INME - Principles of Radiation Physics

Chapter 14 - Page 1

Class 1 Chapter 14 Nuclear Counting Statistics
I. Introduction
The statistical nature of radioactive decay was recognized soon after the discovery of radioactivity. In fact, the law of radioactive decay (Chapter III) can be deduced strictly from statistical considerations, proving it a statistical relationship subject to the laws of chance. Hence, in any sample containing a large number of radioactive atoms, some average number will disintegrate per unit time. But the exact number which disintegrate in any given unit of time fluctuates around the average value. In counting applications, it is important to estimate this fluctuation because it indicates the repeatability of results of a measurement.

II. Frequency Distributions
If one plots the frequency of occurrence of values against the values themselves for a series of identical measurements of a statistical process, a curve will result—the frequency distribution curve. Many statistical phenomena conform to certain standard frequency distributions. If this distribution is known, certain inferences about a population may be made by observing a small sample of the population. In nuclear counting statistics, frequency distributions of interest are the normal, and Poisson (pronounced ‘pwah-sohn’), and the chi-square distributions. A. Normal Distribution

The normal distribution describes most statistical processes having a continuously varying magnitude. If one plots the frequency distribution curve for a large number of measurements on a quantity which conforms to the normal distribution, a familiar bell-shaped curve (similar to the one shown in Figure 1.14.1) will result. This is the normal distribution curve. It is characterized by two independent parameters: the mean (m) and the standard deviation (σ). 1. Mean

The mean is the average value of the quantity under observation. For the standard normal distribution (i.e., symmetrical about the mean), the mean value is the one that occurs with the highest frequency. Since in reality we observe only a portion of the population, we estimate the mean by a numerical – ). average (x

xi – _____ x=
n

Σ

(1)

where xi is the value of the i th measurement, n is the total number of observations.

INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14

NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER, COLORADO

1•800•548•4024

.. .. approximately 68% of the total area under the curve will be included.3% –σ – x +σ x σ= +2σ +3σ Figure 1. we must estimate σ from a finite number of observations..... and n is the total number of observations.. However. ... ..14.. The best estimate of σ is called sx which is given by: Sx = – xi – x ( ) Σ ______ 2 n–1 (3) – instead of m in the numerator.Principles of Radiation Physics f –3σ –2σ ..1 ... ... COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 ..... the smaller the standard deviation... In The use of n–1 in the denominator results from the use of x – .....Chapter 14 . the greater the reproducibility of the measurements.. (See INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.... . it is possible to have an infinite number of values of σ for a given mean... If one covers one standard deviation on each side of the mean of a standard normal distribution curve.. . Since m and σ are independent other words. 68. As with the mean.Page 2 INME . xi is the value of the i th measurement........ this is: (x i – m ) Σ ______ n 2 (2) where m is the mean value. Standard deviation The standard deviation is defined as the square root of the average of the squares of the individual deviations from the mean. . .... Expressed mathematically. we lose one degree of freedom by estimating m with x parameters which characterize the normal distribution. .Normal Distribution Curve 2.

Also. it can be said x = sx . three standard deviations–99. say 100 or more. etc. The Poison distribution adequately predicts the frequency distribution resulting from the observation of a large number of events which. however. it can be said with 95% confidence that the true mean is – ± 2s . somewhere between x x B. since it is less complex than working with the Poisson distribution directly. It can be shown that radioactive decay obeys the Poisson distribution law. b refers to the background INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.14. The practical significance of this is: If one estimates – . III. Poisson Distribution The Poisson distribution equation is: e–n mx _______ P(x) = x! (4) where P(x) is the probability that a given value in a series of observations will occur x times. and estimates the standard deviation the mean of a series of normally distributed measurements by x – by sx . g. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 . APPLICATION TO NUCLEAR COUNTING DATA The following symbols will be used throughout the remainder of this chapter: N= t= n= total counts counting period N/t = count rate The subscript. then the probability that a single atom will decay during the observation time is small but constant for equal time intervals.1) Two standard deviations on each side of the mean include approximately 95% of the total area.Page 3 Figure 1. Likewise. the mean number of observed events is moderately large. have a small but constant likelihood of occurrence. nuclear disintegrations obey Poisson statistics. taken singly. It can have only one value for a given mean value. If one observes a sample containing a large number of radioactive atoms for a period of time which is short compared to the half-life. the standard deviation for the Poisson distribution depends on the mean. only integer numbers of atoms decay in any time period. etc.Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 . If.INME .7%. the following expression results: σ= m (5) Thus. Another difference between the normal and Poisson distributions is that m and x must be integers in the Poisson distribution.2) is applied to the Poisson distribution equation. Hence. while the normal distribution is a continuous one. or in terms of our estimates of these parameters: Sx = – x (6) The approximation is usually considered acceptable if the mean value is 20 or greater.A. This is the preferred method for handling nuclear counting data. the Poisson distribution is adequately approximated by a special normal distribution for which σ = m . If the definition of standard deviation (II. The Poisson distribution is characterized by only one parameter–the mean. refers to the sample plus background count (gross count).

