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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO GSM INTERFACES

CHAPTER 2 GSM AIR INTERFACE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3 GSM AIR INTERFACE PROTOCOL

CHAPTER 4 COMMON BEARER [2MBIT/S LINKS]

CHAPTER 5 BTSBSC INTERFACE (ABIS)

CHAPTER 6 BSCMSC INTERFACE (A-INTERFACE)

CHAPTER 7 BSSOMCR INTERFACE (OML)

CHAPTER 8 SMS CELL BROADCAST LINK

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

ANSWERS

GSM System Interfaces

SYS01 GSR5

Issue 12 Rev 0 Training Manual

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

GSM System Interfaces

Course

SYS01 GSR5

Issue 12 Rev 0 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

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Training Manual Issue 12 Rev 0 Course Training Manual

GSM System Interfaces

Issue 12 Rev 0

SYS01 GSR5 GSM System Interfaces

E Motorola 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 All Rights Reserved Printed in the U.K.

EMOTOROLA LTD. 2001

SYS01 GSR5: GSM System Interfaces FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

Issue 12 Rev 0

Copyrights, notices and trademarks


Copyrights
The Motorola products described in this document may include copyrighted Motorola computer programs stored in semiconductor memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other countries preserve for Motorola certain exclusive rights for copyright computer programs, including the exclusive right to copy or reproduce in any form the copyright computer program. Accordingly, any copyright Motorola computer programs contained in the Motorola products described in this document may not be copied or reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of Motorola. Furthermore, the purchase of Motorola products shall not be deemed to grant either directly or by implication, estoppel or otherwise, any license under the copyrights, patents or patent applications of Motorola, except for the rights that arise by operation of law in the sale of a product.

Restrictions
The software described in this document is the property of Motorola. It is furnished under a license agreement and may be used and/or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. Software and documentation are copyright materials. Making unauthorized copies is prohibited by law. No part of the software or documentation may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of Motorola.

Accuracy
While reasonable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy of this document, Motorola assumes no liability resulting from any inaccuracies or omissions in this document, or from the use of the information obtained herein. Motorola reserves the right to make changes to any products described herein to improve reliability, function, or design, and reserves the right to revise this document and to make changes from time to time in content hereof with no obligation to notify any person of revisions or changes. Motorola does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein; neither does it convey license under its patent rights of others.

Trademarks

and MOTOROLA are registered trademarks of Motorola Inc. Aspira, Intelligence Everywhere, M-Cell and Taskfinder are trademarks of Motorola Inc. All other brands and corporate names are trademarks of their respective owners.

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EMOTOROLA LTD. 2001

Issue 12 Rev 0

General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Important notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First aid in case of electric shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 1 2 2 3

Chapter 1 Introduction to GSM Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction to GSM Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM System Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terrestrial Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Layer Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


GSM Air Interface Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Air Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing Advance and Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping Logical Channels onto the TDMA Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiframes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 26-frame Traffic Channel Multiframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe BCCH/CCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Control Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiframes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe BCCH/CCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Dedicated Control Channel Multiframe SDCCH and SACCH . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe Combined Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMS Cell Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Background Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Issue 12 Rev 0

Chapter 3 GSM Air Interface Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


GSM Air-interface Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS BTS Interface (Um or Air-interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 1 (SACCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unacknowledged Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledged Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Service Access Point Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Type of Control Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Format Peer-to-Peer Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Address Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAPI Service Access Point Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LPD Link Protocol Discriminator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Field Frame Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P/F Poll/Final bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S Supervisory Function Bit(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U Unnumbered Function Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Length Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of System Parameters (LAPDm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Resource Management Sub-layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobility Management Sub-layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection Management Sub-layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 3 Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol Discriminator/Skip Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skip Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transaction Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Originating Call Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Terminating Call Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Updating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Flow Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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31 31 32 34 310 312 314 314 314 316 316 318 320 320 324 324 326 326 328 328 330 332 336 338 340 340 342 344 346 348 350 350 352 354 356 358 360 362 364 366 368

Chapter 4 Common Bearer [2 Mbit/s Links] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Common Bearer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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EMOTOROLA LTD. 2001

Issue 12 Rev 0

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Links Common Channel Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Density Bipolar 3 (HDB3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rx Buffer/Slip Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slip Loss Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Alignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sync Loss Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sync Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GCLK Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Loss Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bit Error Rate (BER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BER Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BER Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cyclic Redundancy Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Database Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42 44 46 46 48 410 410 412 412 414 414 414 416 422 422 424 424 424 426 426 426 428

Chapter 5 BTS BSC Interface (A-bis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BTS BSC Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC BTS Interface (A-bis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-bis Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola A-bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Division between BSC and BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTP L3/SCCP Preselector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connectionless Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP State Machine (SSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Switch Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Resource Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Resource State Machine (RRSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola/GSM A-bis Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM A-bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola A-bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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51 51 52 52 54 56 58 58 58 58 58 58 510 510 510 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 514 516 516 516
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Interface Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSI Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Links Logical Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Signalling Link (RSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transparent Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 Management Link (L2ML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Address Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEI Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unnumbered Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended (SABME) Command . . . . . . . . . . . Disconnect (DISC) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unnumbered Information (UI) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unnumbered Acknowledgment (UA) Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timer T203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervisory Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 3 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Layer 2/Layer 3 Message Example (A-bis Defined) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encryption Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Discriminator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Originated Connection Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic Assignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic Assignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request Queued T11 Expiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Successful Intra-BTS Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Successful Inter-BSC Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

518 520 522 522 522 522 524 524 526 526 528 528 528 530 532 534 534 534 534 534 536 536 536 538 540 540 542 544 544 546 548 550 552 554 556 556 558 558 560 560 562

Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BSC to BTS Interface Message Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part A Message Types as Defined and Implemented by Motorola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC to BTS Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS to BSC Messages as Defined and Implemented by Motorola . . . . . . . . . . .
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Part B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1) Message Elements defined by GSM 08.08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2) Message Elements defined by GSM 08.58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3) Message Elements defined by GSM 04.08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4) Message Elements defined by GSM 04.08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5) Message Elements defined by Motorola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5vii 5vii 5vii 5ix 5x 5xi 5xii

Appendix B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BSC to BTS Interface (A-bis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 6 BSCMSC Interface (A-interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BSCMSC Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface specification objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08.0x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling System No7 (C7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Messages Transfer Part (MTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 2 Header Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LSSU Status Field Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Status Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Signal Unit (MSU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Information Octet (SIO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Information Field (SIF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Router Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Establishment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP Message Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP Message Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Called/Calling Party Address Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSAP Message Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSAP Message Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DTAP Header Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP Header Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSAP Message Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Mobile Station (MS) to PSTN Call Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Interface Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal PSTN to MS Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Interface Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call from PSTN to MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Circuit Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unblocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resource Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resource Indication Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global Reset Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset at the MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset at the BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset Circuit at the MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset Circuit at the BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Candidate Enquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSC Overload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures Dedicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Required Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Resource Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classmark Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial MS Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Queueing Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTP Level 2 Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTP Level 3 Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

650 650 652 654 656 658 658 660 660 662 664 666 666 668 668 670 672 672 672 674 676 676 676 678 678 680 680 680 682 684 686 688 690 692 694 694 694 695

Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix A MSC to BSC Interface (A-interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6i
6ii 6ii

Appendix B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B MSCBSS Message Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DTAP Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSCBSS Message Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii

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Issue 12 Rev 0

Chapter 7 BSSOMCR Interface (OML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BSSOMCR Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSOMCR Interface (OML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Event/Alarm Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OMCBSS Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X.25 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Link Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Link Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Address Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Types Control field encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packet Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logical Channel Numbers (LCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packet Type Identifier (PTI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Packet Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OMC to BSS Communication DTE Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virtual Call Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i
71 71 72 72 74 74 74 74 76 78 710 710 712 714 714 716 718 720 722 724 726 728 730 732 734

Chapter 8 SMS Cell Broadcast Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


SMS Cell Broadcast Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short Message Service Cell Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Broadcast Link (CBL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBC, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobiles Cell Broadcast Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMS CB Database Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBL Message Flow Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBL Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple SVC Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Broadcast Messages from BSC to BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRX Scheduling Message Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New SMS CB Message Bitmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New SMS CB Message Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Message Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Description Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Transmission of an SMS CB within the Schedule Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retransmission Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Message Slot, Optional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Message Slot, Reading Advised (not yet implemented by Motorola) . . . . . Reserved Codepoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

820 822 824 824 824 826 826 826 828 828 828

Appendix A The 24-Channel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


The 24-Channel (T1) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-Channel (T1) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel - associated signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common - channel signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of T1 and E1 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8ii 8iv 8iv 8iv 8iv

Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glos1


Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ......................................................................... B ......................................................................... C ......................................................................... D ......................................................................... E ......................................................................... F ......................................................................... G ......................................................................... H ......................................................................... I .......................................................................... K ......................................................................... L ......................................................................... M ......................................................................... N ......................................................................... O ......................................................................... P ......................................................................... Q ......................................................................... R ......................................................................... S ......................................................................... T ......................................................................... U ......................................................................... V ......................................................................... W ........................................................................
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Glos3 Glos4 Glos7 Glos10 Glos14 Glos17 Glos19 Glos21 Glos23 Glos24 Glos26 Glos27 Glos29 Glos33 Glos35 Glos37 Glos40 Glos41 Glos44 Glos48 Glos51 Glos52 Glos53

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X . ........................................................................ Z .........................................................................

Glos54 Glos55

Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Issue 12 Rev 0

General information

General information
Important notice
If this manual was obtained when attending a Motorola training course, it will not be updated or amended by Motorola. It is intended for TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY. If it was supplied under normal operational circumstances, to support a major software release, then corrections will be supplied automatically by Motorola in the form of General Manual Revisions (GMRs).

Purpose
Motorola cellular communications manuals are intended to instruct and assist personnel in the operation, installation and maintenance of the Motorola cellular infrastructure equipment and ancillary devices. It is recommended that all personnel engaged in such activities be properly trained by Motorola. WARNING Failure to comply with Motorolas operation, installation and maintenance instructions may, in exceptional circumstances, lead to serious injury or death. These manuals are not intended to replace the system and equipment training offered by Motorola, although they can be used to supplement and enhance the knowledge gained through such training.

EMOTOROLA LTD. 2001

SYS01 GSR5: GSM System Interfaces FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

General information

Issue 12 Rev 0

Cross references
Throughout this manual, cross references are made to the chapter numbers and section names. The section name cross references are printed bold in text. This manual is divided into uniquely identified and numbered chapters that, in turn, are divided into sections. Sections are not numbered, but are individually named at the top of each page, and are listed in the table of contents.

Text conventions
The following conventions are used in the Motorola GSM manuals to represent keyboard input text, screen output text and special key sequences.

Input
Characters typed in at the keyboard are shown like this.

Output
Messages, prompts, file listings, directories, utilities, and environmental variables that appear on the screen are shown like this.

Special key sequences


Special key sequences are represented as follows: CTRL-c ALT-f | CR or RETURN Press the Control and c keys at the same time. Press the Alt and f keys at the same time. Press the pipe symbol key. Press the Return (Enter) key. The Return key is identified with the symbol on both the X terminal and the SPARCstation keyboards. The SPARCstation keyboard Return key is also identified with the word Return.

SYS01 GSR5: GSM System Interfaces FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY THIS MANUAL WILL NOT BE UPDATED

EMOTOROLA LTD. 2001

Issue 12 Rev 0

First aid in case of electric shock

First aid in case of electric shock


Warning
WARNING Do not touch the victim with your bare hands until the electric circuit is broken. Switch off. If this is not possible, protect yourself with dry insulating material and pull or push the victim clear of the conductor.

Artificial respiration
In the event of an electric shock it may be necessary to carry out artificial respiration. Send for medical assistance immediately.

Burns treatment
If the patient is also suffering from burns, then, without hindrance to artificial respiration, carry out the following: 1. 2. 3. Do not attempt to remove clothing adhering to the burn. If help is available, or as soon as artificial respiration is no longer required, cover the wound with a dry dressing. Do not apply oil or grease in any form.

Whenever a safety issue arises, carry out the following procedure in all instances. Ensure that all site personnel are familiar with this procedure.

Procedure
Whenever a safety issue arises: 1. 2. 3. Make the equipment concerned safe, for example, by removing power. Make no further attempt to tamper with the equipment. Report the problem directly to the Customer Network Resolution Centre, Swindon +44 (0)1793 565444 or China +86 10 68437733 (telephone) and follow up with a written report by fax, Swindon +44 (0)1793 430987 or China +86 10 68423633 (fax). Collect evidence from the equipment under the guidance of the Customer Network Resolution Centre.

4.

Warning labels
Personnel working with or operating Motorola equipment must comply with any warning labels fitted to the equipment. Warning labels must not be removed, painted over or obscured in any way.
EMOTOROLA LTD. 2001 3

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First aid in case of electric shock

Issue 12 Rev 0

High voltage
Certain Motorola equipment operates from a dangerous high voltage of 230 V ac single phase or 415 V ac three phase supply which is potentially lethal. Therefore, the areas where the ac supply power is present must not be approached until the warnings and cautions in the text and on the equipment have been complied with. To achieve isolation of the equipment from the ac supply, the ac input isolator must be set to off and locked. Within the United Kingdom (UK) regard must be paid to the requirements of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. There may also be specific country legislation which need to be complied with, depending on where the equipment is used.

RF radiation
High RF potentials and electromagnetic fields are present in the base station equipment when in operation. Ensure that all transmitters are switched off when any antenna connections have to be changed. Do not key transmitters connected to unterminated cavities or feeders. Refer to the following standards: S S ANSI IEEE C95.1-1991, IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz. CENELEC 95 ENV 50166-2, Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields High Frequency (10 kHz to 300 GHz).

Laser radiation
Do not look directly into fibre optic cables or optical data in/out connectors. Laser radiation can come from either the data in/out connectors or unterminated fibre optic cables connected to data in/out connectors.

