St. John i. 51.
" Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see Heaven open, and the
angels of God ascending and descending upon tiie Son of Man."
It does not seem certain, whether or no St. Bartholomew, whose
memory we honour this day with thanksgiving to God, was or
was not the same with Nathanael, that Israehte without guile,
whom our Lord so graciously received on his first approach to
Him. Whether they were two persons or one, is a matter on
which those who know most of Christian antiquity hardly seem
to have made up their minds.
However, it is clear that the promise, addressed by our Lord
to Nathanael, is well suited to our consideration on any Apostle's
day, and especially when the Church, as to-day by her Epistle,
calls our attention more particularly to the marvellous tokens of
God's Presence, which St. Bartholomew, in common with the
other Apostles, received. " By their hands were many signs
and wonders wrought among the people : — insomuch that they
bi-Qught the sick into the streets, and laid them upon beds and
couches, that at the least the shadow of Peter passing by might
overshadow some of them ' :" God giving such grace to those His
first chosen witnesses, as He afterwards did to St. Paul : when
" from his body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs and
aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits
» Acts V. 12, 15.
¦went out of them ^." The touch of St. Paul's garments, the shadow
of St. Peter's body, had such healing virtue, as before their time
had been given to the hem of our LorU's garment ; and in both
instances the cause and spring of the healing power was the same ;
namely, the Touch of Jesus Christ. " Virtue went out of Him,"
which not only healed, but gave power to heal : like the kind of
stone which we have all seen or heard of, which not only draws
iron to itself, but causes whatsoever iron it touches to have the
same power of attracting other iron.
This power, I say, of working miracles, in consequence of the
touch of the Body of Jesus Christ, is probably part, at least, of
the meaning of the promise which our Lord made to Nathanael
and Philip in the text. " Hereafter shall ye see Heaven open,
and the Angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son
OF Man." It will, therefore, be not out of season, if I endeavour
to show, first, how this was fulfilled in those very times ; then, in
what sense we may understand it as still receiving fulfilment in
our times; and lastly, what use it becomes us to make of so
wondrous and merciful a communication.
First, then, in this promise to Nathanael and the rest, there is
a clear allusion to the history of the Patriarch Jacob ; of whom
we read in the Book of Genesis, that when he was on his way
from his father's house, " he dreamed, and behold a ladder set
up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven ; and be-
hold the Angels of God ascending and descending on it : and,
behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God
of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac : the land whereon
thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed : and thy seed
shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to
the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south ;
and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be
blessed. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all
places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this
laud ; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I
have spoken to thee of \"
Such was the vision of our father Jacob ; in which we cannot
well doubt that Cod prophetically showed him, in the first place,
His special providence over the Jewish people, the Angels coming
=• Acts xix. 12. n Gen, xxviii. 12— 15.
and going, as we know they did, on God's special messages to
them : next, and chiefly. He showed him the same Angels, em-
ployed in the higher office of waiting on Him, Who either in His
own Person, or in His Church, is the true substance whereof
Israel was but the shadow.
Our Lord, it will be observed, had just called Nathanael an
Israelite ; " an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile ;" and by
that name He had recalled the memory of the great patriarch
Jacob, of whom it had been especially written, that he was " a
plain," that is, a guileless man. So that when Christ afterwards
made mention of the " Angels ascending and descending," it
would not be hard for considerate persons to understand that in
effect He was saying thus : " Now is the time coming that you
will see Jacob's vision fulfilled ; a new and blessed intercourse is
going to begin between Heaven and earth ; the stairs are let
down which must join the eternal world to this ; Almighty God
is ready, at the top of them, to send His Angels on His thousand
errands of mercy, to His Son, incarnate and abiding among men
for man's sake. And this scene of wonders will begin imme-
diately, and will never cease while the Son of Man continues on
any sense in earth. ' The way into the holiest of all will now be
made manifest ;' Heaven will be opened, and never shut again ;
and the blessed inhabitants will be continually passing to and fro
between it and earth : and you shall see it ; you with all saints
shall be witnesses by faith of these things."
Such is the prophecy ; and it is easy to see how it was accom-
plished, in the first instance, and in our Lord's abode on earth.