nb The net count rate. Standard Deviation in Count Rate (n) Ng b (7) and the standard deviation in the total background count. by: Standard Deviation in Total Count (N) g From Equation (6) the standard deviation in the total sample plus background count. is given by: SNb = n __ b tb (11) C. the standard deviation in the gross count rate. Naturally. sN . sN . is calculated from: Nb (8) To obtain the standard deviation in the gross count rate. divide both sides of Equation (7) by the counting period. since it is impossible to observe directly the sample activity apart from the ever present background.Chapter 14 . and s refers to the net sample count. A. the standard deviation in the background count rate. sN . sN . ___ = ng SNg tg __ = Ng ___ = tg2 Ng 1 ___ x ___ tg tg (9) tg Therefore. is given SNg = SNb = B. Then: SNg = Ng But. because total counts cannot be subtracted unless the counting INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER. s must be obtained by subtraction.Page 4 INME . is given by: Notice the count rates are used. ns. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 . is calculated as follows: g SNg = n __ g tg b (10) Similarly.Principles of Radiation Physics count alone. Standard Deviation in Net Count Rate (ns) ns = ng .

Page 5 period is the same for sample and background.INME . The problem here is one of combining the standard deviations in the gross count rate and the background count rate. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 . find the standard deviations in: (a) the total gross and background counts (b) the gross background count rates (c) the net count rate.6 cpm at the 95% confidence level.000 = 200 counts g ——— — — sN = √3.000/10 = 20 cpm g ——— — sN = √180/20 = 3 cpm b (c) —————— —— sN = √(20)2 + (3)2 = √409 = 20. one obtains the following expression for INSERT.600 / 20 = 180 cpm ——— — — sN = √4.000/ 10 = 4. by combining Equations (10) and (11). INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER. Ng = 40.600 = 60 counts b (b) ng = 40. the standard deviation in the net count rate: SNg = Example: ( ) ( ) Ng 2 ___ + Nb 2 = ___ tg tb Ng Nb ___ + ___ tg tb (14) Given the following data. The method of combining standard deviations is sx + sx to obtain the standard deviation in the sum or difference 1 2 of two measurements x1 ± x2 is: Sx1 ± x1 = Sx12 + Sx22 (13) Thus.820 ± 40. This is rarely the case.Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 .3 cpm g Therefore.600 counts tb = 20 minutes ——— — — (a) sN = √40. Report (c) at the 95% confidence level.000 cpm nb = 3. ns = 3.000 counts tg = 10 minutes Nb = 3.

