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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level

* 1 2 6 7 7 9 2 9 6 4 *

2059/02

PAKISTAN STUDIES
Paper 2 The Environment of Pakistan

October/November 2012
1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates answer on the Question Paper.


Additional Materials:

Insert

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, candidate number and name in the spaces provided.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Answer any three questions.
The Insert contains Photograph A for Question 1.
The Insert is not required by the Examiner.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 22 printed pages, 2 blank pages and 1 Insert.


DC (LEO/SW) 49147/7
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2
Answer any three questions.
1

(a) Study Fig. 1 which shows mineral extraction in 2008 in Pakistan.


2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
extraction
(thousand 1000
tonnes)
800
600
400

rock salt

barite

gypsum

limestone

chromite

200

mineral
Fig. 1
(i)

Name two minerals shown on Fig. 1 that are used to make cement.
1 ...............................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii)

State two uses of rock salt.


1 ...............................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................... [2]

(iii)

State the amount of gypsum extracted.


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(b) Study Fig. 2 which shows chromite extraction in Pakistan.

For
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120

100

80
extraction
(thousand
tonnes)

60

40

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

1999
2000

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

20

year
Fig. 2
(i)

Describe the changes in extraction from 1992 to 2008.


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(ii)

Suggest why the extraction of minerals, such as chromite, varies from year to year.
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(c) Study Photograph A (Insert) which shows a quarry in Pakistan.


(i)

Use the photograph and your own knowledge to describe the environmental
problems that can be caused by mineral extraction.
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(ii)

How can these problems be reduced?


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(d) To what extent can more extraction of mineral resources help to increase development
in Pakistan?
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2

(a) Study Fig. 3 which shows the climate of Karachi.


40

40

30

30

temperature
20
(C)

20

10

10

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

rainfall
(mm)

Jan

Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep Oct

Nov Dec

month
Fig. 3
(i)

By how much does the temperature rise from January to May?


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(ii)

Describe the pattern of rainfall during the winter season from October to March.
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(iii)

With reference to Fig. 3 only, describe the climate of the months from June to
September.

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(b) Explain the causes of the monsoon at Karachi.
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(c) (i)

Name the violent storms that form over the sea and that may affect Karachi.
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(ii)

In which months may these occur?


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(iii)

Explain how storms such as these may affect industry and communications in
urban areas.
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(d) Read the article below.

The continuing power cuts and load shedding in the expanding commercial city of
Karachi must be addressed. The port city lies on the shores of the Arabian Sea, and
has a windy and sunny climate.

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The huge population and many industries generate a huge amount of waste that needs
to be disposed of.
Assess the possibilities and problems for electricity generation other than by fossil fuels
at Karachi.
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[Total: 25]

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3

(a) Study Fig. 4 which shows an irrigation system.

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Key:
solid rock
loose rocks
and sediment
water table
shafts
tunnel

Fig. 4
(i)

Name the irrigation system shown in Fig. 4.


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(ii)

Name an area of Pakistan where it is used.


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(iii)

Explain how this system provides water for agriculture in this area.
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(iv)

Name a fruit crop grown in this area.


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(b) Study Fig. 5 which shows the results of a land-use survey in Pakistan in 2008.

90 %

For
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10 %

20 %

80 %

not
cultivated

cultivated

30 %

70 %
waste

forest
40 %

60 %
50 %
Fig. 5
(i)

What percentage of land is cultivated?


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(ii)

What percentage of land is waste?


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(iii)

Explain how soils are damaged by waterlogging and salinity.


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(iv)

Explain three reasons, other than by waterlogging and salinity, why over half the
land was not cultivated when the survey was made.
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(c) To what extent could government action increase agricultural production in Pakistan?
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[Total: 25]

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4

(a) Study Fig. 6 which shows the distribution of the cotton textile industry in Pakistan.

B
A
C
Key:
international
boundary
river
disputed
international
boundary
Arabian Sea

400
km

cotton textile
industry

Fig. 6
(i)

Name the main centres of the cotton textile industry A, B and C.


A ...............................................................................................................................
B ...............................................................................................................................
C ........................................................................................................................... [3]

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(ii)

Describe the distribution of the cotton textile industry.


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(b) Study Fig. 7 which shows the output of yarn and cloth between 1999 and 2008.
3000

3000
yarn

2000

2000

yarn output
(million
kg)

cloth

1000

1000

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

cloth output
(million
sq. m)

year
Fig. 7
(i)

Compare the outputs of cotton yarn and cotton cloth from 1999 to 2008 shown on
Fig. 7.
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(ii)

Suggest one reason for the difference in output of cotton yarn and cotton cloth, and
explain your answer.
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(c) (i)

Give an example of a job in each of the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of
the cotton industry.

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Primary .....................................................................................................................
Secondary ................................................................................................................
Tertiary ................................................................................................................. [3]
(ii)

How is the proportion of workers employed in each of these sectors changing?


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(iii)

Explain why the changes you have stated in (c)(ii) may lead to unemployment.
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(d) To what extent will improvements in education benefit both the rural and urban people of
Pakistan?
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[Total: 25]

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5

(a) Study Fig. 8 which shows birth and death rates in Pakistan from 1990 to 2005.

For
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40

30
birth rate
births / deaths
per
20
thousand
population
10

2005

2000

1995

1990

death rate

year
Fig. 8
(i)

State the birth rate and death rate in the year 2005.
Birth rate ...................................................................................................................
Death rate ............................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

By how much has each decreased since 1990?


Birth rate ...................................................................................................................
Death rate ............................................................................................................. [2]

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(iii)

Explain why both the birth and death rates have fallen in Pakistan.
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(b) Study Fig. 9 which shows birth and death rates of a country.

For
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60

bir t

h ra

50

te

40
births / deaths
per
thousand 30
population

de

ath

ra
te

20

2000

1990

1980

1970

1960

1950

1940

10

year
Fig. 9
(i)

Describe the main changes in birth rate from 1941 to 2000.


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(ii)

Complete the following:

NATURAL = ................................................ minus ................................................


INCREASE
(iii)

Study Fig. 9 again. Circle the year (below) in which the natural population increase
was greatest.
1941

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1972

1981
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2000

[1]
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(c) (i)

Explain the difference between emigration and immigration.


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(ii)

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of international emigration for the


people of Pakistan.
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[Total: 25]

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BLANK PAGE

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BLANK PAGE

Copyright Acknowledgements:
Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Figures 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9
Question 1 Photograph A

www.statpak.gov.pk
www.statpak.gov.pk
Julia Grover UCLES

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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