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Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

An Outline for Physical Security Planning JIn the

Institutional Setting

By Randy Gonzalez

Practice effective planning. Remember the '5P's', proper planning prevents poor performance. Anticipate, recognize and initiate protective measure at all times.








Randy Gonzalez





I . . I


: This manual is protected by copyright. No part of this manual may be re-: : produced, transmitted, or otherwise copied in any form without written per- : : mission from the author or his representative ••.•••••••• , •••••••••••••••••••• :

I ~ ------------------------1

They are for you.

Either you' or they will have the edge.



l n t ro duc tion

Developing A Strategy For Success In Crime Prevention Ingredients for Success In Crime Prevention Developing Program Objectives

The Concept of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design The CPTED Process Model

Areas of Security nisk

Developing A t10del Physical Securi.ty Survey For The Institutional Setting

Basic Institutional Security Survey Model

Selected Institutional Security Checkl ists Basic Institutional Security Survey Outl ine Security Survey Implementation Outline

Sample Model - Armed Robbery - Burglary Prevention Checklist Sample Model - Barrier-Perimeter Security Checklist

Sample Model - Public Facility Physical Security Checkl ist Sample Model - School Facility Physical Security Checkl ist Sample Model - Institutional Retail Security Checklist

Sample Model - Institutional Physical Security Survey Checklist Crime Prevention Program Presentation Outline For The Institutional Setting

Sample Model - Health Care Facility Physical Security Checklist Health Care Facility Outline of Basic Security Considerations Sample Model - Museum Security Checklist

Sample Model - Library Security Checkl ist

Sample Model - Cashier-Teller Security Checklist

Lighting Security Outline Recommended Illumination Levels Lighting Information Reference Sources



3 8 10 13 15 16

18 19 28 29 31 32 33 35 36 37 39

43 46 51 54 56 57 58 59


This manual places primary emphasis on physical security planning within the institutional setting. As used in this manual, the term includes the types of facilities normally associated with college campuses, school systems, health care facilities or hospitals, museums, or other publ ic facil ities, or non-profit organizations. However, the crime prevention principles remain constant, and are applicable to a range of facilities that mayor may not be included along with these types of facilities. Therefore, eventhough the focus of discussion centers around these types of institutions, the same ideas, with some modification may be further designed to provide a basis for physical security planning in many other types of facilities.

It often appears to the crime prevention practitioner

a discouraging

sign of the times, when he or she confronts the rise in violence and damage to institutional property and personnel. The threat of violence and damage in institutions has increased rapidly over the past several years. Vandalism and other related acts have I ikewise shown a trend toward increase, as crime statistics from various institutions will attest. The crime prevention officer is faced with a demand for increased program activity, as well as more effective crime control plans and procedures. In addition, law suits directed toward institutions for the criminal actions of third parties, in recent years, have also stimulated a renewed interest in physical security planning on the part of institutional safety and security departments. Today, it is seemingly apparent that institutions are subject to legal action and varying degrees of liabil ity, with regard to the physical security of the environment. Some courts have suggested that an institution has a duty to provide a reasonable level of safety and security for its communityo Therefore, in view of the varied pressures upon the police and security forces of public


institutions, this manual has been prepared to assist in the development of

crime prevention and physical security planning.

The manual should be viewed as a basic guide and outline for the devel-

opment of comprehensive security plans within the institutional setting, and

assist the crime prevention personnel with their program services. The for-

mat of the manual is basic and should serve as a flexible tool in providing

a source of reference for crime prevention personnel, building supervisors &

other interested persons.

Guidelines are presented for building and personnel security, in addi-

tion to considerations for organizing and planning community prevention pro-

grams. The information presented should be viewed as general considerations

and modified where necessary to fit the needs of the individual setting with

regard to crime prevention and physical security planning.














As it is with any field of endeavor, so it is with the field of


prevention. There are times for success and times for failure in providing programs ~nd services to the community. This particular section is devoted to developing a 'state of mind', so to speak, on the part of the crime prevention officer that will lead he or she to greater levels of success, and

professional ism, in the field of crime prevention and



planning. The intent is to create some I food I for thought, and assist the crime prevention officer, whether he or she represents the publ ic sector or the private sector, in designing a positive attitude in the approach to providing quality professional services to his or her publ ic. Crime prevention is a professional high quality and technical type of service. The person who becomes a crime prevention officer assumes the role of a special ist and a technician in an aspect of law enforcement and security that is one of the most important positions one can accept responsibility for. Whether or not chiefs, directors, or agency heads accept that idea or not, is beside the point. The point is, the crime prevention officer, or the crime prevention unit, is one of the most important parts of the organization. This is the point within the organizational structure of the department, where the individual crime prevention officer, or unit of crime prevention officers will

express the philosophy of the department's mission and goals in a manner to the community.

Naturally, this does not mean that other functions of the agency are of


less importance, such as the patrol function, which is the backbone of the primary mission of the agency. But, crime prevention is the planning, and the strategy arm of the agency. This is the person or group within the department who plans how to better educate the community, and enlist their aid

in the future management of the health, safety and welfare of the total environment. Anyone of reasonable In te I l igence can be taught basic pol ice or security functions to accomplish the mission of the patrol function. But, not every~ne can be taught how to be a crime prevention officer, or physical security planner. Therefore, it is important in the beginning that the department or agency select highly motivated personnel to fill the position of crime prevention officer or security pJ~nner.

Professional high quality services and programs are vital to informing the public about one of the most significant problems facing the community and country: CRIME. The concept of crime prevention and physical security planning are aspects of urban law enforcement that are in need of formal and well defined structuring within the agency's organization. This function of public or private service should be staffed by qualified individuals who are interested in becoming involved in a high profile results oriented task with major involvement in a number of specialized programs. ~1any departments and agencies have limited quidelines in the selection of crime prevention personnel. As a result, some personnel find their way into crime prevention as a means to become "s em l+ re t l red ", which produces mediocre levels of services and programs. In some agencies or departments, personnel are assigned to a crime prevention role who little or no conception of what crime prevention & physical security planning are about. In addition, agency heads or department di rectors in some organi zations tend to give crime prevention a somewhat low priority, which results in less than effective programs, as well as community awareness and interaction. The residents of any given community, whether that community is defined as the staff of one particular institution or an entire city, or even a business setting1s conporate environment, are entitled to a 100% effort by the agency in safeguarding people and property.


The role of crime prevention requires attention to certain basic tenets

in promoting crime prevention activities. These include, at least the fol-









The development of a comprehensive crime prevention program for a particular community, institution or setting, requires attention to at least a

set of three important variables of influence. They may be broadly


as: organ\zational factors; social factors; and, institutional factors. The agency must be committed to crime prevention of a qual ity nature, from' the top of the organization to the bottom. Commitment to crime prevention programs and services must be reflected by everyone within the structure of the organization. Lacking a sol id foundation of commitment to bui'ld an effective and productive crime prevention program, the agency will face problems in the near future. Every member of the organization must be involved in at least some aspect of supporting the crime prevention operations.

There are definitely social factors which influence the role of pol ice and security services. Crime prevention is one of the most important means by which the department or agency can address the social influences in an effective and productive manner. By looking at i the various social factors & influences that affect the particular community or institution, the prevention specialist can then begin to develop a plan to deal with resuiting problems, which are a consequence of the social influences. More precisely the social influences can be viewed as 'environmental' factors. These are the factors that create the opportunity for criminal activity, and are the areas that must receive the focus of attention, in order to reduce the opportunity for criminal activity.

Institutional factors or influences represent those aspects of a given community which may tend to affect the productivity of the police or security services. These include ideas, feelings, tradition, bias, prejudice, or other related issues that prevent a positive atmosphere both internal, and external to the agency or department. These factors must be changed in pre-


paration for effective programming services. In this sense, linstitutionall does not refer to a physical structure or setting, but instead refers to the established behavior that prevents productive change. It could refer, as an example, to the notorious myths about sexual assault, which must be altered in some way, so that community awareness is enhanced to produce a sense of greater understanding about the problem. Thus, this would foster a tpend in the direction of greater personal safety practices.

Developing a strategy for success in crime prevention is not always an easy task for the person assigned responsibilities for such services. Even under the most successful and positive circumstances, the police in general are up against significant odds, when dealing with criminal behavior. As it may be seen in various governmental research project reports, the police are only one part of a massive social system, Ishoveling sand against the rising tidesl, so to speak. Since crime prevention is the responsibility of every person in the -community, and the society at ~arge, it is a difficult task to get everyone actively involved. It is also a very frustrating taks for a crime prevention officer. However, it is the responsibil ity of the police & crime prevention personnel to do their part in the best manner possible, and with a high sense of professionalism and expertise. Just because other aspects of the system seem unsupportive, and the community may appear ~o have an infestation of apathy, are not excuses for doing less than an effective and productive job in crime prevention.

Success in crime prevention for the crime pr~ventJon officer will re-

quire maintaining a positive mental attitude, because, there will be a number of occasions when the job seems thankless, and efforts appear unproductive. There may be problems of poor funding for crime prevention efforts or an endless struggle of obtaining needed resources. Sometimes, the agency


leadership, or perhaps the institution's leadership, may not provide proper direction for crime prevention personnel. The obstacles may seem endless, & the light at the end of the tunnel may not seem so bright. But, no one ever said it wa,s going to be easy to be a professional crime prevention officer.

A professional crime prevention officer must be relentless in the pursuit of his or her objectives, and use a large amount of innovation, and ingenuity. Use training and skill to your advantage, and turn thoughts into action. Every effort begins with a state of mind, and you must build on the talents you have, increase your professional ability, and continue to learn and grow. Crime prevention is no place for the timid. It is a place of intense action. Although, some within the organization may be critical during some occasions, and experienced crime prevention officers have often had many negative comments thrown their way by fellow officers, do not give up. The crime prevention officer must rise above the criticism, and succeed in developing professional services for his or her community.

Developing a strategy for success involves some key character traits in order to be effective and productive. The following I ist provides the basic ingredients for success in crime prevention. Remember, timidly approaching, or going about the job of crime prevention in a less than enthusiastic way, will never lead to successful programs or services. The following aspects are designed to assist in developing a strategy for success.

I. DESIRE: a desire to accomplish goals and objeGtives;

a. Set definite objectives and establish defined goals.

b. Determine the time to be committed.

c. Establish definite dates and a workable timetable. do Develop a definite plan of action.

e. Write the plan of action and study it.


g. Update the plan as needed.

f. Read, review and evaluate the plan of action.

h. Think in terms of accomplishing all goals and objectives.

2. POSITIVE MENTAL ATTITUDE: believe in yourself, be committed, and devoted to crime prevention; practice the art, be persistent, study and analyze capabil ities; be self-confident and dedicated; provide quality and professional services;

3. SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE: continue to educate yourself and grow with a sense of unique abil lty in a specialized field; develop expertise in physical security planning, etc.;

40 IMAGINATION: cultivate your creative powers and develop your mental 'workshop'; be flexible, innovative, and ready to make changes when necessa ry;

5. ORGANIZED PLAN: develop the abstract into the concrete; have a set framework, or well defined plan; do research, gather data, 'brainstorm' with others and get fresh ideas; ask for input; maintain a sense of balance, and capitalize on training and experience; utilize available resources and information;


Cour aqe


Sense of Duty

Sense of Justice Definiteness of Decision Definiteness of Plan Coope ra t i on

Speak i ng Ab iT i ty Organization Skills Leadersh ip

Doing more than expected Exceeding job requirements Pleasing personality

Sympathy and Understanding for others Mastering Detai I - Getting Results Willingness to assume responsibility Good Public Presence

Good Communication Skills Accomplish objectives on schedule Setting Proper Example for others

70 DECISION: strive to overcome procrastination; reach decisions, and focus on objectives; accept responsibility for decisions and action taken;

8. PERSISTANCE: develop a positive state of rnl nd ; focus on will power and cultivate talents; keep in mind persistant, patience and proper perception; cultivate:

Definiteness of purpose Desire and opportunity Accurate Knowledge

\-Ji l f -power

S elf - Re I ian ce Definiteness of Plan Cooperation with others

. Pers istance


In developing a plan of action for the institutional security of a particular setting, it will be critically important to establish goals and objectives. On some, and perhaps many, occasions, the crime prevention officer will be asked to develop programs and services with little or no direction, or explanation, as to why they are supposed to be doing it. Every agency has different reasons for attempting to develop objectives, and some reasons may

even appear rational and logical.

Goals and objectives should never be es-

tablished if the only reason is to impress dignitaries or high level administrators. Some of the important reasons for developing program objectives are as follow:

1. To have a system of comparison for evaluation, accountability & measurement of productivity.

2. The effectiveness of particular programs and services can be assessed against specific objectives.

3. Responsible agency or department managers need some means by to hold crime prevention personnel accountable for results.