The blessed Spirits who had announced His birth, who watched
His infancy, who waited on Him after His temptation, as they
appeared to Him also in His agony, and kept guard around His
grave on the morning of His Resurrection, and stood by (appa-
rently) when He ascended into Heaven : so we are not to doubt
that they waited on Him, though unseen, in all His mighty and
merciful works. We see that the very day after this promise
was made to Nathanael, the first miracle took place ; the water
at the marriage in Cana was changed into wine ; upon which
St. John emphatically observes, " This beginning of miracles did
Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth His glory, and
His Disciples believed on Him." As if he had said, " Thus our
M 2
152 anctEls waiting on the church.
Lord began to show that glory which He had told His Disciples
of: and they, seeing His words so punctually accomplished, be-
lieved on Him.
Bv thus supposing that the coming and going of the Angels
refers especially to our Lord's miracles, we shall be able to ex-
plain the word " hereafter," which He uses at the beginning of
this prophecy. It means properly, "from this time forward:"
leading them to expect that quite immediately that manifestation
of the new state of things would begin : Angels had been coming
and going long before, but now they were to see with their eyes
visible tokens of the awful intercourse ; and that without delay ;
and not once or twice only, but as a continued gift of God for a
long time. All which we see to have been exactly accomplished,
if we suppose the Angels to have been invisibly our Lord's minis-
ters in working His miracles, as we have much reason to believe
that they are in carrying on His ordinary government of the
world, and in keeping up what we commonly call the course of
nature. We read in Scripture of the Angel of the waters, of
Angels whom the Almighty uses as spirits or winds, of ministers
whom He sends forth as flaming fire ; and well may we suppose
such Angels to have been at work, obeying the will and com-
mands of their Lord in changing the water into wine, in strength-
ening the palsied, opening the eyes of the blind, cleansing the
lepers, and the many other signs by which ourliORD, the Creator
of the world, showed Himself Lord over the things that He
One occasion we know there was, in which He employed an
Angel for cure, namely, at the pool of Bethesda, when, after the
troubling of the water by one of those invisible messengers,
" whosoever first stepped in was made whole of whatever disease
he had." One instance we read of also, wherein He employed the
evil Angels to work His will, sending them into the herd of swine;
whereby it seems to be rendered the more probable, that He
might in like manner employ the good Angels when He was per-
forming miracles of mercy ; and that the ordering and changing
of such things as health and sickness, sight and blindness, and in
general of things natural, in obedience to His will, might be part,
at least, of what was meant by their ascending and descending
upon Him.
Thus we see how the prophecy of the Angels coming and going
in men's sight was fulfilled in our Lord's own time : but the
words of it are by no means limited to that time. Our Lord's
expression is, "hereafter;" namely, "from this time forward;" as
though He were speaking of a state of things which would begin
presently and never have an end. It is the same word as He
employed to the chief priests, when adjured to declare whether
He were the Christ or no. " I am," He said; "and hereafter
ye shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power,
and coming in the clouds of Heaven :" as much as to say, that
His humiliation was now quite over, and that from henceforth
all we should see or hear of Him would be so many tokens or
pledges of His new and glorious condition. As the word " here-
after," in that case, means all time after our Lord's trial, even to
the end of the world, so in the text it may mean all time after
this conversation with Nathanael ; not limited, in words at least,
whatever it might be by meaning, to His mighty miracles done in
His own time.
If this be so, we ought to be able to point out some sense in
which the Son of Man might be said to abide on earth, and was
considered in the prophecies as so doing, when, in fact. He was
gone away into Heaven. Neither is this hard to find out.
Christ (in the language of Scripture) is so completely one with
His Church ; we are so completely one with Him ; He is so
touched by the burthen of our innocent infirmities ; and is so
joined to us by the communion of Saints, so present in us by His
Holt Spirit, our Comforter, that we may well apply to the
Church the prophecies which speak of Jesus Christ ; and among
the rest, that which says, Angels of God should ascend and
descend upon it. If Angels had to do with miracles, surely they
ascended and descended on the members of Christ, as they had
before on Christ Himself: for we have seen what signs and
wonders the Apostles wrought by the Name of the Holy Child,
and by the power of His Spirit.