Lifting equipment
When dismantling heavy assemblies, or removing or replacing equipment, the competent responsible person must ensure that adequate lifting facilities are available. Where provided, lifting frames must be used for these operations. When equipments have to be manhandled, reference must be made to the Manual Handling of Loads Regulations 1992 (UK) or to the relevant manual handling of loads legislation for the country in which the equipment is used.

Do not ...
... substitute parts or modify equipment. Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification of equipment. Contact Motorola if in doubt to ensure that safety features are maintained.

Lithium batteries
Lithium batteries, if subjected to mistreatment, may burst and ignite. Defective lithium batteries must not be removed or replaced. Any boards containing defective lithium batteries must be returned to Motorola for repair.
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First aid in case of electric shock

Definitions
NOTE The above result applies only in the direction of maximum radiation of the antenna. Actual installations may employ antennas that have defined radiation patterns and gains that differ from the example set forth above. The distances calculated can vary depending on the actual antenna pattern and gain.

Observe the following cautions during operation, installation and maintenance of the equipment described in the Motorola manuals. Failure to comply with these cautions or with specific cautions elsewhere in the Motorola manuals may result in damage to the equipment. Motorola assumes no liability for the customers failure to comply with these requirements.

Caution labels
Personnel working with or operating Motorola equipment must comply with any caution labels fitted to the equipment. Caution labels must not be removed, painted over or obscured in any way.

Specific cautions
Cautions particularly applicable to the equipment are positioned within the text of this manual. These must be observed by all personnel at all times when working with the equipment, as must any other cautions given in text, on the illustrations and on the equipment.

Fibre optics
The bending radius of all fibre optic cables must not be less than 30 mm.

Static discharge
Motorola equipment contains CMOS devices that are vulnerable to static discharge. Although the damage caused by static discharge may not be immediately apparent, CMOS devices may be damaged in the long term due to static discharge caused by mishandling. Wear an approved earth strap when adjusting or handling digital boards. Certain metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices embody in their design a thin layer of insulation that is susceptible to damage from electrostatic charge. Such a charge applied to the leads of the device could cause irreparable damage. These charges can be built up on nylon overalls, by friction, by pushing the hands into high insulation packing material or by use of unearthed soldering irons. MOS devices are normally despatched from the manufacturers with the leads shorted together, for example, by metal foil eyelets, wire strapping, or by inserting the leads into conductive plastic foam. Provided the leads are shorted it is safe to handle the device.

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Special handling techniques


In the event of one of these devices having to be replaced, observe the following precautions when handling the replacement: S S S S S S Always wear an earth strap which must be connected to the electrostatic point (ESP) on the equipment. Leave the short circuit on the leads until the last moment. It may be necessary to replace the conductive foam by a piece of wire to enable the device to be fitted. Do not wear outer clothing made of nylon or similar man made material. A cotton overall is preferable. If possible work on an earthed metal surface. Wipe insulated plastic work surfaces with an anti-static cloth before starting the operation. All metal tools should be used and when not in use they should be placed on an earthed surface. Take care when removing components connected to electrostatic sensitive devices. These components may be providing protection to the device.

When mounted onto printed circuit boards (PCBs), MOS devices are normally less susceptible to electrostatic damage. However PCBs should be handled with care, preferably by their edges and not by their tracks and pins, they should be transferred directly from their packing to the equipment (or the other way around) and never left exposed on the workbench.

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Chapter 1

Introduction to GSM Interfaces

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Chapter 1 Introduction to GSM Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction to GSM Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM System Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terrestrial Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Layer Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Introduction to GSM Interfaces

Introduction to GSM Interfaces


Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S State the BSS terrestrial interfaces protocols and architecture. Identify the GSM specifications which apply to these protocols.

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GSM System Entities

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GSM System Entities


Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC) A central network entity that controls and monitors other network entities, including the quality of service provided by the network. Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) The telephone switching exchange for mobile originated or terminated subscriber traffic. Base Station System (BSS) The fixed end of the radio interface that provides control and radio coverage functions for one or more sites and their associated Mobile Stations (MS). The Base Station Controller (BSC) and the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) are part of the BSS. Base Station Controller (BSC) The Base Station System Control (BSSC) cabinet is only used at BSC sites and provides the required expansion capabilities to interface to the maximum number of remote BTSs allowed by the Motorola GSM BSS offering. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The BTS cabinet is capable of operating as a BTS with up to six Radio Frequency (RF) carriers in a single cabinet, utilising the Horizonmacro. The Horizonmicro and Horizoncompact can offer two carrier solutions. Interworking Function (IWF) Performs data rate adaption between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) and other existing land networks. Transcoder Function (XC) Converts the signal from 64Kbs Alaw to 13Kbs GSM speech, as well as 3 kbit/s of control information. Authentication Centre (AUC) Generates and stores authentication parameters for subscriber identification. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The database-oriented processing network entity that contains centralized information for validating MSs based on their international mobile equipment identity. Visitor Location Register (VLR) The database-oriented processing network entity that temporarily contains information for subscribers roaming in a given location area. Home Location Register (HLR) The database-oriented processing network entity that contains the master database of the subscribers to a PLMN. Echo Canceller (EC) Performs echo suppression for all voice circuits. Mobile Station (MS) The radio equipment and man-machine interface that a subscriber needs to access PLMN services. Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) A user facility that allows the broadcast of short message cell broadcast messages on a per cell, location area or PLMN basis.

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GSM System Entities

The GSM System

VLR

EC

PSTN

HLR OMC (S) AUC MSC

CBC IWF BSS


OMC (R)

EIR

XC

MS

BTS BTS

BSC

BTS BTS BTS BTS

BTS MS COLOCATED ENTITIES

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GSM Architecture

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GSM Architecture
GSM has defined the interfaces between the various components of the system, so far as it is necessary to ensure their correct functionality and also that satisfactory interworking with fixed networks can be provided. Only in this way can the GSM system function be considered as a truly public telecommunications system. As such, specific definitions are provided for the functional entities within a GSM system and the interactions/interfaces between these entities. The diagram illustrates the generalized architecture of the interfaces. Several interfaces between these components can be recognized and consideration of them all is necessary for a complete understanding of the system.

Air-interface A-bis (Mo-bis) A-interface B-interface C-interface D-interface E-interface F-interface G-interface R-interface

MS-BTS BTS-BSC BSS-MSC MSC-VLR MSC-HLR HLR-VLR Inter-MSC MSC-EIR VLR-VLR MS-DTE

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GSM Architecture

GSM Architecture: Interface Types

SMS
Air-interface

EIR F

BTS

BSS BSC

XCDR

A-interface

H
E

MS

MSC

MSC

R
A-bis (Mo-bis)

DTE

KEY MS = Mobile Station BSS = Base Station System BTS = Base Transceiver Station BSC = Base Site Controller MSC = Mobile Switching Centre VLR = Visitor Location Register AUC = Authentication Centre RXCDR = Remote Transcoder DTE = Data Terminating Equipment

G VLR D HLR I AUC D VLR

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Signalling Links

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Signalling Links
Exercise
Using the diagram opposite fill in the signalling links between each of the network elements, stating the Motorola name of the link and which protocol is used on the link.