4. A set of well defined and definite program objectives are important,


and essential in developing a rational measure of effectiveness, and allocating scarce resources, etc.

5. Failure to set a plan, based on sound objectives, may result in trying to 'navigaterough waters in a ship without a rudder'.

6. Program objectives will assist in asking bas l c iques t l ons about a set or planned program, such as: ~~hat is crime prevention doing? \"rhy are we doing it? And, how are we going to do it?

7. Definiteness of plan and purpose can be spelled out in specific objectives, to help avoid activities that may not be productive.


8. To be helpful, objectives should be spelled out in writiing, and de-

veloped into a workable document of reference.

Goals and objectives should be review, evaluated and updated periodical-

ly. Such,actions will help you maintain direction, and determine where you

have been, and where you are going. At the beginning of the year, such data

should guide activities for the coming year, and help direct attention to the

overall picture during the year. By the end of the year, such


should assist in providing a standard by which a measure of effectiveness can

be assessedo

Developing a strategy for success in crime prevention for the


tional environment, should be no different from any other kind of police or

security related setting. Goals and objectives should be clearly defined and

evaluated. The following presents some basic definitions:

GOALS: ••••••••••• Represent the broad statements of the overal purpose of bas i c agency or department functions that are based on the perceived needs or desires of the community or setting served. They may also refer to mandated areas of res pons i b I I l ty •

OBJECTIVES: •• o ••• Represent the specific statements of desired or expected ach i evemen t , They refl ect management emphas is. The objectives should related to:

1. Results
2. Speci fi c , not genera 1
3. Measu rab 1 e
4. Achievable
5. Feasible
6. Speci fi c Time L imi ts
7. Oriented to an audience or user
8. Relevant to goals Objectives that meet at least the above criteria will serve as a sig-

nificant foundation for measuring program success. Objectives that are pro-

perly written will provide the crime prevention officer, as well as manage-

ment, control over programs and services.








I) 13 J [[T III es







The concept of 'crime prevention through environmental design'


the wide range of activities related to the entire field of crime prevention and physical security planning. As viewed by this manual, the concept is of a general sense, with 'environmental security planning' being the more specific concept. Environmental Security Planning, for the purposes of the information contained herein, or 'ESPI as it shall be called, will refer to the process by which Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, 'CPTED1 will be accomplished. ESP is the process which brings together the aspects of traditional crime prevention theory and practice, and integrates them in the physical design characteristics of urban development and growth manage-


In basic terms, ESP is a comprehensive approach that is concerned &

hs directed toward the reduction of criminal opportunity, and, at the same time, focussed on urban design and the fear of crime by.the citizens of the target location or setting. The fear of crime on the part of the 'participants, within a given setting (or, institution), is viewed as being equally serious and a major element in the decline of security and safety within the particular setting.

The basic idea behind ESP suggests that the urban setting can be alter-

ed, designed or redesigned in such manner so that opportunities for


can be reduced. At the same time, fear of crime, without constructing something like a castle or fortress, can be decreased for the residents or participants in the setting. The quality of urban I ife within a given institution can be enhanced through proper planning - ESP. The ESP approach to the problem of crime is an evl01utionary process in the tradition of crime prevention. It goes beyond the simple and basic to encompass the complex.


ESP has become an important element in the preventive orientation in an

effort to reduce the opportunity for criminal activity. Again, the primary

idea of ESP is that the design and organization of the physical environment

contributes to the opportunity for crime and the fear of crime. Therefore,

the objective is not to construct a fortress-like atmosphere, but to use the

principles of crime prevention and good planning to reduce criminal


tunity, and help the participants within the environment gain control of and

take responsibility for their environmento

[/~Jl~ [1\

(Environmental Security (Community

Planning) Involvement)

.> I




Crime Prevention Community Programs

Urban Planning •••••• o Investment

C I :

Urban Design Technical Expertise

Development Private/Public Sectors


The CPTED Process Model

CPTED: Comprehensive Security Planning & Development Process:

ESP + C I ,

Crime Prevention Urban Planning Urban Des i gn

~Technical Aspect

Community Programs

t~-------------- Investment & Development Private/Public Sectors

Target Area Selection ------------------------------~BP-

Data Review/Analysis

Data Collection Assessment

Deve lopment of Strategy & Alternative Solutions

Assessment of the Crime Environment

Deve 1 opmen t 0 f '-----------------------------------~ .. --Security Plan and Program

Monitoring and Evaluation

Design of the.Plan and Implementation -----------------------------------~~-

Followup Phases of Design and Implementation, Review and Assessment for Change or modification

Ongoing Comprehensive and Total Involvement Process Community Standards, and Control, Accountability, Responsibility, etc.


The ESP process begins with an assessment of the target environment and continues along a well planned path as suggested by the 'CPTED Process Model on Page 15. An assessment is accompl ished in a number of ways, fo ll ow i nq a particular format. Typically, this is considered the realm of the physical security survey, and can be accomplished by use of a number of various types of formats, depending on the environment to be surveyed. A thorough analysis is critical to the second part of the CPTED Process Model, which is the 'data collection assessment' (See Page 15). This manual is primarily devoted to this aspect of the total process. A well designed survey format will attempt to focus on the particular security problems within a given setting. For example, in addition to the specific security recommendations and problem ~reas identified by the survey, a thorough analysis should reveal areas of security risk such as:

I. Uncontrolled public use of certain areas, contributing to the high risk potential of the environment.

2. The opportunity for intruders to come and go unchallenged, allowing them to become familiar with the setting, select crime targets, and plan a criminal act, commit the criminal act, and escape unchallenged.

3. Foster fear of crime resulting in non-use of certain areas,


creates an environment in which it is difficult to determine the

intruder from the person who belongs there.

4. Insufficient parking control facilities off-street, which creates a situation of confusion and lack of environmental control; lack of control over parking areas, which allows uncontrolled access; lack of environmental definition of the setting, allowing one facility &


setting to intrude upon another. Poorly defined areas of control.

5. Failure to define legitimate use by virtue of construction and the

design, which allows uncontrolled access and intrusion.

6. Failure to organize and structure the environment to reduce con-

flict and opportunities for crime and fear of crime.

7. Failure to design the environment to allow proper use, control, and

develop a sense of responsibility on the part of the legitimate and

appropriate participants of the setting.

~[[ IJIlI T IJ ~1J1l"[IJ:

A well defined format that promotes the identification of security problem areas, and generates information to assist in determing proper alternatives for reduction of crime in a given setting. Serves as the basis for .datia collection and the assessment phase.

Serves to promote: •••••••••••••••••






Prevention before a criminal act occurs is just as important as the

solution of a crime after it has occurred. The best way to prevent an in-

cident from taking place, is to increase the odds against the intruder and

make commission of an act difficult. This is what many people call Ihard-

ening the targetl• A security plan nor an institution can be defined by

the simple and the complex. A system of security for an institution, also

can be defined in various ways. For example, security can be as simple as

installing maximum security deadbolt locks, or as complex as installing an

electronic security system with closed circuit television. No system of

physical security is 100% foolproof. Likewise, no standard technique of

conducting a physical security survey, or perfect model format, exists for

surveying a target site. But, there are basic issues that will assist the

crime prevention practitioner in developing and designing a more compre-

hensive and cost-effective approach. The more comprehensive and well re-

searched the survey format becomes, the more effective the implementation,

and the development of recommendations, will be. Thus, a more secure, and

safe institutional environment will result, and the opportunities for a

crime reduced.

The format that follows refers to a very basic design for a physical

security survey. This model presents some of the basjc issues related to

conducting a physical security survey. As with all surveys, regardless of

the complexity, each should be made appropriate to the target facility, or

the target site, setting, environment, etc. The physical security survey

should be modified to fit the needs of the setting to be reviewed, and be

in agreement with the objectives of the survey project.


-----------------Basic Institutional Security Survey Model------------------





I TY: ( ), YES () NO:

H I STORY OF CR I M I NAL A-=C'="T":"":' V~I~T~Y--:F=O-=-R


PR I MARY USE OF FAC I Lf TV '";;"A~ND:::--~T""H'=""E


SURV EV REQU ES TE D--:::":BY,.,..:------


OTH ERA G E N CY / P E·"'"R":"'"S O="'N"""So--:'"A-=-S S"'""I:-::S:"::T:":'","""'N G"'--~I"""N


CO N TA CT P E R'"='"S"""'O N"""S"""""'A=T-'F::-'A""""C"""'I"""L"'"'I T=Y.,-----A"""N""'="'D




L 0 CA L P O':'"'L~I C=-=E=--=D"::":E P::-:A:-'::R-=T~t1 E=N=T:--:::"CA-:-::SO-:E:--;;"# --:"1 =-F


DA T E LAS T PH'~y"="S"""'1 C"'"'A""'L--,;:'"S E="'C"..U=R ..... I =TY~-::;:S.,...,.U""'R V7:E"""'"Y


LAST SU RVE""'"Y-:C:::-:O"""N=D"""'U'='=CT=E=D~BY:-:-:-----


OPERAT r ON I. D.: ( ) YES (---r-) """'"N=O-: -- 1 PROPERTY MARKI NG SYSTEM/PROGRAN-: - r



-;;:P';";'HO:::"T~O~S:---';:;T"'A:-;-:KE;::r:· ~~J/r;:;PC;:;:R"'O ~P E;:::;R~T""'Y""I ~N V;7,E;::r:N';":;T:::;:O~Ry:7""";A;;-:-N="D :



I •

I " •

Office Equipment Security:

A. Equ i pment Securi ty: __ ...;..

B. Storage Areas:


C. Documents & Fi I es:


D. Key Control : _

E. Property Inventory:


F. High Risk Equipment and

Types: _

General Building Security:

A. Lighting: __ ~-------------

All Sides:

--Entries: --------

-Lobby :_' -- __ --:- -






Repa i r Schedu 1 e: '

-Hours of III umi n-a-t':"'i o-n-· :- .. --

·------Manual or Timers: ----Minimum Foot-Cand~l-es--~F-o-r

---·--Security Lighting:

B. Barri ers & Fenci ng-:-:-' ..,....,..,,...........-

Local Building and Zoning

--Codes affecting use:

Bar r l er/Fence Des i gn-:----Trash & Debris: .


-·-Trees, vines,ect. that can

----be used as climbing aids:

Co Skyl ights and Roof Access:

D. Fire Exits and Stairways:

E. Windows:

F. Lo cks : -.,..---,-..,...,.....,...,-.,..,....-----~..,.--

G. Doors:


11. Security Systems:

Ao Intrustion .Pro te ct lon i

B. Fire-Detection: -----

CQ Sys tem Type-and Des i gn : _ Local

-. -Central Station IX: Facil ity Diagram:

--Po 1 ice Depa r trnen t I

_____ ~- ------------------ 1


Repair, Loan and Service-

Program: __


Personal Identification:

A. Employee


B. Service Personnel


Policies & -Procedures:


Security Procedures:

A. Education and Training:

B. Security Practices: --

V I.

Personal Safety Consideration forPersQn~el~tSite:


Summary & Conclusions:

VI I I. Recommendations & Findings:

Attached to Survey

~I ncl uded in Fi na 1 Report


In reviewing the basic model presented on Page 19, several key factors are important to note concerning each item in the checklist. These include the following:

LIGHTING: All external areas of the particular building or institutional facility should be as well lighted as possible. Each side of the building, and, including the roof area, should be critically assessed in order to determine the actual amount of illumination, and what levels of lighting will be needed to enhance the security profile. Lobby, entry points, sensitive or critical work areas within the building, should be well I ighted as much as possible. Automatic timing systems should be installed to ensure an effective system of continuous lighting during all hours of darkness, both inside the facility and outside. At least once per week, an employee should

have the responsibility to examine all lighting and ensure proper


order. Lighting maintenance schedules should be well documented, and remain an important part of the security program. Theft and vandal-resistant protection should be utilized for all lighting, such as metal screens, protective glass, etc. It is important to the reduction of criminal activity to maintain a clean, well-lighted, and highly visible building.

BARRIERS & FENCING: Consideration for the installation of new fencing or barriers should be done ,lin conformance with all applicable building, and zoning codes. Fencing should be of a sturdy and strong design, well maintained, and always kept free of trash, debris, etc. Any growth that might aid an intruder in cl I mb i nq over the fence, or provide areas of concealment, should be removed.

ROOF ACCESS: Skylights, roof doors, and ventilator shafts/ducts, etc., should be well protected to prevent unauthorized entry. These areas should be sealed off if possible, or protected with steel bars, screens, etc.


FIRE EXITS AND STAIR\.JAYS: No modifications, changes, e tc , , should take

place in a building until local ordinances and fire codes have been checked.