But how are we to carry on the meaning of the promise, to the
times after which miracles are supposed to have ended ? to our
own times, for example, in which, as it should seem, all the
powers of Nature are going on regularly : they " continue as they
were even from the beginning of the Creation," How can it be said.
that we even now may see the Angels ascending and descending
on Christ our Lord ? It may be said in this way : We and all
Christians are members of Christ ; the Church, which is His
Body, composed of us all, is in a certain sense Christ Himself ;
and although there are no miracles, properly so called, striking
our senses, there are certain wonderful works, which Christ
carries on in the Church by certain of His creatures ; of which
works, according to all that has been said, we may well enough
imagine the Lord of all to have been speaking, when He talked
of Angels to ascend and descend upon Himself. What are those
works ? They are the means of grace, prayer and the holy ordi-
nances of the Church, and most especially the two most blessed
Sacraments, Baptism and the holy Eucharist. In each of these,
certain things natural, certain of what we call the powers of Nature,
are employed : and we have seen that Almighty God in His Scrip-
tures, speaking of what He works in that way, teaches us often
to think that it is done by Angels. So that this promise
of Angels going to and fro, may be accomplished, partly at least,
in the intercourse which God keeps up with Christ's members on
earth, through the means of grace before mentioned.
Consider first among them the case of Prayer. I do not mean
the secret occasional prayer of the heart, concerning which, as of
all other private thoughts, it is written, "Thou, even Thou only,
knowest the hearts of all the children of men :" but I mean such
regular devotion, both outward and inward, as our Lord directed
in His Sermon on the Mount ; " Enter into thy closet, and shut
thy door, and pray to thy Father which is in secret :" or such as
the Psalmist invites us to, saying, " O come, let us worship, and fall
down, and kneel before theLoRD our Maker." This regular devotion,
both of soul and body, the Angels can take notice of, and there-
fore we may well believe, according to the hints of Holy Scrip-
ture and the constant opinion of the early Church, that they take
part in it ; even as one of them was seen in a vision by St. John,
offering incense in a golden censer, " with the prayers of all
saints," upon the golden altar which was before the Throne.
Therefore we may well believe that solemn prayer, especially
public Church prayer, is one of the occasions on which that is
fulfilled to us, which our Lord promised to His Disciples.
"Heaven" is then "opened" and we may see by faith "the
Angels of God ascending and descending " upon the members of
Christ here below.
Hear the words of a venerable writer of our Church : " Between
the Throne of God in Heaven and His Church upon earth here
militant, if it be so, that Angels have their continual intercourse,
where shall we find the same more verified, than in these two
ghostly exercises, the one Doctrine, the other Prayer ? For what
is the assembling of the Church to learn, but the receiving of
Angels descended from above ? What, to pray, but the sending
of Angels upward*?" We see, indeed, no miracles, nothing at
least which the world would call miracles ; but when we see
Christians assembled together, in the name of Christ, and by
His Apostles' authority, offering the sacrifice of praise and
thanksgiving, we see what certifies us of Heaven being opened, as
positively as the first Disciples were assured of it by the change of
water into wine, and the rest of our Lord's mighty works.
There He continues the miracles which He began in Cana :
there He manifests forth His glory : let us. His Disciples, believe
on Him.
And if Angels are present, and signs and wonders are wrought,
in the ordinary assemblies of the holy Church, well may we
believe the like grace to attend on the rest of her visible rites and
ordinances. When Bishops, who are themselves called Angels in
the New Testament, lay their hands on the baptized, imparting to
them the strengthening spirit : or, on those who are called to be
pastors, bidding them receive the Holy Ghost, for some high
office and work in His Church : or when they enter into a newly-
builded Church, and bless and hallow it with prayer, in the name
of our Lord : we dare not doubt that in all these cases, true,
though unseen. Angels are present ; — true, though unseen, com-
munion goes on, between the Most High God on the top of the
heavenly stairs, and His Israel waiting by faith here below ; — true,
though unseen, miracles are wrought, if we hinder them not by
our unbelief and unworthiness. For is it not a true though
unseen miracle, for the laying on of a man's hand to be followed
by the strengthening Spirit ; or by such a change in the person
on whom it is laid, as shall make him a true successor of the
Apostles, and convey down to him the power and virtue of their
* Hooker, Eccl. Pol. v. c, 23.
ministry ? Is it not a true though unseen miracle, for an ordinary
building to be changed, by the prayer of a Bishop, into a place
where the glory of God dwells, as it dwelt in the temple of
Jerusalem ?