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Signalling Links

Exercise Signalling Links

MSC

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

BSC

BSC

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

RXCDR

BSC

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

OMCR

BSC

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

BTS

RXCDR

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

OMCR

MS

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

BTS

BSC

NAME:

PROTOCOL:

CBC

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Terrestrial Interfaces

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Terrestrial Interfaces
Introduction
From the overall logical diagram of the GSM system, the Terrestrial interfaces comprise of all the connections between each of the GSM entities, apart from the Air-Interface. The BSS interfaces and message protocols all conform to ITU-TS recommendations enabling the system to be connected to different national telecommunications systems. Terrestrial interfaces transport the traffic across the system and allow the passage of the thousands of data messages necessary to make the system function. They transport the data for software downloads and uploads, the collection of statistical information, implementation of operations and maintenance commands. The standard interfaces used are as follows; S GSM A-bis or Motorola defined-mobis; (this is a Motorola interpretation of the A-bis which offers saving in resources)

S S

Signalling System ITU-TS #7 (C7);

Packet Switching X25;

Whatever the interconnecting system, they share a common physical bearer between two points, referred to as the 2 Mbit/s link.

Acronyms
TUP = Telephone User Part MAP = Mobile Application Part BSSAP = BSS Application Part MOMAP = Managed Objects Management Part ITU-TS = International Telecommunications Union-Technical Specifications.

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Terrestrial Interfaces

Terrestrial Interfaces

MAP on C7 MOMAP on X.25 MAP on C7 MOMAP on x.25


OMCR VLR OMCR HLR OMCR AUC

OMCR VLR

OMCS
OMCR OMCR

OMCR

OMCR MSC

MSC
EC OMCR EC

OMCR

MSC
OMCR XC

OMCR

EIR

OMCR XC

MAP on C7

OMCR EC

BSSAP on C7

TUP on C7
GSM A-bis or Motorola

BSC

OMCR BTS

OMCR BSC

OMCR BTS

BTS OMCR PSTN


OMCR BTS OMCR BTS OMCR BTS

OMCR BTS

PSTN

MS

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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)


Introduction
Users of information technology operate a wide range of data processing systems, office automation facilities and telecommunication networks in order to achieve their business objectives. The majority of such users recognise that there is a desperate need for such systems to be able to interwork effectively and efficiently. Furthermore, users have become increasingly unhappy at the prospect of being locked in to any one manufacturers range of equipment and proprietary methods of interconnecting systems. The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) began work in 1979 on an open system architecture which is known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The ultimate aim of OSI is simple to provide a means whereby many different sorts of systems can communicate with each other economically and efficiently. To achieve this, the ISO has developed a definition of the way systems communicate the seven layer reference model. The use of the model and defined standards should allow open systems to be produced creating an environment in which equipment, similar in function, but from any manufacturing source, can be interconnected.

The Layer Concept


The method chosen was to view the total set of functions of a system as being divided into seven layers. When the reference model was being developed a set of guiding principles were set down: S S S S S S each layer has a unique and specific task to perform functions that are similar or highly inter-related are collected together within one layer the internal design of a layer is independent of the functions it provides a layer only knows about its immediately adjacent layers a layer uses the services of the layer below a layer provides services to the layer above.

Each layer consists of a set of functions which provide specific services, which can be thought of as being performed by an abstract entity. The protocol operating between equivalent functions in the same layer of two different systems remote from each other is known as the peer-to-peer protocol.

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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

The Reference Model

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical


Network Service Transport Service Users of Transport Service

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Protocols

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Protocols
The concept of services in the OSI Model leads to an understanding of the data flow vertically within the architecture. Protocols define the way in which entities in the same layer, but at different ends of the system, can communicate in a horizontal manner. This idea is termed peer-to-peer protocol. The requirements of the OSI protocols are achieved by each layer in the model appending a quantity of data to the data unit handed down from the layer above. This additional data is protocol information which is stripped off and interpreted by the corresponding peer entity at the remote end of the system.

Layer 1:
Physical; Responsible for the transparent transmission of information across the physical medium.

Layer 2:
Data Link; responsible for providing reliable transfer between the terminal and network.

Layer 3:
Network; responsible for setting up and maintaining the connection across a network.

Layer 4:
Transport; responsible for the control of quality of service.

Layer 5:
Session; Handles the co-ordination between the user processes.

Layer 6:
Presentation; responsible for ensuring that the information is presented to the eventual user in a meaningful way

Layer 7:
Application; provides user interface to lower levels.

NOTE:
AH Application Header PH Presentation Header SH Session Header TH Transport Header NH Network Header LH Link Header
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Protocols

OSI Layers

DATA
APPLICATION LAYER PRESENTATION LAYER SESSION LAYER TRANSPORT LAYER NETWORK LAYER LINK LAYER PHYSICAL LAYER PH

AH

Interface to lower levels Formatting and code Coordination Quality and service Setup and Maintenance Reliable data transfer BIT STREAM

SH

TH

NH

LH

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Signalling Model

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Signalling Model
The complete MSC to MS signalling model is shown opposite: Connection Management (CM) and Mobility Management (MM) are not interpreted by the BSS (BSC or BTS) but are transferred using a procedure called Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) which is transparent to the BSS components. Radio Resource (RR) messages are passed between the BTS and MS, however some messages have to be forwarded to the BSC. The BTSM (BTS Management) entities contain procedures for handling these messages and other procedures for managing the BTS/BSC link. The BSC to MSC link (A-interface) uses the signalling link structure of C7. The Message Transfer Part (MTP) serves as a transport system for reliable transfer of messages. The Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) builds on the underlying MTP to provide a full network service as described by the OSI architecture. The user function of the SCCP is the BSS Application Part (BSSAP) which uses one signalling connection per active MS.

NOTE:
CM Connection Management MM Mobility Management RR Radio Resource Management LAPD Link Access Procedure D (Data Channel) LAPDm Link Access Procedure Dm (Mobile D Channel)

BTSM BTS Management SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part MTP Message Transfer Part BSS Application Part

BSSAP

DTAP Direct Transfer Application Part

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Signalling Model

Signalling Model

MS
CM MM

BTS

BSC

MSC
CM MM
BSSAP: DTAP/ BSSMAP

RR RR RR LAPDm Physical Layer 1 LAPDm Physical: Layer 1 BTSM LAPD Physical: Layer 1 BTSM LAPD Physical: Layer 1

BSSAP

SCCP MTP

SCCP MTP

Radio Airinterface

Abis

AInterface
KEY BTSM = BTS Management

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GSM Specifications

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GSM Specifications
The GSM committee has been responsible for the production of the standards and the theoretical studies. The resultant specifications are divided into several sets of specifications, each providing a detailed description of a different aspect of the system together with all the mandatory and optional features. These specifications make extensive reference to existing ITU, CEPT and ISO standards. These specifications are arranged under 12 main headings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. General Services Aspects Network Aspects MS-BSS interface and Protocols Physical layer on the Radio Path (Radio Sub-system) Speech Coding Terminal Adaptors for MS BSC-MSC Interface Network Interworking Service Interworking Equipment Specification and type approval Network Management (operation and maintenance)

