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Allies of World War I
A map of the World showing the Triple Entente participants in World
War I. Those fighting on the Entente's side (at one point or another) are
depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in
grey.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
See also: Allies of World War II and Western Allies
The Entente Powers or
Allies (French: Forces de
l'Entente / Allis; Italian:
Alleati; Romanian: Puterile
Antantei / Aliaii; Russian:
, Soyuzniki;
Serbian: ,
Saveznici; Turkish: tilaf
Devletleri) were the countries
at war with the Central Powers
during World War I. The
members of the Triple Entente
were the French Republic, the
British Empire and the
Russian Empire; Italy
ended its alliance with
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European military alliances prior to the war.
the Central Powers
and entered the war
on the side of the
Entente in 1915.
Japan, Belgium,
Serbia, Greece,
Montenegro, Romania
and the Czechoslovak
legions
[1]
were
secondary members
of the Entente.
[2]
The United States
declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by
attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram sent to Mexico.
[3]
The
U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and the United
Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".
[4]
Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.
[5]
Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to
the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I.
Operational control of British Empire forces was in the hands of the five-member British War
Cabinet (BWC). However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove
personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit.
From early 1917 the BWC was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion
representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed for the first time under the
command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,
[6]
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respectively, who reported in turn to British generals.
[citation needed]
In April 1918, operational
control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander,
Ferdinand Foch.
The only countries represented in the 1918 armistice which ended the combat were Britain, France
and Germany.
Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Major affiliated state combatants
2.1 United Kingdom
2.1.1 War justifications
2.1.2 Colonies and dependencies
2.1.2.1 In Europe
2.1.2.2 In Africa
2.1.2.3 In North America
2.1.2.4 In Asia
2.2 Russia
2.3 France
2.4 Japan
2.5 Italy
3 Minor affiliated state combatants
3.1 Belgium
3.2 Brazil
3.3 Montenegro
3.4 Serbia
4 Major co-belligerent state combatants
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4.1 United States
5 Non-state combatants
6 Leaders
6.1 France
6.2 British Empire
6.2.1 Dominion of Canada
6.2.2 Commonwealth of Australia
6.2.3 British India
6.2.4 Union of South Africa
6.2.5 New Zealand
6.3 Russia
6.4 Serbia
6.5 Montenegro
6.6 Greece
6.7 Belgium
6.8 Italy
6.9 Romania
6.10 United States
6.11 Japan
6.12 Portugal
6.13 Siam
6.14 Brazil
7 Personnel and casualties
8 Summary of Declarations of War
9 See also
10 Footnotes
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A 1914 Russian poster depicting the
Triple Entente.
11 References
12 Sources
History [edit]
The original alliance opposed to the Central Powers
was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three
Great European Powers:
French Republic
British Empire
Russian Empire
The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of
Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The
Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian
ally Montenegro on 8 August.
[citation needed]
On the
Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and
Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German
troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan.
Of the two Low Countries, Luxembourg chose to
capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist State
by the Entente Powers: Luxembourg never became
part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgian
efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan joined the
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Entente, which then counted seven members.
[citation needed]
. The entrance of the British Empire
brought Nepal into the war.
On 23 May 1915, Italy entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria;
previously, Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the
beginning of the conflict. In 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente, and two nations
joined, Portugal and Romania.
[citation needed]
On 6 April 1917 the United States and its American allies entered the war. Liberia, Siam and
Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal
involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively
creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of
hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on 10 November 1918.
