cfrfo{ gfufh'{gsf] rt'isf]l6

Four Point Analysis of Acarya Nagarjuna.
MILAN SHAKYA
Chakupat, Lalitpur

k|tLTo;d'TkfbM stdM < ;j]{ ;+:s[t wdf{ . cyf{t ;+;f/sf ;a} ;+:s[t wd{ k|tLTo;d'TkGg
5g\ . t/ tL oyf{y / k|fs[lts lgodeGbf ljkl/t k|:t't ePsf if8 bz{g, h}g bz{g,
rf/jfs bz{g OToflbsf dtnfO{ eujfg\ a'4sf k|tLTo;d'Tkfb bz{gsf] cfwf/df
gfufh'{gn] rt'isf]l6 ljZn]if0fdf v08g ug'{ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] rt'isf]l6 ljZn]if0f
d"ndWodssfl/sfdf k|:t't ug'{ePsf] 5 . tL ;a} tLly{s bz{gn] k|tLTo ;d'Tkfb geP/
:j jf k/ jf cx]t'tM ;d'Tkfbsf ¿kdf ;a}nfO{ lnO/fv]sf 5g\ . To;}n] o;nfO{ pTkfb
l;4fGt (Production theory) sf] v08g klg elgG5 . rt'isf]l6sf rf/ lgif]wgLo a'bfx¿
o; k|sf/ 5g\ M
!= :jtM (Self Produced)
@= k/tM (Production from others)
#= peotM (both, self-produced and production from others)
$= cx]t'tM (Production without cause)
!= :jtM (Self Produced or originated) M ;a}eGbf klxn] xfdL :jtM sf] af/]df g} rrf{
u/f}+ . cfrfo{ gfufh'{gn] ;f+Vo j}z]lifs OToflbx¿nfO{ v08g ug{ of] ts{ k|:t't ug'{ePsf]
5 . h; cg';f/ oxfF s'g} klg wd{ jf j:t' :jtM jf cfkm ;] cfkm pTkGg x'Fb}g eGg] s'/f
oxfF b]vfpg vf]lhPsf] 5 . ;a}eGbf klxn] pTkGg jf produced eGg] zAbsf] cy{ hfGg'
k5{ . s]xL gePsf] :yfg jf j:t'jf6 XjfQ k}bf x'g' jf b]vfkg'{nfO{ pTkGg x'g' jf
originated elgG5 . To;}n] oxfF Pp6f k|Zg cfpF5 M hxfF ;Dd pTkGg x'g] s'/fsf] ;jfn
5, gePsf] :yfg jf rLhaf6 pTkGg ePsf] ls ePsf] rLhaf6 < olb gePsf] rLhaf6
pTkGg ePsf] eg' eg] cfsfzdf km"n km'n]sf] eg] em} jf afFemsf] 5f]/f5f]/L jf v/fof]sf]
l;Ë eg] h:t} x'G5 . s'g} klg rLh lkmNddf b]vfPem}F xft dfly p7fP/ tyf:t' eGg]
ljltSs} PSsf;L sxfF sxfFaf6 pTkGg u/fP/ j/bfg lbP h:tf] of] jf:tljs hut 5}g .
To;df s'g} sf/0f g} rflxPg . To;}n] of] lj1fgn] klg dfGb}g . ;a} :jtM g} x'g]eP
lj1fgsf] ljsf;sf] s]xL cy{ /xFb}g . t/ of] ;+;f/df ldx]gt ug'{k5{, s7f]/ kl/>d
1