ITU International Telecommunications Union

NOTE:
ITU-TS was formerly known as CCITT

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GSM Specifications

GSM Specifications

05 Radio Subsystem

MS

04 MSBSS Interface

BSS

08 MSCBSC Interface

MSC

06 Speech Coding

09 Network Interworking

07 Terminal Adapters

MSC

VLR HLR

10 Service Interworking

PSTN/ISDN

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Chapter 2

GSM Air Interface Review

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Chapter 2 GSM Air Interface Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


GSM Air Interface Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Air Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timing Advance and Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mapping Logical Channels onto the TDMA Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiframes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 26-frame Traffic Channel Multiframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe BCCH/CCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Control Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiframes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe BCCH/CCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 51-frame Dedicated Control Channel Multiframe SDCCH and SACCH . . The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe Combined Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMS Cell Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Background Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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GSM Air Interface Review

GSM Air Interface Review


Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S S Understand the Air-interface Burst Structure. Understand the Air-interface Frame and multiframe structure. Understand the Air-interface implementation of SMS CB.

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GSM Air Interface

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GSM Air Interface


Bursts
Each carrier frequency used in GSM is divided into 8 independent timeslots and into each of these timeslots a burst is placed. The diagram shows the general format of a GSM burst. The receiver can only receive the burst and decode it if it is received within the timeslot designated for it. The timing, therefore, must be extremely accurate, however, the structure does allow for a small margin of error by incorporating a guard period as shown in the diagram. To be precise, the timeslot is 0.577ms long, whereas the burst is slightly shorter at 0.546ms. Eight bursts occupy one TDMA frame. The flag-bits are set when the frame has been stolen by FACCH (the Fast Associated Control Channel). The training sequence is used by the receivers equaliser as it estimates the transfer characteristic of the physical path between the base-station and the mobile.

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GSM Air Interface

GSM Burst and TDMA Frame

FRAME 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

FRAME 2 2 3 4 5 6 7

GUARD PERIOD

NORMAL BURST
TRAINING SEQUENCE
FLAG BITS TAIL BITS

GUARD PERIOD

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Timing Advance and Power Control

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Timing Advance and Power Control


To simplify the design of the mobile, the GSM Recommendations specify an offset of three time-slots between the BSS and MS timing thus avoiding the necessity for the mobile to transmit and receive simultaneously. The facing diagram illustrates this. However, the synchronisation of a TDMA system is critical because bursts have to be transmitted and received within the real-time timeslots allotted to them. The further the mobile is from the base station then, obviously, the longer it will take for the bursts to travel the distance between them. The GSM base-station caters for this problem by instructing the MS to advance its timing (i.e. transmit earlier) to compensate for the increased propagation delay. This advance is then superimposed upon the 3 timeslot nominal offset, as shown.

Power Control is an optional feature of the GSM air interface which allows the operator to not only compensate for the distance from mobile to base-station as regards timing, but can also cause the base-station and mobile to adjust their power output to take account of that distance. The closer the mobile is to the base-station, the less the power it and the base-station will be required to transmit. This feature saves radio battery power at the mobile, and helps to reduce co-channel and adjacent channel interference.

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Timing Advance and Power Control

Timing Advance

FRAME 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DOWNLINK

TIMING ADVANCE

BS MS

FRAME 1
UPLINK 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MS BS

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Mapping Logical Channels onto the TDMA Frame Structure

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Mapping Logical Channels onto the TDMA Frame Structure


Bursts
The diagram shows the five types of burst employed in the GSM air-interface and shows that all bursts, of whatever type, have to be timed so that they are received within the appropriate timeslot of the TDMA frame. The burst is the sequence of bits transmitted by the base-station or mobile the timeslot is the discrete period of real time within which it must arrive in order to be correctly decoded by the receiver. 1. Normal Burst. The normal burst carries traffic channels (both voice and data) and all types of control channels. It is bi-directional. 2. Frequency Correction Burst. This burst carries FCCH downlink to correct the frequency of the mobiles local oscillator, effectively locking it to that of the base-station. 3. Synchronisation Burst. So called because its function is to carry SCH downlink, synchronising the timing of the mobile to that of the base-station. 4. Dummy Burst. Timeslot 0 of the BCCH carrier will always contain control channel information but depending on configuration the remaining seven timeslots may be used to support additional control channel information or a traffic channel. If any of the remaining seven timeslots are idle then Dummy bursts must be inserted as all eight timeslots on the BCCH carrier must always be active. 5. Access Burst. This burst is of much shorter duration than the other types. The increased guard period is necessary because the timing of its transmission is unknown this is due to the unknown quantity of the mobiles location and the lack of timing advance information at this point during the call set-up process.

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Mapping Logical Channels onto the TDMA Frame Structure

GSM Burst Types

FRAME 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2

FRAME 2
3 4 5 6 7

3 TB 3 TB 3 TB 3 TB 8 TB Synchronization Sequence 41 Fixed Bits 57 Encrypted Bits 39 Encoded Bits 57

NORMAL BURST (NB) Training Sequence 26 FREQ CORRECTION BURST (FB) Fixed Bits 142 SYNCHRONIZATION BURST (SB) Synchronization Sequence 64 DUMMY BURST Training Sequence 26 ACCESS BURST Encrypted Bits 36 577 mS TB GP 68.25 Fixed Bits 57 Encrypted Bits 39 Encrypted Bits 57

3 TB GP 3 TB GP 3 TB GP 3 TB GP

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Multiframes and Timing

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Multiframes and Timing


There are eight timeslots within each TDMA frame, enabling eight physical channels to share a single physical resource the RF carrier. In turn, each physical channel may be shared by a number of logical control or traffic channels. In order to understand how a single physical channel is shared by various logical channels, it is necessary to introduce the GSM multiframe structures that make it possible.

The 26-frame Traffic Channel Multiframe


The illustration opposite shows the time relationship between time-slot, TDMA frame, and the 26-frame multiframe. Some of the times shown are approximate numbers as the GSM Recommendations actually state the exact values as fractions rather than in decimal form (eg. the exact duration of a timeslot is 15/26ms). Note that frame 12 (the 13th frame in the 26 frame sequence) is used by SACCH, the Slow Associated Control Channel which carries link control information to and from the mobile and base-station. The 8 timeslots of frame 12 accommodate 8 SACCHs one per TCH/FS (full-rate speech). Also note that frame 25 is idle. When the GSM half-rate speech channel (TCH/HS) is a reality, this frame will carry the additional 8 SACCHs required. The basic frame/timeslot structure remains identical (full-rate and half-rate channels will coexist) each timeslot will carry two 11.4Kb/s channels instead of one 22.8Kb/s channel. The SACCH bit rate will remain the same, hence the need for frame 25.

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Multiframes and Timing

26-Frame Multiframe

0.577 ms

4.615 ms

2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4

1
3 2 1 0 7 6 5

0
4 3 2 1 0

Idle Multiframe

SACCH

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

4 3

2 1 0

119.99mS
Time

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Multiframes and Timing

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The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe BCCH/CCCH


The 51-frame structure used for control channels is considerably more complex than the 26-frame structure used for the traffic channels and occurs in several forms, depending on the type of control channel and the system operators requirements.