The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five
Great Powers:
French Republic
British Empire
United States
Italy
Japan
Statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)
[7]
Population Land GDP
Russian Empire (plus Poland and
Finland)
173.2m
(176.4m)
21.7m km
2
(22.1m
km
2
)
$257.7b
($264.3b)
French Third Republic 39.8m (88.1m)
0.5m km
2
(11.2m $138.7b
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British soldiers in a trench during
the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
French Third Republic 39.8m (88.1m)
km
2
) ($170.2b)
The British Empire 446.1m 33.3m km
2
$561.2b
Empire of Japan (plus colonies) 55.1m (74.2m) 0.4m km
2
(0.7m km
2
) $76.5b ($92.8b)
Kingdom of Italy (plus colonies) 35.6m (37.6m) 0.3m km
2
(2.3m
2
) $91.3b ($92.6b)
United States (plus overseas
dependencies),
[8]
96.5m
(106.3m)
7.8m km
2
(9.6m km
2
)
$511.6b
($522.2b)
Allied approximate total 928.7m 79.2m km
2
$1,703.3b
Major affiliated state combatants [edit]
United Kingdom [edit]
War justifications [edit]
In response to Germany's invasion of neutral Belgium, the
United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August
1914.
[9]
The British Empire held several semi-autonomous
dominions that were automatically brought into the war
effort as a result of the British declaration of war, including
Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South
Africa.
Colonies and dependencies [edit]
In Europe [edit]
Gibraltar, Cyprus and Malta were British dependencies in
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British battlecruiser HMS Lion hit by
shell fire during the Battle of Jutland.
British Sopwith Camel fighter
aircraft during the war.
Europe
In Africa [edit]
The UK held several colonies, protectorates, and semi-
autonomous dependencies at the time of World War I. In
Eastern Africa the East Africa Protectorate, Nyasaland,
both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, the Uganda
Protectorate, were involved in conflict with German forces
in German East Africa. In Western Africa, the colonies of
Gold Coast and Nigeria were involved in military actions
against German forces from Togoland and Kamerun. In
Southwestern Africa, the semi-autonomous dominion of
South Africa was involved in military actions against
German forces in German South-West Africa.
In North America [edit]
Canada and Newfoundland were two semi-autonomous
dominions during the war that made major military contributions to the British war effort.
Other British dependent territories in the Americas included: British Honduras, the Falkland
Islands, British Guiana, and Jamaica.
In Asia [edit]
The UK held large possessions in Asia, including the British Raj that were an assortment of British
imperial authorities in the territory then defined as India.
Australia and New Zealand were two semi-autonomous dominions of the UK in Asia during the war.
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Russian artillery firing.
Other British territories at the time included: British Malaya - referring to several Malay states
under British control as a result of the Straits Settlements; North Borneo; and Hong Kong.
Russia [edit]
In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in
1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-
Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak
country".
[10]
Russian government official Nikola N.
Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful
empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its
existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country;
it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a
death-blow to Serbia."
[10]
Russia held close diplomatic
relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey
Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel
Russian influence in the Balkans.
[10]
On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The
day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on
Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.
Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the
Ottoman Empire in November 1914.
[11]
France [edit]
After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its
alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in
expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared
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French soldiers crossing a river on
their way to Verdun during the Battle of
Verdun.
Japanese soldiers landing in
Tsingtao during the Siege of Tsingtao
in which Allied forces seized control of
Germany's Kiautschou Bay
concession.
war on France.
[12]
Japan [edit]
Japan declared war on Germany after it did not accept an
ultimatum sent by Japan to Germany, demanding that
Germany extinguish its title to the Kiautschou Bay
concession and restore that territory to China.
[13]
The
Japanese government appealed to the Japanese public
that Japan was not merely entering a "European War" on
behalf of European powers, but that Japan was fighting on
behalf of Asians against a belligerent European power,
Germany, that Japan identified as the "source of evil in the
