- Testing Formulaes
- 2013 JC2 H2 Maths Rev G Solutions Pure Maths II
- complex numbers capstone
- trigo 3
- Mathtest - Copy
- Pointers
- 3-Derivative1.ppt
- part 1 - lesson plans - tom merse 1
- MATH2412-product sum identities.pdf
- GETTING STARTED
- 3. Kesetimbangan Partikel
- mh2801tut01soln.pdf
- Trigonometry.formulas
- 144_f11_syllabus
- Demoivres Theorem 1
- hw45sol.pdf
- Math Hyperref a4
- leaving cert maths syllabus from 2015
- Paper of Pieas
- Equation
- The Ring programming language version 1.5.2 book - Part 24 of 181
- 2010 Specialist Mathematics Examination Paper
- mathematics formulary.pdf
- pre-calc help videos
- Desig of Box Culvert for Railway
- L11_Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
- differentiation1.pdf
- Functions and Graphs
- F. Y. B. Sc. (Mathematics) Question Bank-II
- Errata Sheet for Cengel and Ghajar 5e 1st 2nd and 3rd Printings Updated 7-03-16
- A short paragraph involving the Riemann-Zeta function
- Nst Mmii Chapter5
- Errata Sheet for Chun Wa Wong Introduction to Mathematical Physics
- Functions of a Complex Variable Lecture 3
- Conformal Mappings
- Chapter 4
- Math Complex Variables Hw5 Solutions
- Inverse Laplace Transforms
- Supplement
- More fun with Bessel functions
- Nuclear Counting Statistics
- Stat Mech Homework
- Chapter_13
- Mathematical Methods 1
- hw11sol
- Errata Sheet for Chun Wa Wong Introduction to Mathematical Physics
- Errata to Classical Electrodynamics
- Bessel
- Appendix B
- Partial Solutions Manual for Chun Wa Wong Introduction to Mathematical Physics
- Chapter4 Complex Analysis
- Calculus of Complex Functions-Laurent Series and Residue Theorem
- Quadrupole_ellipsoid
- Chun Wa Wong Quantum Mech Rvw 2
- Laurent and Taylor Series
- Bessel Functions
- ce3errat
- Riemann Surface
- Laurent Series Examples

Topics: e

z

, sinz, cos z, log(z) and z

α

Now that we have clariﬁed the meaning of diﬀerentiability of a complex valued function

of a complex variable we may begin to extend the elementary functions of the real calculus

to the complex plane. Such an extension is not necessarily unique. For example, both

f(z) = z and f(z) = ¯ z

may be thought of as the extension of the identity function f(x) = x to the complex plane.

However, we shall always require that the complex valued function be diﬀerentiable at all

x where f as a function of x is diﬀerentiable. It turns out that this makes the extension

unique. For example, f(z) = ¯ z would not be an admissible extension of f(x) = x to the

complex plane.

The complex exponential:

Deﬁnition:

e

z

= e

x

e

iy

= e

x

[cos y + i siny].

We observe that if z = x then e

z

= e

x

. In addition

∂u

∂x

=

∂v

∂y

= e

x

cos y

∂u

∂y

=

∂v

∂x

= e

x

sin y

so that the partial derivatives are continuous everywhere and satisfy the Cauchy Riemann

equations. Hence

e

z

= e

x

e

iy

= e

x

cos y + ie

x

siny

is the correct extension of the exponential to the whole complex plane.

Properties of the complex exponential:

i)

d

dx

e

z

= u

x

+ iv

x

= e

z

which we see by inspection

ii) e

a+b

= e

a

e

b

for any complex numbers a and b

This result is not obvious and can be shown as follows:

159

Deﬁne f(z) = e

z

e

c−z

for constant c then by the product and chain rule f

(z) = e

z

e

c−z

−

e

z

e

c−z

= 0. This implies that u

x

= u

y

= v

x

= v

y

= 0 so that f(z) is constant. Thus

f(z) = f(c) or e

z

e

c−z

= e

c

. The result follows if we set c = a + b and z = b.

Note that this last result was shown without recourse to any trigonometric addition

formulas. It implies

e

i(θ+φ)

= cos(θ + φ) + i sin(θ + φ)

= (cos θ + i sinθ)(cos φ + i sin φ).

Equating real and imaginary parts we obtain

cos(θ + φ) = cos θ cos φ −sinθ sinφ

sin(θ + φ) = cos θ sin φ + sinθ cos φ.

Similarly,

e

iθ

n

=

e

inθ

so that

(cos θ + i sinφ)

b

= cos nθ + i sinnθ.

By equating again the real and imaginary parts we see that cos nθ and sinnθ can always be

expressed as functions of cos θ and sinθ.

