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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS

General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level



HISTORY
2158/01


Paper 1 World Affairs, 1917-1991


Specimen paper for examination from 2007

2 hours 30 minutes
Additional Materials: Answer Booklet/Paper





READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST

If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs, or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Answer five questions.
Answer at least one question from Section A (International Relations and Developments) and
questions from at least two of Sections B to F.

At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
All questions in this paper carry equal marks.

The first part of each question is worth 14 marks and the second part is worth 6 marks. Answer
each part of the questions chosen as fully as you can.

















This document consists of 7 printed pages and 1 blank page.

UCLES 2005

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UCLES 2005 2158/01/SP07
Section A

International Relations and Developments

1 Show how the peace settlement of 1919-20 changed the European boundaries and reduced the
power of:

(a) Germany;

(b) Austria-Hungary.

To what extent were German-speaking people disadvantaged by the peace settlement?


2 Describe how the League of Nations tried:

(a) during the 1920s to bring peace to two areas of conflict;

(b) during the 1920s and 1930s to improve living and working conditions world-wide.

Why were the events of 1931 in Manchuria important for the League?


3 Give an account of the main features of German foreign policy in the years 1938-39 and the way
other powers responded to them.

Why was Germany so successful in its military campaigns of 1939-40?


4 Describe the course of each of the following Cold War crises and show how each was resolved:

(a) the Berlin Blockade (1948-49);

(b) the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).

To what extent did the tensions of the Cold War slacken during the 1960s after the Missile Crisis?


5 Give an account of the history of Vietnam from 1945 to 1968, showing how outside powers were
involved in it.

For what reasons had US forces failed in Vietnam by the mid-1970s?


6 With reference to the years 1945-91, describe the problems the world has faced in respect of the
following and the attempts that have been made to solve them:

(a) diminishing world resources;

(b) periodic regional famine.

Why were these problems still significant ones towards the end of the twentieth century?

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Section B

Western Europe

7 Describe the following features in the history of Italy and the background to them:

(a) the March on Rome (1922);

(b) the Lateran Pacts (1929);

(c) the Abyssinian campaign (1935-36).

How far had Italy become a dictatorship by the 1930s?


8 Either

(a) Describe the impact of the Depression on:

(i) British politics in 1931;

(ii) the British people during the 1930s.

How successful were the steps taken to improve the British economy during the 1930s?

Or

(b) Outline the main features of the policies pursued at home and abroad by Margaret Thatcher
as Prime Minister of Britain (1979-90).

Why did she fall from power in 1990?


9 Describe how the Spanish Civil War began in 1936 and trace the main events of the war to 1939.

How do you explain the final victory of the Nationalists during these years?


10 Outline the history of the Federal Republic of West Germany from its creation in 1949 to the fall of
the Berlin Wall in 1989.

Why did it prove to be both stable and successful during these years?


11 Give an account of the main provisions of the Treaty of Rome (1957) and trace the development
of the European Economic Community to 1991.

Why had the EEC during these years attracted both support and criticism?
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Section C

The Americas

12 Write an account of:

(a) the US entry into the First World War (1917);

(b) the Fourteen Points (1918);

(c) President Wilsons role in Europe in 1919.

Why did Wilson fail to win sufficient support in the United States for his foreign policies after the
war?


13 Describe the policies adopted by Franklin Roosevelt as President of the United States during the
1930s towards:

(a) agriculture;

(b) industry.

How successful had his domestic policies been by the end of the 1930s?


14 Describe the circumstances in which Richard Nixon won the US presidency in 1968 and lost it in
1974 as a result of Watergate.

Why did Jimmy Carter win the election of 1976?


15 Show how the position of African-Americans in the United States improved in:

(a) the army in the 1940s;

(b) education in the 1950s;

(c) political power in the 1960s.

Why did the black power movement develop in the 1960s?


16 Either

(a) Describe the steps taken in the 1950s and 1960s by Castro to secure and maintain power in
Cuba.

To what extent was his rule in Cuba (to 1991) beneficial for the Cuban people?

Or

(b) Describe the circumstances in which Juan Peron fell from power in 1955 and returned to
power in 1973 as President of Argentina.

Why were the military so dominant in Argentina in the late 1970s and the 1980s?

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Section D

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

17 With reference to the years 1917-21, describe the circumstances that enabled Lenin to secure
and maintain power in Russia.

Why were the years immediately after his death in 1924 ones of disputed succession to the
leadership of the Soviet Union?


18 Outline the policies pursued by Stalin during the 1930s to secure for the Soviet Union improved
production levels in:

(a) industry;

(b) agriculture.