The test most often used for this purpose on nuclear counting data is Pearson’s chi-square test. if taken on each side of the mean.820 = 0. the average number of counts distribution is the Poisson. The Chi-Square Test of Goodness of Fit One of the most important applications of statistics to measurements is the investigation of whether or not a particular set of measurements fit an assumed distribution. The uncertainty expressed as a percentage of the total is obtained by multiplying the FSD by 100.06% of the net count rate at the 95% confidence level. The quantity x 2 is defined as follows: χ2 = Σ observed value) – (expected value) ] [( i i ______________________ 2 (expected value)i where the summation is over the total number of independent observations. (FSD) Ns = 40.Page 6 D. The expected values are computed from any assumed frequency distribution. This is called the fractional standard deviation (FSD) and is determined as follows for the net count rate: (FSD)ng = ksng ng __ = __ ng k ng nb ___ + ___ tg tb where k is the number of standard deviations required to give the desired confidence level. For nuclear counting data the assumed – . Nine-tenths error The nine-tenths error is the uncertainty which is expected to be exceeded 10% of the time on repeat measurements. In other words. will include 50% of the area under the normal distribution curve. hence the expected value is equal to x recorded per interval. E.Chapter 14 .0106 The uncertainty in the determination is 1. the most probable error is equal to 0.64σ. F. it is 1. 2. INME .Principles of Radiation Physics Fractional Standard Deviation and Per Cent Uncertainty It is sometimes convenience to express the uncertainty in a measurement as a fraction of the quantity itself. Thus: INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER. Other Useful Parameters 1. Most probable error The quantity commonly referred to as the most probable error is the deviation which corresponds to that value which will probably be exceeded on repeat measurements.6754σ. it corresponds to the value which. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 . In the previous example. Expressed in terms of the standard deviation.6 ÷ 3.

P is the probability that larger deviations than those observed would be expected due solely to chance if the observed distribution is actually identical to the assumed distribution. the better the observed distribution fits the assumed.02 or if P > 0. – Compute x = Σ Σx n i __ 2. for larger deviations than those observed are just as likely as not.98 the equality of the distributions is very unlikely. F is the number of ways the observed distribution may differ from the assumed.5. From this definition. with the values of χ2 and F. The data should be subdivided into at least five classifications.1≤ P ≤ 0. it is obvious that too little deviation is possible as well as too much.Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 . Compute χ2 from Equation (15) Determine the degrees of freedom (F). From Table X-1. F = n – 1. the observed and assumed distributions are very likely the same.Page 7 χ2 = Σ n i=1 – x –x ( ) i ____ – x 2 (15) where n values of x are observed. If P > 0. determine P. The steps in applying Pearson’s chi-square test to counting data are as follows: 1. Any other value of P would call for additional data to better define the observed distribution. The chi-square test is applied as shown on page 113. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 . The closer P is to 0. INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER. each containing at least five counts. 3. 4. We wish to determine whether these data reflect proper instrument operation. The interpretation of P is for 0. In our application.9.INME . An example of the use of Pearson’s test is as follows: The data in the following table are from a series of ten 2 minute counts of a standard source made with a G-M laboratory counter.

340 12.278 49.336 26.292 18.379 16.805 36.103 0.869 30.542 10.865 5.507 16.584 1.940 4.343 9.708 0.642 46.337 20.338 16.144 31.064 22.117 10. In using such texts.338 18.107 4.475 20.336 27.815 9.304 7.490 4.114 18.2 .879 13.733 3.769 25.339 15.989 27.Page 8 INME .991 7.211 0.672 9. the number of degrees of freedom.041 14.790 8.337 23.578 6.325 3.017 13.547 9.563 36.779 9.340 13.549 19.337 42.611 15.362 23.042 7. Figure 1.366 3.856 11.415 37.196 34.919 18.337 25.50 1.382 38.053 3.312 10.963 48.336 0.741 37.95 0.848 14.342 10.260 8.204 2.386 2.01 9.172 36.635 2.473 17.196 10.557 0.354 13.615 30.210 11.261 7.725 26.813 32. the number of replicate determinations.659 16.980 44.337 21.085 10.351 5.554 0.671 33.524 12.638 42.141 30.685 24.338 13.633 8.086 16.443 13.167 2.007 33.229 5.151 16.277 15.932 40.558 3.240 14.198 12.015 7.113 41.885 40.064 1.865 11.588 Number of Determinations 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 * Usually tables in statistical texts give the probability of obtaining a value of χ2 as a function of df.020 0.168 4.087 0.872 1.571 7.352 0. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 .204 28.Table of Chi-Square Values INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.939 19.344 8.115 0.684 15.314 45.191 37.409 34.812 18.05 5.962 8.Chapter 14 .410 32.Principles of Radiation Physics Table of Chi-Square Values* Probability 0.408 7.275 18.297 0.587 28.571 4.651 12.362 14.833 3.10 4.924 35.088 2.851 11.338 17.848 15.217 27. the value of df should be taken as n-1.256 0.488 11.338 19.070 12.566 38.067 15.660 5.209 24.666 23.542 24.307 23.307 19.090 21.892 6.768 0.928 17.90 0.412 29.226 5.382 35.996 26.000 33.289 41.337 24.605 6.337 22.610 2.390 10.812 21.916 39.688 29.578 32. rather than of n.336 28.675 21.357 4.026 22.339 14.711 1.296 27.575 5.348 6.645 12.346 7.591 12.14.592 14.091 13.236 10.897 9.341 11.812 6.646 2.145 1.251 7.565 14.239 1.987 17.99 0.

