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Physical Security Guidelines For

Office Equipftlent And Audiovisual Property

By Randy Gonzalez

The following publication represents several basic and primary low cost approaches to security planning. There are many alternatives to similar processes. Some may be considered limited, while other can be extremely high tech in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive investigative analysis is essential.










COPYRIGHT - 1985 - By Randolph A. Gonzalez ••••• ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ••••••• This training manual is protected by copyright. Neither this manual, nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, by electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and other means of recording, without permission in writing from the author or his representative.


Topic Area: Page:

Introduction To Physical Security Guidelines ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• l

Property Identification •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3

Physical Security of Equipment ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 5

Security of Equipment Locations •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 13

Con t ro 1 1 i ng r n ven to ry •••••• 0 III ~ fI III e II II II 16

Sample Inventory Card ••••••••••••••• o •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 17

Establishing Procedures for Equipment Use •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 18

Other Secur i ty Techn i ques 0 II III ......• 20

Sample Diagram

'Anchor Pad' Device ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 22

Samp l e Di agram

Cable Locking Devices •••••••

II •••••• III II 4!J • .., II '" 23

Sample Diagram - Warning Stickers •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 24

Flow Chart - Crime Alert Program ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 25

Sample Diagram - Capacitance Alarm System •• L ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 29

Office Equipment Security Checklist •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 30

Security of the Building •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 30

Security of Inventory ••••••. e 1II •••••••••••••• e ••••••• " •• '" ~ 31

Security of Equipment ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 32 Personnel Security •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 32

Office Building Security Outline & Checklist ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 34

Sample Diagram of Double Cylinder Deadbolt Lock •••••••••••••••••••••.••••• 39

Sample Diagram of Other Locking Devices •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 40

Assessment of the Security Profile: Environmental Security Check I ist ••••• 41

Physical Security Assessment Rating Profile •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 52

Other Prevention Ideas and Related Techniques •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 54

Sample Design

'Do-It-Yourself' Low Cost Local Alarm System ••••••••••••• 57

Sample Design - Office Area Physical Security Survey .•.••••••............ 58


The proper use and access to various office equipment and audiovisual resources is of vital importance to personnel authorized to use such equipment. In the typical institutional setting (e.g. college, school system or similar environment), every effort is usually made to provide ready access to A-V equi pment and other materi a 1 s , Instructors, teachers, students and staff personnel want to use equipment when they need it. They prefer ease of access to all such equipment on a routine basis. Generally, such personnel do not want to be delayed in their work related efforts to enjoy using the 'equipment. However, from a physcal security standpoint, the easier the access, the greater the security problem, and the potential that equipment will be lost, damaged, or stolen. Therefore, physical security considerations for office equipment and A-V resources must provide two important aspects: 1) ensure access to equipment when needed; and 2) protect the resources for a reasonable period of life expectancy.

No business se t t l nq , college campus, or school district has . immunity from the loss or theft of office equipment or A-V materials. The implementation of minimum security procedures and safeguards is the responsibility, and concern, of all personnel, particularly those charged with A-V or media services. It is the purpose of this publication to address basic issues or concerns related to the safeguarding of such equipment. Although much of the information presented is directed t0ward the instituti'onal envi,ronment, the concepts -and guidelines will be applicable to the private sector business environment as well. A variety of techniques and guidel ines will be presented to assist in reducing the opportunity for loss or theft of equi-pmente These suggestions should be considered as basic recommendations, and it should be kept in mind that no system of security is 100% foolproof.


Every effort should be made by all personnel within an office setting to identify security problem areas, secure property whenever possible, contro] the proper use of property, and ensure the proper inventory and responsibility for all property. Basic crime prevention relates to four key terms: anticipation, recognition, appraisal, and action.

Anticipate that loss or theft is possible, and will occur. Recognize the need for good security of all equipment. Appraise the current situation in a given work area.

Take appropriate action to prevent loss or theft.

Throughout the course of developJng these suggestions, it was not possible to address every situation in which a theft might occur. In fact the reader may be aware of other possible solutions or techniques to secure all property and equipment within their facil ity. This publ ication is intended

to suggest basic crime prevention measures, and not to be a manual covering every possible aspect of physical security.

Basically, a criminal act of theft is based on certain ingredients and

comprehens i ve

include, among others, such elements as, desire, abil ity and opportunity in accompl ishing the removal of property. The important aspect of this equation is opportunity. Reducing the opportunity for a crime to occur is the

primary objective of crime prevention and loss reduction. Every


should be made to review and evaluate current operations with regard to use and access of equipment. This would include evaluating, the physical location of the equipment, personnel practices and procedures, along with any written policies pertaining to property security. Personnel should be instructed in the safeguarding of all property, particularly high value property. Policies regarding security of equipment should be clearly indicated in written formo All personnel should think prevention at all times.



The proper identification of office equipment and A-V materials is one of the most important steps in developing a good physical security program, and crime prevention effort. Identification is important to:

I. Deter theft.

2. Provide inventory control.

3. Ensure proper reporting if a theft occurs.

4. Assist in property recovery if stolen.

5. Increase accountabi I ity for property.

6. Locate property.

It is important to select a unique number to etch on all equipment, in order that the property can be identified to a specific school, college, or business entity. Some school districts, for example, have certain numbers assigned that. identify the state, the school system, etc. Should a theft, or loss occur, the number, along with other significant information, can be

provided to law enforcement agencies to aid in the recovery. After


pol ice conduct their initial investigation, the information can be entered into the NCIC system (National Crime Information Center), which is a national law enforcement computerized information system. When a po li ce department recovers an item, the numbers are checked in the system. If the item has been entered, then the law enforcement agency will be able to locate the owner.

It is al~o important that signs or posters indicate that all


. ment within a particular office/work area has been marked and identified as appropriate to the area. This is done to warn potential intruders that the equipment is marked and recorded. The following basic steps are suggested to assist In identifying property.


I. Se1ect and establish a unique identifying number.

2. Utilize a suitable etching device, such as an electric engraver.

3. Ut I l i ze an engravi ng penci I for delicate pieces of equipment.
4. Etch the appropriate number in an obvious location.
5. Etch the appropr i ate number in two other concealed locations.
6. Record and list equipment indicating how each was marked. 7. Keep an up-to-date inventory with such information as: type of equipmemt, make, model, size, color, serial number, etc.

80 Contact your local law enforcement agency's crime prevention unit to borrow engravers, and obtain wanning stickers.

9. Place warning stickers, posters, e t c , , at all entrances to tions where equipment is kept.

10. Take a photograph of all high value equipment.

As another possibi I l ty , it may be a good idea to develop an additional


marking system for the equipment, especially high value property (e.g. computer terminals, VCR's, T-V's, word processors, projectors, etc.). This is a visible marking system, in which equipment is boldly marked with the company's or school's name. Such a system of marking actually defaces equ~pment to the extent that it is not as desirable to the potential theif since it is clearly marked. This can be done by making a stencil of the letters, or numbers, identifying the business or school, and painting over the stencil. A fast drying paint should be used that is of a per~anent nature, and cannot be removed easily with water or other common cleaning fluids. The stencil might read as follows, for example:





A good crime prevention tactic is to secure high value equipment to a fixed location. On the market today, there are many types of devices to secu re equ I-pmen t , They range in p rice f rom the leas t expens i ve to the ve ry expensiveo The main idea behind securing equipment to a fixed location is to prevent removal. In addition, such an effort also slows down the intruder, and requires he or she to spend more time at the scene. This increases

the possibility of detection and apprehension. Basically, this is


"har-den l nq the target", or simply making it difficult to remove equipment.

It is important to select the type of device or technique that serves the needs of the location best. Devices available can be used on many different kinds of equipment. Some devices may require the drilling of holes into desks or tables, in order to secure the equipment. In addition, such efforts may r~quire disassembley of the equtpment, or pefhaps putting holes in the equipment. Every effort should be made to exercise care in the use of electrical equipment, when attempting drilling, etc.