To what extent did the people of the Soviet Union both suffer under and benefit from his rule in
these years?


19 Describe the events associated with each of the following Soviet cities during the Second World
War:

(a) Leningrad;

(b) Stalingrad;

(c) Kursk.

Why were the Soviet forces able eventually to defeat the Germans and enter Eastern Europe?


20 Describe the attempts to remove Soviet control that occurred in:

(a) Hungary in 1956;

(b) Czechoslovakia in 1968.

Why did both countries have to wait until the late 1980s before securing their independence from
Soviet control?


21 Write an account of the internal history of the Soviet Union from the death of Brezhnev in 1982 to
the fall of Gorbachev in 1991.

How important were events outside the Soviet Union in bringing about its collapse?
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Section E

Africa and the Middle East

22 Describe the circumstances in which each of the following treaties were signed and give the
terms of each:

(a) Svres (1920);

(b) Lausanne (1923).

To what extent did the subsequent rule of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk within Turkey bring about
change in the lives of Turkish people?


23 Describe the history of Palestine from the Balfour Declaration of 1917 to the creation of the state
of Israel in 1948.

Why was the Arab-Israeli War of 1948-49 so important in the history of the Middle East?


24 With reference to the 1950s, describe the events that led to the 1956 invasion of Egypt by the
forces of Israel, Britain and France.

How was the crisis caused by this invasion resolved?


25 Describe the role of each of the following in the history of the former Belgian Congo (later Zaire):

(a) Patrice Lumumba;

(b) Moishe Tshombe;

(c) Joseph Mobutu.

How important in the 1960s was the role of the United Nations and foreign powers in the course
of events in this part of Africa?

26 Describe how, within South Africa, the policy of apartheid:

(a) was developed during the years from 1948;

(b) was later abandoned during the years to 1991.

How important were outside influences on the decision of the South African government to
abandon apartheid?
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Section F

Asia

27 With reference to the years before 1940, give an account of the role in China of:

(a) Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi);

(b) Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong).

Why had Mao triumphed over his opponents in China by 1949?


28 Describe the relationship of Communist China with:

(a) the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s;

(b) the United States in the 1970s and 1980s.

Why was the Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989 important both for the internal development of
China and for Chinas relationship with foreign powers?


29 Give an account of the early victories and later defeats of Japan during the years 1941-45.

How do you explain the revival of Japan during the ten years following the end of the Second
World War?


30 Trace the main features in the history of British rule in India from 1930 to 1945.

Why did events in the years 1945-47 lead the British to give independence to and also partition
their former Indian Empire?


31 Describe the events since the Second World War that led to:

(a) the creation of the Federation of Malaya in 1948;

(b) the creation of Malaysia in 1963;

(c) the secession of Singapore from Malaysia in 1965.

To what extent, during the years 1965-91, have the governments of both Malaysia and Singapore
proved stable?
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BLANK PAGE




















































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University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department
of the University of Cambridge.


UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS



Specimen for 2007



GCE O LEVEL







MARK SCHEME


MAXIMUM MARK: 100



SYLLABUS/COMPONENT: 2158/01

History
(World Affairs, 1917-1991)








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UCLES 2005 2158/01/SP07
Instructions on marking

1 Entering of marks and comments

An individual mark for each of the parts of a question should be entered in the margin, un-ringed,
at the appropriate point. The sum of these marks should be entered in the margin at the end of
the answer and should be ringed.

Where the candidate has answered the parts of a question in close tandem an overall ringed
mark might be entered, based on the mark scheme provisions.

The marking should be annotated with appropriate symbols indicating merit and shortcoming.
Comments on the extent to which the candidate has measured up to the requirements of the
question should be made, as appropriate.

2 Mark allocations: general points

Marking should be positive throughout. Credit should be given for accurate and relevant
narrative/analysis. High, even full marks might be awarded for any part, even though the material
is not entirely complete.

Due credit should be given for an answer which approaches a question in an unexpected but
acceptable way, even though this may not fit the guidance in the mark scheme.

3 Mark allocations: the first (narrative) part

14 marks are available for the first part of each question, in which candidates are expected to
describe or narrate, as required by the questions terms.

Where the first part is further divided into two, a variable 6/8 marks should be applied, as
appropriate, or 7/7.

Where the first part is further divided into three, a variable 5/5/4 marks should be applied, as
appropriate.

4 Mark allocations: the second (analysis) part

6 marks are available for the second part of each question, in which candidates are expected to
analyse or interpret, as required by the questions terms.