Far East".
[13]
Thus as a result of this, Japan was following
through with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
[13]
Italy [edit]
Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside
Germany and Austria-Hungary since the 1880s, however
the Triple Alliance stipulated that all parties must be
consulted in the event of one country engaging in war and
Italy was not informed of this.
[14]
As such Italy claimed that
it was not obligated to join their war effort.
[14]
Italy's
relations with Germany and Austria-Hungary in contrast to
the Allies were additionally affected by the fact that in
1913, Britain supplied Italy with 90 percent of its annual
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Italian alpine troops.
imports of coal.
[14]
The war effort of the Central Powers
meant that Germany and Austria-Hungary were using their
coal supplies for the war, and little was available to be
exported to Italy.
[14]
Italy initially attempted to pursue
neutrality from 1914 to 1915.
[14]
After diplomatic negotiations, Britain and France convinced Italy to join the war effort with promises
that Italy would gain favourable territorial concessions from the Central Powers, including Italian-
populated territories of Austria-Hungary.
[15]
Italy ordered mobilization on 22 May 1915, and issued
an ultimatum to Austria-Hungary, and then declared war on Austria-Hungary, though it did not
declare war on Germany.
[15]
Minor affiliated state combatants [edit]
Belgium [edit]
Belgium had declared its neutrality when the war began, however Germany disregarded Belgium's
neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of
Paris. As a result Belgium became a member of the Allies.
Brazil [edit]
Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States
intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted
submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil
also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against
Germany and the Central Powers.
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Brazilian soldiers in World War I.
Serbian soldiers during World War I.
Montenegro [edit]
Montenegro had very close cultural and political
connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in
the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.
Serbia [edit]
Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-
Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian
government demanding full compliance to an Austro-
Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian
government in the assassination of Archduke Francis
Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's
demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-
Hungary invaded.
Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-
Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population, and
Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 when the
Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.
During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism
towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav
Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from
Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its
intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.
The first two allied victories in the war were won by Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and
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Kolubara, in the western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country
suffering great losses. Serbia had suffered great losses in the war, losing almost 50% of all men
and around 30% of the entire country population. On July 28, 1918, the Serbian flag was raised at
American public buildings, including the White House, on the order of President Woodrow Wilson
as a sign of recognition for Serbia's resistance against the Central Powers.
[16]
Major co-belligerent state combatants [edit]
United States [edit]
The United States declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S.
neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.
[3]
The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power," rather than a formal ally of France and the
United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements."
[4]
Although the Ottoman Empire and
Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.
[5]
Non-state combatants [edit]
Four Non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the
constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as
winning nations to the peace treaties:
Polish Legions
Czechoslovak Legions: armed by France, Italy and Russia
The Hejaz: armed by Britain in Arabia
Armenians: seceded from Russia and fought against Ottoman Empire.
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Leaders [edit]
France [edit]
Raymond Poincar President of France
Ren Viviani Prime Minister of France (13 June 1914 29 October 1915)
Aristide Briand Prime Minister of France (29 October 1915 20 March 1917)
Alexandre Ribot Prime Minister of France (20 March 1917 12 September 1917)
Paul Painlev Prime Minister of France (12 September 1917 16 November 1917)