Some of the inexpensive techniques include the following items:

1. Bicycle cable locks.

2. Wood screws.

3. Bolts and nuts.
4. Tamperproof screws.
5. Eyebolts.
60 Ba r-i'type locks.
7. Cable clamps.
8. Other types of hardware devices. 6

These use of these items may be defined as follows:

Bicycle Cable Locks: These are for the most part inexpensive and used

in a number of ways on di fferent types of equ] pment. Locks can be or-

dered with master keys. Keys should be restricted to author i zed per-

sonnelonly. Items should be individually keyed, and all keys should

be secured in a safe place. For example, an item could be secured in

the following manner:

Ho led r i I led,


------------------TYPEWRITER (Or, other type of equipment)

Cab 1 e


--------------TYPfNG TABLE


Contact your local law enforcement agency for recommendations on types

of locks available. Also, consult the local hardware store.


Wood screws: Some types of equj.prnen t may be secured, us i ng an ins ide surface. For example, if the typewriter top can be removed, and the bottom part exposed, it may be possible to install wood screws through the bottom of the equipment, and into the surface of a table, desk, or

other i tern,

This will involve some disassembly of the unit, screwing

the bottom case down to the fixed surface. Again, this is an


aimed at slowing down the intruder. That is, requiri·.ng he or she to remove the screws before taking the equipment. Also, bolts can be used to accomplish the same technique. It will be necessary to drill holes through the equipment and the table or other surface, when using the bolts.

Bolts and nuts: As mentioned above, bolts can be used for a variety of situations. As an example, projectors can be secured to AV carts, or other surfaces, such as metal. Also, typewriters can be secured in the same fash i on. It is recommended that two or more nuts be used on the inside of the equipment, locked together, in order to make it more difficult to remove the equipment. Holes would be drilled through the surface of the table or cart, and the equipment. The bolt would then be extended upward, and the nuts affixed from the inside of the equipment. Note, that with certain AV equipment (i.e. lenses) it w l l l be extremely difficult to secure these items. Lenses and other projection equipment should be clearly marked. Since these items are vulnerable to theft, it may be impossible to securely fix them in place. Tamperproof screws: When it is necessary to expose the screw head, a tamperproof screw should be used. A special screwdriver is necessary for the installation of such screws. A regular screw can also be made to work, by simply drilling out the screwdriver slot. However, this


technique will prevent the AV technician, or staff personnel from also

removing the screws. Contact should be made with appropriate


smith personnel, the hardware store, physical plant maintenance per-

sonnel, etc., for use of tamperproof screws.

Eyebolts: When it is necessary to utilize an adjacent wall to secure

equipment, eyebolts can be used. This would preclude having to drill

through a table or desk. The eyebolts can be used in conjunction with

a cable locking device to secure the equipment. Eyebolts

(at least

two) would be drilled into the wall behind the equl.pmen t , Holes would

be drilled through the equipment, and a cable locking device would be

extended through the equipment, through the eyebolts and then locked.

hole dri l l e d in

Equi pment to be protected-------------


Wall surface behind desk


Bar-Type Locks: There a several types of locking devices on the market that are designed to secure office equipment and computer components. Many of these use a design of different shapes, and are composed of, iron or steel. If a machine shop or other similar facility is available, it is very easy to construct a bar-type locking devices. A piece of flat iron, for example, can be used by shaping it to fit the desired security need. This may be done by selecting a piece of flat iron bar that will extend across the bottom of the item to be secured to a fixed object. By drill ing holes in at least two locations on the ba r , the new lock i ng dev ice can be ins ta 11 ed unde r the equ i pmen t and subsequently attached to the table, desk, etc. This would require, of course, drilling corresponding holes in both the equipment and the table or desk. It is also possible to attach another piece of metal

to the first bar, creating a ITI. The second piece could be


through a slot in the table, and then secured in place by use of a

padlock or combination lock. with this type of technique.

Any number of combinations are possible, A steel, iron or other metal could also

be shaped and used to form a Istrapl around the equipment to be protected.

----drilled holes

---------metal bar


-------------------Attaches to equipment.

-- ---------------Holes drilled for screws.

--------------------A second piece of metal is attached, either by weld-

__ - ing to the first piece, or

wrapping around the first piece of metal.

To slot in table.

Meta 1 PI ate

Hole for padlock.

A large flat piece of metal (about 1/8" to 1/411 in thickness is also a possibility to secure equiJilment. The metal plate would be attached to the table and the equipment.·

Screws or bolts would extend through the case of the equipment and screwed or bolted to the table.

Bolted or screwed to base of equip-


As an alternative, a T-bar design could be used to secure the equipment to the wall where a desk or table is pushed up against the wall construction.

or screwed to wall


Meta I St rap

A metal strap could be designed to secure the equipment to a table or desk.


Minimum thickness for the bars, T-bars and metal straps should be at least 1/8" thickness, and at least I" wide.


Cable Clamps: Cable-type lo~king devices, similar to the bicycle-type

cable locks, can be used for a variety of purposes. This is an effec-

tive low-cost security system for such items as: microphones,


cords" calculators, and other small portable equ l pmerit , A small clamp

is used to secure the cable around the equipment to be protected. The

clamp is attached to a fixed object, holding the cable in place. A

tamperproof screw should be used with each clamp to prevent removal of

the cable clamp. This arrangement might typically be used to


guard small valuable items. In this technique it will be necessary to

use: a cable locking device, cable clamps, and tamperproof screws. It

is also possible to use a cable, with cable clamps, eye-bolts, and a

padlock to secure the equipment to a fixed object, such as a wall, and

attached to the equipment.

Cable to--------equipment

--------Table/desk surface


Other types, of hardware devi ces: There are many simple low-cost Wf,IYS to protect office equipment and A-V resources. Investigate the various types of locks and devices available through the local hardware

store, or local lock supply company. In addition, the local

pol ice

department's crime prevention unit may have a display of various locks, or have recommendations for types of locks or devices that should be used. There are many techniques and variations that can be used with the suggestions already presented.


The availabil ity of equipment for use by authorized personnel is an important consideration when conducting an analysis of equipment storage locations. However, the ease of access to equipment should not be considered an issue that is more important than appropriate security. A-V equipment, for example, should be stored in a well protected storage area, such as a locked closet, specially designed room, or secure file cabinet for smaller types of items. Office equipment should be protected as much as possible, so that the equipment is secure, but personnel can use it (e.g. typewriter). Equipment that is used in an open office area should be anchored to a fixed location. All equipment should be accounoed for at least once every six months and no later than an annual inventory. Accurate records should be kept at

all times. A-V equipment becomes more difficult to secure~ once it the storage area.

The pe r son who is responsible for the control of equipment and property


may wish to consider the following suggestions:

1. Have a staff member or appropriate personnel take responsibility


for internal security. This person should make sure all equipment is accounted for at the end of each normal business day.

2. Establ ish one point of access or entry to equipment storage areas.

Strictly control the access point to the storage area.


a log of all equipment checked out, loaned, sent out for services, etc.

3. Make sure all equipment areas, including storage facilities, are under observation of assigned personnel at all times.

4. Keep portable small items (e.g. cameras, calculators, tapes, etc.) locked in a protected file cabinet at all times.

5. Enforce strict key control to office areas, equipment storage and file cabinets. Keys should only be issued as abso l ute l v necessary to business operations.

6. Maintain an up-to-date and accurate listing/inventory of all keys that have been issued. Account for all unissued extra keys. Make

sure the list includes the names of persons with keys, and areas the keys will allow access.

7. Recover keys from persons who transfer or resign. Rekey areas if


a key i s 1 os t •

8. At the end of each day, ensure that the assigned person~ as indicated in Item 1 above, checks all cabinets, storage rooms, equipment, doors, windows, etc. This person should -a lso maintain some type of checkl ist to indicate that areas were checked and equipment accounted for before leaving. This list should indicate the date, time, initials of the person, etc.

9. After hours, all high value equipment should be kept out of sight, well protected, and away from windows and doors.


Equipment that is checked out, loan~d or sent out for repair is difficult to protect. Every effort should be made to account for the e~uipment whenever possible. Personnel responsible for equipment, such as A-V equipment, shou.l d make an effort to inform those who check.iout the materials of the need for good security. Some recommendations to those who may checkout equipment include the following:

1. Be alert at all times to the potential loss or theft of the equipment borrowed.

2. Always safeguard the equipment when away from storage areas. lock the doors to classrooms, study areas, offices, etc. where equipment is used for a short time, later to be returned to a storage area.