Emergency exits should be designed in such a manner, so that emergency exit

is possible, but unauthorized entry from the outside is difficult.


wells should be well lighted, as well as the exit doors and doo rs leading to

the stairwellso Care should be taken in the examination of emergency door

hardware, and devices that would violate codes should be avoided.

WINDOWS: Windows should be of a type that will not altow easy access &

and at the same time provide visibil lty. \.Jindows should be regularly check-

ed to ensure proper working order and good repair. Steel mesh, bars, pro-

tective glass materials, protective plastics, and other security devices are

important considerations for securing windows. Again, local codes should be

consulted so that violations do not occur.

LOCKS: Consideration should be given as to what is 'being protected be-

hind the door. High risk areas should have maximum security locking devices

on the doors. Glass panels in doors should be a minimum of thirty-six inch-

es from the lock installation. Someone within the particular office area

should have responsibilities to conduct a security inspection to ensure that

all areas are locked, at the close of the business day. The following min-

imum security recommendations are important:

a. Exterior door locks should be armed with protective devices to prevent tampering, prying, etc. Devices such as metal guard plates at lock installation points, shoul d be installed. Every effort should be made to prevent removal of the cylinder, as well as, prying of locking mechanism.

b. Lock cylinders should be resistant to tampering, and dead-bolt lock systems should have a minimum bolt extension of one inch. All of the area around the lock cylinder should be protected with a metal plate to prevent tampering.

c. Doors equipped with automatic closing devices should be checked on a regular basis to ensure that the door closes properly.


DOORS: All doors outside and inside a structure should be fully eval-

uated. External doors, entrances, and other access points to the


should meet at least the following minimum security aspects:

a. Doors should have a solid core. The design should be of sturdy & strong wood construction, or metal construction. If doors are discovered to have a hollow core, then strong reinforcing material is to be installed.

b. Glass doors should be secured with some type of folding metal cover or screen, steel mesh or similar material designed on the inside of the door. As an alternative, protective plastic shields or covers can be placed over the glass panel from the inside, and secured to the frame.

c. If an alarm system is planned, doors should be included in the protective arrangement. Such items as: magnetic switches, sensors or detectors should be attached to the doors.

d. The frame around the doors should be as strong as the doors. The

design should be appropriate to the type of door used. If it seems the frame is too weak for the door, then it should be replaced.

e. Exterior door locks should meet at least those items indicated on Page 21, under "Locks". In addition, office doors should also be equipped with dead-bolt type locking devices.

f.Exposed hinges and hinge pins on all doors should be protected. If possible, hinges and pins should be of the non-removable type, or welded in place. In pre-construction stages, or building modification~, hinges should be placed on the inside if ~t all possible. If doors must open to the outside, due to local codes, security hinges should be used. Al so, the hinge plates can be dr I 11 ed at the frame and the door, and a security pin installed to prevent removal.

g. Doors for storage areas, mechanical rooms, etco should also be fitted with dead-bolt locks. These should also be kept locked when not in use. These areas should be checked at the close of normal & regular business hours.

h. All exterior doors, and doors to high risk areas (such as document rooms, computer rooms, cash-handling areas, etc.) should be equipped with wide-angle viewers ('peepholes').

i. Elevators should be examined to determine if security devices can be installed. Local codes should be consulted. If possible, elevators should be designed so that they can be locked from access to high-risk floors. They should also be programmed into the alarm or security system. For high-security areas, elevators should be key operated and restricted to certain authorized keys. 'Panic' buttons and emergency notification devices should be installed, as well as corner-view security mirrors.

j. Special fire doors should meet certain specifications of the local codes, and have an Underwriters Laboratory rating. Appropriate and secure locking hardware should be used.

SECURITY SYSTEMS: Depending on the cost-benefit relationship


what is being protected, and the need for a security system, there are many

types of alarm systems on the market today. Many variables will



the type of alarm system, such as size, location, type of institution, type

of functions and services, etc. Alarm systems are an important part of the

overall security program for the institution. Careful selection and assess-

ment is critical.

Consider the following basic aspects for an initial assessment of sys-

tern needs:

a. What is the total value of property to be protected?

b. What personnel safety/security considerations are involved?

c. What is total square feet to be protected? How many floors?

d. What type of alarm system? Local only? Central Station? police department if permitted?

The local

e. U.L. ratings and classifications?

f. Design of the alarm system?

g. Posting of warning signs?

h. Use~ education and training?

i. False alarms?

j. Control of access in the use of an alarm system?

k. Emergency notification - 'panic' protection?

1. Silent robbery alarm?

m. Burglary protection?

OFFICE EQUIPMENT SECURITY: If it is possible, there should be a written

policy regarding the purchase, installation, use, and protection of all in-

stitutional office equipment and property. Responsibility should be assign-

ed to the accountable officer of each department, or sub-unit, within a par-

ticular building or facility. There should also be a well-defined policy in

regard to key control and access to building areas, with well-established &

def1~ed levels of accountability.


The following items suggest basic considerations. These are suggested as minimum recommendations, as there are perhaps other possible solutions to securing office equipment. Note the following:

a. All equipment, when possible, should be secured to a fixed object.

b. For additional information, with regard to minimum security precautions for office equipment and adiovisual property, request a copy of: Physical Security Guidelines For Office Equipment ••••• And Audiovisual Property, $10.00 per copy; .Corrtac t the author by writ .... ing C/O 415 - 63rd St ree t , .Holmes Beach, Florida, 33510.

c. Locking hardware, cable locking devices, padlocks, etc. are available on the market, designed to secure office equipment.

do Key control should be well-established and maintained at all times for all doors, cabinets, files, desks, etc.

e. The possession of a key should have established responsibilites & and limited to those persons with a specific and defined need.

fo Whenever a key holder leaves the institution, all keys should be recovered. If keys are not recovered, the locks should be changed.

g. All office equipment and property should be maintained in an up-to date inventory. Equipment should be marked and engraved with institutional identifications, decal numbers, property numbers, and appropriate information.

ho Office documents and important files should be,stored in U.L.listed and rated storage devices. Locking devices should be properly designedo

l , Safes' '. in the . office envi ronment should have a U.L. rating related to its use. Safes should have at Teast a minimum U.L. rating for 'torch and tool I of thirty minutes.


j. Safes should be secured to the floor and further secured at base of the safe with concrete.

k. All property should be accounted for at least once a year. In addition there should be a written policy with regard to the loan, and use of any institutional equipment off the premises of the facility at any time.

PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION: A system should be established to


employees, visitors, service personnelt vendors, etc. who enter the premises of the facility. In high risk areas, such as a computer center, all of the employees should have some form of identification, which is worn on the outside of the clothing. Proper access controls should be established to properly identify persons entering the facility, indicating the nature of business, and what specific areas of the facility they are allowed to enter.

SECURITY PROCEDURES:Poolicies should be established in writing, with regard to security procedures. Each person ln: the faciT ity of the institution has a responsibility for safety and security of co-workers and property within the institution. A good security plan, in order to effective, begins at the top of the organization, and extends down to all personnel, with regard to setting good exampleso Employees must be convinced of the need for their cooperation in crime prevention and physical security planning. Basic employee education should include:

a. An understanding of the institutionls securit~and safety program.

b. Knowing what procedures to follow and who to call in the event of an emergency.

c. Each department, floor area, sub-unit, etc. of a particular building should a person assigned with security responsibilities, to ensure that proper security procedures are followed.


d. A program designed to develop different departments, floors, units etc. into a 'neighborhood' type watch should be developed for the employees of a particular building or institutional setting.

e. All personnel should know how to operate .eme rqency equipment, fi re a 1 arms, etc.

f. At the end of the normal business day, the person assigned security

responsibilities should ensure: all doors are locked, all secured, desks and files locked, valuables protected, etc.

g. Suspicious persons should be reported immediately to the police or


security department. Persons found to be 'hanging around', loitering, etc. should be questioned by the appropriate personnel.

h. A program of ongoing security education should be an active part of the institution's setting.

PERSONAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS: Every effort should be made to enhance the personal safety of employees, as well as visitors or others who have the occasion to visit the facility or the institution. A program of personal safety awareness and assault prevention should be developed. Consider the following points with regard to personal safety aspects within the institutiona I sett i ng :

a. Inventory institutional security problem areas. Assess areas of vulnerability.

b. Ensure that I ighting conforms to minimum securi,ty standards for all


internal and external areas. For crime prevention use, literature regarding lighting recommendations is available from the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, C/O 345 E. 47th Street, New York, New York 10017.

c. Analyze the landscaping and ensure there are no areas of concealment.



d. Assess whether or not adequate security measures have been taken in remote areas of the institution or campus, to ensure that high risk hazards have been eliminated or significantly reduced.

e. Consider the installation of an emergency telephone system in the remote areas, on the side of buildings, in parking areas, etc. Ensure adequate emergency access to telephones.

f. If persons reside on the premi ses, such as campus housing, develop
steps to enhance the security profile through proper crime preven-
t ion prog rams.
g. Ensure that areas not being used, such as off ices, meet i ng rooms or other building areas, have proper access controls, and are when not in use.

hn Develop a program of personal safety education and assault preven-


tion for all personnel.

i. Assess whether security personnel are adequately trained and provide quality prevention services.

j. Analyze gates and barrier protection to ensure they will discourage or prevent intruders.

k. Analyze all locking devices to ensure proper working order, security design, tamper resistance, etc.

1. Ensure that security personnel are conducting preventive patrols & and that adequate patrols are provided.

m. Develop a program of ongoing physical security analysis.


regular security inspections to ensure proper security devices are being used, policies are being followed, and security procedures in the facility are being followed.



The information that follows, on the next few pages, presents a series of selected security survey formats. These models have been designed to aid the crime prevention officer in developing further formats for certain areas within the institutional setting. The checklists, along with outline guides contained in the section that follows, should be used in a flexible manner. Each should be considered with regard to the particular setting, and modified or changed to fit the needs of the individual environment.

There are no specific survey formats that are used for every type of

setting. Each survey should meet the needs of the target site, and provide information relative to the requirements of the particular facility. In this regard, the crime prevention officer can be innovative to the extent that he or she gathers the significant data needed to make recommendations, and provide an overall assessment of the security needs of the facility.

It is important to examine as many aspects of the premises as soon as possible, and plan ahead, rather than wait for an incident to occur. Physical security planning (ESP) is an ongoing process of review, evaluation, and assessment. Prevention before the incident occurs is just as important as the solution of the incident, after it has occurred. The cost of developing crime prevention programs will be less than the cost of recovering losses in the aftermath of an incident, or breach of security where damage is ~lready


When a problem is detected, attention should be given immediately to an effort to find solutions and define a remedy to provide greater safeguards. Crime prevention needs change continuously as conditions inside and outside the institution change.


Basic Institutional Security Survey Outline

Each facility is different and unique to its environment. Therefore, to develop a standard format to fit each facility would be a difficult and useless task. This outline provides a basic guide for major topics to be considered in the final development of a survey format.

I. General Background Information & Development Data:

A. Survey Scope and Purpose - Define;

B. Name of facility to be surveyed - List & Identify;

C. Actual physical location of facility - Identify location;

D. Define police/security jurisdi~tion;

E. State who has responsibility with regard to the survey;

F. Define the organizational setting of the facility;

G. State the nature and functions of the facility;

H. Give a brief overview of previous criminal acts in the facility;

I. Develop an overview of the size and physical characteristics;

J. Define the landscape and terrain;

K. Indicate if the survey is a followup to a crime,and dates of the last survey; who conducted it and what were the recommendations?

I I. Environmental Considerations:

A. Define the surrounding neighborhood and assess crime rates;

B. Determine existing hazards due to the nature of the facility,landscape, design, neighborhood, etc.

III. Physical· Security Factors:

A. Define and analyze Perimeter Barriers';

B. Assess Lighting Conditions;

C. Determine if an alarm system is used;

D. Assess Access Controls

IV. Personnel Security & Controls:

A. Hho are the key personnel?

B. How are employees screened?

C. Any personnel identification system? Badges, r.u.!s , e t c , ?

D. Disaster and emergency coordination plans;

E. Assess personnel attitudes regarding security;

V. Records & Documents Security:

A. How secure are office areas?

B. Sensitive information protected? How?

C. Records Storage & Security Devices:

1. Safes & Vaults?

2. Cash drawers, Cash registers, Cash-handling, etc.?

3. Files, cabinets, closets, etc.?

4. Alarm systems?

D. How are document destroyed?

E. Policies and procedures?

F. Supervision and control?


VI. Crime Prevention Education & Training:

A. Do personnel members receive any training?

B. Is there a comprehensive program?

C. How often is training provided?

VII. Review & Assessment of Specific Security Aspects:

A. Physical Control of Equipment and Property;

B. Locks and Key Control - Proqr-arns , systems, inventory, etc.

C. Lighting - Interior and Exterior;

D. Security Systems Design and Application; E • Emp I oyee V i gil an ce ;

F. Access Controls:

1. Employees, visitors, vendors, etc.;

2. Parking areas and delivery/service points;

3. Housekeeping/Custodial services;

4. Security services - Guards, Patrols~ etc.;

G. High Risk Areas:

1. Computer Room;

2. Records and documents;

3. Mail room and mail distribution;

4. Medical Supplies and Pharmacy;

5. Cash-handl ing operations;

6. Safes & Vaul ts;

7. Money escorts & deposits;

H. External & Internal Doors;

I. Windows;

J. Roof Areas;

K. Fi re exi ts & Stai rs;

L. Other areas unique to the fad 1 ity;

VI I I.Emergency Power & Communications Equipment

IXo Planning The Physical Security Survey - Planning Overview:

Ao Need recogn i t i on - When/\.Jhe re Is th e Survey Needed?