The geometry of w = e

z

:

u + iv = e

x

[cos y + i siny]

can be interpreted in the vector sense

(u, v) = e

x

(cos y, siny)

and implies the following:

The lines y = constant in the z-plane are mapped to rays in the w-plane, but we cannot

get to the origin in the w-plane. The lines x = constant in the z-plane are mapped to circles

of radius e

x

in the w-plane.

Complex trigonometric functions:

If we deﬁne

cos z =

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

, sinz =

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

160

then it follows from the deﬁnition of the complex exponential that cos z and sinz are the

standard trigonometric functions when z = x. Moreover, since the exponential now is known

to be diﬀerentiable it follows from the chain rule that cos z and sinz are diﬀerentiable.

Moreover,

d

dz

cos z =

ie

iz

−e

−iz

2

= −sin z

and similarly,

(sinz)

= cos z.

A little bit of algebra shows that

sin

2

z + cos

2

z = 1

just as in the real case.

Analogously we deﬁne the hyperbolic cosine and sine by:

cosh z =

e

z

+ e

−z

2

and sinhz =

e

z

−e

−z

2

which implies that

(coshz)

= sinhz and (sinhz)

= cosh z.

Algebra again shows that for all z

cosh

2

z −sinh

2

z = 1.

However, in the complex plane the distinction between the trigonometric and hyperbolic

functions is blurred because

cos iy = cosh y

sin iy = i sinh y.

In particular, this shows that the trigonometric functions are not bounded in the complex

plane. For example, we can always ﬁnd a z such that, e.g.,

sinz = 7 and cos z = −3 + i.

161

The logarithm of a complex variable:

In contrast to the exponential and the trigonometric functions the logarithm is consid-

erably more complicated.

Deﬁnition: w = log z (≡ lnz) denotes all those numbers w which satisfy

e

w

= z.

The deﬁnition simply states that the log is the inverse of the exponential. To compute

w we express z in polar form

z = re

iθ

where r = |z| and θ = arg(z).

Since w = u + iv we ﬁnd

e

u+iv

= e

u

e

iv

= re

iθ

.

This implies that e

u

= r and v = arg(z). Since e

u

> 0 it follows that log z cannot be deﬁned

for z = 0. But for z = 0 arg(z) is not uniquely deﬁned but has inﬁnitely many values which

diﬀer by multiples of 2π. Hence log z is a multiple valued function

log z = u + iv = Log r + i arg(z)

where Log r denotes the real log of a positive number. It is a consequence of the deﬁnition

of log z that

e

log z

= e

Log r+i arg(z)

= re

i arg(z)

= z

log e

z

= log e

x

e

iy

= Log|e

x

| + iy + 2πki = z + 2πki.

Hence the nice symmetry of one function being the inverse of the other is lost when we

deﬁne the log in the above form. Moreover, the log no longer is a function in the usual sense

and writing

log(z + ∆z) −log z

would not make sense because log z is a whole set of numbers. Yet we wanted to extend the

real logarithm diﬀerentiably to the complex plane, if possible. We had learned before that

the multiple valued function arg(z) can be made a standard function if we pick a branch

162

where arg(z) is constrained to lie in a prescribed interval of length 2π. We shall agree

to choose the principal branch Arg(z) and deﬁne accordingly the principal branch of the

logarithm by

Log z = Log|z| + i Arg(z) = Log r + iθ

where θ ∈ (−π, π]. We observe that this notation is consistent with our earlier usage since

Log x = Log |x| + i0 for x real and positive.

It it easy to see that Log z is deﬁned for all z = 0. Moreover, away from the negative

axis x < 0 the function is diﬀerentiable because the Cauchy-Riemann equations in polar

coordinates

∂u

∂r

=

1

r

∂v

∂θ

=

1

r

and

∂v

∂r

=

1

r

∂u

∂θ

= 0

hold. Across the negative axis Log z shows a jump, e.g.,

lim

n→∞

Log(−5 −i/n) = Log 5 −iπ

lim

n→∞

Log(−5 + i/n) = Log 5 + iπ.

But away from the negative axis the function is diﬀerentiable and satisﬁes

d

dz

Log z =

1

e

iθ

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

=

1

z

.

The complex power function z

α

:

For real x > 0 and any α the function x

α

is shorthand notation for

x

α

= e

αLog x

which is perfectly well deﬁned and straightforward to handle. Analogously, we have

Deﬁnition: For z = 0 and any α

z

α

= e

αlog z

.

163

Note that this deﬁnition implies that in general z

α

is multiple valued because log z is multiple

valued. For example, we already have discussed the roots of z. Recall, for z = |z|e

iθ

w = z

1/n

has the n values

w

k

= |z|

1/n

e

i(

θ+2πk

n

)

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1.

