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Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge Ordinary Level

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GEOGRAPHY Paper 1 Geographical Themes SPECIMEN PAPER

2217/01
For Examination from 2016 1 hour 45 minutes

Candidates answer on the Question Paper. Additional Materials: Calculator Ruler

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name in the spaces at the top of this page. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid. DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES Write your answer to each question in the space provided. If additional space is required, you should use the lined pages at the end of this booklet. The question number(s) must be clearly shown. Answer three questions, each from a different section. The Insert contains Photographs A, B and C for Question 2, Photograph D for Question 3 and Figs 8A and 8B for Question 5. Sketch maps and diagrams should be drawn whenever they serve to illustrate an answer. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 30 printed pages and 1 Insert.


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2 Section A Answer one question from this section.

(a) Study Fig. 1, which shows population density in Mali (a country at a lower level of development in Africa).
10 W 0 km 500 0 N

ALGERIA

20 N
100mm

MAURITANIA

MALI Timbuktu

400mm
15 N Nioro du Sahel

Mopti NIGER
R

Sgou San Kita Koulikoro Bamako Bia

iver

BURKINA FASO

ig e
r

1000m
10 N SIERRA LEONE

Sigasso BENIN GUINEA IVORY COAST GHANA TOGO

NIGERIA

LIBERIA Key 100mm

annual precipitation fewer than 1 1.0 to 2 2.1 to 10 more than 10 Location of Mali

Population density (people per km2):

Fig. 1
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3 (i) Which part of Mali has the lowest population density? [1] (ii) Describe two features of the location of areas where population density is over 10 people per square kilometre. 1

2 [2] (iii) Suggest reasons why the population of Mali is unevenly distributed.

[3]

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4 (b) Study Fig. 2, which shows population statistics for Mali between 2000 and 2005. year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 birth rate 49.23 48.79 48.37 47.79 47.29 46.77 death rate 19.10 18.71 18.32 19.21 19.12 19.05 Fig. 2 (i) Calculate the population growth of Mali in 2005. You must show how you worked out your answer. net migration 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.33 life expectancy 46.66 47.02 47.39 45.43 45.28 45.09

[3] (ii) Explain why birth rates are still high in countries at a lower level of development such as Mali.

[4]

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5 (iii) Describe and suggest reasons for the changes in life expectancy in Mali between 2000 and 2005.

[5]

(c) Choose any example of international migration which you have studied and name the countries between which people moved. Explain why many people made the decision to migrate. You should refer both to pull and to push factors. International migration chosen from to

[7] [Total: 25 marks]


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6 2 (a) Study Fig. 3, which shows the location of the CBD and two modern shopping centres in Sheffield, a city in the UK.
A61

ROTHERHAM
A6135

1 33
M1
M1 8

34

A57
SHEFFIELD
A6 25

30 A6
A5 7

2 M1
1

A6 21

0 km

A6

A6

13

30 Key motorway 31 motorway junction river Modern shopping centres: 1 2 Meadowhall Crystal Peaks
Fig. 3 (i) What is meant by the initials CBD? [1] (ii) Meadowhall and Crystal Peaks are modern shopping centres. Identify one similarity and one difference between their locations.

A road urban area CBD

A6 30

on rD ve Ri 2 10 A6

32

31

[2]

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7 (iii) Use evidence from Fig. 3 to suggest reasons for the location of Crystal Peaks shopping centre.

[3]

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8 (b) Study Fig. 4, which shows a hierarchy of settlements and services, and Photographs A, B and C (Insert).

LARGE

Cities

Large railway station Indoor shopping centre Theatres Museums Large sports stadium Department stores Specialist shops University Hospital Supermarkets Bus station Banks Travel agents Leisure centre Secondary school Doctors surgery General store/Post office Church Primary school

HIGH ORDER

SPHERE OF INFLUENCE

Towns

MIDDLE ORDER LOW ORDER SMALL

Villages

Fig. 4 (i) Photographs A, B and C (Insert) were taken in three different types of settlement. For each photograph, state whether it was taken in a city, a town or a village, judging by the services shown. A

C [3]

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9 (ii) Use the information in Fig. 4 to explain what is meant by hierarchy of settlements and services.

[4] (iii) Explain why people travel further for some shops and services than for others.

[5]

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10 (c) The building of new housing, roads and services often results in urban sprawl. Name an example of a town or city which you have studied where urban sprawl has taken place. Describe its effects on people and the natural environment. Name of town or city

[7] [Total: 25 marks]

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11

TURN OVER FOR QUESTION 3

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12 Section B Answer one question from this section. 3 (a) Study Fig. 5A, which shows the location of the Mojave Desert, along with Fig. 5B, a graph showing its climate.

NEVADA UTAH CALIFORNIA Mojave Desert

ARIZONA Pacific Ocean

0 km Fig. 5A

250

Canada

USA Area shown by Fig. 5A Mexico

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13
40 30 20 10 40 35 30
precipitation (mm) temperature (C)

25 20 15 10 5 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D

months

Fig. 5B (i) Estimate the total annual precipitation in the Mojave Desert. [1] (ii) What is the annual temperature range in the Mojave Desert? You must show how you worked out your answer. [2]

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14 (iii) Describe the location of the Mojave Desert.

[3] (iv) Explain why tropical desert areas, such as the Mojave Desert, are hot and dry. You may use labelled diagrams or sketch maps in your answer.

[4]

(b) Study Photograph D (Insert), which shows vegetation in part of the Mojave Desert. (i) Describe the main features of the vegetation shown in Photograph D.

[3]

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15 (ii) Explain the effects of climate on the natural vegetation in tropical desert areas.