3. Never leave equipment unattended for any period of time.

4. If an office, classroom, lecture hall, meeting room, or work station is to be left unattended for any period of time, then someone should be appointed to standby and protect the equipment until the appropriate personnel return. Or, the area should be locked and the equipment safely secured inside. At the end of the function or event taking place in the room (if not ~quipment is not permanently assigned to the room), the equipment should be returned to secured


5. If the door to the room cannot be properly secured or otherwise secured in a protected manner, then the equipment, should be placed in a file cabinet, storage closet, desk, etc., and placed out of sight from potential intruders.

6. If other personnel use the room, they should be asked to assist in safeguarding the equipment.

7. Upon completion of the day's use of the equipment, it should always be returned immediately to safe storage areas.


8. Persons checking out equipment should ensure that all equipment is

thoroughly accounted for (all parts and components, etc.) and in

good working order prior to being returned.

9. Ml keys to rooms containing equipment are accounted for each day.

10. A thorough and up-to-date inventory is kept on all equipment checked out. Equipment is reviewed when returned to observe any unauthorized use.

All personnel who are entrusted with responsibil ity for company, school or college property should always be concerned about possible situations in which property could be lost or stolen. There are many opportunities for a theft to occur. Accountable personnel should consider:

1. Periodic checks on areas where equipment is being used to ensure an effort is made to safeguard the property.

2. Visiting classrooms, lecture and seminar rooms, office areas, etc., to ensure that equipment is properly used and protected.

3. Being alert to any signs of carelessness on the part ofpersQnnel who have borrowed, or checked out equipment.

4. Maintaining an alert attitude with regard to situations which might provide an opportunity for theft.

S. Providing for continuous after hours protection of equipment.


All equipment should be accounted for on a regular basis, through an

accurate inventory control system. Each operation may vary in design and

application. However, an inventory system should be selected that will best suit the needs of the particular operation. For example, one simple type of system involves the use of inventory control cards for each piece of equip-


mente A duplicate card is kept for each item 1 isted, and stored in a separ-

ate place. The duplicate record is always kept in a locked file, or other

secure location. Duplicate cards can be compared to the original file on a

periodic basis to check for any signs of misuse, altering, etc. In addition

to use for periodic updating and comparison, duplicate cards assist the sys-

tem by providing a copy in the event of fire, theft or other damage to the

original set. High value equipment should be photographed, and the photo of

the equipment should be attached to the inventory control card. There are a

number of inventory systems in use, but each should provide at least the

following basic information:

Sample Inventory Card

'BRAND' . . . . . .
r .0. NUMBER


Pol icies and procedures for the use of equipment should be detailed in writing for all personnel. Persons using, borrowing, loaning, etc. any property should be made aware of all pol icies and procedures. Procedures must be enforced at all times to ensure the safeguarding of the equipment. Training should be provided when possible to ensure that all personnel understand the need for following proper procedures, and adhering to appropriate policies. An effort should be made to keep written poli€ies as simple as possible. The following should be considered:

1. Complicated procedures may create a situation in which people will attempt to work around the system. Keep procedures simple.

2. Prevent unauthorized access to any equipment areas as much as possi b 1 e.

3. If equipment is allowed to be reserved for future use, prepare the appropriate reservation inventory or checklist fil~.

4. Do not allow persons to checkout or remove equipment without following the appropriate procedures.

5. Maintain control at all times.

6. Ensure proper security procedures for equipment once it leaves the storage area.

7. Do not allow portable equipment such as calculators or cassette recorders to be left on desks for long periods of time. The~e should be secured in a desk, file cabinet, etc. at the end of the business day.

8. Protect equipment at all times when not in use.


A-V equipment that is transported on a cart should be secured jf possible to the cart. Equipment permanently assigned to a room, office or classroom should be secured to a fixed object. Any efforts by personnel to trade or loan equ l pmen t from assigned areas should be avoided. Such actions may

result in the equipment being reported as missing or stolen. In


moving equipment from an assigned area may also increase the potential for

a theft.

When equipment is sent out for repair it should be carefully


or otherwise documented. Control over the equipment is greatly reduced when the property is sent out for repair. The following should be considered for any property that leaves the premises for repair or service:

1. Proper documentation;

2. Adequate marking of the equipment;

3. Company, school district or college name on the equipment;

4. Company, school district or college decal or tag on the equipment;

5. Record card or repair tag attached to equipment;

6. Maintain an up+to+da te "out for repa l r!' file;

7. Examine file regularly and monitor time equipment is out for repair

at service company;

8. Returned equipment should be well documented;

9. Remove copy of repa i r tag from "out for repa i r" f i l e ;

10. Record return date;

11. Record type of repair, dates sent and returned, costs, repair service company, etc., on inventory card {See Page 17};

12. Ensure that all personnel follow procedures;

13. Ensure proper documentation at all times;


If possible, maintain adequate insurance coverage for all equi.pmen t and

property. Do not rely on insurance protection alone to safeguard


and equipment. Insurance coverage is only part of a total security plan for equhprnen t which includes: identification, physical security, equipment control, and pol icies and procedures. An effort should be made to determine as well as understand exactly what is covered and required by the insurance for the property. An examination of the insurance policy should be done as soon as possible. Some of the considerations relate to the following questions:

1. Definition of terms in the policy?

2. Coverage pertains to what?

3. What property is not covered?

4. Does the policy have a deductible clause?

5. Is there a minimum loss clause?

6. If property is stolen, does there have to be proof of forced entry?

7. Does the policy specify any difference between loss during working

hours, or after normal business hours?

80 Is property covered when it leaves the premises? 90 Are photos required to be taken?

100 Does the policy require that a report must be made to the pol ice?

11. What records must be kept?

12. procedures are taken when a loss or theft is discovered?

13. What levels of authority are notified when a loss or theft occurs?


There are many simple techniques and products available other than the items already presented in the previous pages. Personnel assigned to safe-


guard equbpment should constantly be alert for new or different ways to pro-

teet their property. Some additional ideas are suggested in the following:

1. Invisible marking pens: This type of device utilizes a ~pecial or

unique fluid~ which requires ultra-violet light to read any identi-

fication information.

2. Anchor Pads and related devices: Several companies make a device by

which equipment is secured to a fixed object by use of a specially

designed pad. The pads range in size to protect calculators or a

typewriter. Some are designed to allow equi'pment to pivot in diff-

erent di rect ions. It is al so poss i b Ie to secure computer termi na Is

and television sets with the use :of such devices. One type of pad~

developed by Anchor Pad International, involves the use of a heavy

duty metal locking plate. A metal plate is bonded to the


of a desk or table with double-faced adhesive. Steel bolts attach

the equipment to the top of the Anchor Pad. Steel rods

ln te nlock

with the pad and secure to the metal plate. Additional information

on the Anchor Pad can be obtained from:

Mr. Frank Harrison

Anchor Pad Protection Specialist SCAN CORPORATION

P. O. BOX 420

Largo~ Fla. 34294-0420


Sample Diagram Anchor Pad

Typewriter or VCR, etc.------

Steel BoTts used to attach equipment to------_-----~-~~~----~-------L~~--~ adapter base of pad

Pick Resistant (1 ock i ng un i ts

Res i stant locks

to double-faced adhesive mat

The Anchor Pad is designed for a number of different types of appT ica-

tions within the office or A-V environment. This type of device would re-

present a sl qn l f l cant level of security protection for office equipment. In

use the pad device would effectively secure a piece of equipment to a fixed

position, such as a desk, table or other work station. Removal of the item,

such as a typewriter, by an authorized person would require the use of a key

and an extractor unit to remove the locks and the steel rods. As with other

items requiring the use of keys, a good key control procedure is

necessa ry

to ensure proper protection from misuse of keys.


3. Office equipment cable locking devices: Different types of locking

cables are available on the market that are designed for

va r i ous

kinds of office equipment. It is designed to connect from the in-

side of the equipment (through a drilled hole in the back of equip-

ment) and extend out to be connected to a fixed object, such as a

desk or table. A key lock is constructed on the end of the


to release the locking device when the equipment is removed.

Typewr i te r--l

~2::~_:::: _

~ Washer fits---- r-.

