhz
z
4
(1 −z
2
)
= 1 +
1
6
=
7
6
1
2
2. (a) The analytic function exp(−z)/z
2
has the only singularity at 0 and
Res
z=0
exp(−z)
z
2
= Res
z=0
1
z
2

n=0
(−z)
n
n!
= Res
z=0

n=0
(−1)
n
n!
z
n−2
= −1
Therefore,
_
|z|=3
exp(−z)
z
2
dz = 2πi Res
z=0
exp(−z)
z
2
= −2πi
(b) The analytic function exp(−z)/(z −1)
2
has the only singularity at 1
and
Res
z=1
exp(−z)
(z −1)
2
= Res
z=1
1
(z −1)
2
e
−(z−1)
e
=
1
e(z −1)
2

n=0
(−1)
n
n!
(z −1)
n
= Res
z=0
1
e

n=0
(−1)
n
n!
(z −1)
n−2
= −
1
e
Therefore,
_
|z|=3
exp(−z)
(z −1)
2
dz = 2πi Res
z=1
exp(−z)
(z −1)
2
= −
2πi
e
(c) The analytic function z
2
exp(1/z) has the only singularity at 0 and
Res
z=0
z
2
exp
_
1
z
_
= Res
z=0
z
2

n=0
z
−n
n!
= Res
z=0

n=0
z
2−n
n!
=
1
6
Therefore,
_
|z|=3
z
2
exp
_
1
z
_
dz = 2π Res
z=0
z
2
exp
_
1
z
_
=
πi
3
(d) The analytic function (z +1)/(z
2
−2z) has two singularities at 0 and
2 with residues
Res
z=0
z + 1
z
2
−2z
= Res
z=0
1
z
z + 1
z −2
=
z + 1
z −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=0
= −
1
2
and
Res
z=2
z + 1
z
2
−2z
= Res
z=2
1
z −2
z + 1
z
=
z + 1
z
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=2
=
3
2
Therefore,
_
|z|=3
z + 1
z
2
−2z
dz = 2πi
_
Res
z=0
z + 1
z
2
−2z
+ Res
z=2
z + 1
z
2
−2z
_
= 2πi
3
4. (a) Since
e
z
=

n=0
z
n
n!
for |z| < ∞,
exp
_
z +
1
z
_
=

n=0
1
n!
z
n
exp
_
1
z
_
for 0 < |z| < ∞. Therefore,
_
|z|=1
exp
_
z +
1
z
_
dz =

n=0
1
n!
_
|z|=1
z
n
exp
_
1
z
_
dz
(b) Since
_
|z|=1
z
n
exp
_
1
z
_
= 2πi Res
z=0
z
n
exp
_
1
z
_
= 2πi Res
z=0
z
n

m=0
z
−m
m!
= 2πi Res
z=0

m=0
z
n−m
m!
=
2πi
(n + 1)!
Therefore,
_
|z|=1
exp
_
z +
1
z
_
dz = 2πi

n=0
1
n!(n + 1)!
6. Since P(z)/Q(z) is analytic outside C,
_
C
P(z)
Q(z)
dz = −2πi Res
z=∞
P(z)
Q(z)
= 2πi Res
z=0
_
1
z
2
P(1/z)
Q(1/z)
_
Note that
1
z
2
P(1/z)
Q(1/z)
=
1
z
2
a
0
+a
1
z
−1
+a
2
z
−2
+... +a
n
z
−n
b
0
+b
1
z
−1
+b
2
z
−2
+... +b
m
z
−m
= z
m−n−2
a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+a
2
z
n−2
+... +a
n
b
0
z
m
+b
1
z
m−1
+b
2
z
m−2
+... +b
m
is analytic at 0 since m ≥ n + 2 and a
n
, b
m
= 0. Therefore,
Res
z=0
_
1
z
2
P(1/z)
Q(1/z)
_
= 0
and hence
_
C
P(z)
Q(z)
dz = 0
p. 243 1. (a) The function z exp(1/z) has a singularity at 0 and
z exp
_
1
z
_
= z

n=0
z
−n
n!
=

n=0
z
1−n
n!
= z + 1 +

n=2
1
(n!)z
n−1
= z + 1 +

n=1
1
(n + 1)!z
n
4
So it has an essential singularity at 0 with the principal part

n=1
1
(n + 1)!z
n
(b) The function z
2
/(1 +z) has a singularity at −1 and
z
2
1 +z
= z −1 +
1
z + 1
So it has a pole at −1 with the principal part
1
z + 1
(c) The function sinz/z has a singularity at 0 and
sinz
z
=
1
z