Minimum Detectable Activity Minimum detectable activity (MDA) is defined as the activity (usually in microcuries) which will result in a count rate significantly different from background for a given counting time.72. INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.x ________ 144 225 100 81 361 25 225 121 81 121 ____ 1. H.520 / 10 = 252 x χ2 = 1.Principles of Radiation Physics xi ___ 264 267 242 261 233 247 237 263 243 263 ____ 2. P ≈ 0. and f is the calibration factor for the instrument ( f has units of cpm/µCi).INME .484 / 252 = 5.Page 9 From the Table of Chi-Square Values. G. Application of Statistics to Ratemeter Readings Sr = r __ 2 RC where r is the ratemeter reading in counts per minute or counts per second. If the sample counting time is to equal the background counting time: _______ MDA = ( k ÷ f ) √ Nb ÷ tb where k is the number of standard deviations corresponding to the chosen confidence level.484 Chapter 14 . and RC is the time constant of the ratemeter in appropriate time units.9 F = 10 – 1 = 9 – )2 (xi .520 – = 2. we conclude that the data reflect proper instrument operation. Thus. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 .

Page 10 INME .3 .e. keeping the counting time constant. the mean counting rate and the standard deviation are calculated from the data. gradual but consistent changes in either direction. Individual deviations from the mean should not exceed one standard deviation more than 33% of the time. Hence two successive measurements outside the 95% control limit is sufficient cause to suspect anomalous data. One should also watch for trends in the data. Next. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 . Once proper operation is established.14. to construct such a chart. Since there is one chance in 20 that a single value will fall outside these limits by chance alone. etc.Chapter 14 . Statistical Control Charts One way to continually check the accuracy and precision of a nuclear counting instrument is with statistical control charts. Then a chi-square test must be performed on this data to insure proper instrument operation at the outset. i. A statistical control chart permits a periodic check to see if the observed fluctuation in the counting rate from a constant source of radioactivity is consistent with that predicted from statistical considerations.3. it is necessary first to make 20 or 30 independent measurements of the same source..14. two standard deviations more than 5% of the time.Principles of Radiation Physics IV. the chances are one in 400 that such will be the case on two successive observations. If a measurement falls outside the 95% (2σ) line it should be repeated.Statistical Control Chart It is wise to label the abscissa in calendar units to facilitate retrospective analyses. INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER. – + 3σ x Counts Per Minute – + 2σ x – + 1σ x – x – – 1σ x – – 2σ x – – 3σ x 5 15 25 April 5 15 25 May Date of Daily Count Figure 1. and daily counting rates are plotted. a graph is constructed as shown in Figure 1.

N. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 .. Suggestions For Further Reading 1. H. pp. contamination and external sources in the area) are reflected in changing background count rates. 1 (1965).. INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER. 4. If other significant sources of uncertainty are present.INME . Lea and Febiger.. 14. Radioactive Isotopes in Medicine and Biology. Principles of Radioisotope Methodology. 3. V. 74-80. and Rabinowitz.. Principles of Nuclear Medicine. McGraw-Hill Book Co.g. such as timing.Page 11 One readily available source for constructing statistical control charts is the ever present background radiation. (1965). E. Blahd. since certain causes of erroneous data (e. chap. D. H. H. (1965). (1968). they must be dealt with separately and included in the overall estimate of the accuracy. and Feitelberg.. Vol. 4. Nuclear Medicine. W. W. it is important to measure background at least daily on a routinely used instrument. Wagner. chap. pp. S. Burgess Publishing Co.. Summary The application of statistics to nuclear counting data is mandatory to the precision with which measurements are made.Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 . Chase. G. Quimby. 36-44.. B. 2. it should be emphasized that only the uncertainty due to the random nature of the decay process is considered in this chapter. J. L. Saunders Co.

Counts/Second τ = Resolving Time.1 1 10 100 Events Lost.000 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 1000 Observed Counts Per Second 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 5µs s 10 µ s 20µ s 40µ s s 80µ 60µ µs µs 100 200 µs 300 5 00 µs 100 0µs Figure 1. Counts/Second Ro = Observed Count Rate.4 .000 INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.eps .Page 12 3 2 Ro τ R .14.INME . Counts Per Second 1000 10.Ro = ——— 1 . Seconds 10 0.Roτ 2 R = True Count Rate.Principles of Radiation Physics 10.Resolving Time Error 100 9 8 7 6 5 4 Resolving Time Error Chapter 14 . COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 ResolvingTimeError.

5 .INME .1 1 10 Error95% in counts per minute Figure 1. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 .Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 .Page 13 Error in Counts Per Minute as a Function of Total Count and Length of Count (95% Confidence Level) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 10.Error in Counts per Minute 100 INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.000 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1000 9 Total Number of Counts 5 4 3 2 30 Mi nu 20 tes Mi nu 15 Min tes ute 10 s Min ute s 5M inu tes 4M inu tes 8 7 6 60 Min ute s 120 Min ute s 240 Min ute s inu tes 1M 2M 100 9 8 7 6 5 4 inu te ErrorInCounts.14.eps 3 2 10 0.

Principles of Radiation Physics 1000 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 Graph Showing the Most Efficient Distribution of Counting Time between Sample and Background Explanation of Symbols 2 Ns — Counting Rate of Sample Plus Background Nb — Counting Rate of Background ts — Length of Time of Sample Plus Background Count tb — Length of Time of Background Count 100 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Figure 1.INME .14. COLORADO Chapter 14 .Page 14 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 EfficDistribCountingTime.6 .000 100.Efficient distribution of counting time between sample and background ts / t b 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 10 100 Ns / N b 1000 10.eps .000 INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.

10 and 0. S Observed Standard Deviation R.5 1.6 1.7 1.2 0. = — = ——————————————— σ Theoretical Standard Deviation 1.Statistical Limits of Counter Reliability INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.0 0.3 P = 0.9 0.14.3 0.90 0. Corresponding point represents value of P.6 0. If P is less than 0.INME . σn.98.4 0.2 1.1 1.5 0.7 .Page 15 Statistical Limits of Counter Reliability 1. and R. 31) Enter graph with number of observations and R.F.02 P Represents the probability that the observations show a greater deviation from the Poisson distribution than would be expected from chance alone.8 0.Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 .10 P = 0.90.F. (see pg. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 . instrument operation is probably satisfactory.eps 0 0 10 15 20 25 30 Number of Observations Figure 1.F. StatLimtsCounterReliability. If P lies between 0.98 Use From a series of replicate counting measurements compute Sn.02 or greater than 0.7 P = 0. instrument is not operating satisfactorily.4 1.1 P = 0.