B. Survey Goals and Objectives;

C. Gather relevant Information and Data for the Survey;

D. Develop Alternative Courses of Action;

E. Prepare a Course of Action for Implementing the Survey;

Fa Design the Final Survey Format; .

G. Review and Update Survey Plan;

H. Analyze Capabilities - Is expertise available for technical aspects of the survey if needed?

I. Implement the Survey;

J. Collect Information - Based on Particular Aspects Applicable to the

Surveyed Site as indicated in the beginning of this outline.

K. Analyze the information collected in the survey.

L. Develop recommendations;

Mo Evaluate and Report Findings;

N. Plan for followup efforts and monitoring;


Security Survey Implementation Outline

I. Prepare Topic Area Outl ine (See Page 30, Sample Topic Outline):

A. Define Major Areas of Concentration - Focus of the Survey;

B. Areas To Be Surveyed Depend On Particular Site/Facility;

C. Approach Topics Areas From Three Major Categories:

1. Physical Security Aspects - Access controls, Alarm Systems and Security Devices, Barriers and Fences, Locks, etc.

2. Personnel Security Aspects - Hiring and Employee Screening programs, Education and Training, Policies and Procedures, etc.

3. Information Security Aspects - Protection of documents, records and files, computer systems, communications, etc.

I I. Implementation of Survey Format

A. Develop Survey Model and Objectives;

B. Select Major Topic Areas Depending On Site Selected;

C. Establish Initial Meeting with Facility's Accountable Officer;

D. Analyze Physical Layout: review photos, blueprints, etc.

E. Assess Environment and Surrounding Terrain;

F. Analyze Approach that will be taken in Survey of Facility;

G. Implement Survey Model - Format Designed to Fit Needs;

H. Review Data - Develop Recommendations & Alternative Solutions; 10 Develop a Final Report of Findings;

Ja Evaluate Final Report of Findings;

K. Plan Additional Visits to the Site as Necessary to Complete Survey;

L. Plan to meet with Facility's Accountable Officer to Review Findings of Survey;

M. Plan a followup Review of the Site at a Future Date to assess the implementation of recommendations and aid Facility personnel;

N. Maintain Survey Information as Confidential;





* Sample Model * 1(Armed Robbery and BurgI ary-Prevent i on Checkl i s t=

Topic Areas:



Is the layout conducive to security?. Are opening/closing procedures safe?. Counters high/wide to protect cash? •• Cash drawers out of reach/sight? ••••• Silent robbery alarm hidden? ••••••••• Robbery alarm appropriate design? •••• Gates/secure doors protect tellers? •• Tellers protected by security glass?. Bait money in cash drawers? •••••••••• Bait money serial numbers recorded? •• Tellers know purpose of bait money? •• Tellers cash kept to minimum? •••••••• Excess cash kept in secure safe? ••••• Special security for large cash f low? , Are suspicious persons reported? ••••• Employees receive security training?. required from everyone? ••••••• Secure cash count rooms? •••••••••••••

All checks stamped 'DeposiV Onlyl? ••• Office security check each day? •••••• Someone on duty at all times?o •••••••• Security of deposits-cash transport?. Deposit routes varied? ••••••••••••••• Armored car service used? •••••••••••• Armed robbery response precedures? ••• Frequent security training? •••••••••• Written policies and procedures? ••••• Employees trained to 1.0. suspects? •• Frequent deposits made? •••••••••••••• large sums of cash kept overnight? ••• Safe/vault alarmed? •••••••••••••••••• U. L. rat i ngs for safes adequate? ••••• Safe anchored to floor, etc.? •••••••• Safe combination chaged regularly? ••• Adequate lighting inside/outside? •••• Good visibility inside for pol ice? ••• Door locks-adequate security devices? Windows protected? ••••••••••••••••••• Someone assigned security tasks?o ••••• Night depositories used? ••••••••••••• AUdible burglar alarm/after hours? ••• Personnel know how to use alarm? ••••• Regular testing of alarm system? ••••• Landscape well maintained? ••••••••••• No exte rna I places of concea I men t? • 0 •• Alarm system adequate for facility? •• Emergency telephone stickers used? ••• Height markers used at exits? •• o ••••• Overall security effective? •••••••••• Effective securitvplans. etc.?~.~~o~.

Yes: No:



,', Samp 1 e Mode I * *Barrier-Perimeter Security Checklist*


I. Define Perimeter Safeguards and Type of Barrier Protection for the individuaJ facility. Fences and anti-intrusion structures are the physical means by which the facility's boundaries are defined for protection~ and control. Anti-intrusion structures should be designed to define areas, control access and intrus ion, ass l s t securi ty/pol ice personnel, control the flow of persons and vehicles, as well as provide a psychological deterrent. Do the perimeter safeguards at the particular facility serve these basic objectives? Explain and discuss:


2. DeHne the Types of Barriers:


Natural Barriers - water, steep inclines, cl iffs, rough te rr-a ln , etc ••

--Man-made Formal Barriers - buildings, chain-link fences, etc ••••••••••

-Other types:

3. COnstruction a-n~d~D-e-s~i-g-n-:-------------------------------------------------

Fences: •••••• Minimum height at least 7-feet for chain-link fencing •• Openings in chain-l ink fences no larger than 2-inches square •••••••••• -Heavy gauge wi re used........... Barbed wi re at top and bottom •••••••

-Bottom of fence extend to ground-revel, or is below ground level ••••••

--Fence wiring is pulled tightly and secure firmly to metal posts •••••••

-Fence posts are buried in concrete 2-feet below ground surface ••••••••

-Barbed wire at top of fence has outward angle of I'S-degrees •••••••••••

--Drains or culverts that extend through fence are protected as well ••••

-Fence is regularly maintained to ensure repa I r , growth kept low, etc ••

-Masonry,\Jal1 Fence: •••• Minimum height is at least 7-feet. •••••••••••

Top of masonry fence iSIJrotected by barbed wire or other materials ••• \~all is well maintained and inspected regularly ••••••••••••••••••••••• -Bodies of Water: ••••••• The existence of a body of water, either from natural oraes thet i c deSign shaul d be protected by other means as we 11 and should not be considered as an adequate perimeter barrier alone ••• Signs and Postings:.... Perimeter should be adequately posted, as is

-appropriate with state Taws, with Ina trespass I signs •••••••••••••••••

4. Protective Lighting:

Perimeter barriers should be properly maintained and lighted ••••••••••

--Backup power for security lighting in case of power failure ••••••••••• Continuous lighting is available for parking areas, as well as all the

perimeter areas •••••••••••••..• II.A ~ •••• " ••• ,,&

Illumination meets minimum security standards ••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~Lighting is protected from vandalism, theft, weather, etc ••••••••••••• -Regular program of lighting maintenance and repair ••••••••••••••••••••

-Lighting on buildings near perimeter provided adequate lighting •••••••

5. Parking Lots:

Access Control systems, gates, barriers, etc ••• D •••••••••••••••••••••• --Adequate lighting for pedestrians to and from building areas ••••••••••

--Mobile parking lot patrols and surveillance or parking areas ••••••••••

--Closed cirucit T-V scanning of parking areas •••••• o •••••••••••••••••••

--Protection of remore parking areas, etc •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

--Employee Ibuddy' system when leaving at night from building areas •••••

--Emergency telephone system in parking areas •••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Employee/visitor escort program at night when leaving buildings ••••• ,.


6. Perimeter Alarm Systems:

Define need and type of alarm system needed for perimeter ••••••••••••• --Evaluate various types on the market, functions, design, etc ••••••••••

-\"hat types are needed to protect perimeter, in addition to the physi-

--cal barriers used:

E Ie ct ro-mechan i ca I Mot i on De tec t ion Dev ices

--Photo-electric --Radio Frequency Devices

--Proximity Devices --Closed Cirucit T-V

--Sound Sensors --Other ••••

7. Perimeter Areas - High Risk Assessment:

Defined Restricted Areas: --High-Priority Storage and Facilities:

--Location of Sensitive Activities: Computers, Communications, Materials

--and Equipment, Medical Suppl ies, etc.

Critical Processes and Procedures:

==rmportant Points of Entry and Control to Facility:

8. Diagram of Perimeter & High Risk Areas:




* Samp I e Mode I ;', *Public Facil ity Physical Security* * Planning Checklist *


I •


Definition of the Public Bui1'ding: ( ) Function: _

( ) Type :--=--,,--_-:-:-_--=-~ ~( ) Occupants : --,- _

( ) Special Considerations:~~~----------~----------------------~--

( ) Unique Crime Prevention Needs: _

II. Public Building is: ( ) Planned Construction •••• ( ) Existing Building •••

( ) Building Modifications ••• ( ) Other: ~ __

111.On-Site Assessment-Overview: ••••• Sufficient Open Areas-All Sides--of Bui I di ng To Ensure Proper area surveillance inside/outside •••••• More than one building-Sufficient ----open space between buildings,etc.

Building(s} are located so that ----maximum observation is possible from adjacent streets.

Proper planning of site features ----such as trees, slopes, walls,etc. that do not obstruct surveillance Access to entrances unobstructed. ----Other site features:


High-level public traffic limit-

-----ed to first floor, with control of public access to other floors I in building.

Lobby and elevator areas have a ---proper level of surveillance and security.

Elevator have a security system ----and emergency phone system.

Public business transactions and

---counter areas are located on the first floor. Counter service at public areas is well protected. Cash-handling operations limited

---to certain times, cash- handling

IV. Bul ld l nq Is ) Layout & Design:..... is well controlled, security de-

Areas of possible concealment.... vices used.

Entrances/access points kept to a Restrictions on access, level of

minimum. ----authorization, control and en-

View of entrances, and access for forcement, security system & de-

---streets unobstructed. vices established for:

After normal hours operation, the Records, documents, files etc.

-----entrances are limited, or one -Sensitive information.

entrance only used. -Communications. I

Up-to-date phys i cal securi ty sys- -Equ i pmentand property. :

--tems in use (CCTV, electronic- -Computer operations. :

locks, card-key system, central -Telephone equipment, Utilities:

security control, etc.) -Safes & Vaults. :

Public access to each floor con- --Personnel Safety. :

-trolled or I imi ted to one publ ic -O.ther h Iqh+r i s k areas :

hallway per floor with controls. Lighting is' effective for both •• :

Stairwells properly secured with ---inside and outside areas. :

--alarm systems, etc. Parking lots, perimeter areas, &

Possible to eliminate any windows -----shipping/receiving, etc. have an

~·--on first floor. \4indow glass In effective lighting system, along

building kept to a minimum. Win- with preventive patrols.

dows well protected. Access and exit to building, and

Closets, cabinets, storage areas ----parking areas well controlled.

----that open onto public hallway.s in Security alarm system, lighting

I building kept to a minimum, and ----system inspected and tested on a


I well secured. regular program.

I .




* Sample Model * *School Facility Physical Security* * Planning Checklist *


I. Define Environmental Conditions and Planning Factors, related to security considerations:

( ) Location Type: --------------(r»~C~r~i-m-e~H~i-s-t-o-ry-·-:-·~·----------~-----

( ) Neighborhood Crime: ( ) Site Layout:

( ) On-Site Security Force: ( ) Local Pol ice-:---------------------

r 1 1 r

______________________________________________________ ------------------ 1

Location & Site Assessment:

Coordination of law enforce-m-e-n-t--&


security forces.

Accessibility for emergency sit-


uat ions, etc.

Accessibility for effective pat----trol efforts.

Availability of control systems &


adjacent properties, to be able

to control large crowds (i.e. for football games, etc.) and not be a problem for private property. Visibility of terrain from all of


the surrounding points, and the

external areas to police patrols. Elimination of any areas that may


offer concealment, or places that

large crowds may gather that are not accessible by pol ice/security forces.