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n+1
=

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n
So it has a removable singularity at 0 with the principal part 0.
(d) The function cos z/z has a singularity at 0 and
cos z
z
=
1
z

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n)!
z
2n
=

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n)!
z
2n−1
=
1
z
+

n=1
(−1)
n
(2n)!
z
2n−1
So it has a pole at 0 with the principal part
1
z
(e) The function 1/(2 −z)
3
has a pole at 2 with the principal part
1
(2 −z)
3
2. (a) At z = 0, the Laurent series of the function is
1 −coshz
z
3
=
1
z
3
_
1 −
1
2
(e
z
+e
−z
)
_
=
1
z
3
_
1 −
1
2
_

n=0
z
n
n!
+

n=0
(−1)
n
z
n
n!
__
=
1
z
3
_
1 −

n=0
z
2n
(2n)!
_
= −

n=1
z
2n−3
(2n)!
= −
1
2z

n=2
z
2n−3
(2n)!
So it has a pole of order m = 1 with residue B = −1/2 at 0.
5
(b) At z = 0, the Laurent series of the function is
1 −exp(2z)
z
4
=
1
z
4
_
1 −

n=0
(2z)
n
n!
_
= −
1
z
4

n=1
2
n
z
n
n!
= −

n=1
2
n
z
n−4
n!
= −
2
z
3

2
z
2

4
3z

n=4
2
n
z
n−4
n!
So it has a pole of order m = 3 with residue B = −4/3 at 0.
(c) At z = 1, the Laurent series of the function is
exp(2z)
(z −1)
2
=
e
2
e
2(z−1)
(z −1)
2
=
e
2
(z −1)
2

n=0
2
n
(z −1)
n
n!
= e
2

n=0
2
n
(z −1)
n−2
n!
=
e
2
(z −1)
2
+
2e
2
z −1
+e
2

n=2
2
n
(z −1)
n−2
n!
So it has a pole of order m = 2 with residue B = 2e
2
at 1.
p. 248 2. (a) Here we choose the branch of z
1/4
such that
z
1/4
= exp
_
1
4
log z
_
= exp
_
1
4
(ln|z| +i arg(z))
_
with 0 < arg(z) < 2π. So z
1/4
is analytic in C\[0, ∞). Then
Res
z=−1
z
1/4
z + 1
= z
1/4
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=−1
= (−1)
1/4
= exp(πi/4) =
1 +i

2
(b)
Res
z=i
Log z
(z
2
+ 1)
2
= Res
z=i
Log z
(z +i)
2
(z −i)
2
=
_
Log z
(z +i)
2
_

¸
¸
¸
¸
z=i
=
_
1
z(z +i)
2

2 Log z
(z +i)
3

¸
¸
¸
z=i
=
1
i(2i)
2

2 Log i
(2i)
3
=
π + 2i
8
(c) Here we choose the branch of z
1/2
such that
z
1/2
= exp
_
1
2
log z
_
= exp
_
1
2
(ln|z| +i arg(z))
_
6
with 0 < arg(z) < 2π. So z
1/2
is analytic in C\[0, ∞). Then
Res
z=i
z
1/2
(z
2
+ 1)
= Res
z=i
z
1/2
(z +i)
2
(z −i)
2
=
_
z
1/2
(z +i)
2
_