And if this be so in the other sacred rites and ordinances of the
holy Catholic Church, much more surely in those two, which are
the necessary foundation of all, being the appointed means
for the participation of Christ Himself, by virtue of which
participation alone can we be sharers in these or in any other
blessings. I mean the two divine Sacraments, of Holy Baptism,
and the Supper or Communion of our Lord.
As to the peculiar presence of Angels, in the baptism of
children especially; we know what our Lord intimated, that such
have Angels of their own in Heaven, who always behold His
Father's face ; Angels of a high and glorious order, which are
yet in some sense those children's own : and if they are their
own, they minister unto them : and if they minister unto them,
who can doubt that they do so especially in the moment of their
baptism, when they are being made members of Christ, brought
out of darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God ?
Baptism, therefore, is one of the chiefest occasions on which
children, and such as children, may be sure of that presence of
Angels ascending and descending, which our Lord promised to
His Church through Philip and Nathanael : and, to be sure, no
miracle can be greater, if we have faith to take Scripture at its
word, than what is wrought in holy Baptism. It was wonderful
enough that a man should be cleansed of his leprosy by washing
in the river Jordan ; but it is nothing, absolutely nothing, to the
Holy Ghost by water working the new-birth of a Christian;
making him, who was born in sin, and the moment before a child
of wrath, to become a member of Christ, clothed with His
righteousness, — a child of God and of heavenly grace.
There is this difference, that the change was seen in Naaman's
case, in holy Baptism it is not seen. But it is the very province
and power of faith, to do away with this difference, to make us see
the things which are invisible. It is nothing but want of con-
siderate, lively faith, which prevents us from feeling, whenever
we are present at a Baptism, as if we had lived in our Lord's
time, and seen with our own eyes one of His greatest miracles.
Lastly, if holy Baptism, then no doubt the holy Communion of
Christ's Body and Blood, is another and a chief instance of our
seeing " Heaven opened, and the Angels of God ascending and
descending upon the Son of Man." The Son of God Incarnate
is with us, in that mystery, in a manner wherein He is not with
us in any other holy service. The Angels, therefore, as the
Church always believed, are there especially, joining in our prayers
and praises. Indeed St. Paul, in his Epistle to the Hebrews,
may be well thought to tell us so in express words. He says,
" Are they not all ministering spirits }" where the word " minis-
tering " is the very same, which was used in those times to denote
the solemn Liturgy, or service of the Communion ; and his man-
ner of asking the question, " Are they not all such ?" would seem
as if he were not teaching a new truth, but reminding the
Christians, to whom he wrote, of a doctrine and saying well known
among them ; — a doctrine acknowledged also in our Communion
service, as often as we profess to sing our Hymn of Glory, with
Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of Heaven.
Doubt not, therefore, nor fear earnestly to believe, that in the
holy Eucharist also Angels are present, and miracles continually
wrought : for what can be a greater miracle, than that the con-
secrated Bread and Wine should be, to the faithful receiver,
Christ's Body and Blood? or that the blessing pronounced
by our Lord at the beginning, should be continued, down
through His Apostles and Bishops, and the priests appointed by
them, and so descend, at the present day, on the bread which
they break, and the cup which they bless, in His name ? These,
if they be truths at all, are great and fearful truths : and no cor-
ruption or irreverence of others should keep us from bowing the
knees of our hearts, and humbly acknowledging such an awful
presence of our Lord, any more than we should be kept from
worshipping the true God, because, if we lived in India or Africa,
we should see others worshipping idols.
These things will not have been considered in vain, if they
give any help to any of us, in contemplating the times of the
first Christians, as being, in fact, our times ; the miracles, then
wrought openly, as pledges of the unseen, but no less miraculous,
working of God with us, in His Church and Sacraments. So
may we, by God's grace, understand a little of our exceeding
blindness and danger, as many as go on wilfully in sin and
imperfection, although we know that Heaven is still open, and the
Powers thereof ascending and descending upon us. Rather may
we all awake, with our father Jacob, and say to ourselves, night
and day, " Surely the Lord is here, and we knew it not." Let us
be afraid, and say, " How dreadful is this place, this kingdom of
Heaven, this holy Catholic Church, of which God has made us
members : this is none other but the house of God, and this is
the "rate of Heaven."

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