. inside unit ~;O


---Cable extends

from hole to

desk /


Key LOCking--------~ Device

---Cable from equipment to leg of desk

Locking device fits into insert housing


4. Warning Stickers: Proper posting of warning stickers, signs, and posters are important to warn persons that proper security measures are taken on the premises. Signs or stickers should be idisplayed when possible at all entrances to equipment storage areas, customer counters, work areas, offices, etc. Warning stickers can often be an inexpensive form of deterrence. The local police department is a possible source of crime prevention posters and stickers. A typical warning sticker may be designed as follows:






5. Crime Alert Program:

A notification system should be


in the event equipment is lost or stolen. This might includeJ in

addition to notifying the local policeJ a special bulletin that is

sent to school or college officials, all management personnel, etc.

Such notification that a theft of certain equipment has


may also assist in the recovery of the property. In addition, the

local news media may be considered as another source of


tion, along with other community groups. The following flow chart

suggests one possible approach to a "crime a l er t!' program.

O THEFT DETECTED . I nterna 1 Proce-

II Notification/Documentation------( dures, etc. Begins

I NTERNAL NOT I FICA TI ON AL ERT ----- -~---- ---- t


( Securi ty Dept. )

(Company, Schoo I I Officials, etc.



Loca I Pol ice Dep t ,



( Insurance Co.


" Community Groups)

News MediaJ etc.


6. Unmarked Storage Facilities: Storage areas for equipment that is not is regular use during the day should be well protected. It is

~a good pract i ce not to announce to everyone that such a


contains valuable equipment and materials. A sign on the door to a storage room that reads "Equipment Storage" might invite an unauthorized person to gain entry.

7. Photographs and Documentation: As suggested previously, equipment should be properly documented, marked, and photographed. If it is possible, consideration should be given to developing a videotape of all valuable equipment. An entire tape or tapes could be devoted to all equipment and the locations where they are normally kept.

8. Local Police: In considering a security plan for the office areas, storage facilities, equipment, etc., the local police department is a good place to start. Most pol ice agencies have a very effective crime prevention unit, along with excellent crime prevention materials and resources. They should be invited to assist in the crime prevention planning efforts, conduct security inspections, and provide other related services. This would also include: posters, engravers, warning stickers, brochures, etc.

9. Electronic Security Systems: There many different types of alarm systems on the market. The cost of such systems vary, depending on the type and design. It may not be possible to.affo~d a sopHisticated alarm system, given other budetary needs of the facility. In considering an alarm system, careful analysis of the needs of the facility or business, along with cost factors, will be necessary. in assessing a particular system. An entire book would be necessary to discuss the many types of alarms available on the market today.


If it is the desire of the faci1 ityls management to acquire a security system, then it is very important to get the proper alarm, as it is to get proper locking devices. Both alarms and locks are des)gned for the same purpose. That is, they serve the needs of the facil ity to obtain the level of required security that may be needed to protect certain property and personnel. It is recommended to the person assigned to select an alarm system, that he or she fully investigate all aspects of the degree of security needed. Consultation with the local police, fire officials, and reputable security professionals, will be extremely important. Some of the questions that should be asked, when considering an alarm system, include:

a. Is the proposed system approved by Underwriter's Laboratories?

b. How is the alarm system rated for probability of detection?

c. What kind of false alarm rate does the system have?

d. Will certain environmental conditions affect the operation?

e. What state and local laws affect the installation of an system?

f. What state and local laws affect the licensing requirements of


the alarm company?

g. How will the system be protected from tampering?

h. What level of maintenance and testing will be required once the system is installed? Who will be responsible?

i. ~or a large facility, with several locations, how will the system be 'zoned', so that personnel can determine where an alarm has been activated?

j. How will the alarm system be monitored? In-house staff? Local pol ice? Security company?


k. If the alarm system is connected to an outside agency, what is the probable response time to an alarm situation?

1. Wi 11 the alarm system be cost-effective?
m. Wi 11 the ala rm system be purchased or leased?
n. Are there any restrictions wi th regard to the amount of noise
the alarm sys tern can make? Siren? Bell? Other?
o. How will personnel respond to the alarm system? p. Will personnel be trained in the proper use of the alarm system and avoid unnecessary false alarms, misuse of the system, etc.?

q. Will the alarm company provide a warranty, service, etc.?

ro What types of components are involved? Electrical? Mechanical?

Photoelectric? Capacitance? Other?

A thorough investigation of the different types of alarms on the market should be conducted. The alarm system should be designed to meet the needs

of the facility. It should not be too complicated and difficult for


orized personnel to operat~. Again, depending on the needs of the facility, many types of systems are available with various cost ranges.

As an example of one type of alarm system, which is designed for the

protection of equipment, the capacitance alarm can be used for such items as safes, files, desks, etc. This type of system has been used in a variety of ways, from guarding file cabinets to museum paintings. It operates on the capacitive principle of electrical energy. A capacitor conducts electricity and uses an object, which is to be protected, as an antennao When a per:son attempts to remove the object, the electrical field is disturbed and thereby

sets off the alarm. Objects to be protected are connected to the system in a series.

Sample Diagram Capacitance Alarm

---------Control Box

Senso r wires

-----File Cabinet

----Sensor wi res




The following checklist has. been developed to offer assistance to 'per-

sonnel who are responsible for property control. Questions should



assistance in developing possible security measures within an office envir-

onment. The checklist may be used to conduct an internal security inspect-

ion and assess overall security of property. Any 'NO' answers to the listed

questions should require immediate attention and followup action. The list

provides some of the basic physical security issues, and should not be con-

sidered as a comprehensive assessment. There may be other aspects of the

particular facility or building, due to its unique nature, in which


considerations may be appropriate in addition to these.

Security of the Building

1. Unauthorized persons are unable to enter and leave the building without

coming into contact with staff personnel?

2. Staff personnel will challenge unauthorized persons who enter offices or

work areas?

3. Proper identification (check-in log, badge, etc.) is required before a

person can get beyond the reception area?

4. It is not possible for someone to gain access to equipment storage areas

without being detected or challenged by staff personnel?

5. All access points, such as doors, windows, etc., ar~ properly secured at

appropriate times during the day? (Closing, end of day, weekends, etc.)


6. Appropriate warning stickers, posters, signs, etc., are displayed at the


7. Staff personnel lock meeting rooms, work areas, classrooms, etc., when

not in use?


8. Building exterior doors are properly secured each day after closing?

9. Is a staff member responsible fo'r conducting a security check at the end

of each business day?

10. Adequate lighting is provided for all exterior entrances?

11. Locks, alarm systems, and other security hardware are adequate?

12. Is there an active crime prevention program?

Security of Inventory

1. Is a comprehensive inventory conducted at least once a year?

2. Is there adequate insurance coverage for high value property?

30 I s there an inventory of all property and equ i pment wh i ch records i nformation such as the following?

( ) Brand ( ) Model ( ) Vendor ( ) Purchase Date ( ) Acces so r i es
( ) Cost ( ) I. D. Number ( ) Physical Location in Bu i I ding
( ) Serial Number ( ) Account Number
( ) Service Dates ( ) Other, including photographs. 4. A dupl icate copy of the inventory record is kept in a safe place?

5. A periodic inspection is conducted to ensure that equipment is in places as indicated on the inventory?

6. Up-to-date records are kept when property is sent out for repair?

7. Up-to-date records are kept when property is loaned, borrowed, etc.?


8. Photographs are taken of all property?

9. Pol icies and procedures for the proper use of equipment are well defined and in wrl t ten form?

10. A procedure is establ ished for reporting and documenting property that is lost or stolen?

11. All personnel are aware of pol icies and procedures regarding equipment?

32 ,

Security of Equipment

1. Equipment is marked, engraved, etc. in at least two places?

2. Equipment is marked with some of the following information?

( ) Company Name ( ) School Name ( ) Co 11 ege Name
( ) District Number ( ) Building Name ( ) I. D. Number
( ) School I. D. Number ( ) Other 3. Equipment use and loan procedures are appropriate?

( ) No property is loaned without proper authorization.

( ) No property is loaned f~om department to department without proper records keeping.

( ) No property is loaned from instructor to instructor without proper records keeping.

( ) A system is available to identify where each piece of equipment is located.

( ) Equipment check-in procedures ensure proper recording. 40 High value equipment is secured in a protected storage area?