Assessment of additional factors


unique to the setting and facil-



Layout & Design: ~-- __ ~-- __ -

Windows and access points in


multi-$~oried structure kept to a

minimum o~ first level.

Every effort made to incorporate, ---and use effect i ve lv , .secur i ty devices on doors, windows, etc ••••• Reduced use of structure design


that would aid intruders in gain-

ing access to roof areas, such as walkway·covers, etc.

Landscaping conducive to security ----and prevention •.

Functional area groupings used in

~--a manner that provi des secu ri ty & safety when not in use. (e.g. the separation of administrative area uses, from recreational area uses etc. )


Use of security alarm systems &

-----other anti-intrusion devices in cooperation with building layout and des i gn.

Security alarm systems used for


high risk areas: administration

offices, cafeterias, etc. Restrictions on access from one

----internal area to another.

Entrances can be observed from


street areas by police.

Sufficient lighting levels for ----external and internal areas.


Parking Lots & Other Areas:

Parking areas designed for ----imum control of access.

P~rking areas secured with


in use.

Efforts made to protect nearby

------property owners from misuse of

their property through over-

flow parking.

Adequate levels of I ighting for


parking areas.

Landscaping for parking areas ----conducive to security/safety.

Parking areas that can be pro-


tected provided for bicycles.

Chain link fencing used in the


place of sol id wall s , to aid in

street le~ej observation from all 'areas .

Automatic controls for lighting



Good program of maintenance and


repair of landscape, lighting &

other physical aspects. Lighting protected from tamper-


ing and vandal ism, etc.

Other unique aspects of the de-


sign, layout, structure, etc.

at facility •••••

I V.





* Sample Model * ;"'Institutional Retai T$ecurity Planning* * Checklist *



I. Primary efforts focussed on reduc- cash levels to a minimum; control &:

ing time available for intrusion & issuance of combinations; periodic- f illegal activities. Increase per- ally change combinations; when per- : sonneT surveillance and availabil- sonne 1 change - change combinations; : ity at all times. (Note: same applies to key control & :

II. Ensure management involvement in a changes/rekeying when employees are:

well planned security program. changed, etc.) check ratings of safe:

I II.Ensure proper employee education & and ensure proper use - a record or ~ I training in security planning,etc. file safe should not be used for the:

IIV. Assess current level of security & storage of money, etc. :

: components: lights, locks, alarms, Exterior Areas: Check alleys for the ~

: policies and procedures, etc. security of fencing, walls, adjacent:

IV. Assess and Recommend Corrective & buildings, etc.; debris and trash in :

I Preventive Actions: outside areas removed; reduce all of : lLights: safe areas, alleys, delivery & the possible points of concealment & : lshipping points, entry points, etc •• o. hiding; maintain well kept landscape: lLocks: key control inventory, modern and design; prevent piling up of any: :security hardware (dead-bolts, etc.) & pallets, boxes, ladders, etc. to aid:

Jproper installation, lock bolts pro- climbing to other floors; protect & I ltected from tampering, control of all secure all entrance points;skylights : lkeys and restricted levels of use and and ventilators, roof areas, should: laccess, protection of hinge pins, etc. be well protected; fire escapes, and: lDoors: p ro t ec t l ve security glass when exits should be well designed to aid: lpcissible, reinforced doors to protect- emergency exit, but highly secured & : lsecure against force/breakage, solid - protected from intrusion; ensure and: lcore doors when possible, double doors inspect regularly lighting l eve l s , •• : lprotected at mUltiple points with sec- Procedures: ensure written policies:

urity bolts, doors connected to alarm- and procedures for security; Keep a: anti-intrusion system, etc. record/up-to-date inventory of all I Alarms: Cost-effective, efficient, and equipment, property and merchandise;: appropriate alarm systems; periodical- Ensure property I.D./marking for all I Iy tested and regular repair; complete institutional property; Use 'bait'- I perimeter protection; controlled use money in cash register; record ser-: and access to alarm code information & ial numbers, etc. of large denomina- I opening/closing procedures; alarm Si9- tions; check all areas befo~e clos- I

Inal to security office or police con- ing at night; leave cash registers &:

• I

Isole - slTent alarm for armed robbery cash drawers empty and open at end:

and local noise alarm for burglary & of business day; establish an effec- I vanda l I sm, e t c , ; t i ve check cashl ng/ acceptance po 1 icy I Windows: protective security glass for for all transactions; get proper 10- all windows; .protective screens & mesh information for all checks; In the materials when possible rear-side-etc. event of a criminal act, have set of windows; security locks and hardware procedures for protecting the crime for windows; when possible - windows - scene, reporting the incident, etc •• connected to aTarm system; establish policy for acceptance and

ISafes: placed in alarmed/protected & use of credit cards, etc.; enforce & :secured room; or when visible from the ensure good security practices at :outside - well lighted; anchored to all times for all employees, etc •••• ~the floor; frequent bqnking to reduce have a total security plan.

L ~_~ -------_------~---------------------------------------------!

(Continued next pageoo.)

Continuation of Institutional Retail Security Planning Checklist... 38

Checklist Review & Assessment:



*Rat i ngs:

(E) (G) (F) (p) R

d t l

OplC reas: ecommen a Ions
1. Lighting---------
2. Locks------------
3. Doors------------
4. Alarms-----------
5. Windows----------
6. Safes------------
7. Exterior Areas---
8. Perimeter--------
9. Visibility-------
10. Landscape--------
11 • Procedures-------
12. Roof Areas-------
13. Displays---------
14. Counters---------
150 Cash-Handling----
16. Checks/Credit
17. Other Areas------
--------------------- ---'---- --- --------------------~-------------------~---
Di ag ram s Layout:

1<:Note: E=Exce l.l.ent ; -G=:Good; P=Fair; P=Poor; 39


* Sample Model * *Institutional Physical Security Survey* * Checklist *


This format is presented to provide a more comprehensive model than the out- : 1 ine presented on Page 29 of this manual. It incorporates the bas ic aspects l of the outline indicated previously, with a more structured format that is ~ app l l cab l e to a campus envi ronment, but, may be used for other types of in-: stitutional settings. This format establishes the basic foundation for the: development, .ln l t I at lon , and implementation of the model' physical security:

. ,

survey Instrument. ,



Cover Sheet

1 •

Sample Statement of Confidentiality: liThe information provided and contained in this physical security survey should be considered sensitive in nature. Loss factors and security weaknesses that are discussed may be of interest or of advantage to unauthorized persons. Every effort should be made to safeguard these findings."

( )

( )

Statement of Confidentiality - centered toward the top of the sheet.

The word 'Confidential' - centered top and bottom of page.





Sample Statement of Liability for Contents: "The physical security su r-v ] yey, along with the recommendations, or final report of findings, is a: reflection of the opinion of the crime prev~ntion officer(s), or secur- I ity surveyor. The recipient of the report, for the contained information, should keep in mind that no system of security is 100% foolproof. The survey team or crime prevention officer(s), and his/her/their agency, therefore, do not assume any responsibility or liability for any loss or damage in any manner arising out of the survey recommendations - or changes based on the r ecommendat lons s !'

( ) Assess questions of liabil ity in relation to findings and

res ul ts.

( ) Consider legal issues involved concerning recommended security modifications, current security levels, etc.

( ) Determine the level of responsibility the agency/department/companymay have in terms of making security recommendations; the expertise of the surveyors, background, education, qual ifications, etc. along with the nature of the assignment.

Title Page


J. Identification s Description of the Facility to be Surveyed:

A. Name and Address of Facility


I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ,

I I I ,








I 3.

: 4.


I 5. I





~ 12.


Checklist Continued From Page 39 •••



B. Name and Address (Building Code, Room Number, Zone, etc.) of the in- : dividual area, sub-area, department, etc., to be surveyed, if survey: does not include the entire building or one overall location. : r I

C. Name and title of the survey team, crime prevention officer{s}, etc. :



Reason for the Survey: ( ) Building Owner/Supervisor Request; { ) The I Individual Department/Office of the Building Requested; ( ) Security: or Pol ice Department Concern; ( ) Followup to a Security Problem, or l

C rime I nci dent; ( ) Other Reason: I

----------------------------------- I



Description of Facility and Location: I

------------------------------- 1



Date Survey Reques ted: Date Survey Conducted: I

------- ------------ I





Definition of Purpose and Scope of Survey (Hhat does the survey tent to accomplish?):




Summary of Previous Criminal Incidents/Neighborhood Profile:


If followup to recent crime, Pol ice Case Number:





Loss Potential

Topic Area:

(t~ext Page) Ratings:

(G) (n (p)


I •• 2.

General Security Practices-Surrounding Area/NeighborJng Building-Crime Potential---Visibility and Terrain-----Security & Pol ice Response-Times To Faci I ity----------Current Facility Location & Design Conducive to Security and Provide Time For Police To Respond - Delay IntruderLevels of Access Control ledRestriction on Access------Hours of Access------------High Risk Areas Secured----Types of High Risk Areas and Current Security:

Office Equipment-----------Cash, Checks, etc.---------Documents, Records, etc.---Utilities, electrical etc.-Others:


Potential for unrest, demon-

strations, labor trouble and related incidents-------~--Other factors unique to the

facility: ___

r I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r I

6. 7. 8. 90

1 D.


Checklist Continued From Page 40 •••



1 I

1 I

: III. External loss Potential Factors :

: (Next Page) :

1 ----------------------------------------------- ~

I t 1


: 8. : 9.

: TO. : 11. : 12.


I 13.

: 14"


r 15.

: 16"


1 17.

I 1

: 18. : 19. Other Un l q ue Features: :

: ~ ~ ------------------- 1

I . .. ..... I

I IV. Internal Loss Potential "Factors ~

! (Next Page) :



I 1. Lighting--------------------- ~

: 2. All Interior Doors-Types and :

: Des i gn: :

: 3. All InteriorWindows~Type and :

: Des i gn: I

: 4. Cei 1 ing Construction---------


I 5. Vending Machines-------------

: 6. Food Service Areas----------I

I 7. Staff Lounges & Lockers------

8. Mechani ca 1 Equipment Rooms---

9. Teller & Cash-Handling Areas-

10. Identification of High-Risk-


11. Safes -&--.-:V-a..,...u .... l-=-ts------------------------------

12. Panels & Gratings------------

13. Electrical Breaker Panels----

14. Property Security------------

15. Property Identification------

16. Perimeter Protection--------I 17 Storage Areas----------------

I •. '.

_________________________________________________ ~ ------------------ 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fences and Barriers--------Lighting-------------------Obstructions to Visibility-Climbing Aids--------------Noise Generating Equipment That May Aid The Sounds of Intrusion------------------All Exterior Doors - Type & Design:


All Exterior Hindows-Type &

Design: ~~-----------

Other Access Points:


Utility Service Areas-------

Gas Mains-------------------

Electrical Boxes------------



Power Transformers---------Telephone Lines------------Oil - Gas Storage Tanks----Hazardous Waste Storage----Sprinkler Gate Valves------Emergency Fi re Equipment and Water Supply---------------Trash Collection Points-----

----------------------------------------------------- ----------------------,-



Determine: ( ) Need For System(s); ( ) Determine Funds Available or the:

amount to be spent; ( ) Consult with Facil ity Management; ( ) Determine:

Components Needed; () Assess Environmental Conditions; () •• Determine:

Annunciation Required/Type: Local, Central Station, Propriatary,etc •••• : () Utilize Available Expertise; () Determine Cost Considerations, and:

Possible Alternatives; ( )Emphasize User Education, Testing,Maintenance' and Repa lr , etc. () Assess if current equ i pment needs updat i ng •••••••

( ) Design Response Procedures, Pol icies, etc. Security Procedures--------

Key Control Program--------

Opening/Closing Procedures-

Locking/Unlocking Proced.--

Lighting Con t ro l s-Repe lrv->

Procedures for Cash-Handlg.

Shipping/Receiving Areas---

Crime/Emergency Reporting--

Operation r.D~ Program----Inventory/Equipment Stores-

Property Control - Loan and

Checkout, etc.-------------

30. Employee Vigilance---------

31. Access Controls for vendors

can t ra cto rs , repa i rmen , an d service personnel---------Custodial Services--------Supervision of Employees--Employee Education, Training in Crime Prevention---Warning Signs-Postings----Medical Supplies----------Computer Rooms/Labs/etc.--Reception Area Control----Classrooms/Study Areas----Other Aspects Unique to the

Facility: ___

35. 36. 370 38. 39. 40.

Checklist Continued From Page 41 •••

Security Alarm Systems----Cost-Effective Basis - Suit needs of Facility; Areas in which security alarms, intrusion devices needed:

19. 20. 210 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

32. 330 34.