u/]kl5 dfq s'g} kmn kfOG5 ;f+Von] eg] h:t} sf/0fd} kmn lglxt x'g] xf]Og, olb sf/0fd}
kmn x'g] eP cfn" sfr} vfP eOxfNYof] lsg pdfNg'kg]{, sf/0f / kmn Pp6} xf] eg] vfgf
/ dn klg Pp6} x'g'kYof]{, dflg;n] dn vfg yfNy] . To;}n] of] sbflk ;Dej 5}g . To;f]
eP s'g} ePsf] rLhaf6 pTkGg ePsf] xf] t< ePsf] rLhaf6 pTkGg x'g] eg] s'/f
cfpFb}g, h'g rLh klxn]b]lv 5 h:t} uf]?sf] l;Ë To;nfO{ km]l/ pTkGg eof] eGg ldNb}g
lsgsL Tof] t x]t'–k|Toon] ubf{ ¿k km]l/Psf] dfq xf] h'g lj1fgn] klg dfg]sf] 5 .
pTkGg x'gnfO{ t s'g} gePsf] j:t'af6 b]vfk/]sf] x'g'k5{ Tof] t cl3 g} v08g
ul/;lsPsf] 5 . To;}n] wd{ g t gePsf] j:t'af6 pTkGg x'G5 g t ePsf] cyf{t :jtM
pTkGg x'G5 Tof] t k|tLTo ;d'TkGg x'G5 .
@= k/tM (Production) M To;f] eP k/tM xf] t < Tof] klg xf]Og . of] j]b dfGg] OZj/
dfGg]x¿;+u ;DalGwt 5 . olb k/tM jf c?af6 ;a}yf]s pTkGg x'g] xf] eg] oxfF klg
Pp6f k|Zg ;f]Wg ;lsG5 < ;a}nfO{ pTkGg u/fpg] rfFlx s;/L pTkGg eof] < Tof]
k|tLTo;d'TkGg 5 ls 5}g < ;a}nfO{ pTkGg ug]{ cfkm} pTkGg eof] eGg ldNb}g of] t
dfly g} v08g ul/;Sof] . cfkm" g} :jo+ pTkGg x'g g;Sg]n] c?nfO{ s;/L :jo+ pTkGg
unf{ < To;}n] oxfF klg k|tLTo;d'Tkfb nfu' x'g] eof] . xfdL ;a}nfO{ agfpg] egfpFbf
OZj/nfO{ xfdLnfO{ agfpg x]t' k|Too sf] ;fxf/f g} lng'kg]{ eP xfdL / OZj/df s] km/s
5 t cflv/ < h;/L OZj/n] dfG5] agfpF5 dflg;n] klg k|hgg x]t'k|Too dfkm{t dfG5]
agfpF5 < lsg OZj/nfO{ dfq ;[li6stf{ eGg'kg]{, xfdL klg t xf}F ;[li6stf{ < k/tM
pTkGg eGg] s'/} xf:of:kb x'g hfG5 .
#= peotM (Production from both self and others) M of] h}g wd{sf] dtnfO{ v08g ug]{
a'bf xf] . hasL :jtM / k/tM b'j} v08g eO;Sof] eg] :jtM klg pTkGg x'g] / k/tM klg
pTkGg x'g] s'/f plts} xf:of:kb 5 . o;df JofVof ul//xg' g} kb}{g . To;}n] klg
;a}yf]s k|tLTo;d'TkGg 5g\ .
$= cx]t'tM (Without cause) M of] rf/jfs bz{gtkm{ nlIft 5 . rf/jfs bz{g sd{kmnsf]
s'/f dfGb}g . To;}n] kfk} u/]klg k'0o} u/]klg s]xL kmn kfOGg . hlt klg ;'v 5g\ oxL
hLjgdf dfq 5g\, k"j{ / k'gh{Gd eg] rLh x'Fb} x'Fb}g . To;}n] x]t' kmn jf sfo{sf/0f /
k|tLTo;d'Tkfb klg x'Fb}g eGg] s'/f]df ljZjf; ub{5g . To;}n] a8f] cg}lts 9Ën] pgLx¿
eG5g\ M ofJjhLljt+ lhj]t\ ;'vd\ lhj]t\, C0f+ s[Tjf w[t+ lkj]t\ . cyf{t hlt lhGbuL 5
;'vL ;fy lhcf}F, csf{;+u C0f lnP/ /fd|f] vfP/ /fd|f] nfP/ -w[t+ lkj]t_ lhcf}+ . d/]kl5
s]xL klg 5}g, dl/;s]kl5 b]vf hfPuf, C0f klg ltg'{kb}{g .Ú o;/L ePlbP ;+;f/df
2

ck/fw} ck/fw a9\y] . To;}n] logLx¿ k|fs[lts lgodnfO{ dfGb}g h'g xt' k|Too l;4fGt
xf], h'g sfo{ sf/0fsf] l;4fGt, of] hLjg klg s'g} k"j{hGdsf] x]t'ljgf g} k~rdxfe"taf6
cx]t'tM ag]sf] xf] eG7fG5g\ h'g s'/fsf] v08g dfly g} eO;Sof] . o;/L o; ;+;f/df s'g}
klg rLh cx]t'tM jf ljgf sf/0f x'g ;Sb}g To;f] x'Fbf] xf] t clxn] j}1flgs jf
cfWoflTds ljsf; h'g clxn] eO/x]5 Tof] s'g} klg ;Dej x'g]lyPg xf]nf .

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