( ) Calculators

( ) Cameras

( ) M i c rophones

( ) T-V Sets ( ) Tapes

( ) Other

( ) Projectors ( ) Cassette Recorde rs

( ) Video Recorders () Electric Typewriters

50 Equipment that is normally used in one location is secured to a ·fixed or permenant location?

6. Copy machines are not access ibleto unauthorized pe rsons ?

7. Security education is provided to all personnel?

Personnel Security

1. A key control/security program has been established?

2. A list is kept of all personnel who have keys to the building, areas, e t c , ?



3. When users have access to equipment, staff personnel are available to

provide supervision?

4. Equipment is never left unattended by staff personnel, particularly during breaks, absences, etc.?

50 No staff personnel are allowed to remove any equipment from the ing without proper authorization?

6. All personnel are aware of proper procedures for checking out equJ.pment?

bu i I d-

7. Pe r i od i c checks a re made fo r eq u i pmen t tha tis checked out fo r meet i ngsl,

classes~ seminars, etc., to ensure that property is properly used and

safegua rded?

8. Persons responsible for high value equipment are properly screen~d before they are hired?

9. Protective procedures are available for personnel who have to work late at night; or after business hours?

10. Emergency telephone numbers are readily available for police, fire, medi ca I personnel?

11. A personal safety education program has been provided to all personnel?





One of the most critical aspects of planning a security program for the office environment, in addition to protection of equipment and materials, is the development of a security plan for the building itself. Planning security for the building is very similar to planning security for the equipment inside the facil ity. The following outl ine is designed to provide the basic information for planning physical security for the building. Developing the security plan for the building involves conducting a detailed criti~ cal analysis of the facility, in order to assess its present physical security status. After conducting the initial analysis of the building's status, recommendations should be developed to correct any security problems.

This outline should provide an overview to assist in determining what level of security is available within a given target building. Due to many differences in a particular building's design, size, location, operation, or services, no two buildings will be exactly the same. Therefore, the outl ine should be modified as necessary, depending on the unique features of a particular building. A thorough analysis should be conducted so that a logical basis can be establ ished for improving any existing security problem areas.

Office Building Security Outline

I. Problem Identification & Assessment

A. Identification of the Premises

1. Date Analysis to be conducted;

2. Name & Location of the Specific Building;

3. Address and specific building numbers, etc.;

4. Persons involved in analysis and planning;


B. Physical Control Factors For Property

1. Control of Access/Entry to Building

a. Surrounding areas and neighborhood, all directions;

b. Barriers and perimeter:

Doors Hindows

Fi re Escapes Locks

Roof Basements Openings Door Hinges Storage Hedges

Servi ce Counters Fences

Sta irs

Vent i I ators Elevators Hinge Pins

De I i very Areas, Li ght ing

c. Locking Devices & Key Control:

Condition of locking devices Key Control Log/Checkl ist Numbers of keys issued Rekeying Procedures

Opening & Closing Procedures

d. Lighting:

Nighttime level of 1 ighting All eys


Maintenance & Repair

Automatic Lighting vs Manual Operation, Responsibilities for I ighting controls

e. Security Systems & Degrees of Protection

f. Employee Training, Vigilance and Education with regard to physical security, etc.

g. Past History of Criminal Activity in Building


2. Control of Special Access/Entry to Building

a. Reception Areas

Identification of Employees

Identification of Visitors, Vendors, etc.

Check-in and Check-out Procedures

b. Parking Facilities

c. Housekeeping Services and Access to Building Areas

d. Offices, elevators, etco

3. Guard Service Responsibil ities

C. Physical Control Factors for Critical Areas

1. Corpprate, School, or College Records Keeping Areas

Business Records Correspondence
Property Inventory Business Plans & Reports
Computer Tapes Building Plans
2. Ma i I Room/ Depa rtmen t (Depending on Size of Building and busi-
ness ope rat ions) Mai I Handl ing

Cash Payments & Receipts

Keys & Key Control

Shipping of Equipment & Materials

Confidential Correspondence

3. Cash Handling Transactions

Incoming cash volume

Counter Service Procedures

Storage of Cash

Depos i ts

Overnight Storage

Safe/Vault Facilities

~ashier Training

Cash Drawer Security

Cash Counting Room

Cash Audits & Documentation

D. Pol ice & Security Services

I. Responsibility for On-Site Security Services


2. Relationship with Local Law Enforcement Agency

a. Contact with local law enforcement agency crime prevention un i t;

b. Law enforcement agency emergency telephone numbers posted;

c. Procedures for reporting theft, losses, emergency t ions;


d. Property stickers, warning decals, theft prevention signs, and related materials;

s i tua-

e. Procedures for protecting a crime scene;

Eo Utilities & Communications Service & Equipment

1. Telephone Trunk Lines protected;

2. Electrical service and backup power protection;

30 Gas lines protected;

4. Emergency power supply for computer operations, teletypes, and

related communications I inks, etc.;

5. Protection of mechanical equipment rooms, etc.;

F. Computer Facilities & Operations

10 Computer Room Security;

2. Protective devices for access and equipment;

3. Power supply and auxiliary power supply protection;

~. Windows, doors, walls, ceilings, floors, etc.;

5. Protection of software systems, programs, files, and hardware;

6. Protection of terminals, printers, et c , ;

I I. Specific Physical Security Factors

Ao Ext.e r l o r Doors:

So lid Core

Hinge pins secured

Hinges Protected

Locks Protected from picking, dri 11 ing, etc.

Glass Panels protected with metal screening, etc.

B. Exterior Windows:

Unnecessary windows eliminated or covered;

Windows not monitored by employees locked or otherwise protected;

Windows at alleys, sides or secluded places screened or protected;

C. Roof Access/Entry Points:

Skyl i ghts

Attic Ventilators

Ai r Ducts


El evator Shafts

(Consult local building codes and fire regulations for any building modifications that are made.)

D. Fire Escapes & Stairwells

E. Locks:

Dead-bolt cylinder locks

Knob locks


Key Control

F. Lighting Inside and Outside of Building

G. Security Systems In Use or Proposed

H. Employee Education and Vigilance

I. Access by Contractors, Salesmen, Vendors, Repairmen, and Housekeeping Personnel

Jo Guard Service Screening, Instructions, and Regulations

K. Personnel Screening and Selection

II I. Final Analysis and Recommendations

A. hleaknesses Detected;

B. Security Problem Concerning Policies and Procedures;

C. Areas with excessive restrictions;

D. Recommendations for Implementation of Corrective Action;

(Any changes to the building should not be in conflict with local codes or fire requl a t lons , )

Sample Configuration Of Double Cylinder Deadbolt Lock


Core Construction)

------------Key Operat ion From Ins i de

Connecting Screw Heads------

Key Operation-Inside--------

Connecting Screw Heads------

Door (Solid Core Construction)--------


--Connecting Screws

---Key Operation Outside

--Connecting Screws


Sample Configuration of Other Locking Devices



Construct ion

outs ide of door)


Weld Hinge Pin-------------Or, Install Security


Drill hole in center~------of hinge and insert

headless screws, or

nail, allowing it to

p ro t r ude about :1/2"

so door locks in


It also possible to buy special pins in the place of a headless screws or na i I •




The following checklist or outline is very similar to the Office Build-

ing Securi~y Outl ine. It is designed to assist the office manager,


ment supervisor, security officer, or other crime prevention personnel, in

developing an overall assessment of the security profile of the facility, or

total crime risk environment. It is based on the concept of I~nvironmental

security planningl1, or analyzing the total work setting beyond the


kinds of considerations for property and pers~nnel security. This checkl ist

or outline is more comprehensive and requires a more extensive analysis of

the particular setting, or environment, with regard to crime risks. Like all

checklists or outlines, it is not tailored to any specific facility or loca-

tion. Therefore, it should serve only as a guide and should be modified or

appropriately changed to fit the needs of a specific target building.

In order to develop a comprehensive physical security program, many of

the community aspects should be considered a part of the total facility pro-

tection equation. It is not uncommon for a business, school, etc., to modi-

fy design of the planned facility, based on the capa~ity of the surrounding

community to provide or enhance certain levels of protective services. This

may include such services as fire protection, emergency medical services and

police protection. Thus, a comprehensive environmental security analysis is

a process which focuses on the total environment, in rel~tion to the parti-

cular building or facilityo Although the topic areas presented focus on the


business type of. facil ity, the principles, concepts and ideas will can also

apply to any type of operation, with appropriate modifications or changes in

the approacho The checklist should be viewed as a flexible tool and design-

ed in such a manner as to fit the needs of the specific facility.