. I

I ,


Diagram (Next-Page)



Crime Prevention Program Presentation Outline For The Institutional Setting


: This basic organizational outline has been develop to suggest a basic format:

: for planning program presentations to institutional population groups~ such:

: as within a college campus, etc. It is presented for planning purposes. :

I ' I


I. Meeting Arrangement - Target Group Selection

A. Topic Selected - Personal Safety, Physical Security, Theft Prevention, Security Briefing, etc.

B. Target Group Selected - Staff Personnel, Students In Dorms, Faculty Group, Technical Support Staff, Administrative Support Personnel, or Other Type of Target Group.

CD Initial Contact (personal or by phone) with Primary Contact Person - Representing Area or Group - Topic, Time, Date, etc. Selected.

D. Other Initial Contact - Flyer or Newsletter Announcemen t j Dfre c t+Na l l Distribution, Telephone Survey, etc.~ with appropriate followup contact to I.C. above.

I I. Police/Security Personnel To Present Program

A. Depending upon the availability of personnel within the department~ I to 2 officers should be assigned to the specific program presentat i onIs }, It may be appropriate, depending on both the group and the topic to have at least two officers present the program.

B. Plan Of f l ce r Is ) Schedule Accordingly - Backup Officer in case assigned officer cannot for some reason meet scheduled time/date.

C. Sele~t officer(s) from Department Speakers Bureau, Crime Prevention- I

Unit, or Squad, Shift, etc. as appropriate to the occasion. :

D. Match of f l cer Is ) to the assignment/topic, etc. :

E. Ensure expertise of of f l ce.r Is ) assigned, background, knowledge, etc.

I I I.Preliminary Program Presentation Planning

A. Ensure adequate preparation and research of topic to be presented, & gather appropriate data relevant to facility, etc.

B. Ensure that appropriate topic related materials are available for an effective distribution of information, etc. (flyers, brochure~, and related materials for handout). Sufficient quantities should be set aside in advance. Estimate number of persons attending.

C. Duty personnel not involved in program should be aware that such is I taking place, and have basic information as to program presentation, :


etc. (Dispatcher included). , . :

D. Effective followup should be done to ensure that contact person, as I indicated in Item I.C. coordinates for his/her area as appropriate. :

E. Ensure that meeting place has been established, and necessary poster!

announcement, or other notices, are placed well in advance. :



IV. Presentation Planning:

AD Develop Relevant Background Information and Introduction Format. B. Gather Significant Statistical Data Related to the Facility.


Continuation of Outline from Page 43 •••

t---------------------------------------------------------------- _

: C. Develop Draft Outl ine of Presentation Format: :

I 1. Introduction: Describe briefly what you are going to present to:

: the group; State purpose of presentation, gain attention, moti- I

: vate, present main ideas.

: 2. Body - Main Focus of Presentation: Present the specific topic

: related material; ensure adequate preparation by gath~ring 5ig-

: nificant data; know material well; organize into a logical, and

: informative presentation; Do not try to cover every possible---

: aspect of the topic, but present the main ideas; start with the

: basics and expand to the more abstract;

: 3. Summary - Conclusions: Review main points; use available train-

: jng aids, audiovisual materials, etc.; emphasize preventive arid I

: security measures, steps, procedures, etc.; keep materials, and

: presentation to the point;


, 4. Questions & Answers: Allow time for questions and answers, dur-

I . •

I Ing presentation;

: D. Additional Points of Review and Planning:

: 1. Secure appropriate materials, A-V aids, site/facility, and the

! appropriate support materials and personnel, etc.

t 2. Rehearse Presentation and Program;

: 3. Ensure adequate preparation and coverage of material-topic.



: V.

I ,

t t t t I t ,

I t ,

I t ,

t I t I 1 I I 1 I ,

, I I I I I I t I I I t I I


: VI.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I 1

1 ----------------------------------------------- _

Basic Program Presentations - To~ic

A. Have a selection of Basic Topic formation, presentation format, veloped and prepared.

B. Have,a plan for which

Areas Offered

Presentations ready, for which inand materials have alreayd been de-

bfficers are capable of p~esenting which top-


ic areas.

Sample Program Topics for the Institutional Setting:

1. Res i den t i a 1100 rm i tory Secur i ty-Safety.

2. Sexual Assault Prevention - Date Rape Prevention - Personal and

Individual Safety Services.

3. Operation 1.0. & 'Neighborhood' (Building/Office, etc.)- Hatchtype programs.

Reward-Recognition - Crime Alert Program.

Office Security-Physical Security Planning Program; General Crime Prevention Orientation for New Personnel; Staff-Faculty, etc., Security/Safety Briefing Program;

Drug, D\41, etc. Educational Programs and Information Briefings; Police/Security Services Orientation Program;

Property Security Programs - Equipment, Vehicles, Bicycles, and related Property Topi~s;

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

After Presentation Followup

A. Inventory equipment used ment is accounted for;

B. Maintain record/documentation of program attendance, topics covered, materials used and d l s t r ibutted ;

C. Assess and Evaluate Program Presentation, allow for change, modifi-

during program, and ensure that all equip-


cations, etc.

Develop followup contact with Contact Person of group where was presented; obtain input and evaluation of presentation, tional services needed, etc.

program addi-

Continuation of Outl ine from Page 41~ •••

• -----------------------------------------------------------------------------r



: VII. Program Presentation Followup Checkl ist :

I A. Areas that need improvement - overall assessment and analysis. ~

B. Develop report of problem areas, suggestions, recommendations from ~

target population for followup action; r

C. ,Plan followup contact with individual participants in target area with regard to issues raised, needs, etc.

D. Send 'Thank Youl letters, notes, memos, etc. to Contact Person for Target Group, and/or Supervisor/Administrative Officer, etc. for supporting program, etc.

E. List and followup on complaints, problem areas raised during program presentation; report results and actions taken.

F. Keep in mind that the success of any program presentation will depend upon the organization, coordination, planning, enthusiasm, expertise, ability and professional ism of the officers or security personnel involved. Program presentations offer an important and

timely opportunity to present the agency or department, as well as the officers involved, in a very positive light to the community served. Every effort should be made to ensure that a program will be presented in an effective and professional manner.


: V" r •


• I

Materials and Equipment Checklist


Ensure that sufficient quantities of quality materials are always ready for programs.

Regularly review and update the inventory of available materials. Ensure appropriate content and information contained in materials. Hake sure available equipment is in good ~~orking order and will be available for times and dates of programs scheduled.

Equipment and Materials Checklist - Depending on the type of program to be presented (sample listing):

1. Emergency Telephone Stickers - for all telephones; 2r Brochures and Flyers for all topic areas;

3. Booklets and manuals for major topic areas;

4. Engravers and marking instruments;

5. Operation t .o. stickers;

6. Posters;

7. F i I ms - top i c re I a ted (16mm);

8. Slides - topic related (35mm)j

9. 16-mm projector, with spare lamp; 10. 16~mm projector -'takeup' reel; 110 Extension cords;

12. 35-mm slide projector, with spare ramp;

13. Overhead projector, with spare lamp; 14 .. 51 ide trays for 35-mm slide projector;

15. Additional support equipment, including screen, as needed;

16. Video Tape Record~r and Monitor, etc.

B. C. D.


I • I

I I I I J I I J I I r

• I

r I I

r r




* Sample Model * * Health C~re Facility * =Phvs i ca I Securi ty Survey » * Checklist *


The following checklist information is presented in a general format regarding the hea l th care type of facility. This isa basic format, and should be used in conjunction with other survey formats, such as those indicated within this manual on pages 19,29, or 39. In addition, for a well rounded, and comprehensive approach, this checklist should be combined with as many related portions of the checklists and outlines presented in the manual. Every effort should be made to make the final format applicable to the target setting or facility.

Major Toj)lc Area: (Operations/Locations

A. Pharmacy & Medica I. Phys i ca I Locat

2. Hours of Opera

3. Access Control

4. Pha rmaci s t( s )

5. Number personn

6. Personnel Scre 70 Drugs/Supplies 3. Drugs/Supplies 9. S~curity of Dr lOoSecurity of Dr

for: Nurse Sta gen cy Room, \.Ja II.Drugs/Supplies

t i on & Cont ro I

12. Inventory Cont 13.Personnel Cont 14.Key Control/Is 15. Securi ty of Ke J6.Keys carried 0 I7.Types of Doors IS.Counter Servic 19.5ecurity of Fi 20.Security of Ca 21.Security of Re 220Program of Reg

Key Change/Rep 23.Alarm Systems 24.-0ther Securit

Description and Rating of I
Current Operations: Security Levell
) ( Recommendat i ons f (G) (F) (p)
1 Supp l l es
s/Autho r i zat ion
el employed
eni ng"
ugs/Supp 1 i es
ugs/Suppl ies
tions, Emer",:
rds, etc.
rols ,
ro 1 s
ff-premi ses " .
Used . "
1 es
fri gerators
ular Lock &
ai r,etc.
y Aspects
--------- ........... --~ ... --------------------------------------- Note: 'G'=Good Security Practices~ Procedures, etc.

'F'=Fai r or Adequate, etc. "

'pl=Poor, immediate attention needed, security problems, etc.


Continuation of Checklist from Page 46 •••

E. Emergenc

1. Secu

2. Secu

3. Secu by L

4. Secu infl etc.

5. Secu cont

6. Drug Room

7. Secu b 1 es

-- -----.----
r Hours Securi ty
s and Doors
Cont ro I / Iss uance
erty Inventory
orization for Access
ase Authorizations
ss Contro II ed/Supervi sed
Persons Esco rted
r Security Aspects:
ppl i es Non-Pha rmacy
ly Department Location
ntory Control s (Li nen, etc)
dry Facilities
ribution Contro ls ' "
ipts, Tags, Logs
dry Area Security
n Area Security
rds & Documentation ,-
ping, Receiving Control ' ,
and Key Con t ro 1------
y Receipts Storage
r l ty of Records
r Security Aspects
Valuables ' , , ,
t ion of Storage Areas
s/Vaul ts Used
rito ry Control s
rityof Valuables
ori zat ion for Release
y Room Areas ' ,
rity Personnel Ass j gned
rity Patrols
rityof Patients Del i vered
ocal Po lite
re areas for patients under
ue nce of drugs, a 1 coho I ,
. , ,
re areas for patients under "
rol of local Pol ice
s/Supp 1 i es for Emergency
Use Secured'
rity of Patients' Va 1 ua- .. ,
and property B. 'Morgue'

1. Loca

2. Afte

3. Lock

4. K~y

5. Prop

6. Auth

7. Re 1 e

8. Acee

9. All 10. Othe

C. Other Su

10 Supp

2. I nve

30 Laun

4. I den

5. Dist

6. Rece

7. Laun

8. Li ne

9. Reco

10. Ship

11. Lock

12. Da i 1

13. Secu 140 Othe

D. Patient 10 Loca

2. Safe

3. I nve

4. Secu

5. Auth


I I I I I ,

I ,


t ,

, ,


: Access

: 10. After- I



Continuation of Checklist from Page 47


Food Servi

1. Locati

2. Invent

3. Shippi

4. Author ity fo Food P Food D

-- -- --- - -~-----------------------~-----------------------
o ry-Reco rds Keep i ng
tients' Valuables
-Securi ty Program for
ncy Room Staff
-Security Pol i ci es &
ncy Entrance/Acces s
- Contro 11 ed and
of obstructions
y/Dri ve - Access
to Emergency Entrance
of Obstructions -
ncy Phone Numbers
te Lighting Inside
tside Areas
uri ty of On-Site
on and Design
s Quarters
Res i de n t i a 1 Quarters
ty Escorts Provi ded
ortation Provided ,
ty Patrols
Key Control Sys t em
Controls - -
ty of Parking Areas - - -
ty of Valuables or
in/Check-out services
ty Educat i on Programs
Security Aspects
ces s Dietary Security
on, Layout & Design
ory Secur i ty
ng/Rece i ving Security
ization & Accountab iF ,.
r all merchandise
reparation & Storage
i s t r i but i on
of Operation-Service
ria Operations
fi cat ion & Cont ro T Of - .-
Hours Access s Control 3. Invent for Pa

9. Safety Emerge

10. Safety Proced

11. Emerge Po i nts clear

T 2. Roadwa Route C1 ea r well-m

13. Emerge Posted 11f. Adequa and Ou

F. Safety/Sec Li vi ng Qua T. Locat i

2. Nurses

3. Doctor

4. Other

5. Securi

6. Transp

7. Securi 3. Lock is 9. AT a rm 10. Lighti T 1. Access 12. Securi T 3. Securi


14. Securi

15. Other

5. 6. 7. 3. 9.

