10/3/2014

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Introduction to
Research
Lecture 1
Presentation Outline
 What is Research?
 Attributes of Research
 Types of Research?
 Why Research?
 How to do research?
 Motivation
 Elements of Motivation
 Research Process

What is Research???
o “..systematic, controlled, empirical, and
critical investigation of hypothetical
propositions about the presumed
relationships among natural phenomena..”
(Kerlinger, 1973, p.ll)

o “..the overall scheme of scientific in which
scientists engage in order to produce
knowledge…” (Nachmias & Nachmias, 1981, p.22)

o “formal, systematic, and intensive process
of carrying out a scientific method of
analysis which may lead to the
development of generalizations, principles
or theories which can result in the
predictions and control of events..” (Best, 1977,
p.10-12)

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What is Research???
 Research is a
systematic and
organized effort to
investigate specific
problem that needs
a solution



Attributes of Research
 Based on other works
 Replicable
 Generalisable
 Tied to theory
 Generate new questions
 Incremental
 Testability
 Doable

Types of Research
 Basic (Fundamental) vs Applied
Research
 Scientific vs Naturalistic
 Historical vs Methodological
Quantitative Qualitative
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Basic Research
 Attempts to expand the limits of
knowledge
 the pursuit of new knowledge
without any assumptions about
what it might lead to – essentially
knowledge for its own sake
 Not directly involved in the
solution to a pragmatic problem
Examples of Basic Research
 A model of IT adoption among
small-medium enterprises
 Antecedents of IT-Business
alignment
 A Model of ethical usage of
cybercafe

Applied Research
 Conducted when a decision
must be made about a specific
real-life problem
 Knowledge which is developed
with a specific objective in mind,
particularly the conversion of
existing knowledge into
products, processes and
technologies
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Why Research?
 “The secret of success is to
know something nobody else
know” (Aristotle Onassis)

 With INFORMATION reduces
UNCERTAINTY

 Think?????
Examples of Applied
Research
 Factors that contribute to user
satisfaction of information
systems
 Determinants of UUM’s IT
students’ employability
 Diffusion of innovation in
bridging the digital divide
Why Research?
 Educational benefits include:
 Working closely with a faculty
mentor
 Learning about issues, methods,
and leaders in students' chosen
fields
 Applying concepts learned in
coursework to "real life" situations
 Sharpening problem-solving skills

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Why Research?
 Professional benefits include:
 Exploring and preparing for future
careers
 Developing marketable skills
 Enhancing professional
communication skills
 Collaborating with others and
working effectively as part of a
team

Why Research?
 Personal benefits include:
 Growing as a critical, analytical,
and independent thinker
 Meeting challenges and
demonstrating the ability to
complete a project
 Discovering personal interests


How to do Research?
 Motivation
 The significance of the study
 The ‘why’ factor
 Elements of Motivation
 Have not been investigated before
 Contribution to the body of knowledge
 Problem solving
 Interest to you, academia & profession
 Lead to another research question!
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How to do Research?
o Deductive approach
o Proceed from the general to specifics.
o Theory -- Data/facts -- Conclusion

o Inductive approach
o Proceeds from the specifics and
combine them to produce a more
general statement of relationship.
o Facts/data -- Theory -- Conclusion

Research Process
 Generally, research comprise the
process of developing the
conceptual framework and the
hypothesis for testing as well as
the design, which involves the
planning of the actual study
dealing with such aspects as the
location for the study, sample
selection and data collection
processes and results of the
study.

Phases in the Research
Process
Defining a
problem
Results
Theoretical
framework
Refinement of
theory or
implementation
Interpretation
of data
Analysis
of data
Data
Collection
Research
design
Construct
concepts
operational
definitions
Hypothesis
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Purpose of Study/Research
 Exploratory
 Descriptive
 Causal

 “I keep six honest serving men (they
taught me all I knew), their names are
what, and why, and when, and how, and
where, and who.” -- Rudyard Kipling
 “What”, “How”, “Where”, “Who”, “When”
and “Why” are the six interrogatives one
need to know about an enterprise --
John Zachman
Degree of Problem Definition

Exploratory
Research
Descriptive
Research
Causal Research
Degree of
Problem
Definition
Unaware of Problem Aware of Problem Problem Clearly
Defined
Possible
Solution
Majority of IT projects
fail and we can only
speculate on the
reasons
70% of IT projects fail
due to ROI failure
within 5 years
IT success factors
such as leadership,
QoS, resources etc
influence IT project
success
Organizations tend to
lose on human capital
development in a
high mobility rate
There is a high rate
of turnover among IT
professionals in the
job market
Younger IT graduates
and males tend to shift
jobs most frequently
What task condition
influence the
leadership process in
our organization
Have the average
merger rate for
saving and loans
increased in the past
decade.
Do buyers prefer our
product in a new
package?

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