Environmental Security Checklist

I. Assessment of Community Services and Conditions

A. Evaluation of Community Crime Potential

I,. Overall analysis of Crime Index Offenses for the Community

2. Police Department Assessment of Neighborhood Crime Risks

3. Crime Index Offenses - Uniform Crime Reporting System (UCR)

4. UCR data available from local police department

5. Robbery-burglary-vandalism, etc. statistics for location

6. Experiences with criminal activity by other businesses or operations within area

7. Any other specifics with regard to crime problems

B. Eavluation of Pol ice Services

1. Availability of 24-hour protective services

2. Size of geographical pol ice patrol area where facility is located

3. Number of pol ice patrol cars available during specific times of the day and night

4. Concerns expressed by other businesses in the area, with regard

to pol ice response times and other pol l-ee services

5. Ability of police department to provide protective services

6. Pol ice monitoring of alarm systems

7. Availabil ity of Pol ice Crime Prevention serNices

C. Evaluation of Local Utility Services

1. History of power disruption, outages, etc., in the local communi ty

2. History of telephone or other telecommunications problems

3. Maintenance, emergency situations, disaster planning


D. Assessment of Fire Safety Services

1. Fire alarm monitoring

2. Volunteer vs full-time services

3. Availability of sufficient fire fighting equipment

4. Availability of water supply for fire equipment

5. Fire hazards from nearby buildings and structures

6. Fire safety inspections and other services

E. Evaluation of Housekeeping Services

1. Cleaning service schedule

2. Cleaning service personnel in-house staff or commercial service

3. Adequate supervision and management of personnel

4. Restrictions on access to high risk vulnerable areas I I. Assessment of External Physical Features

A. Design, Layout and Construction

I. Ab l l l ty of wa 11 cons t rue t i on to res is t pene t ra t i on

2. Perimeter first floor level access points and openings

a. Secured with sufficent hardware devices

b. Access controlled, supervised or monitored

c. Protected by alarm system, or other devices

d. Areas of concealment el iminated

3. Sufficient levels of protective lighting

a. Public access areas, entrance points, et c,

b. Building surface, first floor level

c. Receiving, docking, shipping, etc. locations

d. Remote storage areas and other related structures belonging to the business operation

e. Parking lot areas

f. Other business areas and landscape

4. Roof openingt skyl ights, ventilation systems

5. Barrier protection, fencingt etc.

6'. All doors, locking devices, windows, etc.

B. Potential for labor unrest, riots, demonstrations, etc.

C. Physical aspects of the facility's location

1. Classification of the facility

ao Free standing or attached to other buildings

b. Located at majo~ business intersect~on

c. Center location in business district away from inter-


d. Shopp i ng center or ma 11

e. High rise structure major downtown business district

f. One story small business

go Institutional service oriented· h. Other type of classification

2. Access from other non-related business buildings by way of


3. Operating hours and type of business of adjacent buildings

4. Vulnerabilities of construction of adjacent buildings

5. False or drop ceil ings with possible access

D. Key Control and Lock Systems

10 Key Control Inventory and Accountabi I ity

2. Issuance restricted on need basis only

3. Regular maintenance and repair

4. Locks rekeyed with keys stolen, lost, etc.

50 All locks and locking hardware in good working order



6. Locks on doors and windows, etc. provide good locking features:

a. Locks are security hardware type

b. Doors solid core or other protective design

c. Hinges and hinge pins protected

d. Adjacent wall construction sufficient

E. Security Planning Program

1. High risk areas visible from the street weIll ighted during evening hours to assist police and security patrols

2. Exterior openings equipped with tamper resistent locking devices

3. Alarm system in good working order

4. Specific individual or individuals assigned responsibilities for office/building security

5. Regular program for education and training of personnel

6. Regular program for testing, repair, etc. of protective devices

and security hardware

7. Cash handling operations well controlled and s~pervised

8. Minimum cash levels maintained on premises over night

9. Procedures for cash dep?sits

10. Currency, valuables, property, etc. maintained in secure


11. Proper opening and closing procedures establi~hed

12. Security check. made each day at opening and closing

13. All personnel knowledgeable concerning security practices II I. Assessment of Internal Physical Features

A. Servi ce Counter areas


1. Control of access

2. Barrier protection

3. Emergency alarm system

B. Office areas

10 Reception and control of entry

2. Areas locked when not in use

3. Equi pment safegua rded

4. Employee vigilance

C. Equipment/Property Storage

1. Inventory controls

2. Identification and marking

3. Check-out and check-in procedures

4. Protected storage areas

5. Protective devices and techniques

6. Theft reporting system

7. Repair and service controls

8. Vendor and sales controls

D. Appropriate Alarm Systems and Use

1. Perimeter system design

2. Electric locks to cash handling areas

3. Protective glass for high risk areas: tellers, cashiers, etc.

4. Emergency alarm buttons and switches

5. "Bait" money and money cl ip switches

6. Locations:

a. Property storage areas

b. High risk office areas co Safe and vaul t areas

d. Teller and cash handling areas

e. High ri s k clerical positions
f. Manager's or supervisor's office
g. Affixed to high r i s k equipmen t
h. Computer and telecommunications areas
i • Barri ers and other devices 7. Camera and remote surveillance systems
80 Sound detection systems
9. Vi brat i on sensors
10. Motion detection devices
11. Capcitance detection devices
12. Other detection systems
13. Employee training and educat ion
E. Safes & Vaul ts I. Proper selection and use

2. UL Ratings and specifications

3. Old, used, or new equipment

40 Record safes and money safes - appropriate use of each

a. Needs and storage requirements

b. Burglar resistent specifications

c. Fire resistent specifications

5. Protected locat ion
6. Combination and key control
7. Safe area 1 i gh ti ng
80 Safe ala rm system Fa Internal doors and windows - adequate locking devices and

construction of adjacent walls, etc.



IV. Assessment of Property Control Security and Procedures

A. Management/Administrative establ ishment of Security Policy and Authorized Procedures

1. Distribution of Pol icies and Procedures Responsibility

a. All Area/Department/Unit Managers

b. Personnel Education and Awareness

c. Policies and Procedures in written form

2. Person or Persons responsible for coordination and supervision of security pol icies and procedures

3. Top Level Management/Administration accessible to person

or persons responsible for security procedures and policies

4. Enforcement and Disciplinary Actions related to Policies

a. Specified in writing

b. Disciplinary actions to be taken

c. Documentation of offenses and review by management

d. Fairness in enforcement and disciplinary action

B. Established policy for criminal prosecution

1. Institutional, business, etc. personnel

2. Non-personnel

C. Property Control Security

1. Written pol icies and procedures

2. Specified/standard control forms for prope~ty ao Serial numbered forms

b. MUltiple copies for audit trails and records keeping

c. Regular inventory and inspection

3. Authorized signature required for use of property


Purchase and acquisition


b. Borrow, loan, rent, etc.

c. Repair and service

4. All transactions involved in the use of equipment monitored by authorized personnel, entrance/exit areas, etc.

5. All entrances/exits controlled and/or monitored

60 Appropriate level of followup procedures on late equipment returns (borrowed, loaned, rented, repaired, etc.)

7. Monitoring and control between equipment/property use areas and parking lot, or other external building areas.

8. Routine spot checks of vehicles parked near building areas

9. Identification and marking program for all equipment, high risk materials, and property

.10. Personnels j gn out rfor equ i pment and property issued

a. Proper inventory and documentation

b. Routine inspection and accountabil ity

11. High value items, portable equipment, etc. secured in protected


a. Locked fi l e cabinets

b. Special storage rooms

c. Safe

d. Attached to a fixed object

e. Other

12. All Thefts, Losses, etc., reported/documented immediately

a. Appropriate level of followup investigation

b. Documentation

c. Higher level management/administration notified

d. Pol ice report filed


13. Shipping, Receiving and Storage Areas Monitored

a. Actual checks made of property shipped and received

b. All property removed from stock documented and recorded

c. Areas locked and protected when not supervised

d. Trash collection areas monitored

14. Transactions regarding obsolete/used equipment

a. Written procedures for disposal

b. Auction/bids required

c. All actions documented

d. Equipment stored in secure location pending d1§posal

e. Levels of written authorization required for removal

f. Audit review of transactions

15. Security devices used

a. Alarm system

b. Anchoring devices, securing equipment to fixed object

c. Warning stickers

d. Crime Alert Program in practice eQ Photographs and documentation

f. Other security plans and programs

16. Personnel Education and Training

a. Regular program of in-service training

b. New employee orientation

17. Equipment Property Room and Service Areas

a. Alarm system

b. Security hardware on doors and windows, etc.

c. Appropriate supervision and internal controls


v; Summary Evaluation - Overall Assessment of Physical Security,

A. Perimeter Protection: alarm systems, walls, fences, gates, locking devices, employee vigilance, other barrier protection, etc.