Hours Cafete Identi

Continuation of Checklist from Page 48


11. Pers

12. Loca


13. Stoc

14. Key

15. I~ey

16. Key-

17. Secu Co 11

18. Po in may

19. Pack Insp conc

20. Sto r Supp

21. Othe

H. Genera 1 Facility

1. Cont

2. Auth

3. I. D. l~. Sign 50 Po T i

6. Sign

7. 1.0.


8. Limi Visi

9. Cont Staf

10. Afte Visi Visi T T. I den Ri sk 120 I.D. for

i. Emergenc

tion Pr

1. \.Jr i t

2. Staf 30 Emer

4. Evac

5. Proc 60 Emer

7. Pati Ambu

onnel Screening
tion of Food Dl s t r l bu-:
Po i nts - Security
k-Room Securi ty
Cont ro 1 Program.
Issuance Inventory
Lock Change Program
rity of Garbage/Trash
ect i on Areas
ts of Concealment as
be related to Item#17 I
ages, Garbage, etc.
ected for possible
ealment of Supplies,etc~
age of Combus t i b 1 e
1 i es & Material s
r Security Aspects
Access Cont ro Is to
ro l of Vi s i tors [
orized Visiting Hours [
"s or Passes Issued I
-In Procedures [
cies s Procedures· I
-Out Procedures
's or Passes Issued for
i fi c Areas - Coded
tat ions on Number of
tors Per Patient
ro 1 Efforts by Fac l l i ty
r-Hours Access by
tors s Remova I after
ting Hours I
tification of High-
Areas and Control
IS and Access Control
Fac iIi ty Staff
y Planning and Coordi na"':
ten Pol i c i es s Procedure . ...
f Education & Training ..
gency Evacuat ion Drills
uation Plan
edures Pos ted
gency Exits indicated
ent Evacuation Plan -
latory/Non-Ambulatory -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Continuation of Checklist from Page 49



1 K.

8. Securit In Evac

9. Patient Evacuat

10. Transpo

11. Staff T


12. Emergen Fi re Em Environ Bomb Th Other T

13. Other S

J. Parking Are

1. Parking for Sta Separat

2. Parki ng Storage so Staf app ropr

3. Fi re s


4. Emergen Doctors

5. Pairking 60 System by Visi from Pa

7. Li gh tin 80 Securit

Securi t

9. Securi t 10. Access 110 Other S

Securi ty Li 10 Open Ar

2. l.ands ca not to

3. Hi gh-Ri

4. Li ghti n Sta i rwe

5. Lightin

6. Eme rqen

y/Pol ice I nvo 1 vement
uat ion Plan
Hous ing Plan After
rtation System
ra i n i ng fo r Eme rgen cy
of Patients
cy Procedures for:
mental Emergency
ecurity Planning
Lot Des i gnat ions
ff and Vi s i to rs
ion of Parking
Located away from i
Areas - Designed
f enter th rough
iate access po i nts
Emergency Access
Lanes Clear
cy Parking for
Ticket Program
to Provide Access
tors to Entrance I
rking Lot 1
Y Patrols and
y Escorts·
y Systems.
Contro 1 s s Ba rri ers
ecuri ty Aspects
eas Lighted
pe Maintained so as
obstruct 1, i gh t i ng
sk Areas well-lighted
9 of Hallways-Entrances
11 s, etc.
9 Maintenance Program
cy Lighting System Summa ry & Cone 1 us ions: I


1. OVi:!rrall-Security Rating & I


Comments: I

__ ~_______________________________________________________ 1

Recommendations 1

_____________________________________________________ 1

L -------------------------1




Health Care Facility

Outline of Basic Security Considerations

In continuation from Pages 46 to 50, this basic outline attempts to provide: a basis for review of the hospital or health care setting. Since the health: care fad 1 ity is a complex organizational setting, it is not possible to de-:


vote attention to every possible aspect within this manual. Therefore, the:

basic areas of physical security are considered. , •


I. Access Controls & Surveillance:

A. ~1ain Entrance/Lobby: The primary focus of attention in conducting the physical security survey should begin with an assessment of the institution's primary entry point. This is the point by which most persons will typically access the health care facil ity. Consider the secsurity profile of the following areas:

1. Reception Area & Visitor Contact Points (Control Desk):

Design and Layouto Communications. Emergency Notifications.

--Security Systems. ---Security Personne-I-Contact with. Means by which desk personner-can observe all persons who enter premises.

Proximity to entrance to control access and entry at all times ••• -Note: All other locations within facility, where visitors, and

--others may have access, should be controlled with desk reception.

2. Lobby Areas: Means by wh i ch cont ro II of person s is affo rded, by

health care facil ity staff. After hours security and monitoring.

Alarms on doors after hours-.- Surveillance systems available •••

B •.. ITev.a to rs : The e 1 evato rs , when j;OSs i b Ie, s hou I d be I oca ted nea r

the .reception or control desk. ELevators should be programmed to I prevent unauthorized access to high-risk locations, with key auth-: orized operation. Closed circuit cameras should monitor the access: to the elevators at all times. Elevators should be designated for' access according to need and use (e.g. certain elevators for visi-: tors, etc.). Evaluation should be made of the types and use of the:


elevators: :

1. Res t r i cted El evato rs ; :

20 Operati ng Room El evators; I

3. Patient.Elevators, etc.; :


c •. ·0 _..;;.u;,.;;t~p~&;,.;;t:..:.i..;;.e_n_t_·-C-l-i-ri_=i"":"c-s: The operation of the outpatient cl inic areas'

- . I

should be as well controlled as other entrance areas. If access to I

the c l in i cs is sepa rate from that of the ma i n ent rance, s lrn l l ar s e- :


curity efforts should be in force, as in loA. above. All windows &:

doors should be protected by security systems and devices. I

. ,

D.· SpeCial AttelitionTo Other Access Points: Pol [c l es and procedures &:

standards should be set for other cr i t l ca l areas of the facility in: the setting. Securitj controls, devices, systems, surveillance and:

lighting should focus additionally on such areas as: I

S t a i rwe 11 s :

, I I ,


I ,

I ,



Fi re Exi ts

Emergency Room Entrances Employee Entrances Pharmacy



Continuation of Outline from Page 51 •••


Hospital's Cash Hanlding

All Counters & Service Areas Cafeteria & Snack Shops Receiving and Storage

Park'i ng Faci I i ty

Other Related Aspects

Storerooms & Critical Supply Areas Food Service Areas and Vending Gift Shops

Laundry and Linen Storage Lock and Key Control Program Security Patrols & Escorts

II. Assessment of Crime Risks:

A. -As ses sment Inventory: Critical factors relating to physical security may be assessed in view of potential crime risks that may be of threat to the facil ity. An inventory assessment of the potential vulnerabilities should be considered, in conjunction with Item I on the previous page. Security personnel may wish to consider how re- l sponse will be handled in view of certain crime threats. :

1. Unauthorized intrusions, disorderly conduct, internal theft and/or I misuse of facility property-personnel, assaults, armed violence and: other attacks, burglary, robbery, kidnapping, auto theft, hostage: incident, etc. :

2. The inventory may also include an assessment of the type of barrier: controls or obstacles that will be used to impede or reduce the po-: tential for such attacks. Such controls may be considered with the: regard for what is available, in addition to what should be procur-: ed: I


Perimeter Fencing Locks and Key Control I

Reinforced Doors Security Force-Training,Equipment,etc.:


Security \.findows Designation of high-risk areas I


Safes and Vaults Security Alarm Systems I


Surveillance Cameras Employee Education and Training I

B. Analysis of Crim~ Statistics: An analysis of the crime trends, and: other available data should be studied with regard to the listed, &: additional crime threats to the facility. Past experience,the past:

1 • I

oss rates, cr I me reports, etc. I

C. Survey, Outl in~ arid Implementation: The survey and the outl ine are: used in cooper~trcin with each other. After weaknesses and security: problem areas are defined through a survey, an outl ine of the crime: risks has been determined, then the implementation of corrective or: preventive actions should be planned. A comparison of the possible l crime threats with the available barriers or control mechanisms are: used to plan the implementation of prevention actions. An effort: should be made to identify target adversaries 'for the threats that: are assessed, given the nature of the facil ity~ This should then: be compared with the plan for control or reduction of the potential: cri~e risk. :


1. Internal Theft: non-employee threat, employee threat, organized, or I

planned efforts to commit criminal acts. :

20 Auto Theft/Breakins: same as Item II.C.l; :

3. Disorderly Conduct: mental patients, non-employee criminals, etc ••• :

4. Assaults: Same as above listed persons, etc.... I

5. Burg 1 ary and Robbery: same as above lis ted persons, etc... :

~ 6. And, so on, depending on crime risk assessment... :



Continuation of Outline from Page 52 •••


III. Potential Crime Risk - Critical Area Checklist: (Review Analysis)

A. Access Controls: Assess communications ability, emergency & non-emergency notifications, and visual control of entry & exit ••

1. Control Desks Special Areas.

2. Door Alarms-After Hours.

3. Closed Circuit Monitoring.

4. Elevator Restriction/Control

5. Elevator Communications.

6. Patient Control - Outpatient C lin i cs, etc.

7. Door Alarms-Outpatient area.

8. Window security for at least ground floor level.

9.· Stairwells, emergency exits, other areas - alarms, etc.

10. Secure locks, panic alarms external doors, particularly for fire exits, emergency or other exits.

11. Controlled/Separate entrance fo r emp I oyees.

12. Emergency roam security.

13. Security patrols and security efforts, etc.

B. Pharmacy: Designation as a high risk area, with effect i ve con t ro Is.

1. Very restricted accesso

20 Armed Robbery Security Plan.

3. Burglary Security Plan.

4. Appropriate Fire Suppression System.

5. Secure Storage for flammable materials, etc.

6. Audit Controls and Inventory

7. Secured Storage for controlled substances/drugs, etc.

8. Alarm system for doors, windows, internal space, etco

9. Lighting and visibil ity to assist security patrols.

10. Security and monitoring for receiving operations, etc.

C. Cash Handling Operations: An effectively secure area, and separation from oth~r opera~ tionso

1. Restricted access and cont ro 1 a tall times.

2. Protective glass enclosureso

3. 4.

Electric door locks, and observation of access points. Safes/Vaults protected by alarm system, protective devices, etc. Emergency notification alarm and security buttons.

Security escorts, armored car & related security planning, etc. Receiving/Storage Areas: Secured and patrolled areas;lighting and visibility; alarmed doors, and restricted access, etc. Laundry/Linen and Suppl ies: Fire protection program and systems.; door/window. alarms; supplies &. I inens protected in secure-wired storage area;

Adequate 1 ighting and visibility for security patrols, etc. Automatic locking devices on the doors and in use at all times. Control of access, with levels of aut ho r i za t ion.

Parking Areas: Effective access and control.

Barriers and fencing at ground 1 eve 1.

Adequate securi ty 1 i ghting during all hours of darkness. Emergency backup lighting/power. Control of entry and exit. Closed Circuit surveillance. Emergency notification system in facility for both visitors, and tellers.

Physically located close to the hos pita 1.

Security patrols, etc.

Lock and Key Controls: An effect i ve lock rna in tenance, an d key control program throughout the I entire organizational structure.:

Key issuance restrictions, & key:

• •

Inventory, etc. I

Security department controls for:

I key system and program. :

Lock and key changes when keys I

I lost, employees change, etc. :

Other related factors un i que to: the specific setting of the hos- : pita! environment. :

5. 6.









3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.








* Samp 1 e ~10de 1 * ,'rMuseum Securi ty Check 1 l s t x



: For each basic security point 1 isted~ an explanation should follow, indica-:


: ting current security problems, along with an assessment of the security and:

I crime prevention profile. Recommendations and alternatives should also be:

1 , 1

: listed briefly for each point. I

1----------------------------------------------------- ~


: 1. All entrances and exits examined 14. Keys should only be duplicated:

: and locking systems inspected. upon written authorization, and:

: 2. Locking systems should be appro- with upper level management and:

: priate for high security use. supervisory approval. :


: 3. Hollow core doors, and any glass 15. All keys and locks should bel

: panels in doors, should ~eceive changed if personnel Transfer, :

: speci a 1 attent i on. rotate, termi nate, etc. :

: 4. Steel grating, heavy gauge wire 16. An effective security alarm or:

I mesh, security bars should be intrusion detection system with

installed for all external open- current state of the art tech-

ings. (Consistent with codes or nology should be used. The sys-

ordinances) tem should be well serviced and

5. Double doors should be protect- maintained at all times, with

ed with slide bolts at the top frequent testing.

and bottom, on the inside. 17. The alarm system should be con-

6. All windows, especially those nee ted to the security office,

on the first floor should be the local pol ice, or a qual i-

protected. fied monitoring company.