Georges Clemenceau Prime Minister of France (From 16 November 1917)
Joseph Joffre Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (3 August 1914 13 December 1916)
and Marshal of France
Robert Nivelle Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (13 December 1916 April 1917)
Philippe Ptain Commander-in-Chief of the French Army (April 1917 11 November 1918)
Ferdinand Foch Marshal of France, Supreme Allied Commander (26 March 1918 11
November 1918)
Milan Rastislav Stefanik General of French Army, Commander of Czechoslovak Legions
Georges Thenault Commander of the Lafayette Escadrille
British Empire [edit]
George V King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India
H. H. Asquith Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (Until 5 December 1916)
David Lloyd George Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (From 7 December 1916)
Horatio Herbert Kitchener Secretary of State for War (5 August 1914 5 June 1916)
William Robertson Chief of the Imperial General Staff (23 December 1915 February 1918)
John French Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (4 August 1914 15
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December 1915)
Douglas Haig Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (15 December 1915
11 November 1918)
Hugh Trenchard Commander of Royal Flying Corps (August 1915 January 1918)
Winston Churchill First Lord of the Admiralty (1911 May 1915)
Arthur Balfour- First Lord of the Admiralty (May 1915 December 1916)
Edward Carson First Lord of the Admiralty (10 December 1916 17 July 1917)
Eric Geddes First Lord of the Admiralty (July 1917 January 1919)
"Jackie" Fisher First Sea Lord (1914 May 1915)
Henry Jackson First Sea Lord (May 1915 November 1916)
John Jellicoe First Sea Lord (November 1916 December 1917)
Rosslyn Wemyss First Sea Lord (December 1917 November 1919)
Dominion of Canada [edit]
Robert Borden Prime Minister of Canada (191418)
Sam Hughes Minister of Militia and Defence (1914 January 1915)
Joseph Flavelle- Chairman of Imperial Munitions Board (191519)
Julian Byng (June 1916 June 1917) Canadian Corps commander
Edwin Alderson Commander of the unified Canadian Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary
Force (26 January 1915 September 1915)
Arthur Currie Commander of the unified Canadian Corps of the Canadian Expeditionary
Force (June 1917 )
[17]
Commonwealth of Australia [edit]
Joseph Cook Prime Minister of Australia (until 17 September 1914)
Andrew Fisher Prime Minister of Australia (17 September 1914 27 October 1915)
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Billy Hughes Prime Minister of Australia (from 27 October 1915)
John Monash Commander of the Australian Corps (all five Australian infantry divisions
serving on the Western Front) (May 1918 )
William Holmes Commander of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (August
1914 February 1915)
Harry Chauvel Commander of Desert Mounted Corps (Sinai and Palestine) (August 1917 )
British India [edit]
Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst Viceroy of India 19101916
Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford Viceroy of India 19161921
Austen Chamberlain Secretary of State for India
John Nixon commander of the British Indian Army (active in the Middle East)
Union of South Africa [edit]
Louis Botha Prime Minister of South Africa
Jan Smuts Led forces in South-West Africa Campaign and East African Campaign, later
member of the Imperial War Cabinet
New Zealand [edit]
William Massey Prime Minister of New Zealand
General Sir Alexander Godley Commandant of New Zealand Military Forces (to October
1914); Commander of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force
Major General Sir Alfred William Robin Quartermaster-General and Commandant of New
Zealand Military Forces (from October 1914)
Russia [edit]
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Nicholas II Russian Emperor, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland. (Until 15 March
1917)
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Commander-in-chief (1 August 1914 5 September 1916)
and viceroy in the Caucasus
Alexander Samsonov Commander of the Russian Second Army for the invasion of East
Prussia (1 August 1914 29 August 1914)
Paul von Rennenkampf Commander of the Russian First Army for the invasion of East
Prussia (1 August 1914 November 1914)
Nikolai Ivanov Commander of the Russian army on the Southwestern Front, (1 August 1914
March 1916) responsible for much of the action in Galicia
Aleksei Brusilov Commander of the South-West Front, then provisional Commander-in-Chief
after the Tsar's abdication (February 1917 August 1917)
Lavr Georgievich Kornilov Commander of the South-West Front, then Commander-in-Chief
(August 1917)
Aleksey Kuropatkin Commander of the Northern Front (October 1915 1917)
Nikolai Yudenich Commander of the Caucasus (January 1915 May 1917)
Andrei Eberhardt Commander of Black Sea Fleet (191416)
Aleksandr Kolchak Commander of Black Sea Fleet (191617)
Nikolai Essen Commander of Baltic Fleet (1913 May 1915)
Serbia [edit]
Peter I King of Serbia
