ASSERTIVE TACTICS – LEE CANTER & MARLENE CANTER

Key Concepts Strategies
Practicality
Students have
the right to learn
in a calm, orderly
classroom and
teachers have
the right teach
without
interruption
Building trusting
relationship with
students
Teacher as a
model of the
classroom
behaviours to
the students
Rules
Consequences
Clear and specific
Observable
Collaborative
Positive
Discipline
Hierarchy
Negative
Keep track of offenses
that students commit
Informs students of consequences and the
order which they will be imposed
Strengths
- Involve mutual
agreement that each
party will has win-
win situation.
- Emphasis on clear
and positive limits
- Prevent time-wasting
problem
Weaknesses
- Have to proceed
with a step-by-step
approach to solve
behaviour problems
- Cultures
o Feel
uncomfortable
receiving
rewards/
punishments
publicly
- Implementation of
discipline hierarchy
- Teacher could build
trust and mutual
understanding with
the students
















INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT – JACOB KOUNIN
Key Concepts Strategies
Practicality
Strengths Weaknesses
Good discipline:
- How teacher
deals with
various groups
in a class
- Preventing
misbehaviours
rather than
correcting them
- Teacher
behaviour
- Movement
management
- Group focus
With-it-ness
Group alerting
- Teacher aware of all
events, activities
and student
behaviours in the
classroom
- Teacher obtains
students’ full
attention at the
beginning of the
lesson
Overlapping
- Teacher supervises to
more than one group at
the same time
Momentum
- Constant
movement of
the lesson
Ripple Effect
Accountability
- Make the students
alert, respond,
demonstrate or
explain
- Correct one
student to one
student for
misbehaviour
- Easy-to-apply
- Practical
- Could create a
withitness image
- Help to handle
situational discipline
problems
- Quite effective
- Only could prevent
misbehaviors, but
could not cure
- Students do not
take responsibility
for their behaviours
(ripple effect)
- Create lessons
that are
engaging to
students and
fun
- Make the
students as a
part of
decision-
making process

DEMOCRATIC TEACHING – RUDOLF DREIKURS
Key Concepts Strategies
Practicality
Strengths Weaknesses
- Emphasis on:
o Active student
involvement
o Sense of
belonging
o Self-discipline
- Highlighted
mistaken
goals:
- Attention-
seeking
- Power-seeking
- Revenge-
seeking
- Helplessness
Logical Consequences
- Identify
mistaken goal
and discuss with
students in a
non-threatening
manner
- Punishment is the
last thing to do
- Promote mutual
respect between
teacher and
students
- Help students
understand their
misbehaviours
- Help teacher to
focus on causes of
behaviour before
take action
- Trouble in
determining
students’
actual motives
- Students may
not admit
their actual
motives
- Encouragement
rather than praise
- Use of class
discussion
- Seek out for
the students’
needs
- Feel the
sense of
belonging