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Multiframes and Timing

51-Frame Multiframes Control Channel

0.577 ms

4.615 ms

2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4

1
3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4

0
3 2 1 0

Multiframe
50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

235.365 mS
Time
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GSM Control Channels

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GSM Control Channels


These are: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). Common Control Channel (CCCH). Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH).

BCCH Group
The Broadcast Control Channels are downlink only (base-station to mobile) and comprises of the following: S BCCH carries info about the network, a mobiles present cell and the surrounding cells. It is transmitted continuously as its signal strength is measured by all mobiles on surrounding cells. The Synchronising Channel (SCH) carries information for frame synchronisation. The Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) provides information for carrier synchronisation.

S S

CCCH Group
The Common Control Channel Group is bi-directional i.e. it works in both the uplink and downlink directions. S S Random Access Channel (RACH) is the uplink used by mobiles to gain access to the system. Paging Channel (PCH) and Access Granted Channel (AGCH) operate in the downlink direction. The AGCH is used to assign resources to the MS, such as a Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). The PCH is used by the system to call a mobile. The PCH and AGCH are never used at the same time. Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) is used to transmit messages to be broadcast to all mobiles within a cell e.g. traffic information.

DCCH Group
Dedicated Control Channels are assigned to a single mobile for call setup and subscriber validation. DCCH comprises of the following: S S Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) which supports the transfer of Data to and from the mobile during call setup and validation. Associated Control Channel. This consists of Slow ACCH which is used for radio link measurement and power control messages. Fast ACCH is used to pass event type messages e.g. handover messages. Both FACCH and SACCH operate in uplink and downlink directions.

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GSM Control Channels

Control Channels

CCH Control Channel


NB NB/AB DCCH NB/DB SDCCH FACCH ACCH SACCH BCCH SB SCH Sync. channels FB FCCH BCCH downlink only

CCCH

AB RACH uplink

NB PCH/AGCH downlink only

NB CBCH downlink

KEY NB = Normal Burst FB = Frequency Burst SB = Synchronization Burst AB = Access Burst DB = Dummy Burst

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Multiframes and Timing

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Multiframes and Timing


The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe BCCH/CCCH
The BCCH/CCCH 51-frame structure illustrated on the opposite page will apply to timeslot 0 of each TDMA frame on the BCCH carrier (the RF carrier frequency to which the BCCH is assigned on a per cell basis). In the diagram, each vertical step represents one repetition of the timeslot (= one TDMA frame), with the first repetition (numbered 0) at the bottom. Looking at the uplink (MS BSS) direction, all timeslot 0s are allocated to RACH. This is fairly obvious because RACH is the only control channel in the BCCH/CCCH group which works in the uplink direction. In the downlink direction (BSS MS), the arrangement is more interesting. Starting at frame 0 of the 51-frame structure, the first timeslot 0 is occupied by a frequency burst (F in the diagram), the second by a synchronising burst (S) and then the following four repetitions of timeslot 0 by BCCH data (B) in frames 2 5. The following four repetitions of timeslot 0 in frames 6 9 are allocated to CCCH traffic (C) that is, to either PCH (mobile paging channel) or AGCH (Access Grant Channel). Then follows, in timeslot 0 of frames 10 and 11, a repeat of the frequency and sychronising bursts (F and S), four further CCCH bursts (C) and so on ... . Note that the last time-slot 0 in the sequence (the fifty-first frame frame 50) is idle.

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Multiframes and Timing

BCCH/CCCH Multiframe

Uplink 0 10 20 30 40 50

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

Downlink 0 FS B C

10 FS C C

20 FS C C

30 FS C C

40 FS C C

50 I

KEY R = RACH (Random) B = BCCH (Broadcast) F = FCCH (Frequency) S = SCH (Sync.) C = CCCH (Common) I = Idle

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The 51-frame Dedicated Control Channel Multiframe SDCCH and SACCH


The diagram shows the 51-frame structure used to accommodate 8 SDCCHs although, as it takes two repetitions of the multiframe to complete the entire sequence, it may be more logical to think of it as a 102-frame structure! This structure will be used on a physical channel selected by the system operator it is not placed in a timeslot or on an RF carrier defined by GSM Recommendations. Note that the 8 SACCHs (shaded) are associated with the 8 SDCCHs. It is important to remember that each SDCCH has an SACCH just like a traffic channel.

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Multiframes and Timing

DCCH Multiframe

Downlink 0 D0 D0 D1 D1 10 D2 D2 D3 D3 D4 D4 20 D5 D5 D6 D6 30 D7 D7 A0 A4 A1 A5 40 A2 A6 A3 A7 50 I I I I I I

KEY

D = SDDCH/8 (Dedicated) A = SACCH/C8 (Associated) I = Idle Uplink 0 A5 A1 A6 A2 10 A7 A3 I I I D0 I I I D0 20 D1 D1 D2 D2 D3 D3 30 D4 D4 D5 D5 40 D6 D6 D7 D7 A0 A4 50

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Multiframes and Timing

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The 51-frame Control Channel Multiframe Combined Structure


The structure illustrated can be used where traffic density is low perhaps in a rural area in cells with few RF carriers and only light traffic. Again, as it takes two repetitions of the 51-frame multiframe to complete the sequence, this is really a 102-frame structure. In this case, all the control channels (with the exception of the frame-stealer FACCH) share the BCCH carrier timeslot 0.

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Multiframes and Timing

Combined Multiframe

Downlink 0 FS FS Uplink 0 D3 D3 RR RR A2 A0 10 A3 A1 20 30 D0 D0 40 D1 D1 RR RR 50 D2 D2 B B C C 10 FS FS C C C C 20 FS FS D0 D0 D1 D1 30 FS FS D2 D2 D3 D3 40 FS FS A0 A2 A1 A3 50 I I

RR RR R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RR R RR R R R R R R R R R R R RR R R R RR R R

KEY R = RACH (Random) B = BCCH (Broadcast) F = FCCH (Frequency) S = SCH (Sync.) C = CCCH (Common) D = SDCCH/4 (Dedicated) A = SACCH/4 (Associated) I = Idle

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Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB)

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Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB)


There are a number of database parameters which control the use of Short Message Service. The service itself is specified by GSM and can be divided into two functions Cell Broadcast and Point to Point. When a short message service cell broadcast (SMSCB) message is to be sent, the message shall be sent on the Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) in four consecutive multiframes using the block defined on the page opposite. The SMSCB header shall be sent in the multiframe on TB=0. When SMSCB is in use, this is indicated in the BCCH data. If this option is enabled, frequency, slot, and subslot information present within BCCH system information will cause suitably equipped mobiles to monitor the Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH). This channel, when enabled, fits into the 51/102 frame multiframe in place of SDCCH number 2. It can appear on BCCH or Non-BCCH carriers on timeslots 0-3 inclusive. Only one CBCH will exist within a cell and an algorithm will control its whereabouts. A cell broadcast block is made up of 23 bytes (184 bits) which is encoded to produce the familiar 456 bit block, this is then transmitted over four successive air interface bursts. In the case where the CBCH resides on a BCCH carrier dummy bursts will be transmitted in the other 4 multiframes.