7. All vents and other openings to lB. The alarm ~ystem should have an

the outside of the building must effective backup power supply.

be protected. 19. Small concealable items on dis-

B. All exterior areas, surrounding play should receive special and

the building should be well pro- careful attention. . 1

tected by security lighting dur+ 20. All display cases should have

i ng all hours of darkness. pro te ct e d surfaces ~ and con-

9. External lighting, as well as a structed of security glass.

security lighting system for the 21. All display cases should have

inside, should be on an automa- solid well protected desing and

tic system, with emergency back- construction.

up system. 22. All hinges, locks, etc. on the

10. An effective key control program display cases, should be pro-

supervised by a responsible per- tected and safeguarded.

son should be in force at all 23. High risk valuable items in a


times. display case, should be part of I

, I

II. Keys should be issued on a spe- the alarm system. I


c I.f l c need basis, and assigned 24. Alarm control consoles should I

to authori zed persons on ly. High be under competent and' itra ined I

risk areas should be severely & supervision.

effectively restricted. 25. Work shops, storage areas, and

120 Keys not in use should be stored other places containing valu-

in a protected/secured location. able items should be as well

13. All keys should be inventoried & protected as display areas, and

accounted for on a regular basic the rest of the museum. Areas

and records kept. . shoul d be requl a rl y checked. 1




Continuation of Checklist from Page 5 •••



: 26.


: 27.


: 28.

I t

: basis.

I 29. A thorough background investiga-

: tion should be conducted on all

: personnel prior to hiring.

: 30. Appropriate barriers should

: used for external areas.

: 31. Landscape should be conducive to

: security surveillance.

: 32. All personnel should be part of

: the overall security program and

: receive crime prevention/securi-

: ty education and training.

: 33. Special coded I.D. cards should

: be assigned and restricted to

: certain areas. Personnel should

: have access to areas only as may

: be needed by their job.

: 34. All items within the museum, as

: well as grounds, should not be

: moved unless there is written &

: recorded authorization. There

: should be strict material hand-


, ling procedures.

: 35. Permanent collections and works

: of art that are on loan, should

: receive special security consid-

: eration.

: 36. All items brought into the faci-

: lity, should enter through one

: specific receiving area. Com-


, plete documentation,surveil1ance

: and security control should be

: maintained at all timeso

l 37. An effective system of identifi-

1 cation should be used on all

: items. All objects should be

: catalogued, marked and identified to ensure positive identificat i on.

38. A high degree of security awareness should be maintained on the part of all volunteers and per-

sonnel. I

'---------------------------------------------- ---------------------- 1

The museum security force should provide full coverage during all hours of the day.

Frequent security patrols should be made of all areas within the museum. External areas should be patrolled as well.

Security patrols and inspections should be made on an unscheduled


I Effective plans for evacuation,:

natural disasters, fires, bomb: threats, etc., should be well-: planned, and in writing. :

Ideally, physical secujity and: crime prevention planning with-: in the facil ity, should be part' of the planning and constructtion phases. Modifications and new construction should involve security planning as well. Overview & Assessment: ••••••••• Perimeter Security


Halls, Ceilings, floors, found-

ations, roofs, basements, etc.





Art Storage areas, packing and:

crating, shipping etc.~ _

Control consoles, security els


Key control program and inven-

tory ~~--------~ __ ~_

\..fork areas, offices, equipment-


rooms ~----~-------.

Vendor, contractor, sales and others - control/r.D.


Public Access Controls


Locks, Doo rs , \'Ii ndows _

Alarm Systems __ ~ ~ __

Personne 1 Secur i ty -:---:::--...-_

Personnel Education and Training


Opening/Closing Procedures


Secur i ty Pat ro 1 s

Lo ca 1 Po 1 ice Li a":'j-s-o-n------

Li ght i ng Policies--a-n~d~P~r-o-c-e~d'u-r-e-s--------

Disaster Plan


Personnel r.D. System


Display areas __



Parking areas ___



Landscape __

Ut i lit i es Communica~t~i-o-n-s--------~~~---


Other Significant Aspects




* Sample Model * *Library Security Checklist*



I. General Building Security and Re- 80 Provide visibility for unsuper-I

Lated Perimeter Security......... vised areas in public service areas,:

A. Ar-ch l tec tur-al des ign and the and book stacks. Provide for the:

setting: ellimination of possible surveillance of possible points of:

points of concealment - obs t ruc- concealment. :

tions to vis l b l 1 ity and con t ro l , , 9. Si tuate control desks to aid in:

1. Restrict number of external.. observation and monitoring. :

openings to the outside. 10. Protect restrooms with sturdy or:

2. Restrict number of windows at vandalism resistant rnate r la l s • :

least on ground level. 11. Protect card catalogs and shelf:

3. Ensure effective externa1..oo lists, with fire proof/vandal re s l s-c ]

lighting - automatic controls.... tant cabinets. :

4. Protect all utilities, comm- 1,20 Provide security controls, alarm:

unications, etc. system, ID system for staff work and I

5. Protect intake ducts from any office areas. Control access. :

tampering, etc. 13. Safeguard and secure delivery:

6. Install impact/security rated areas through proper controls. :

glass materials on windows, doors 111. Use security systems, fire sys-:


etc. tems, etc. to protect book-slots and I

7. Protect I ighting and power return points. :

supplies, etc. 15. Ensure proper use and security -:

8. Protect roof areas, and other for safes and vaults. :

possible points of acces. 16. Examine and inspect security for:

: 9. Ensure special security 1 ight custodial rooms, coin-operated units:

: sources for all entrances. and equipment, storage areas, etc. I

: 10. Insta-ll proper barriers, and 17. Provide emergency notification -

: fencing, ensure proper mainten- security for elevators.

: ance of lanscape. 18. Ensure emergency power for 1igh-

: 11. Protect sidewalk areas, with ting, etc.

: adequate lighting and visibility. 19. Provide security patrols and in-

: 12. Ensure security locking sys- spections for all areas, including -

: tems for all doors, etc. special collections, etc.

: 13. Install and utilize an appro'- 20. Util ize an effective security & I

: priate security alarm system. anti-theft system throughout the en- :

: II. Internal Security Considerations: tire facility. Consider alarm device:

: 1. Entrances - adequate security control for high-risk areas,· peri-:

: controls and surveillance. meter access points, panic· hardware:

: 2. Effective I ighting during all for exits, stai rwell s, anti-theft -:

: hours. devices for books and exit areas, &1

: 30 Visibility into library to aid closed circuit ~onitoring systems. !

: pol ice/security patrols. 21. Ensure adequate security educa- I

: 4. Security/Impact resistant door tion and training for all personnel.!

: and glass materials. 22. Ensure adequate personal safety I

I 5. Accountability and controls in and security for staff, especially -:

book return, fines, and registra- when closing and leaving the 1 ibrary:


tion operations. at night. :

6. Control desk locations to aid 23. Locate security operations, and I

in access control and s ur vi l l ance controls in central secured location:


ef fo r ts , within 1 ibrary. Establ ish adequate I

7. Exit controls and monitoringo security plans and procedures. !



* Sample Model * *Cashier-Teller Security Checklist*




Bas~t Sbcurity Considerations: YES: NO:

1« All currency and negotiable securities placed in safe or •••••••

vault at earliest time after closing hours, or when necessary?

2. Vault or safe opened at the latest or most secure time prior to

opening for business?

3. Is srife or valut connected to an effective security alarm?

4. Drop safes or deposit receptacle protected against theft, e t c ;'?

5. Night depository connected to alarm system, well-protected?

6. 'Drive-in' units, teller areas, etc. protected with bullet protective/resistant materials, etco?

7. Teller 'pass-through' unit/device designed to aid the protection of personnel?

8. All cash handl ing operation stations, money is kept to a minimum at all times?

9. Proper safe/s,ecure procedures for removal of money to safe?

10. Robbery alarm designed for maximum access, connected to police or security, etc.? Can be operated in a safe manner?

11. Emergency notification devices, panic buttons, etc. protected & safeguarded from accidental activation?

12. Are panic buttons located for each cash handling station?

13. Communications, telephone equipment, electrcial breaker panels, etco secure and protected?

14. Registered mail secured in safe/vault during non-business hours or other unsupervised times?

IS. Is there a crime prevention/security education program on a regular bas~s for all cash handling/teller personnel?

160 Is there an effective well-controlled key program? Are spare keys kept in a secure file/cabinet?

17. Are all locks and locking devices of maximum security design, & in good working order? Regular maintenance program?

18. Is there an effective program for security inspections, testing of the alarm system, procedures, etc.?

19. Are records kept for security inspections, alarm repair, and

tes t i ng, etc.?

200 Is there someone accountable for security education, training and testing of equipment, records keeping, etc.?

21. Does someone check each office, possible areas of concealment s inspect premises each day before opening the facil ity to other employees and the public?

22. Does someone check to ensure that security devices are working and properly set/activated after opening, after clo,sing?

23. Does someone check all areas at the end of the day to ensure an effective security atmosphere, currency and negotiables proper~ Iy secured, safes/vaults secure, doors and windows locked, etc?

24. Are security procedures, policies, emergency and disaster plans well-developed and in writing, coordination with local police & security personnel, etc.?

25. Appropriate contracts, warranties and service for all security devices and alarm systems?

26. Appropriate use of alarm systems, coordination with police and

, security personnel, response plans, signals and codes, etc.?

, J


Lighting Recommen ded

Security Outline Illumination Levels

I There are a number of considerations that are important in achieving proper~

levels of illumination for various lighting applications. Lighting is not: a simple process, and the need for a qulified professional is necessary to: achieve adequate results. Ideally, an effective safety/security lighting or: illumination program should begin before the construction of a facility, andl

, I

be an integrated part of the entire process of design, layout, construction,:

I etc. Consultation with local utility energy management engineers, lighting: manufacturer I s representat i ves, e I ectri ca I contractors, and others, should: be included in the lighting security plan. The following information is re-: lated to recommended illumination levels, as suggested by the National Ligh-I ting Bureau (The Energy Saver's Guide To Good Outdoor Lighting), and recom-l mended in the Lighting Handbook (Fifth EditionJ: of the Illumination Engi-: neering Society of North America. These are minimum maintained illumination: lighting levels. Local building codes, ordinances, and applicable laws may: require certain lighting levels for certain applications and should be con-; suited. :



I. Bui 1 di ng Exteri ors: Footcandl e s r!

Entrances - Active Access By Pedestrians, etc-----------------=5 Vital Locations and structures---------------------------------5 Surrounding Areas - Inactive, Normally locked/Secure---------~-l

I I. Buildings and Monuments - Floodlighted:

Bright Surroundings:

Light Surfaces--------------------------------------------15

Medium Light Surfaces----------------------~--------------20

Dark Surfaces------------------------------------------~--50

Dark Surroundings:

Light Surfaces--------------------------------------------5

Medium Light Surfaces-------------------------------------IO

Dark Surfaces---------------------------------------------20

I I I. Garden Areas:

Pathways and steps (e.g. from house)---------------------------l Backgrounds, fences, walls, trees, shrubs----------------------2

Flower beds----------------------------------------------------5

Trees, Shrubs, when emphasized---------------------------------5

IV. Loading and Unloading Areas:-----------------------------------20 V. Pa rki ng Areas: (sel f-park i ng - 1 fc.) ---------------------------2 V I. Pie rs :

Freight and Passenger Areas------------------------------------20 Shipping and Surrounding Areas---------------------------------5 VII. Storage Yards:

Act i ve---- ... --- -------------- ----- -----------'----- -'---------- -- -20 Inactive-------------------------------------------------------1

VI I I.Other Particular Areas:

Pedestrian Walkways to Building Areas--------------------------5 General Surface Parking Areas----------------------------------3-5 Pedestrian Crossings - Streets---------------------------------8-l0 Garage Traffic Entry Points (including teller stations)--------30-50 Garage Areas - Turning Points----------------------------------lO-15 Garage Stairwells & Elevator Lobbies---------------------------lO-15 Facade Lighting - Garage Perimeter-----------------------------l



Lighting Information Reference Sources

For additional information on lighting, the following reference sources will provide additional details, sources of reference literature, and related information. For example, the American Consulting Engineers Council can provide information on consulting engineers who specialize in the design, and otherwise assist, in outdoor lighting systems. In addition, local chapters of the National Electrical Contractors Association can provide inform~tion on qualified electrical contractors.

American Consulting Engineers Council 1015 15th Street, N.W., Suite 802 Washington, D.C. 20005

The National Lighting Bureau 2JOI L. Street, N.\.J., Sui te 300 Wash i ngton., D. C. 20037

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 345 E. 47th Street

New York, NY T0017