Crown Prince Alexander Regent, Commander-in-Chief
Nikola Pai Prime Minister
Radomir Putnik Field Marshal, Chief of the General Staff of the Serbian Army (1914-1915)
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ivojin Mii General / Field Marshal, Commander of First Army (1914-1915) (1917), later
Chief of General Staff (1918)
Petar Bojovi General / Field Marshal, Commander of First Army (1914), Deputy Chief of
General Staff (1915-1916), Chief of General Staff (1916-1917) later Commander of First Army
(1918)
Stepa Stepanovi General / Field Marshal, Commander of Second Army (1914-1918)
Pavle Jurii turm General, Commander of Third Army (1914-1916)
Dragutin Gavrilovi - Major
Montenegro [edit]
Nicholas I King of Montenegro
Serdar Janko Vukoti Prime Minister, Commander of 1st Montenegrin Army
Boidar Jankovi Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1914-1915)
Petar Pei Chief of the General Staff of the Montenegrin Army (1915-1916)
Crown Prince Danilo II Petrovi-Njego In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army
Brigadier General Krsto Zrnov Popovi In the staff of the 1st Montenegrin Army, Aide-de-
camp to Serdar Janko Vukoti
General Anto Gvozdenovi King's Aide-de-camp
Divisional General Mitar Martinovi Commander of several detachments in the Montenegrin
army ( Drina and Herzegovina detachments together in 19141915, Kotor detachment in 1916
)
Greece [edit]
Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
Constantin I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, without formally resigned.
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Alexander: King of Greece, he became King of Greece after his father retired from the throne.
Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general in the Hellenic Army.
Belgium [edit]
Albert I of Belgium King of the Belgians (23 December 1909 17 February 1934) and
Commander-in-chief of the Belgian army
Charles de Broqueville - Prime Minister (1912-1918); replaced by Grard Cooreman in June
1918 shortly before the end of the war.
Flix Wielemans - Chief of Staff of the Belgian Army
Grard Leman general commanding the defense of Lige
Theophile Figeys general in the Hundred Days' Offensive
Charles Tombeur - commander of the colonial Force Publique in the East African theater
Italy [edit]
Victor Emmanuel III King of Italy
Antonio Salandra Prime Minister (until 18 June 1916)
Paolo Boselli Prime Minister (18 June 1916 29 October 1917)
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Prime Minister (from 29 October 1917)
Luigi Cadorna Commander-in-Chief of the Italian army
Armando Diaz Chief of General Staff of the Italian army
Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi Commander-in-Chief of the Adriatic Fleet of Italy (191417)
Paolo Thaon di Revel Admiral of the Royal Italian Navy
Romania [edit]
Ferdinand I King of Romania
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The use of naval convoys to transport U.S.
troops to France, 1917.
Constantin Prezan Chief of the General Staff of Romania
Vintil Brtianu - Secretary of War
Alexandru Averescu Commander of the 2nd Army, 3rd Army, then Army Group South
Eremia Grigorescu - Commander of the 1st Army
United States [edit]
Woodrow Wilson President of the United
States/Commander-In-Chief of the U.S. armed
forces
Newton D. Baker U.S. Secretary of War
Josephus Daniels - United States Secretary of the
Navy
John J. Pershing Commander of the American
Expeditionary Force
William Sims - Commander of U.S. Naval Forces in
European Waters
Mason Patrick - Commander of the United States
Army Air Service
Japan [edit]
Emperor Taish Emperor of Japan
kuma Shigenobu Prime Minister of Japan (16 April 1914 9 October 1916)
Terauchi Masatake Prime minister of Japan (9 October 1916 29 September 1918)
Hara Takashi Prime minister of Japan (29 September 1918 4 November 1921)
Kz Sat - Commander of the Second Special Task Fleet
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Kamio Mitsuomi - Commander of Allied land forces at Tsingtao
Portugal [edit]
Bernardino Machado President of Portugal (until 12 December 1917)
Afonso Costa Prime Minister of Portugal (until 15 March 1916; then again 25 April 1917 10
December 1917)
Antnio Jos de Almeida Prime Minister of Portugal (15 March 1916 25 April 1917)
Sidnio Pais Prime Minister of Portugal and War Minister (11 December 1917 9 May 1918)
and President of Portugal (from 9 May 1918)
Jos Maria Norton de Matos War Minister (until 10 December 1917)
Joo Tamagnini Barbosa Interim War Minister (9 May 1918 15 May 1918)
Amlcar Mota Secretary of State for War (15 May 1918 8 October 1918)
lvaro de Mendona Secretary of State for War (from 8 October 1918)
Fernando Tamagnini de Abreu Commander of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (CEP)
Jos Augusto Alves Roadas Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Southern Angola
Jos Lus de Moura Mendes Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (until
June 1916)
Jos Csar Ferreira Gil Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from June
1916)
Sousa Rosa Commander of the Portuguese Forces in Eastern Africa (from 1917)
