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- HEAT TRANFER LECTURE NOTES
- Bbbbbbbbbb
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Conditions for the flowing liquid

Tref = 0

o

C

Steady state solution

Heat transfer resistance at the tube-bath interface is minimal

Copper wall resistance can be ignored

= 1 kcal/kg

0

C

R = 0.01 m

= 1 m/s

= 10

3

kg/m

3

= 0.001 kg/m.s

k = 1.43. 10

-4

kcal/s.m.K

h = 0.980968

z

T = 22

0

C T = 20.5

0

C

()

= 20

0

C

(+ )

z + z

L?

PROBLEM 1.2. Heat Transfer in Spherical Boiling Egg

An egg at room temperature (20

o

C ) is submerged in boiling water at t = 0. We assume that

the egg is perfectly spherical with radius R, that flow does not play a role in this problem, that

the water temperature remains constant at 100

o

C , and that the egg has homogeneous medium

properties.

a) Give the equation that governs the non-stationary temperature distribution inside the egg.

Argue which terms can be neglected. Specify the initial conditions and the boundary

conditions.

b) Rewrite the equations into dimensionless form.

Note : Assume if u need to.

PROBLEM 1.3. Laminar flow in a narrow slit (see Fig. below).

Flow through a slit, with B << W << L.

A Newtonian fluid is in laminar flow in a narrow slit formed by two parallel walls a distance

2B apart. It is understood that B << W, so that "edge effects" are unimportant. Make a

differential momentum balance, and obtain the following expressions for the momentum-flux

and velocity distribution

SIMPLE PROBLEM

1. The waste acid from a nitrating process contains 15 percent HN03, 45 percent H2S04, and

40 percent H2O by weight. This acid must be concentrated to 25 percent HN03, 50 percent

H2S04, and 25 percent H2O. Available are concentrated solutions of acid in water, one of

95 percent H2S04 and the other of 85 percent HNO3. If 1500 kg of final product is

required, find the mass of each concentrated solution to be added.

2. Two parallel plates are 10 cm apart. The bottom plate is stationary. The fluid between the

plates is water which has a viscosity of 1 centipoise. Calculate the momentum flux and

force per unit area necessary to maintain a plate in motion at a velocity of 30 cm s

-1

.

3. A glass rod of diameter 1.3 mm is 1 m long. One end is maintained at the normal boiling

point of toluene, 110.6C. The other end is affixed to a block of ice. The thermal

conduction along the rod is at steady-state. The heat of fusion of ice is 79.7calg

-1

. The

thermal conductivity of glass in SI units is 0.86 W m

-1

K

-1

Assume no heat is lost from

the exposed surface of the rod. Find:

(a) the amount of heat transferred in joules per second;

(b) the number of grams of ice that melt in 30 minutes.

4. In the concentration of orange juice a fresh extracted and strained juice containing 7.08 wt

% solids is fed to a vacuum evaporator. In the evaporator, water is removed and the solids

content increased to 58 wt % solids. For 1000 kg/h entering, calculate the amounts of the

outlet streams of concentrated juice and water.

5. A fuel gas containing 3,1 % H2, 27,2 %CO, 5,6 %CO2, 0,5 %O2, and 63,6 % N2 is

burned with 20 % excess air. The combustion of CO is only 98 % complete. For 100 kg

mol of fuel gas, calculate the moles of each component in the exit gas.

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