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Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB)

Short Message Service Cell Broadcast

Downlink DCCH Multiframe 0 D0 D0 D1 D1 10 CBCH


0 1 2 3

20 D3 D3 D4 D4 D5 D5 D6 D6

30 D7 D7 A0 A0 A1 A1

40 A2 A2 A3 A3

50 I I I I I I

CBCH
0 1 2 3

SMSCB (normal burst)

Combined Multiframe 0 FS FS B B C C 10 FS FS C C C C 20 FS FS D0 D0 D1 D1 30 F S CBCH


0 1 2 3

D3 D3

40 FS FS

A0 A2

A1 A3

50 I I

F S CBCH
0 1 2 3

SMSCB (normal burst)

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SMS Cell Broadcast

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SMS Cell Broadcast


The GSM defined Cell Broadcast feature is a means of unilaterally transmitting data to mobiles on a per cell basis, by use of the Cell Broadcast channel. Each BSC should be connected to a Cell Broadcast Centre, which is responsible for downloading cell broadcast messages to the BSC, together with repetition rate, and the number of broadcasts required per message. The BSC is then responsible for transmitting these updates to the BTSs affected, which will then ensure that the message is transmitted as requested. In 1400 the full GSM functionality is available, in particular the BSC to CBC interface is supported. However, a single operator defined background message may be entered using the appropriate database command. The parameters controlling cell broadcast SMS are shown below: Chg_element cbch_enabled <*><SITE No> cell number = <GSM Cell id> * 0 disabled 1 enabled

Multiple Background Messages


Background messages can be a maximum of 93 characters and will be sent on the SMSCB channel in the absence of messages originating from the Cell Broadcast Center (CBC). A maximum of four background messages can be specified using the following database commands: chg_smscb_msg <msg_num> <msg_id> <gs> <msg_code> <language> cell_number= <cell id> msg_num (03) This number is not sent to the MS, but is used as a message identifier within the Motorola BSS software. msg_id (065535) Identifies the logical channel used within the physical CBSMS slot. This corresponds to the channel number entered in the MMI of the MS. gs (03) This field indicates to the MS the geographical area over which the message code is unique. It also indicates the display mode to the mobile. 0 Immediate, Cell Wide 1 Normal, PLMN Wide 2 Normal, Location Area (LAC) Wide 3 Normal, Cell Wide msg_code (01023) This field is used by the MS to differentiate between different messages being broadcast using the same msg_id. language (012) This field specifies the alphabet/coding scheme being used in the message. Values specified in W23.

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SMS Cell Broadcast

SMS Cell Broadcast

Dummy bursts (BCCH only)

0123456701234567

Each block contains a 51 frame multiframe

4 successive bursts

1234

1234

1234

1234

CBCH

burst 1

burst 2

burst 3

burst 4

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

57 bits

8 blocks of 57 bits

456 bits Fire code and convolutional coding 184 bits 23 bytes Part of original message 23 bytes 23 bytes 23 bytes

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SMS Cell Broadcast

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Chapter 3

GSM Air Interface Protocol

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Chapter 3 GSM Air Interface Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


GSM Air-interface Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS BTS Interface (Um or Air-interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 1 (SACCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unacknowledged Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledged Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Service Access Point Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Type of Control Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Format Peer-to-Peer Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Address Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAPI Service Access Point Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LPD Link Protocol Discriminator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Field Frame Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P/F Poll/Final bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S Supervisory Function Bit(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U Unnumbered Function Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Length Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of System Parameters (LAPDm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-interface Layer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Resource Management Sub-layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobility Management Sub-layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection Management Sub-layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 3 Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol Discriminator/Skip Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skip Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transaction Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Originating Call Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Terminating Call Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Updating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Flow Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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GSM Air-interface Protocol

GSM Air-interface Protocol


Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S State the BSS Air-interfaces protocols and architecture. Identify the GSM specifications which apply to these protocols.

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MS BTS Interface (Um or Air-interface)

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MS BTS Interface (Um or Air-interface)


The air-interface supports the logical channels which allow the MS to establish communication with the GSM terrestrial network (BSS). The following GSM specifications define the structure and procedures of this interface:


GSM Recs. 0 4.0 3 0 4.0 0 4.0 0 4.0 0 4.0 0 4.0 4 5 6 7 8 0 4.10 0 4.11 0 4.12 Description MS-BSS Interface Channel structure and access capabilities Layer 1 General requirements Data Link Layer (Layer 2) - General aspects Data Link Layer (Layer 2) - Specification Mobile radio interface signalling Layer 3 - General aspects Mobile radio interface signalling Layer 3 - Specification Layer 3 - Supplementary services specification general aspects Pointtopoint Short Message Service support (Layer 3) Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (Layer 3)
Note:
There are additional parts to the 04.xx series of recommendations, 04.2x details rate adaption and radio link protocol while the 04.8x series details supplementary services.

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MS BTS Interface (Um or Air-interface)

MS BTS Interface (Air-interface) GSM Recommendations

GSM Recs. 04.03 04.04 04.05 04.06 04.07 04.08 04.10 04.11 04.12

Description MSBSS Interface Channel structure and access capabilities Layer 1 General requirements Data Link Layer (Layer 2) General aspects Data Link Layer (Layer 2) Specification Mobile radio interface signalling Layer 3 General aspects Mobile radio interface signalling Layer 3 Specification Layer 3 Supplementary services specification general aspects Point-to-point Short Message Service support (Layer 3) Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (Layer 3)

Note: There are additional parts to the 04.xx series of recommendations, 04.2x details rate adaption and radio link protocol while the 04.8x series details supplementary services.

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Air-interface Layer 1

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Air-interface Layer 1
The diagram opposite shows the layer relationship between the MS BTS. From the diagram we can see that traffic channels are catered for with other functional units, these interfaces are described in the 06 and 07 series of Technical Specifications and will not be covered on this course. The Data Link Layer (Layer 2) is where the control channels are supported (PCH+AGCH, SACCH etc.), Layer 2 frames are also passed from the Data Link Layer to the Physical Layer. The Physical Layer also communicates directly to the Radio Resources Management layer for the purposes of channel assignment, physical system layer information (including, measurement results, timing advance etc).

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Air-interface Layer 1

MSBTS Signalling Model (Layers 13)

MS
Radio Resources Management (Layer 3)

BTS
Radio Resources Management (Layer 3)

Physical Layer (Layer 1)

Physical Layer (Layer 1)

Data Link Layer (Layer 2)

Data Link Layer (Layer 2)

To Functional Units (TCH)

To Functional Units (TCH)

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Air-interface Layer 1

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Air-interface Layer 1
The Physical Layer supports the transfer of bit streams on the radio medium according to TS GSM 05-series. In the OSIRM, Service Access Points (SAPs) of a layer are defined as gates through which services are offered to an adjacent layer. Through a SAP the Physical Layer offers services to the Data Link Layer (Layer 2). The SAP is used for both the control of the service providing entity and the transfer of data. In GSM the SAPs for the Physical Layer differ from the OSI Layer SAPs; the Layer 3 RR-management instead of the Data Link Layer (Layer2) controls the SAPs (establishment and release of channels). On the Physical Layer of GSM system a SAP is defined between the Data Link Layer and the Physical Layer for each control channel. Using Primitives (communication between layers) the Physical Layer interacts with Layer 2 and Layer 3, in line with the services required.

