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SPA (SM/DR) S98439/1


UCLES 2005 [Turn over
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS
General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level
GEOGRAPHY 2217/01
Paper 1
October/November 2005
1 hour 45 minutes
Additional Materials: Answer Booklet/Paper
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen on both sides of the paper.
You may use a soft pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer three questions, one from each section.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.
Sketch maps and diagrams should be drawn whenever they serve to illustrate an answer.
The insert contains Photograph A for Question 4 and Figures 10A and 10B for Question 6.
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Section A
Answer one question from this section.
1 (a) Study Figs 1A and 1B, which show information about HIV/AIDS in southern Africa.
Fig. 1A
Fig. 1B
1995
2000
2005
2010
projected
Orphans as a result of HIV/AIDS
(as a percentage of all children under 15 years)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
%

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f

c
h
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l
d
r
e
n

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n
d
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r

1
5

y
e
a
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S
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A
f
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i
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a
S
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a
z
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a
n
d
N
a
m
i
b
i
a
B
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s
w
a
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a
Z
i
m
b
a
b
w
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L
e
s
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t
h
o
Z
a
m
b
i
a
T
a
n
z
a
n
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a
M
a
l
a
w
i
M
o
z
a
m
b
i
q
u
e
0 400 800
km
1200 1600
BOTSWANA
ZIMBABWE
MOZAMBI QUE
NAMIBIA
SOUTH AFRICA
TANZANIA
ZAMBIA
MOZAMBI QUE
NAMIBIA
SOUTH AFRICA
TANZANIA
BOTSWANA
ZAMBIA
SWAZILAND
LESOTHO
MALAWI
ZIMBABWE
N
Key:
Adult rate of
HIV/AIDS infection
less than 10%
10.1 to 15%
15.1 to 20%
20.1 to 25%
over 25%
UCLES 2005
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(i) Use Fig. 1A to name one country where over 25% of the adult population are infected
with HIV/AIDS. [1]
(ii) Use the information in Fig. 1B to:
A. state the percentage of children who will be orphans as a result of HIV/AIDS in
Lesotho in 2010,
B. name a country where the expected percentage of orphans will be decreasing by
2010. [2]
(iii) Using only information from Figs 1A and 1B, compare the impacts of HIV/AIDS in
Botswana and Tanzania. [3]
(iv) Suggest the likely impacts of HIV/AIDS on the economies of those countries where rates
of infection are high. [4]
(b) Study Fig. 2 which shows the predicted population pyramid for Botswana in 2020.
The overall shape shows what the pyramid would be like if there was no threat from
HIV/AIDS. The white pyramid shows what is likely to happen as a result of HIV/AIDS.
Fig. 2
Describe the likely impacts of HIV/AIDS on the size and structure of Botswanas population.
[3]
(c) Describe the different ways by which the dependent population is supported in developed and
developing countries. [5]
(d) What strategies are being used to try to reduce the spread of disease in developing
countries? You may refer to examples which you have studied. [7]
population (thousands)
age
8185
7680
7175
6670
6165
5660
5155
4650
4145
3640
3135
2630
2125
1620
1115
610
05
females males
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
old dependent
economically
active
young
dependent
with HIV/AIDS
without HIV/AIDS
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2 (a) Study Figs 3A and 3B which show information about the percentage of people living in urban
settlements in different parts of the world.
Fig. 3A
Fig. 3B
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
year
%

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p
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p
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l
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g

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n

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b
a
n

s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
developed
countries
developing
countries
projected
figures