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=i
=
_
1
2z
1/2
(z +i)
2

2z
1/2
(z +i)
3

¸
¸
¸
¸
z=i
=
1
2i
1/2
(2i)
2

2i
1/2
(2i)
3
=
1
2e
πi/4
(2i)
2

2e
πi/4
(2i)
3
=
1 −i
8

2
3. (a) In the disk |z−2| < 2, (3z
3
+2)/((z−1)(z
2
+9)) has one singularity
at 1. Therefore,
_
|z−2|=2
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
dz = 2πi Res
z=1
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
= 2πi
3z
3
+ 2
z
2
+ 9
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=1
= πi
(b) In the disk |z| < 4, (3z
3
+ 2)/((z −1)(z
2
+ 9)) has three singularities
at 1, −3i and 3i. Therefore,
_
|z|=4
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
dz = 2πi
_
Res
z=1
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
+ Res
z=−3i
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
+ Res
z=3i
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
_
We have computed in part (a) that
Res
z=1
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
=
1
2
For its residues at ±3i, we have
Res
z=−3i
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
= Res
z=−3i
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z + 3i)(z −3i)
=
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z −3i)
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=−3i
=
15 −49i
12
and
Res
z=3i
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
= Res
z=3i
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z + 3i)(z −3i)
=
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z + 3i)
¸
¸
¸
¸
z=3i
=
15 + 49i
12
7
Therefore,
_
|z|=4
3z
3
+ 2
(z −1)(z
2
+ 9)
dz = 2πi
_
1
2
+
15 −49i
12
+
15 + 49i
12
_
= 6πi
p. 255 5. The function 1/(z
2
sinz) is analytic in C\{nπ : n ∈ Z}. Hence it
has singularities at 0, ±π, ±2π, ..., ±Nπ inside the curve C
N
. Therefore,
_
C
N
dz
z
2
sinz
= 2πi
N

n=−N
Res
z=nπ
1
z
2
sinz
At z = 0,
1
z
2
sinz
=
1
z
2
_

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n+1
_
−1
=
1
z
3
_

n=0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!
z
2n
_
−1
=
1
z
3
_
1 −

n=1
(−1)
n+1
(2n + 1)!
z
2n
_
−1
=
1
z
3

k=0
_

n=1
(−1)
n+1
(2n + 1)!
z
2n
_
k
=
1
z
3
_
1 +
_
z
2
3!
−...
_
+...
_
=
1
z
3
+
1
6z
+...
Therefore,
Res
z=0
1
z
2
sinz
=
1
6
At z = nπ with n = 0, 1/(z
2
sinz) has a simple pole and hence
Res
z=nπ
1
z
2
sinz
= Res
z=nπ
z
−2
sinz
=
z
−2
(sinz)

¸
¸
¸
¸
z=nπ
=
1
n
2
π
2
cos(nπ)
=
(−1)
n
n
2
π
2
Therefore,
_
C
N
dz
z
2
sinz
= 2πi
_
1
6
+
−1

n=−N
(−1)
n
n
2
π
2
+
N

n=1
(−1)
n
n
2
π
2
_
= 2πi
_
1
6
+ 2
N

n=1
(−1)
n
n
2
π
2
_
When z = x +yi ∈ C
N
, either x = ±(N + 1/2)π or y = ±(N + 1/2)π.
8
Note that
| sinz|
2
= | sin(x +yi)|
2
= | sinxcos(yi) + cos xsin(yi)|
2
= | sinxcoshy +i cos xsinhy|
2
= (sinx)
2
(coshy)
2
+ (cos x)
2
(sinhy)
2
= (sinx)
2
(1 + (sinhy)
2
) + (cos x)
2
(sinhy)
2
= (sinx)
2
+ (sinhy)
2
When x = ±(N + 1/2)π,
| sinz| ≥ | sinx| = 1
When y = ±(N + 1/2)π,
| sinz| ≥ | sinhy| = sinh((N + 1/2)π)
Obviously, sinh((N + 1/2)π) > 1 for N ≥ 0. Therefore,
| sin(z)| ≥ 1
for z ∈ C
N
. And since |z| ≥ (N + 1/2)π for z ∈ C
N
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
z
2
sinz
¸
¸
¸
¸

1
(N + 1/2)
2
π
2
Therefore,
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
N
dz
z
2
sinz
¸
¸
¸
¸

1
(N + 1/2)
2
π
2
_
C
N
|dz| =
8
(N + 1/2)π
and hence
lim
N→∞
_
C
N
dz
z
2
sinz
= 0
It follows that
2πi
_
1
6
+ 2

n=1
(−1)
n
n
2
π
2
_
= 0
That is,

n=1
(−1)
n+1
n
2
=
π
2
12