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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

SE 410a – WIRELESS LANs AND WANs

Assignment # 1

(Solutions)

**1. What is the received power (in dB) in free space of a signal whose transmit power
**

is 1W and carrier frequency is 2.4 GHz, if the receiver is at a distance of 1 mile

(1.6 km) from the transmitter? What is the path loss in dB?

2

L=

λ=

Path

Loss

in

dB=

4πd

;

λ

10 log10

d=

1.6km=1600

m;

c

3 ×10 8 m / s

=

f

2.4 ×10 9 Hz

**Substituting values of d and λ we obtain L = 52.0642 dB Loss or
**

-52.0642 is the path loss.

Pr

Pr

= 10 −5.20642 = 6.217 ×10 −6 ⇒ Pr = 6.217 × 10 −6

10 log10 =-52.0642 ⇒

P

t

Pt

W

2. A voice-grade channel of the telephone network has a bandwidth of 3.4 kHz. (a)

Calculate the information capacity of the telephone channel for a signal-to-noise

ratio of 35dB; (b) Calculate the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to support

information transmission through the telephone channel at the rate of 9600 bits

per second.

C = B log 2 (1 + SNR ) bits/sec;

(a)

35dB=10 log10 SNR ⇒ SNR = 3162.3 .

3

Therefore, C = 3.4 ×10 log 2 (1 + 3162.3) = 39.533 kbps

(b)

9600=3.4 × 10 −3 log 2 (1 + SNR ) ⇒ 2.8235=log 2 (1 + SNR )

⇒ 1 + SNR = 2 2.8235 = 7.0789 . Therefore, SNR = 6.0789 = 8.4997 dB

3. (a) Find the average capacity in bits/sec that would be required to transmit a high

resolution B/W TV signal at the rate of 32 pictures per second, if the picture is

made up of 2x10 6 picture elements and 16 different brightness levels. All picture

elements are assumed to be independent and all levels have equal likelihood

occurrence. (b) For color TV, this system additionally provides for 64 different

shades of color. How much more system capacity is required for a color system

compared to B/W system?

(a) High Resolution B/W TV requires:

32 × 2 ×10 6 × 4 = 256 Mbps=The system capacity

(b) For Colour TV the system capacity is:

32 × 2 ×10 6 × 6 = 384 Mbps=System Capacity

the bandwidth required is 442. 20. Current FAX machines go faster than this over ordinary telephone lines. 50mW through the antenna will yield 50mW × 8=400mW = 26. each retransmission taking p / b sec. not 64 k bps. which saves a factor of 4. How do you think they do it? The paper has 80 sq. Given a wireless bridge with 200mW of output power connected through a 100 foot cable with 6 dB loss to an antenna with 9 dBi of gain. A TDMA system operates at 100Mbps with a 2ms frame time. Assume that all the slots are of equal length and that a guard time of 1 µ s is required between slots. Therefore. the propagation delay is‘d’ seconds per hop. for a total of 7. It is desired to send a sequence of computer screen images over an optical fiber. what is the EIRP at the antenna in dBm? 6 dB loss ⇒ −3dB − 3dB (Cable Loss) 9 dBi gain ⇒ +3dB+3dB+3dB (Antenna Gain) 200mW is the input.88 ×10 7 bits. so the total delay is given by: tp = x p + (k − 1) + kd b b Comparing the two delays. Compare the delay in sending x-bit message over a k-hop path in a circuitswitched network and in a lightly loaded packet switched network. There are 60 screen images per second. Assuming 1 bps/Hz.368 MHz 6. How long does it take to transmit an 8 inch by 10 inch image by facsimile over an ISDN B channel (64 kbps)? The facsimile digitizes the image into 300 pixels per inch and assigns 4 bits per pixel. For circuit switching: t c = s + x + kd b For packet switching: The last bit is sent at t = x / b .2 ×10 6 pixels. The circuit setup time is‘s’ seconds. each pixel is 24 bits. inches. 10. 2. 7. transmission takes 450sec. Current FAX machines use 1 bit/pixel. Figure out the conditions under which a packet network has a lower delay. the last packet must be retransmitted k −1 times by intermediate nodes. so transmitting a full page still takes 450 sec. 200mW when comes out of the cable will become 200mW/4= 50mW.0206dBm 5. How much bandwidth is required? Data Rate= 480 × 640 × 24 × 60 =442. 50. the packet size is ‘p’ bits. and 100 slots per frame. (a) Compute the efficiency of the system for the case of 1. (b) Repeat (a) assuming a 100-bit preamble is required at .4. Therefore. packet switching is faster if s > ( k −1) p b 8. Transmitting this image at 4 bits/pixel requires 2. EIRP=26. To get to the final destination. but these FAX modems operate at 1. At 64 kbps (ISDN B Channel).368 Mbps.0206dBm. 5.44 kbps. The screen is 480x640 pixels. The reason they appear to go faster is that most pages are 95% white spaces and runlength encoding used removes it all. and data rate is ‘b’ bits per second.

the efficiency is given by: n ×1µs η = Efficiency = 1 − 2ms n η 2 0. (c) Graph the results of (a) and (b). 10 0.998 100 0.90 .9995 2ms η = Efficiency = 1 − n 2 0. Compute the efficiency of the system.950 100 0. and therefore the efficiency ( η ) is 100% For n >1. (a) Let n = number of slots For n = 1 .995 Graph the values yourself.the start of each slot.975 5 0.950 100bits = 1µ sec .980 50 0.9975 (b) Preamble time= η =1 − 10 0. there is no guard time.995 20 0. For n = 1 .999 5 0. the efficiency is given by: η 50 0. the efficiency (η ) is 10 8 bits / sec For n >1.990 1µs = 0.990 n × 2 µs 2ms 20 0.

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