'B. Exterior Protection: barriers, landscape and design layout, locking devices, employee vigilance and training, doors, windows, skylights and util l t l es ,

C Interior Protection: reinforced wall construction, barriers, bars &

grills, locking devices, doors, windows, door frames, systems, elevators, property protection and security,

ven til at i on rest ri cted

areas, offices, counter service, cash handl ing areas, etc.

D. Architectural Design: business and governmental uses of a building in a given setting, planned construction or modifications, function and operation of the building, materials, products and equipment to be stored on premises; open, closed and restricted areas, and location of building in relation to surrouriding neighborhood (level of criminal activity and potential);

1. Emphasis on perimeter protection

2. External entrances kept to a minimum

3. External windows constructed of protective materials

40 Windows designed at high enough level at ground floor to resist intrusion by easy access, vandalism, etc.

5. High quality security locking devices for doors, and other open i ngs

60 Adequate lighting in terms of illumination and location

E. Other aspects of protection: reduction of areas for potential concealment, removal of trash and debris, and control of vegetation & maintenance of the landscape.


Physical Security Assessment Rat i ng Profi l e

The Physical Security Assessment Rating Profile has been developed with the intention of establishing an approximate measure of a facility's overall phys 1 secur i ty prof i I e. It shoul d only be used as a rough gu i de or working tool in developing ongoing physical security planning for a particular location., No system of security is 100% foolproof. However, certain types of measures can be taken to at least reduce the opportunity for criminal activity. This Profile will provide an estimate as to how well the facility appears to be doing with regard to crime prevention and physical security in the given setting. Crime prevention and physical security planning remains an ongoing process, which requires continuous review and evaluation. This Profile should be used as a followup assessment to a comprehensive survey of the facility in question.

I. Community Crime Control and Level of Criminal Activity:

*Select One This Category:

Ao High CrimeNeighborhood (0 points) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

B. Moderate Crime Neighborhood (1 point) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• -·---

C. Average Crime Neighborhood (2 points) •••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~--··

D. Low Crime Neighborhood (3 points) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••....

*Select One This Catesory:

E. I nadequate Po lice Servi ces (0 po ints) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••

F. Adequate Pol ice Services (T point) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ==

G. Above Average Pol ice Service(2 points) ••••••••••••••••••••••••••

H. Exceptional Pol ice Se rv i ces+Zh-hours per day (3 points) ••••••••• -.--

*Select Any This Category: ----

I. Active Neighborhood Crime Watch Program (2 points) ••••••••••••••

J. Effective Utility Services (2 points) ••••••••••••••••••••••• o ••....

K. Frequent Crime Prevention Interaction with Police (2 points)oo~ ..

L. Effective Fire Safety and Emergency Services (2 points) ••••••••• ----

M. Neighborhood design and layout of positive nature (2 points) •••• ____




I I. External physical Security - Target Facility:

*Select Any This Category:

A. Fencing and other formal barriers around perimeter {I point} •••• .

B. Adequate Security Lighting-Minimum Security Standards (2 points)

C. Security Service-Guards/Security Force on-site (2 points) •••••••...•.

D. Security hardware/locking devices all openings (2 points) ••••••• _.~. __ .

E. Landscape maintained well-positive atmosphere (2 points) •••••••

F. Positive interaction among personnel, clients, etc. (l point) ••• -~

G. Perimeter alarm system: (Score all that apply) , -

1) Protection of perimeter only - (2 points) ••• o ••••••••••••••• ~

2) L:ocal Alarm Only - Buglary Prevention (2 points) ••••••••••• _·_·~.~ ..

3) Si lent Al a rrn..- Central Station-Burglary/Robbery (3 points) •• ~

4) Silent Alarm - Pol ice Station-Burglary/Robbery (3 po i n ts ) , •.

5) Fire Alarm Protection - Premises only (2 points) ••••••••••• _

6) Fire Alarm Central Station (2 points) ••••••••••• __

H. Key Control System - Opening/Closing Procedures (2 points) ••••••



III. Internal Physical Security - Target Facility:

*SelectAny This Category:

A. Employee Access Controls/I.D.'s, Sign-in, etc. (2 points) •••


B. Main Entrance/Reception Area-Visitor Control (2 points) •••


C. Barrier Protection-Customer Service Areas (2 points} •••


D. High Value Equipment protected by security devices(2pts.} •••


Eo, Property I.D., inventory controls, etc. (2 points). ••


F. Alarm Systems: (Score All That Apply) - Specific Areas

1) Equipment connected to alarm system(l point) ••••••••••••


2} Equipment Storage/Service Areas Alarmed (lpoint) ••••••••


3) Silent Alarm-Cash HandTing areas (lpoint) •••••••••••••••


4) Protective glass-tellers/cashiers (1 point) ••••••••••••• __

5) "Ba l t" Money-Money Clip Switches (1 point) •••••••••••••


6) Safe and Vault areas (1 point) •••••••••••••


G. Vendor, Sales, Service, Contractor Controls (2 points) •••••• __

H. Pre-employment Screening/Background Checks (2 points) •••••••

I. Offices, meeting rooms, etc. secured when not used (2points)--

J. Written Pol icies/Procedures - Physical Security Plan (2pts.)


K. Closed Circuit T-V System-(2 points) ••••••••••••••••••••••••


L. Property/Equipment engraved/marked (2 points) ••••• o ••••••••• __ ~_

M. Security hardware/locking devices all doors,etc. (2 points). _

N. Alarm Systems: (Score All That Apply) - General Areas

1) Alarm-Closed Circuit Camera Combination (1 po nt)o ••••••

2) Sound Detection (1 po n t ) ••••••• ---

3) Vibration Sensors (1 po nt) •••••• o


4) Motion Detection (1 po nt ) •••••••


5) Capcitance Detection (1 po nt) •••••••


6), Infra-red Detect ion (l po nr ) ••••••• __

O. Safes & Vaults meet required standards for use (2 points) •••


P. Personnel Education in Crime Prevention (2 points) •••

Q. Property photographed, up-to-date inventory (2 points) ••• -·----

R. Management supportive of Security/Crime Prevention (2pts.) •• _

So Adequate I ighting after hours (2 points) ••• ·




IV. Additional Physical Security Aspects - Target Facility

'~Select Any This Category . . .

A. Adequate Insurance Coverage •••• 0 ..... 00 •••••••• (2 points) 0 eo' ...

B. Adequate l eve l of security for computer areas •• (3 points) .o~~··....,.· __

C. Emergency lighting and backup power supply •••• o(3 points).o~··"

D. Regul a r ongo i ng safety/ secur i ty educat i on program [Zp t s , }; 0 "_' __

E. Security Inspections, spot checks, corrective action (2pts~)_' __




Profi 1 e Sca le :

90 - 100 = Exce l l errt , , •• 70 - 89 = Good, ••• 40 - 69 = Fal r , , •• 39 .. 0"" l.nadequate



Engrave and mark all

valuables, especially

portable property and


INIl ~ 1\111\1 ~



() 1l~1'(I t ilJll"-~ 11)1

~ ---

















-----Cable Locking device used to secure property or audiovisual equipment to a fixed position or object.

-Inside view of equipment.

-Multiple holes drilled through case to inside of equipment.

Caution should be taken not to interfere with mechanical operation or electronic function.

Audiovisual equipment-------------Securing equipment to a fixed object may

require some disassembly, in order to screw

or bolt down the equipment.