[5]

(c) Many areas of natural vegetation are at risk from deforestation. Name an area of tropical rainforest which you have studied and explain the causes and effects of deforestation. Name of area of tropical rainforest

[7] [Total: 25 marks]


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16 4 (a) Study Fig. 6, a map showing the drainage basin of the River Lee in the south of the UK.

Luton

Y
R. LE E

Stevenage

Hatfield
R. R I B

R. BE

Welwyn Garden City

E AN

Hertford Hoddesdon Cheshunt


E LE . R

Ware

S R. A

R. S TO R

Bishops Stortford
T

Sawbridgeworth Harlow

Enfield

Waltham Abbey

Greater London

Epping

Key rivers

X
0 15 km 30

built up areas watershed

Fig. 6

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17 (i) Name a tributary of the River Lee. [1] (ii) Give two reasons why the amount of water in the river is greater at X than Y. 1

2 [2] (iii) Suggest three likely differences between the shape of the river valley at X and at Y. 1

3 [3] (iv) Explain how the River Lee might bring both benefits and problems for people who live in Hertford.

[4]

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18 (b) Study Fig. 7, a diagram showing a waterfall and gorge.


direction of flow river former position of waterfall boulders from rockfall

hard rock (limestone)

soft rock

original plunge pool

debris washed downstream

Fig. 7 (i) The river is eroding by hydraulic action, corrasion (abrasion) and corrosion. Define each of these terms. Hydraulic action

Corrasion (abrasion)

Corrosion

[3]

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19 (ii) Explain how the waterfall and gorge shown in Fig. 7 have been formed.

[5]

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20 (c) Explain how an oxbow lake is formed. You should include fully labelled diagram(s).

[7] [Total: 25 marks]


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21 Section C Answer one question from this section.

(a) Study Fig. 8A (Insert), which shows information about the physical geography of New Zealand, along with Fig. 8B (Insert), which shows information about pastoral farming in New Zealand. (i) What is meant by pastoral farming? [1] (ii) Using Fig. 8B (Insert), identify a region: A where more dairy cattle are kept per square kilometre than beef cattle; [1] B which is one of the most important sheep farming regions in New Zealand. [1] (iii) Use evidence from Fig. 8B (Insert) to identify differences in farming between Taranaki and Hawkes Bay.

[3] (iv) Suggest reasons why more cattle are kept on North Island than on South Island.

[4]
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22 (b) Study Fig. 9, which shows the location of meat processing factories in New Zealand.

Key main cities Meat processing factories sheep (lamb) cattle (beef) Auckland

Napier

Wellington

Christchurch

Dunedin Invercargill 0 km
Fig. 9 (i) Describe the distribution of meat processing factories in New Zealand.

250

[3]

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23 (ii) Suggest reasons for the distribution of meat processing factories in New Zealand.

[5]

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24 (c) Economic development may cause problems for the natural environment. For an area you have studied explain how the environment is at risk from economic development. Name of area

[7] [Total: 25 marks]

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25

TURN OVER FOR QUESTION 6

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26 6 (a) Study Fig. 10, a scatter graph which shows the relationship between GDP and the percentage of population with access to safe water in ten countries. GDP is an indicator of the wealth of a country.

20 000 19 000 18 000 17 000 16 000 15 000 14 000 13 000 12 000 11 000 GDP per capita (US$) 10 000 9000 8000 7000 China 6000 5000 4000 3000 Bolivia 2000 1000 Ethiopia 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Guatemala Morocco Romania Thailand Argentina Malaysia Portugal

population with access to safe water (%)


Fig. 10
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27 (i) Which country has a GDP per capita of US$8 200 and 62% of its population has access to safe water? [1] (ii) What is the general relationship shown by Fig. 10 between GDP per capita and the percentage of population with access to safe water? Use examples and figures to illustrate your answer.

[2] (iii) Suggest three reasons why there is better access to reliable supplies of safe water in some countries than there is in others. 1

3 [3] (iv) Explain how providing reliable supplies of clean water in countries at lower levels of development improves the quality of life of the people.

[4]

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28 (b) Study Fig. 11, which is an article from a website about drought in Portugal. Portugal is a country at a high level of development in Europe. Drought threatens water supply for 10 percent of Portuguese Portugal is suffering its worst drought in decades. The country received an average of 542 millimetres of precipitation in 2004, compared with an average annual precipitation of 930 millimetres between 1961 and 1990. The dry weather, which has harmed crops and caused livestock to starve, continued into 2005, with the country experiencing precipitation levels which were less than 20% of normal levels in January. The regions most at risk are those in the centre and south of the country, which rely mostly on wells instead of dams for their water. In January the Environment Minister threatened to ration water in the southern province of Algarve, if the region did not receive enough rain by the end of the year. Tourism industry officials had condemned talk of water rationing, arguing it could frighten visitors away from the Algarve, the nations main tourist centre. Environmentalists estimate Portugal wastes some three billion litres of water each year. Fig. 11 (i) Use evidence from Fig. 11 to suggest three reasons why people are short of water in some regions of Portugal. 1

3 [3]

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29 (ii) Describe methods which could be used to reduce water shortages.

[5]

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30 (c) Name an area which you have studied where the tourist industry is important. Explain why the tourist industry has grown up in the area. You should refer in detail to the areas physical and human attractions. Name of area

[7]

[Total: 25 marks]

Copyright Acknowledgements Question 2 Photograph A Question 2 Photograph B Question 2 Photograph C Question 3 Photograph D Question 6 S. Sibley UCLES S. Sibley UCLES S. Sibley UCLES S. Sibley UCLES Fig. 11 www.terradaily.com 7 September 2006

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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