Key:
0 19.9
20 39.9
40 59.9
60 79.9
80 100
N
Percentage of population in urban settlements, 2000
UCLES 2005
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(i) What is an urban settlement ? [1]
(ii) Using only information from Fig. 3A name:
A. a country where over 80% of the population lives in urban settlements,
B. a continent in which most countries have between 20% and 59.9% of their population
living in urban settlements. [2]
(iii) Using only information from Fig. 3B, compare the changes in the growth rates of the
urban population in developed and developing countries. [3]
(iv) Suggest reasons for the different growth rates of the urban population in developed and
developing countries. [4]
(b) Study Fig. 4, a map of part of the urban settlement of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Fig. 4
(i) Give three pieces of map evidence which suggest that this area is part of a squatter
settlement and not occupied by high cost housing. [3]
(ii) Suggest why many people living in rural areas in developing countries made the decision
to migrate to urban settlements such as Dhaka. [5]
(c) Describe what has been done to improve the quality of life in squatter settlements in developing
countries. You may refer to examples which you have studied to illustrate your answer. [7]
metres
0 20 40 60
N
Key:
tarred road
unmade road (mud)
area of self built houses
shops
brick/concrete houses
water standpipe
open drain
marshy land
vacant land
industrial land
small business
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Section B
Answer one question from this section.
3 (a) Study Fig. 5 which is a sketch of Mount Etna during a volcanic eruption in 1983.
Fig. 5
(i) Mount Etna is an active volcano. What does this mean? [1]
(ii) Identify the main hazard from the volcanic eruption which threatened:
A. Rocca and Ragalna,
B. Nicolosi. [2]
(iii) Describe the possible impacts of the volcanic activity shown by Fig. 5 on the people who
lived close to Mount Etna. [3]
(iv) Describe what can be done to protect people from volcanic eruptions. [4]
(b) Study Figs 6A and 6B (opposite) which show information about the eruptions of Mount Etna.
(i) Use evidence from Fig. 6A only to compare the lava flows of 1923 and 1983. [3]
(ii) Explain how volcanoes are formed at destructive plate boundaries such as the one
shown in Fig. 6B. You may use a labelled diagram in your answer. [5]
(c) Many people live close to the volcanoes which are shown in Fig. 6B.
Explain why people choose to live close to active volcanoes.
You may refer to examples which you have studied. [7]
Ash cloud
from main
crater
Ash fall
from
volcano
cloud
Diversion
canal
Re-directed
lava flow
Biancavilla
Ragalna
Rocca
Nicolosi
Active
crater
Present
lava flow
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Fig. 6A
Fig. 6B
E U R A S I A N
P
L
A
T
E
A F R I C A N
P
L
A
T
E
Me d i t e r r a n e a n
Se a
I TALY
Vesuvius
Stromboli
Vulcano
Etna
0 100
km
Key:
Volcano
Destructive plate
bondary
Direction of plate
movement
1290
3340
1098
2153 2153
1
9
2
3
1
9
8
3
V
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l
l
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d
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B
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N
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P
a
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k
B
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d
a
ry
I o n i a n
Se a
N
0
0
5 km
3 miles
1
9
2
3
2153
lava flow
and date
direction of
recent lava flows
minor craters
spot heights
(metres)
Key:
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4 (a) Study Fig. 7 which shows the drainage basin of a river.
Fig. 7
(i) What is the average annual precipitation at point X? [1]
(ii) What is meant by the terms:
A. drainage basin,
B. watershed? [2]
(iii) Describe and suggest reasons for the likely differences in discharge of the river at points
X and Y. [3]
(iv) What natural feature is shown at W? Explain how this feature may have been formed. [4]
Y
X
W
2000mm
2000mm
1800mm
1800mm
1600mm
1600mm
1400mm
1400mm
1200mm
1200mm
Key:
1000mm
river/stream
watershed
sea
isohyet (line joining
places of equal average
annual precipitation)
0 50 100 150
km
UCLES 2005
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(b) Study Photograph A (Insert) which shows an upland river and its valley.
(i) Describe the main features of the river and valley which are shown in Photograph A. [3]
(ii) Explain how natural processes of weathering and erosion shape river valleys such as the
one shown in Photograph A. You may use labelled diagrams in your answer. [5]
(c) Many people live and work on the flood plains of major rivers.
Describe the advantages and difficulties for people of living on the flood plain of a river.
You may refer to examples which you have studied. [7]
UCLES 2005
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Section C
Answer one question from this section.
5 (a) Study Fig. 8 which shows the distribution of industrial areas in Brussels, the capital city of
Belgium.
Fig. 8
