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Adrian Ciupe, 2013

UNIT 2 company structure and organisation


Merriam-Websters (American English):


British English / grammar (BBC ENGLISH):
British English / reading, listening and vocabulary (BBC ENGLISH):
British English (news, BBC):
American English (news, VOA):
American English (learning English, VOA):

For class work purposes, you can print out ONLY the pages containing modules A and B (you do NOT have
to print out this entire document!).

Adrian Ciupe, 2013

MODULE A class activities (speaking / writing)

This module will be used in BOTH class meetings allocated to this topic. Look over the following list of
questions and choose ONE you would like to answer in class (in either of the two meetings) if you want
to obtain bonus points for SPEAKING. You can prepare your answer at home and you can use your notes
in class, as you speak, but you will NOT be allowed to simply read them! Be prepared to give your own
opinion (2-3 minutes) and then to have a short question-related conversation (with your teacher and
colleagues). Remember that the SAME questions will be used for your WRITING activity (the partial test).

1. Would you like to work for a company or would you prefer to freelance? What are the reasons? What
advantages and disadvantages are there?
2. In which of the following departments would you like to work and why? Accounts / Finance, Personnel,
Sales and Marketing, Research and Development (R&D), Customer Services, Public Relations (PR).
3. Explain the differences regarding the following types of business: subsidiary, limited company,
multinational, parent company, franchise.
4. Would you like to start up your own business? In what sector / industry? Explain why.
5. What solutions are there for companies close to bankruptcy? What would you do if your company were
6. Explain `merger` and `takeover`. Which would be more likely to lead to business success and why?
7. Mention your favourite franchise. What economic, social and cultural implications are there for the
franchisor and franchisee?
8. Would you like to work in a multinational company? Why?
9. What problems could you expect to be faced with in a multinational company?
10. Many small businesses are owned and operated by members of the same family. Is this an advantage
or a disadvantage? Explain.
11. Would you prefer to work in the public or the private sector? Why? What are some of the major
differences, benefits and downsides?
12. What do you think about public private partnerships? How fruitful do you consider they are in a
country like Romania?
13. Describe a company of your choice which you think is extremely successful. What is that success based
14. If you won a substantial sum of money in a lottery, would you prefer to invest it? If so, in what and
15. What kind of industry would you consider the most successful these days and why?
16. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of working in the service sector as compared with
the manufacturing one? Explain.
17. If you were a foreign investor, would you choose to invest in Romania? Why (not)?
18. Describe a potentially risky type of investment in Romania.
19. Describe your favourite (Romanian or foreign) businessman / businesswoman. Justify your answer.
20. Who would you think are more successful entrepreneurs, women or men? Why?
21. If you were to choose between showbiz and the fashion industry, which would better satisfy you and
22. Considering your major at university, what kinds of industries do you think you could work in, based on
the knowledge base provided by your academic preparation?
23. Would you like to be a sole trader or would you prefer a partnership? Why? Which would be more
successful for you?
24. Why do certain large corporations give money to charity? Explain and exemplify.
25. Based on your history knowledge and present-day realities, describe the main differences between a
capitalist and a communist economy. What are the major implications?
26. How do you see Chinas economic success in comparison with that of the U.S.A. or of the E.U.? Explain.

Adrian Ciupe, 2013

MODULE B practice tests

This module will be used ONLY in the FIRST class meeting for this topic. It contains a few practice tests
that simulate EXACTLY the question formats to be used in your final test. Full instructions will be
available in class only. Do NOT do these tests in advance, as you will run a higher risk of making mistakes
(in the absence of the step-by-step test strategies and gradual feedback provided in class). Remember
that among other things, the problems below can be tested (in similar contexts) in your final test.

practice test 1

cripple, develop, drive

A company will want to protect its investment 01 ____ training, and discourage employees 02 ____
A new agency was created to 03 ____ rule / regulate / order / organise the
telecommunications industry.
Companies sometimes set 04 ____ production facilities abroad because the cost 05 ____ paying
workers is cheaper.
Computer technology has 06 ____ REVOLUTION the entertainment industry.
07 ____ a new computer system is always a big investment for an organisation.
Drugs produced by the 08 ____ PHARMACY industry 09 ____ GO rigorous testing.
Falling global production and 10 ____ rising / raising / arising / rousing demand 11 ____
prices higher.
He bought the painting 12 ____ an investment.
He called 13 ____ heavy investment in public transport.
He entered 14 ____ a business partnership with his brother-in-law.
High taxes are 15 ____ the road transport industry.


Adrian Ciupe, 2013

practice test 2

decline, increase, mass, recoup, take

I was keen to go 01 ____ partnership with him.
If you cannot afford to lose any money, choose less 02 ____ RISK investments.
Industrial production 03 ____ raised / rose / arose / aroused by 8% last year.
Industry 04 ____ ANALYSE are anticipating better profits in the second half of the year.
Investors will have to 05 ____ legal action to 06 ____ their investment.
Jobs in light industry are 07 ____ .
Large-scale production helps companies to keep costs 08 ____ .
09 ____ production allowed Henry Ford to lower the price of his Model T motor car.
Music industry 10 ____ INSIDE predict huge success for the band.
Nearly two-thirds of US oil production is used for 11 ____ TRANSPORT .
New products have to be carefully tested before they go 12 ____ production.
New technology has helped the company to increase its total production 13 ____ 25%.
Oil imports began to 14 ____ as domestic production started to increase.
Production costs can make a considerable difference 15 ____ the selling price.

practice test 3

build, business, follow, forge, launch, revive, see, spawn, switch, thrive

She works 01 ____ the production line at the biscuit factory.
Software development soon became a 02 ____ industry in the area.
The agency tries to 03 ____ effective partnerships with communities and private 04 ____ .
The 05 ____ boosting / burgeoning / banging / busting wine industry in Indiana has
added $34 million to the local 06 ____ economics / economy / economies / riches .
The company is trying to attract investment from 07 ____ SEA .
The company 08 ____ production to Mexico.
The development of computers and software has 09 ____ a huge industry of support services.
The EU had hoped to 10 ____ a more ambitious economic partnership with Russia.
The government is eager to attract foreign investment to fund 11 ____ projects.
The government needs to do more to 12 ____ the countrys tourism industry 13 ____ the terrorist
The last twenty years have 14 ____ a decline 15 ____ manufacturing industry.


