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DIFFUSION is ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________
STATE RATE OF DIFFUSION
SOLID
LIQUID
GASES

STATE SOLID LIQUID GAS
1. Diagram





2. Arrangemnet of
particles
____________packed
in _________ manner
___________packed
and _____ in orderly
manner
Very _________
packed, rotate and
move ____________
3. Attraction
forces between
molecules
_______________ Moderately strong
4. Energy content LOW HIGHER

INTER-CONVERSION OF STATES OF MATTER








Release energy Absorb energy




Heating Curve

Cooling curve



..point : The temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid
..point : The temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas
at a particular pressure.
.point: The temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid
at a particular pressure



COOLING CURVE
BC mixture of gas and liquid
DE mixture of liquid and solid
BC,DE the temperature remain constant
because heat released during freezing
(bond formation) is the same as heat loss
to surrounding
Freezing point = __________

BC- mixture of solid and __________
DE mixture of liquid and
___________
BC,DE the temperature remain
constant because the heat energy
supplied is absorbed is used to
overcome the attraction forces
between the particles
Melting point = ________
Boiling point = ________

3.0. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
3.1. History of the development of atomic models

Scientist Atomic Model Discovery
1
(i) Matter is made up of particles called atoms.
(ii) Atoms cannot be created, destroyed nor divided.
(iii) Atoms from the same element are identical.
(iv) Atoms are hard physical body that cannot be penetrated.
2
(i) Atom is positively sphere
(ii) Electrons are randomly distributed within the sphere.
3
(i) Positive charge called protons and mass of the atom
found in the nucleus.
(ii) Electron move outside the nucleus
4 Electron move in shells around the nucleus
5 Atom contains neutral particles called neutrons

3.2. Subatomic Particle
Subatomic
particles
Symbol Charge
Relative
atomic
mass
Position
Electron e 1/1837
Proton positive
Neutron nucleus

(a) Proton Number : number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Number of protons = number of electrons in a neutral atom.
(b) Nucleon Number : total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
(c) Symbol of element
A
X
Z
X- Symbol of element
A- Nucleon number of atom X
Z- Proton number of atom X
Example:
An atom W has 9 protons and 10 neutrons.
a) What is the proton number of atom W? ________________
b) What is the nucleon number of atom W ________________
c) Write the standard representation of atom W
________________
Examples :

Oxygen: O Aluminum: Al
Magnesium: Mg Calcium: Ca
Nitrogen: N Chlorine: Cl
Sodium: Na Hydrogen: H


4.0. Isotope
Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the same ____________________
but different __________________

Activity 2 :-
There are two isotopes of phosphorus.
31
P
15
32
P
15
Complete the table below to compare these isotopes.
Phosphorus-31 Phosphorus-32
Nucleon number
Proton number
number of protons
number of neutrons
number of electrons

4.1. Usage of isotopes
Isotopes Uses
a)____________________ To estimate the age of artifacts and archeological findings such as bones
and fossil.
b) Cobalt-60 Used in _________________________________
c) __________________ Used to threat thyroid patients

5.0. Electron Arrangement
The electrons are filled in specific shells. Every shell can be filled only with a certain
number of electrons. For the elements with atomic numbers 1 to 20 :-
First shell can be filled with a maximum of .................. electrons. (duplet)
Second shell can be filled with a maximum of .................. electrons.(octet)
Third shell can be filled with a maximum of .................. electrons.





x
First shell : filled with ........... electrons
(duplet)
Second shell : filled with ........... electrons
(octet)
Third shell filled with ........... electrons
(octet)