(i) Using evidence only from Fig. 8, give one reason for the location of the traditional
industries. [1]
(ii) Which science park is located:
A. next to an area of traditional industry,
B. 5 km NE of the city centre? [2]
0 5
km
N
O
u
te
r
R
in
g
R
o
a
d
A10
E
4
0
A
7
E
1
9
A
4
E
4
1
1
O
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R
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R
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A3 E40
A
2
01
A
1
E
1
9
C
a
n
a
l
C
a
n
a
l
A
1
2
NEDER-OVER
HEEMBEEK
EVERE-
BRUSSELS
ST. LAMBRECHTS-
WOLUWE
MIJLEMEERSCH
Z
Y
X
Rotterdam
Antwerp
Cologne
Luxembourg
Brussels
National
Airport
Paris
Key:
City Centre
EU headquaters
Embassies, departments
and head offices
Zone of traditional
industries
City boundary
Canal
Major routeways
(motorways/autoroutes)
Other main roads
Science parks
University
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(iii) Study Table 1 which shows the different locations in Brussels which a firm making
electrical components has occupied in recent years. These are labelled on Fig. 8 as X, Y
and Z.
Table 1
Suggest three reasons why the firm moved from location X to location Y in 1987. [3]
(iv) Using information from Fig. 8 and Table 1, suggest reasons for the location and
development of science parks in Brussels. [4]
Question 5 continues on page 12
Date Place Area Employees Work area Land value per m
2
1979
1987
2000
X
Y
Z
140m
2
325m
2
65000m
2
13
70
600+
Room above
garage
Very expensive
Expensive
Less expensive
Old existing
building
Purpose built
building in a science
park alongside a
motorway
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(b) Study Fig. 9 which shows where major manufacturers assemble cars in Eastern Europe.
Fig. 9
(i) Suggest reasons why some of the worlds major manufacturers have located car
assembly plants in Eastern Europe. [3]
(ii) Explain why the building of new car assembly plants would be welcomed in countries
such as these. [5]
(c) Describe and explain the factors which encourage the development of craft industries. You
may refer to examples which you have studied. [7]
Poland
Warsaw
FSO/Daewoo
Lublin
Daewoo
Bielsko Biala
Fiat
Tychy
Fiat
Slovakia
Bratislava
Skoda/Volkswagen
Bulgaria
Varna
Rover
Romania
Craiova
Daewoo
Pitesti
Dacia
Czech Republic
Mlada Boleslav
Skoda/Volkswagen
Slovenia
Novo Mesto
Renault
Hungary
Szentgotthard
GM
Esztergom
Suzuki
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6 (a) Study Figs 10A and 10B (Insert) which show the Kaiparowits Plateau area in the state of
Utah, USA in 1960 and 2000.
(i) Use Fig. 10A to state which of the following occupied most land in 1960.
residential areas
wilderness areas
farmland
roads and railways [1]
(ii) Use Fig. 10B to identify the names of:
A. the National Forest north of Henrieville,
B. the wilderness area immediately to the east of the Paria River. [2]
(iii) Use the information in Figs 10A and 10B to identify three changes which took place in
the Kaiparowits Plateau area between 1960 and 2000. [3]
(iv) Suggest reasons why the Kaiparowits Plateau area is attractive to tourists. [4]
(b) Study Fig. 11 which describes a proposal to mine coal in part of the Kaiparowits Plateau.
Fig. 11
(i) What arguments are likely to be used by Andalex that the proposal should be allowed to
go ahead? [3]
(ii) Explain why many people will think that the development should not go ahead. [5]
(c) Areas at risk from economic development need careful management.
Choose one of the following economic activities.
tourism
agriculture
manufacturing industry
Name an area which you have studied where the environment is at risk from the activity
which you have chosen. Describe the attempts which have been made to maintain, conserve
or improve the quality of the environment of your chosen area. [7]
UCLES 2005
Andalex, a Dutch coal-mining company, wants to develop part of the
Kaiparowits Plateau. Here it is estimated there may be up to 7 billion tonnes of
low-sulphur coal lying close to the surface. The details of the proposal are:
to mine 3 million tonnes per year in opencast mines.
to transport the coal 320km in 42-wheel trucks to the railway at Iron
Springs.
to transport the coal by train from the nearest railway at Iron Springs to the
port of Los Angeles for export to Japan, Korea and Taiwan.
to build a new 35km highway and electricity lines across the Kaiparowits
Plateau.
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Copyright Acknowledgements:
Question 1 Graphs Philip Allen Publishers, Geography Review, Jan 2003.
Question 2 The Geographical Association, 2000.
Question 2 Fig. 3a The Geographical Association, 2000, Geography Magazine Millenium Special.
Question 3 Philip Allen (2003), Geography Review.
Question 3 Fig. 5 Natural Systems and Human Responses, R Prosser. Published by Thomas Nelson & Sons Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Question 5 Fig. 9 Heinemann Educational (2002). Geography Matters Book 3: Teachers Resource Pack.
Question 6 Philip Allen (1997), Geographical Review.
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