Adrian Ciupe, 2013

practice test 4

build, dissolve, hold, turn

The latest model is already 01 ____ production.
The new development will 02 ____ boom / bust / boost / thrive the local construction
The nuclear industry spends a lot of money trying to find ways of disposing 03 ____ its waste.
The partnership was 04 ____ , and Davis opened his own office.
The prime minister is continuing to 05 ____ meetings with the countrys 06 ____ chiefs /
captains / officers / majors of industry.
The rail industry was 07 ____ NATION in the 1950s, with 08 ____ DISASTER results.
The rate of 09 ____ TAX 10 ____ investment income is 11 ____ placed / laid / set / due to
The salesman said it was a unique investment 12 ____ opportunity / occasion / capacity /
capability .
The shares 13 ____ out to be a poor investment.
The tourist industry earns billions of dollars 14 ____ year.
The two companies have 15 ____ up a close partnership over the past four years.

practice test 5

attract, disband, grow, head, order, set

I asked to speak to the 01 ____ of the organization.
She has 02 ____ risen / raised / aroused / arisen a lot of money for local charities.
Small-scale manufacturing plays an important role in 03 ____ DEVELOP countries.
State organizations tend to be less 04 ____ effective / efficient / economic / stately than
private companies.
The company's manufacturing 05 ____ EXPERT is particularly strong 06 ____ regards the
production of engine parts.
The government has 07 ____ up an advisory body.
The government ordered that the organization should be 08 ____ .
The manufacturing sector has 09 ____ , while the farming sector has declined.
The organization was set 10 ____ in the early 1950s.
The region hopes to 11 ____ large-scale manufacturing industries that can 12 ____ provide /
supply / insure / assure jobs.
The union 13 ____ its members out 14 ____ strike.
The water industry was 15 ____ PRIVATE in the 1980s.


Adrian Ciupe, 2013

practice test 6

cope, deal, enjoy

There has been a fall 01 ____ manufacturing 02 ____ PUT .
There is a debate in the 03 ____ PACK industry about the 04 ____ ENVIRONMENT impact of
some plastics.
They formed a 05 ____ PARTNER solely to enter the competition.
They 06 ____ made / set / laid / established up a grassroots organization 07 ____ with
social issues affecting the poor.
This is an opportunity to 08 ____ STRONG existing relations.
We expect a high return 09 ____ our investment.
We had to increase production of olive oil to 10 ____ with demand.
We have 11 ____ a period of steady economic 12 ____ GROW .
In the current 13 ____ economical / economic / economy / economics climate, a lot of
people are trying to save more and spend less.
Many experts are saying that the economic 14 ____ LOOK is good.
Experts are predicting an economic 15 ____ SLOW at the beginning of next year.


Adrian Ciupe, 2013

MODULE C topic-related language development

This module will be used ONLY in the SECOND class meeting for this topic. It consists of a number of
language exercises related to the topic. These exercises will be available in class ONLY! This material will
also be used in the construction of your final test questions. Attendance is ESSENTIAL for success!

MODULE D supplementary testing material 1

This module is for self-study ONLY. Using the online LDOCE (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
see the cover page of this unit for the web-link), look up the following words (table column 1) and pay
attention to their meanings in context (c.f. the examples given) in terms of collocations, fixed expressions
(dependent prepositions, idioms, phrasal verbs) and word formation (table column 2). This material will
also be used in the construction of your final test questions. Regular independent work is ESSENTIAL for

activity (n) act, active(ly), inactive(ly), action, inaction, activist, react, reaction
board (n) -
branch (n) -
budget (n) budgetary
business (n) businesslike
capital (n) capitalistic, capitalism, capitalist
commerce (n) commercial(ly)
committee (n) -
company (n) companion, accompany
department (n) departmental(ly)
economic (adj) -
economically (adv) -
economy (n) economic(ally), economical(ly), uneconomical(ly), economise, economics
enterprise (n) entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial
headquarters (n) -
industry (n) industrial(ly), industrious(ly), industrialise
institution (n) institutional(ly), institutionalise
investment (n) invest, investor
manufacturing (n, adj) manufacture, manufacturer
merger (n) merge
organisation (n) organise, organisational(ly), disorganised, reorganise, organiser
partner (n) partnership
partnership (n) -
produce (n) product, production, productivity, productive(ly), unproductive(ly), producer
producer (n) -
production (n) -
productivity (n) -
profit (n) profitable, profitably, unprofitable, unprofitably, profiteer, profiteering
sector (n) -
takeover (n) -
trade (n) -
venture (n) -

Adrian Ciupe, 2013

MODULE E supplementary testing material 2

This module is for self-study ONLY. At the end of the SECOND class meeting for this topic you will receive
a list of specialised, topic-related vocabulary items ALREADY EXPLAINED (= you do NOT have to look
them up in dictionaries) in context (individual words, collocations, fixed expressions in example
sentences). You will have to make your own photocopy and use it independently, at leisure. This material
will also be used in the construction of your final test questions. Regular independent work is ESSENTIAL
for success!