Siam [edit]
See main Article: Siam in World War I
Vajiravudh King of Siam
Chakrabongse Bhuvanadh Commander of Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Western Front.
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A pie-chart showing the military
deaths of the Allied Powers.
Brazil [edit]
See main Article: Brazil during World War I
Venceslau Bras President of Brazil
Admiral Pedro Frontin, Chief of DNOG (Brazilian Expeditionary Fleet)
General Napoleo Felipe Ach, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918-1919)
M.D. Nabuco Gouveia Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission
Personnel and casualties [edit]
These are estimates of the cumulative number of different
personnel in uniform 19141918, including army, navy and
auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were
much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline
combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of
time each country was involved. (See also: World War I
casualties.)
Allied
power
Mobilized
personnel
Killed in
action
Wounded
in action
Total
casualties
Casualties
as % of
total
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mobilized
Australia 412,953
1
61,928
[18]
152,171 214,099 52%
Belgium 267,000
3
38,172
[19]
44,686 82,858 31%
Canada 628,964
1
64,944
[20]
149,732 214,676 34%
France 8,410,000
3
1,397,800
[21]
4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
Greece 230,000
3
26,000
[22]
21,000 47,000 20%
India 1,440,437
1
74,187
[23]
69,214 143,401 10%
Italy 5,615,000
3
651,010
[24]
953,886 1,604,896 29%
Japan 800,000
3
415
[25]
907 1,322 <1%
Monaco 80
[26]
8
[26]
0 8
[26]
10%
Montenegro 50,000
3
3,000 10,000 13,000 26%
Nepal 200,000
[27]
30,670 21,009 49,823 25%
New Zealand 128,525
1
18,050
[28]
41,317 59,367 46%
Portugal 100,000
3
7,222
[29]
13,751 20,973 21%
Romania 750,000
3
250,000
[30]
120,000 370,000 49%
Russia 12,000,000
3
1,811,000
[31]
4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
Serbia 707,343
3
275,000
[32]
133,148 408,148 58%
Siam 1,284
2
19 0 19 2%
South Africa 136,070
1
9,463
[33]
12,029 21,492 16%
United
Kingdom
6,211,922
2
886,342
[34]
1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
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United States 4,355,000
3
116,708
[35]
205,690 322,398 7%
Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%
Summary of Declarations of War [edit]
The following table shows the timeline of the several declarations of war among the belligerent
powers. Entries on a yellow background show severed diplomatic relations only, not actual
declarations of war. Unless stated otherwise, declarations of war by and on the United Kingdom
include de facto declarations by and on other members of the British Empire.
Date Declarer On
1914
28 July Austria-Hungary Serbia
30 July Russia Austria-Hungary
1 August Germany Russia
1 August Monaco Germany
3 August Germany France
4 August
Germany Belgium
United Kingdom Germany
5 August Montenegro Austria-Hungary
6 August
Austria-Hungary Russia
Serbia Germany
9 August Montenegro Germany
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11 August France Austria-Hungary
12 August United Kingdom Austria-Hungary
22 August Austria-Hungary Belgium
23 August Japan Germany
25 August Japan Austria-Hungary
1 November Russia Ottoman Empire
2 November Serbia Ottoman Empire
3 November Montenegro Ottoman Empire
5 November
United Kingdom
France
Ottoman Empire
1915
23 May Italy Austria-Hungary
3 June San Marino Austria-Hungary
21 August Italy Ottoman Empire
14 October Bulgaria Serbia
15 October
United Kingdom
Montenegro
Bulgaria
16 October France Bulgaria
19 October
Italy
Russia
Bulgaria
1916
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9 March Germany Portugal
15 March Austria-Hungary Portugal
27 August
Romania Austria-Hungary
Italy Germany
28 August Germany Romania
30 August Ottoman Empire Romania
1 September Bulgaria Romania
1917
6 April United States Germany
7 April Cuba Germany
10 April Bulgaria United States
13 April Bolivia Germany
20 April Ottoman Empire United States
2 July Greece
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
22 July Siam
Germany
Austria-Hungary
4 August Liberia Germany
14 August China
Germany
Austria-Hungary
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World War I portal
6 October Peru Germany
7 October Uruguay Germany
26 October Brazil Germany
[36]
7 December United States Austria-Hungary
7 December Ecuador Germany
10 December Panama Austria-Hungary
16 December Cuba Austria-Hungary
1918
23 April Guatemala Germany
8 May Nicaragua
Germany
Austria-Hungary
23 May Costa Rica Germany
12 July Haiti Germany
19 July Honduras Germany
10 November Romania Germany
See also [edit]
Triple Entente
Participants in World War I
Central Powers
Allied leaders of World War I
Allies of World War II
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Footnotes [edit]
1. ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement , GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
2. ^ First World War.com Feature Articles The Causes of World War One
3. ^
a