Marks in the lower range of 1-3 should be reserved for answers with weakly focused, poorly
balanced and thinly supported material of relevance.

Marks in the higher range of 4-6 should be reserved for answers with sharper focus, better
balance and fuller support and which show relevance throughout. Marks of 5 or 6 might be
awarded within this higher range even though material is not entirely well focused, complete, or
balanced.

5 Rubric infringements

A candidate who offends against the rubric for the paper should have all the answers marked, but
credit allowed only for the best rewarded answers within the confines of the rubric.

A candidate who offends against the rubric for a question (e.g. where a choice is permitted)
should be similarly treated within that question.

The Examiner should make clear by comment and bold crossing through those parts of the
candidates work which should not be allowed credit due to rubric infringement.
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Section A

International Relations and Developments

1 Narrative: A two-fold part, reserving high marks for those who allude to power (e.g. armed
forces, prestige, colonies) as well as to boundary changes.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range there should be reference to the slight regard for
unfavourable plebiscites, and to German speakers in both former empires.

2 Narrative: A two-fold part, with, in (a), an approximately equal attention to each of the two
crises. NB Period limitation in (a). Expect reference to a variety of areas (e.g.
poverty, health, working conditions) and specific League of Nations references for
high marks in (b).

Analysis: For marks in the higher range, expect specific references to League weakness
illustrated by the Manchurian involvement.

3 Narrative: Expect balanced references to events in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland for
high marks, though with a preponderance towards the second of these.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range there should be both competent 1939-40 references,
and also references both to German strengths and their enemies weaknesses.

4 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal division between (a) and (b).

Analysis: For marks in the higher range there should be reasonable balance throughout the
period 1962-69, with at least some reference to SALT (1969).

5 Narrative: Expect reasonably balanced narrative throughout the period, though with perhaps
fuller attention to the US involvement later than to the French involvement earlier.
For marks in the higher range there should be specific references to Vietnam, apart
from those to outside powers.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range there should be reasons emerging from outside as
well as within Vietnam.

6 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal division between each. For high marks
there should be reasonable global references.

Analysis: In this question, with its broad socio-economic basis, permit references to 2000,
though do not penalise those who curtail their material at 1991.

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Section B

Western Europe

7 Narrative: A three-fold part, with approximately equal division between (a), (b) and (c). In each
case, reserve approximately one third of the marks for background.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who effectively measure the extent of
dictatorship rather than merely give instances of it.

8 (a) Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal attention to (i) with its political focus in
the collapse of the Labour government and creation of the National government,
and to (ii) with its socio-economic focus.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who endeavour to measure how
successful rather than merely narrate improvements.

(b) Narrative: Expect an approximately equal balance between policies at home and policies
abroad (where Europe and the Falklands might predominate).

Analysis: For marks in the higher range expect allusion to Margaret Thatchers own
mistakes as well as to the increasing force of opposition.

9 Narrative: Mark out of 14, reserving approximately one third of the marks for description of the
wars outbreak.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who allude purposefully to foreign
intervention as well as to circumstances in Spain that assisted victory.

10 Narrative: Mark out of 14, expecting a reasonable balance over the period and between
different themes, e.g. leaders, constitution, economy, foreign relations.

Analysis: While there might be some revisiting of material in the first part, reserve marks in the
higher range for those who focus specifically on the reasons for success and
stability.

11 Narrative: Mark out of 14, reserving approximately one third of the marks for the provisions of
the treaty.

Analysis: The references can be both to government and individual support and criticism. For
high marks they will need to link to specific policies and approaches.
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Section C

The Americas

12 Narrative: A three-fold part, with approximately equal division between (a), (b) and (c). In (a)
permit references to the reasons in 1917 for the entry. In (b) do not expect a
reproduction of all fourteen points, but rather a well pointed reference to the political
significance of them.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range expect reference both to what for many was the
unacceptable scope of Wilsons ambitions in foreign affairs, as well as to the tactics
of his opponents.

13 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal attention to both. The alphabet agencies
can be expected to figure quite fully, but reserve high marks for those who show a
genuine understanding of their purpose and provisions.

Analysis: While there might be some revisiting of earlier material, reserve marks in the higher
range for those who make specific reference to the degree of success, possibly
measured in part by comparison with the early 1930s.

14 Narrative: Mark out of 14, reserving approximately one third of the marks for 1968 references.
Watergate can cover the two years that preceded Richard Nixons loss of office in 1974.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range expect references to Fords failure to recoup the
political situation after Watergate as well as the new, more modest style offered by
Carter.