Metal bolts------------(All four corners if possible)

Inside view------------- --- --

Secured to cart or

table top---------- r---------------------------------(




~-----Equi pmen t

~~-------l~;;~~~~~ __ ~sing bolts through the bottom and two nuts on the inside to prevent remova I.

L- ---------------------Y.-------------------Metal or wood surface of

de s k 0 r ta b I e


--Using a screw or bolt at the top to prevent the removal of the lense.

Note: Lenses are particularly difficult to protect, and are extremely vulnerable to theft. Proper marking and identification are important. In addition, when not in use, lenses should be stored in a locked file or protected storage facil ity.

Samp 1 e Des i gn ,

"Do-It-Yourself" Low Cost Local Alarm System


The are many types of low cost "Do-It-Yourself" alarm systems available today on the market. If the requirement for security is simpleJand low-cost is a primary factor, then there are many possibil ities for a small alarm.

These diagrams on this page depict e. type of alarm system that shows simple features.

Minimum wiring is required. This is not a sophisticated sensor type of system. It is basic and would have application, and installation for homes, apartments, small businesses, storage areas, equipment and property room locations, etc.

Magnetic Reed Switch

---Existing \"a 11

- - - - Doo r / So lid

§ Core

. --~1agnetic Swi tch

Because of the simplicity of the system and its design, most people would be able to install, the system, following easy to read instructions and diagrams for the unit. One unit package is capable of protecting iUP to six openings and access points •. Two systems would be able to protect twelve openings and access points. The main unit contains a control box with a keypad for programming the system.

Horn Speaker Jack

AC/DC Adaptor Jack

---Bottom Moun t i ng Cover

Can tro I Un i t

Indicator Light 9V Battery Un it ------


-----.:.:::.::::==::::::::::-:::;:;--, -\:Ja I 1


Door Swi tch

.2=5 J===S 1,...0-· .......... c:J f:=J [:=I

Magnetic Reed Switches (Normal-Close) (5 openings, plus main control = 6)


- --Cover

- --Control Unit


****** ••• ** •••••••••••••••• *** CONFIDENTIAL

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Date Survey Requested [ J Date Conducted C l Tiae [ 1

Survey Site - Nale - [ 1

Site Address Data - [. l

Survey Officer(s) - [ ~ ]

Survey Requested By- [ )

Location Description [ _

____________________________________________________________________________________________ 1

Purpose, Scope & Intent of Survey L _

Survey Requested As Follo.up To Crile Prevention Planning - Pre-Construction: [ J-Yes [ ]-No

Survey Requested As Followup to Crime Problem CType: J [ )-Yes [ ]-No

Previous History of Critinal Activity in Neighborhood h Dn-Site .•..•......... ,[ )-Yes [ ]-No Previous Criae Prevention Prograls At This Location .....•.....•••.. , .. ,"',., ,r ]-Yes [ J-No

Previous Survey Conducted [Date/TiMe Condutted: ~ l [ i-Yes [ ]-No

Related Police Case Numbers [ J [ l-Ves [ ]-No

Operati on I, D, Used - Proper ty 1.0, Systell t etc"""""""""" .. "" .. ". [ ]-Ves [ ]-No

Cash Handled On Premises - Safes & Vaults [Type: l [ j-Yes [ ]-No

Previous Employee/Labor/Other Groups Problea-Unrest, etc""" ,."" •. """,.r )-Yes [ ]-No

Crime Analysis Discussion [Sources of Data - UCR, Localt etc,) [ _



Importance of Facility - Describe operations and functions, and relative nature of use, etc, Location of Fad li ty in re lation to vi sibil ity t si te-plaeement, terrain and other fae tors, , , Layout, DeSign and Landscaping of Fae i li ty in ralat icn tc sec uri ty p Ianni n9 considerations., Probable Police Response Timest including on-site Police-Security Personnel,.",."""."" Relation of Freedom of Access to Facility to security planning considerations,., 0 ,.,."",., Location and I dentif icati on of Spec ial High Risk Areas-Operations-Func t ions, et·c.".,." I , , , Discussion of Other Factors Unique to this Particular Facility and Setting., ", ".,' ". "','


PeriMeter Fencing and Barrier Controls Lighting Conditions, Types and Designs Access to Roof Areas & Attachments .. ,. Exterior Doors-Design and Construction Other Exterior points of actess.",." Gas Hain51 Telephone Trunk Lines""" Parking Lot Areas - Locations On-Site Vehicle Compounds and EquipMent Areas Other Featu~es of Exterior of Facility

Gates, Access Points & Control Mechanisms On-Site Obstructions to Visibility and Surveillance Adjacent Buildings and Access To Facility Areas", Exterior Windows-Design and Construction,.o,."" Vents, Skylites, Utility Services Accessess, etc" Maintenance and Mechanical Rools-Other Points".,. Trash Collection Areas; S\orage Buildings, etc"" Ornaalental Designs, Sidewalkst Walkways, etc, ... ,. location Unique to the Operations-Functions, etc,.


Internal Lighting Conditions b Designs Interior Windows-Security Applications Elevators and Lobby/Building Accesses. Service-Oellvery-Shipping-Receiving". High Risk Executive Personnel Areas.,

Interior Ooors-ConstructiontSecurity Applications. 'Other Actess Points on the Interior ~Applications, Basement Areas - Service/Maintenance Locations"., Ceilings, Hallways, Walls - Construction Aspects,. Meeting ROOMS, Conference, and Reception Areas"

Vending & Food Service Locations .....• Cash Handling Areas - Teller Counters. Safes and Vaults Used on the Pre.ises, Security Alarl Systel-Type,Use,AspecLs Property Accountability and Controls. , Coaputer Operations - LocationsfAccess Cash Register Controls/Security/Access Display Counters-Public Access Areas,


"echanical ROOIS, UtiliLies, Janitorial Services •• Accounting-Financial~Book Keeping Locaitons ..•• , •• Security of COlbinations, Codes, Access Methods ... Key Control - Key Control ManageMent & Supervision Audio-Visual Equip,ent - "edit Locations & Access. Security of Office Equip,ant & Personal COlputers Custo~er/Service/Public Counter Areas and Controls Other Locations/Areas of Unique Nature to Fae il ity


Written Security Policies/Procedures .. Boab Threat Procedures & EMergencies .• Elployee Training/Education Prograls .. Signage-Posting Deterrent Notices ...••

Elergency Coordination & Disaster Planning Program Employee Pre-ElploYMent Screening-Background CheCK HanagelentfExecutive Personnel Training - PrograM CriMe Prevention Messages/Brochures/Newsletters, ••

Enforceaent "echanisl! To Ensure Compliance With Special High Risk Needs-Policies-Procedures In Place:

Levels of Access - Authorizations Protection of Commercial Trade Secrets Data Center - Computer Operations

Key Control - Proper Key Usage

Responsibility of Locking and Unlocking - Opening and ClOSing Responsibility for lighting} repairs, controls, etc. Safeguarding'cash} checks, valuables} etc.

Safeguarding sensitive documents, records, files, etc, . Shipping and Receiving procedures

Security Problem/Theft/Crime documentalion and reporting Property control and identification

Employee vigilance and surveillance

Control of vendors) contractors, repairmen, janitors, etc. Other Aspects unique to the facility and its operations


Shoplifting [ ]

Robbery Burglary Assault Theft Terrorisl Vandalin Sabotage Espionage Other


( 1

[ 1

[ ~ ~ ~~l


[ 1


[ 1

r 1

Other Unique Features of the Facility (Orug Storage-PharMacy Operations, On-Site Living and-

Residential Units/Quarters, Medical Supplies, Special Equiplent, etc,] [ _




r )-Review of Blueprints/Site Drawings [l-Additional Drawings, Maps/ Sketches Attached"

[ l-Photogrlphs/Videos taken of Site [l-Other L l




Recommendations, Discussions and Conclusions based on "previously listed aspects of survey as

related to facility. ( - _

OVerall Asse,saent of Facility - Related Liability Considerations as Applicable- Non-Confor-

mance with local Ordinances, Regulations, etc. [ _


Other Comlents, Relarks [ _

___________________________________________________________________________________________ 1

Notation of Reference Sources Used In Survey - Standards, "iniluM Criteria, etc, [ _

___________________________________________________________________________________________ 1

Cri.e Prevention Officer Survey Teaa