b
US Declaration of War
4. ^
a

b
Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
5. ^
a

b
Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
6. ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii
7. ^ S.N. Broadberry, Mark Harrison. The Economics of World War I. illustrated ed. Cambridge
University Press, 2005, pgs. 78.
8. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the parenthetical figures.
9. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle
East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
10. ^
a

b

c
Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806-1914. P262
11. ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and
European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
12. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle
East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
13. ^
a

b

c
Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914-1917. P155.
14. ^
a

b

c

d

e
Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914-1917. P194.
15. ^
a

b
Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914-1917. P194-198.
16. ^ http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Tema-nedelje/125-godina-sa-Amerikom/t31701.lt.html
17. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
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18. ^ Australia casualties
Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
-.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military
dead.
4
-
Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 191921
5
-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330
Army war dead
1,237
.
19. ^ Belgium casualties
Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
Figures include 13,716
killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records
being incomplete."
1,352
.
20. ^ Canada casualties
Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.
6,85
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military
dead.
4
Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 191921 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths
5
-. The losses of
Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war
dead
1,237
.
21. ^ France casualties
Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
. Totals include the
deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops.
7,414
-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600
from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.
7,414
22. ^ Greece casualties
Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related
deaths and 3,255 missing
8,339
, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000
including 15,000 military deaths due disease
6,160
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23. ^ India casualties
British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military
dead.
4
Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 191921 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead
5
. The
1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead
1,237
24. ^ Italy casualties
Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data
9
.
25. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army
10,111
.
26. ^
a

b

c
Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Mongasques morts au champ d'honneur | Nice-Matin
27. ^ Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
28. ^ New Zealand casualties
Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military
dead.
4
Totals include 702 military deaths during 191921
5
. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army
war dead
1,237
.
29. ^ Portugal casualties
Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France
and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW
1,354
.
30. ^ Romania casualties
Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from
the International Labour Office"
6,64
. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died
of wounds
6,85
.
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31. ^ Russia casualties
Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
. The estimate of
total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.
6,4657
32. ^ Serbia casualties
Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
.The estimate of total
combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher
Boris Urlanis
6,6264
33. ^ South Africa casualties
Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military
dead.
4
Totals include 380 military deaths during 191921
15
. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army
war dead
1,237
.
34. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
6,85
.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military
dead.
4
Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 191921 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy
deaths
5
. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK
1,237
, 507 from "Other
colonies"
1,237
and the Royal Navy (32,287)
1,339
.
The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately
1,339
; The 1922 War Office report
detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK
1,674678
.
35. ^ United States casualties
Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are
116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1] , The US Coast Guard
lost an additional 192 dead
11,481
.
36. ^ Declarations of War, 19141918
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References [edit]
^1 The War Office (2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the
Great War 19141920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN 1-84734-681-2.
OCLC 137236769 .
^2 Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-521077-8.
OCLC 233987354 .
^3 Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia.
New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3351-X.
^4 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF).
^5 The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register" .
^6 Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the
Pacific. OCLC 123124938 .
^7 Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur
Les revenus avant et aprs la guerre (in French). Paris. OCLC 4226464 .
^8 Bujac Jean Lopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'arme Hellnique 19181922 (in
French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602 .
^9 Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian).
New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099 .
^10 Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun The Rise and Fall of the
Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. OCLC 32615324 .
^11 Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to
Casualty and Other Figures, 15002000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1204-6.
OCLC 48066096 .
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[show] V T E
[show] V T E
Sources [edit]
See List of World War I books
Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All
the Combatants (2002)
Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 19001918 (1997) despite the
title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003),
historiography, stressing military themes
Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World
War (1995)
Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-
Allied Strategy, 19171918 (1961)
Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History
(5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
World War I
History of World War I by region and country
Categories: World War I by country 1919 in law Aftermath of World War I
20th-century military alliances Military alliances involving Canada
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