AECU-262.09 0.Nomogram for Error in Low Counting Rates INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.07 0.40 0.9 Error and 0.00 * Jarrett.80 0.9 Error of Ns – Nb 0.9 error of the determination of Ns-Nb.03 0.95 Error of Ns – Nb 0.55 0.02 0.75 0.01 Draw a straight line from a point on the left scale that corresponds to the quotient Ns/ts through the point on the right scale that corresponds to the quotient Nb/tb.Page 16 INME .02 0.11 0.00 0. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 .85 0.95 Error of Low Counting Rates* 0.75 0.10 0.30 0.03 0.04 0.Principles of Radiation Physics Ns / ts 0.eps 0.09 0.01 Nomogram1. The point where this line crosses the center scale will correspond to the 0.35 0.70 0.45 0.00 0.40 0.06 0.10 0.06 0.12 0.8 .65 0.05 0.14.08 0.20 0.12 0.07 0.11 0.90 0. 0.50 0.05 0.30 0.45 0.20 ts Nb tb Ns Explanation of Symbols The counting rate of the sample including the background in counts per minute The number of minutes the sample was counted The counting rate of the background in counts per minute Number of minutes the background was counted 0.Chapter 14 .04 Instructions for Use 0.00 1.60 0.10 0.65 0.10 0.50 0.70 0. MonP-126 0.08 0.95 Nb / tb 0.55 0.80 0.60 0.

Principles of Radiation Physics Chapter 14 .9 error of a sample which averaged 1250 counts per minute during a four minute determination is 29 counts per minute.9 error and the 0.9 . The point where this line crosses the center scale corresponds to the 0. AECU-262.Nomogram for Error in Counting Rate Determinations INSTITUTE FOR Book 01 Chap 14 NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.000 100 4 5 5000 50 50 6 7 8 9 10 20 20 1000 10 500 10 20 200 2000 5 5 200 0.INME .14. Example: The 0. MonP-126 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 2 2 50 1 1 20 0.5 0.Page 17 Average Counting Rate 100.95 error of the determination.1 1 Figure 1.000 3 100 10. * Jarrett.2 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Nomogram1.1 0.2 0. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 .000 0.5 10 200 300 5 0.9 Error 500 0.000 2 200 20.95 Error of Counting Rate Determinations* Instructions for Use Draw a straight line from a point on the left scale corresponding to the counting rate of the sample through the point on the right scale corresponding to the length of time the sample was counted.9 Error and 0.eps 2 0.95 Error Length of Time Counted 1 500 50.

6 1.8 2.0 Nomogram3.9 0.2 1.75 tb ___ = 1.9 Error of Ns – Nb 0.25 0.00 3.50 4.3 0.9 1.00 0.8 1.4 0.4 4.75 4.00 2.95 Error of Low Counting Rates* 1.eps 1.1 2.1 0.3 1.75 0.0 2.25 1.6 0.25 2.00 1.00 2.8 0.75 ts Ns Connect line between values and read 3.9 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.00 Ns Explanation of Symbols The counting rate of the sample including the background in counts per minute The number of minutes the sample was counted The counting rate of the background in counts per minute Number of minutes the background was counted 0.50 1.4 0.95 Error of Ns – Nb 3.7 0.5 2.50 Example: Find 0. MonP-126 Figure 1.50 Draw a straight line from a point on the left scale that corresponds to the quotient Ns/ts through the point on the right scale that corresponds to the quotient Nb/tb.3 2.75 1.3 1.25 1.6 1.5 0.Nomogram for Error in Counting Rate Determinations INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR MEDICAL EDUCATION — BOULDER.4 2.0 0. AECU-262.0 1.00 0.50 0.2 2.2 0.Principles of Radiation Physics Nb / tb 3.9 1.2 0.9 2.9 Error and 0.5 1.5 2.0 2.Chapter 14 .5 1.8 0.7 0.Page 18 Ns / ts INME .9 0. 2.2 1. COLORADO 1•800•548•4024 Book 01 Chap 14 .95 error in Net Count Given: Ns = 35 cpm Nb = 15 cpm ts = 20 m tb = 20 m Solution 2.8 1.00 Nb 3.0 1.4 1.00 ts Nb tb * Jarrett.9 and the 0.50 0.14.7 1.10 . 3.75 1.1 1.95 error of the determination of Ns-Nb.6 2.7 2.00 4.25 3.75 3.5 0.25 1.8 2.0 0.25 3.1 2.7 4.6 2.0 Instructions for Use 0.1 cpm on center line.7 1.75 3.75 2.4 2.75 3.3 2.3 0.50 1.1 0.50 2. The point where this line crosses the center scale will correspond to the 0.50 ___ = 0.