15 Narrative: A three-fold part, with approximately equal balance between (a), (b) and (c). NB
Time restrictions for each part.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who pinpoint the aims of black power
as well as alluding to the slower progress made by the followers of King.

16 (a) Narrative: A two-fold part, balanced approximately equally between Castros securing of
power (to 1959) and his maintaining of power in the 1960s.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who make an effective
measurement of the extent. Specific post-1991 material should not receive
credit.

(b) Narrative: A two-fold part, balanced approximately equally between Perons fall from power
in 1955 and his return in 1973.

Analysis: While Galtieri may be expected to figure quite prominently here, expect broader
references from the 1970s and 1980s for marks in the higher range.
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Section D

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

17 Narrative: For high marks there should be an effective balance throughout the years 1917-21,
the best starting point being the return of Lenin after the February revolution.

Analysis: Reserve high marks for those who focus knowledgeably on the politics for the
leadership in the late 1920s, concluding with Stalins triumph.

18 Narrative: A two-fold part balanced approximately equally between (a) and (b). NB Restriction
to the 1930s.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range there should be positive references to both suffer
and benefit, not necessarily linked to the industry and agriculture of the 1930s
(though they are not to be excluded).

19 Narrative: A three-fold part, with possibly less on (c) than on (a) and (b).

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who effectively balance Soviet advance
with German weakness in the wars closing stages.

20 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal attention to (a) and (b).

Analysis: The focus will need to be on the late 1980s throughout, reserving marks in the
higher range for those who balance movements in Hungary and Czechoslovakia
with the declining power of the Soviet Union.

21 Narrative: Mark out of 14, though permit the bulk of the answer to focus on Gorbachev. NB
Limitation to internal affairs.

Analysis: While the bulk of the answer should rest with forces outside the Soviet Union,
reserve marks in the higher range for those who indicate the importance by suitable
balance with internal events.
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Section E

Africa and the Middle East

22 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal balance between (a) and (b) and with
balance within each between circumstances and terms.

Analysis: While the basis of the answer can be expected to lie in the reforms of Ataturk, for
marks in the higher range there should be specific reference to extent.

23 Narrative: Expect a reasonably balanced survey of the years 1917-48, though with probably
fuller attention earlier and later than to the middle of the period.

Analysis: While the events of the war might be introduced with relevance here, reserve marks
in the higher range for those who purposefully indicate importance by considering
its immediate implications.

24 Narrative: Mark out of 14. After some relevant background, the events of 1954-56 can be
expected to figure prominently. There is no need for balance between the three
named countries, but there should be allusion to all of them.

Analysis: While the bulk of the answer lies in resolution in 1956 itself (great power concern,
UN action), permit later references on the mode of solution, if presented with
relevance.

25 Narrative: A three-fold part. For those who narrate the events of the Congo 1960-65, reserve
at least 4 marks for specific references to each of the named individuals.

Analysis: While there may be some revisiting of earlier material, reserve marks in the higher
range for those who focus knowledgeably on UNOs role in the Congo in the 1960s,
both earlier and later.

26 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal attention to (a) and (b). NB Limitation to
internal events in South Africa.

Analysis: For marks in the higher range there should be a width of approach here, with
reference both to long term outside opposition, as well as to the more specific
aspects of opposition in the late 1980s.
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Section F

Asia

27 Narrative: A two-fold part, with approximately equal attention to (a) and (b). For those who
intermingle the two leaders in a narrative, reserve approximately half the marks for
each.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who focus specifically on the reasons
for the triumph of Mao, with reference to his bases of support as well as to his
political and military tactics.

28 Narrative: A two-fold part, approximately balanced between (a) and (b) and within each
between each decade.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who focus appropriately on both
internal and external factors surrounding the massacre.

29 Narrative: Mark out of 14 for the period 1941-45, expecting an approximate division between
the early victories and the later defeats.

Analysis: Reserve marks in the higher range for those who focus on both internal and external
factors that help explain the revival. NB Limitation to 1945-55 period.

30 Narrative: Mark out of 14, expecting a generally balanced approach throughout the fifteen
years. The expected starting point is the publication of the Simon Commission
report.

Analysis: While there will be reference to events of 1945-47, reserve marks in the higher
range for those who angle their material appropriately on reasons emerging from
them, and consider events both in India and Britain, and possibly elsewhere.

31 Narrative: A three-fold part, with approximately equal division between (a), (b) and (c).

Analysis: While stability is the dominant impression, reserve marks in the higher range for
those who do indicate the opposite, e.g. conflict with Chinese, suspension of
parliamentary government in 1971.