According to the above deﬁnition we have

z

1/n

= e

1

n

log z=

1

n

[Log |z|+i arg(z)]

= |z|

1/n

e

−i arg(z)

n

= |z|

1/n

e

i(

θ+2πk

n

)

where θ is any one particular value of arg(z). For example

i

i

= e

i log i

= e

i[Log 1+i(π/2+2πk)]

= e

−(1/2+2πk)

for k = 0, ±1, ±2, . . . Again, as a multiple valued function we cannot talk about derivatives

for the complex power function; we would again have to restrict ourselves to a single valued

branch of the logarithm, like the principal value branch. However, we shall not pursue this

topic any further.

164

Module 21 - Homework

1) Plot the image of the unit square (0, 1) ×(0, 1) in the z-plane under the transformation

w = e

z

.

2) Show that the function

f(z) =

1

2

z +

1

z

**i) maps a circle |z| = r, r = 1 onto an ellipse in the w-plane.
**

ii) maps the unit circle |z| = 1 onto the real interval [−1, 1] in the w-plane.

3) Show that sinz = 0 if and only if z = nπ for any integer n.

Show that cos z = 0 if and only if z = π/2 + nπ for any integer n.

4) Evaluate: log i, Log(3 + i), Log(3 −i), z

0

for any z = 0, (1 + i)

(1−i)

.

5) Find all z such that sinz = 7 −3i.

6) Find all z such that cosh z = .5.

7) Prove or disprove:

log z

1

z

2

= log z

1

+ log z

2

Log z

1

z

2

= Log z

1

+ Log z

2

165

- Testing FormulaesUploaded byAdil Khan
- 2013 JC2 H2 Maths Rev G Solutions Pure Maths IIUploaded byAnnabel Seah
- complex numbers capstoneUploaded byapi-417560546
- trigo 3Uploaded byYuanyuan Neko
- Mathtest - CopyUploaded bygarrie
- PointersUploaded byJohn Mancia
- 3-Derivative1.pptUploaded byMuhammad Amirudin
- part 1 - lesson plans - tom merse 1Uploaded byapi-242802487
- MATH2412-product sum identities.pdfUploaded byCopo Jauregui Bonifacio
- GETTING STARTEDUploaded bycroprobos
- 3. Kesetimbangan PartikelUploaded byGalih Indra Sukmana
- mh2801tut01soln.pdfUploaded byShweta Sridhar
- Trigonometry.formulasUploaded byzayimewuc
- 144_f11_syllabusUploaded byEdwin Yohanes Tedjo
- Demoivres Theorem 1Uploaded byIan James
- hw45sol.pdfUploaded bysbfjbsjkbf
- Math Hyperref a4Uploaded bygonvic
- leaving cert maths syllabus from 2015Uploaded byapi-254037447
- Paper of PieasUploaded bylovelyosmile253
- EquationUploaded byKevin Racelis
- The Ring programming language version 1.5.2 book - Part 24 of 181Uploaded byMahmoud Samir Fayed
- 2010 Specialist Mathematics Examination PaperUploaded byLee Kian Keong
- mathematics formulary.pdfUploaded byNader Asgar Mamaroba
- pre-calc help videosUploaded byapi-228776201
- Desig of Box Culvert for RailwayUploaded byYasika1990
- L11_Derivatives of Trigonometric FunctionsUploaded byCollin Reyes Huelgas
- differentiation1.pdfUploaded bycesamav
- Functions and GraphsUploaded byJerney Susana
- F. Y. B. Sc. (Mathematics) Question Bank-IIUploaded byAmit Kumar
- Errata Sheet for Cengel and Ghajar 5e 1st 2nd and 3rd Printings Updated 7-03-16Uploaded bySarmad Hussain

- A short paragraph involving the Riemann-Zeta functionUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Nst Mmii Chapter5Uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Errata Sheet for Chun Wa Wong Introduction to Mathematical PhysicsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Functions of a Complex Variable Lecture 3Uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Conformal MappingsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Chapter 4Uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Math Complex Variables Hw5 SolutionsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Inverse Laplace TransformsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- SupplementUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- More fun with Bessel functionsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Nuclear Counting StatisticsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Stat Mech HomeworkUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Chapter_13Uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Mathematical Methods 1Uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- hw11solUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Errata Sheet for Chun Wa Wong Introduction to Mathematical PhysicsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Errata to Classical ElectrodynamicsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- BesselUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Appendix BUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Partial Solutions Manual for Chun Wa Wong Introduction to Mathematical PhysicsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Chapter4 Complex AnalysisUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Calculus of Complex Functions-Laurent Series and Residue TheoremUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Quadrupole_ellipsoidUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Chun Wa Wong Quantum Mech Rvw 2Uploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Laurent and Taylor SeriesUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Bessel FunctionsUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- ce3erratUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Riemann SurfaceUploaded byjeff_hammonds351
- Laurent Series ExamplesUploaded byjeff_hammonds351