OSIRM Open Systems Interconnect Reference Model

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Air-interface Layer 1

SAPs between the Physical Layer and the Data Link Layer

BCCH

PCH + AGCH

RACH

SDCCH

SACCH

FACCH

Physical Layer (Layer 1)

There is one SAP for each control channel

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Air-interface Layer 1

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GSM recommendations define five states that a mobile can be in at any one time. These five individual states are shown in the table opposite. From switch on, idle mode and then to dedicated mode, the Mobile Subscriber must go through these five states in order to establish and maintain a call.

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Air-interface Layer 1

MS Physical Layer States

In the Physical Layer of the MS the following states are defined: STATE NULL SEARCHING BCH BCH Description The equipment is switched off The Physical Layer tracks the best BCCH The Physical Layer listens to a BCCH/CCCH and is able to do Random Access The Physical Layer seizes on a physical dedicated channel The physical layer has seized a dedicated channel and may establish and through connect logical channels

TUNING DCH DCH

Note: BCH = Bcch/ccch physical CHannel DCH = Dedicated physical CHannel

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Air-interface Layer 1 (SACCH)

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Air-interface Layer 1 (SACCH)


On a Dedicated Control Channel, the Physical Layers at both the MS and BSS, implement a Peer-to-Peer protocol for the control of timing advance and power control. For this purpose the Physical Layer adds a 2 octet physical header on all SACCH blocks (a logical channel always present on a dedicated physical channel). This physical header contains the ordered MS power level and ordered timing advance. If no timing advance is ordered the timing field is coded with 111 111. The timing advance is defined in steps 0 to 63, values 64 to 126 are reserved. Procedures for handling the ordered timing advance, power control, as well as the response from the MS in the form of actual timing advance, power control are defined in GSM 05.05/05.08 and GSM 05.10 respectively.

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Air-interface Layer 1 (SACCH)

SACCH Block Format (UL & DL)

BSS MS
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3

Spare
Spare

Ordered MS Power Level Ordered Timing Advance Layer 2 and Layer 3 Information

Octet 23

MS BSS
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Octet 1 Octet 2

Spare
Spare

Actual MS Power Level Actual Timing Advance Layer 2 and Layer 3 Information

Octet 23

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Air-interface Layer 2

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Air-interface Layer 2
The Data Link Layer is the OSI layer 2 entity on the air interface. The Data Link Layer provides services to Layer 3 and is served by the Physical Layer. The Data Link Layer uses LAPDm on all the control channels except the RACH (this will be covered separately on the course). LAPDm is designed to specifically support : S S S S S S Multiple Layer 3 entities Multiple Physical Layer entities BCCH signalling PCH signalling AGCH signalling DCCH (SDCCH, SACCH, FACCH) signalling

LAPDm includes functions for: S The provision of one or more data link connections on a Dm channel. Discrimination between the data link connections is by means of a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI). Organisation of Layer 3 information into frames. Peer-to-Peer transmission of signalling data in defined frame formats. Recognition of frame formats. Establishment, maintenance (supervision) and termination of one or more (parallel) data links on signalling channels. Acknowledgement of transmission and reception of information frames (I frames). Unacknowledged transmission and reception of unnumbered information frames (UI frames). Detection of format and operational errors on a data link. Flow control. Contention Resolution when establishing data link after an access request has been made on the RACH.

S S S S S S S S S

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Air-interface Layer 2

Air-interface Layer 2 LAPDm includes functons for:Provision of one or more Data Link Connections on a DM channel. Organisation of Layer 3 information. PeertoPeer transmission of signalling data in defined frame formats. Recognition of frame formats. Establishment, maintenance (supervision) and termination of data links. Acknowledgement of information frames. Unacknowledge transmission and reception of unnumbered information frames. Detection of format and operational errors. Flow control. Contention resolution
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Modes of Operation

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Modes of Operation
Unacknowledged Operation
In unacknowledged operation, Layer 3 information is transmitted in Unnumbered Information (UI) frames. At the Data Link Layer, the UI frames are not acknowledged. Flow control mechanisms and error recovery mechanisms are not defined.

Acknowledged Operation
In this mode Layer 3, information is transmitted in frames and is acknowledged by the receiving Data Link Layer. Error recovery by retransmission of unacknowledged frames is specified. In the case where errors which cannot be recovered by the Data Link Layer, a procedure exists to notify Layer 3. Flow control procedures are also defined. Only one form of acknowledged information transfer is defined, ie. Multiple frame operation. For Multiple frame operation, Layer 3 information is sent in numbered information frames, in principle a number of I frames may be outstanding at the same time (K value = 07). However for many applications a window size of 1 is required. The procedure for Multiple frame operation is initiated by using the Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode (SABM) The acknowledged mode of information transfer in the Data Link Layer offers segmentation at the transmitter of Layer 3 message units if the message unit is longer than the information field of the data layer frames. At the receiver the segmented Layer 3 message units are concatenated such that the integrity of the Layer 3 message unit is restored.

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Modes of Operation

Mode of Operation and Allowed SAPIs

Type of Channel BCCH CCCH SDCCH SACCH associated with SDCCH SACCH associated with TCH FACCH

SAPI=0 Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Unacknowledged and acknowledged Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Unacknowledged and acknowledged

SAPI=3 Not Supported Not Supported Acknowledged Not Supported Acknowledged Not Supported

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Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)

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Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)


The DLCI consists of two elements:

1. Service Access Point Identifier


The SAPI is carried in the address field of each frame and determines to which and from which Layer 3 entity a message is to be transported by Layer 2. On the air interface only two SAPI values (0 & 3) are currently supported, others may be defined in the future. The SAPI takes a specific value for the following functions on the Dm channel:

SAPI = 0: Call Control Signalling (TS GSM 04.08 ) Mobility Management Signalling (TS GSM 04.08 ) Supplementary Services Signalling (TS GSM 04.10) Radio Resource Management Signalling (TS GSM 04.08 )

SAPI = 3 Short Message Services (TS GSM 04.11)

Priority of SAPIs

On SDCCH: Highest priority: SAPI = 0 Lowest priority: SAPI = 3

On SACCH The priority arrangement on the SACCH must ensure that if a SAPI=3 frame is awaiting transmission, two SAPI=0 frames are not sent in consecutive SACCH frames. In addition, for the MS to network direction it must also be ensured that any SAPI=3 frame is followed by at least one SAPI=0 frame.

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Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)

SAPIs

SAPI = 0: Call Control Signalling (TS GSM 04.08 ) Mobility Management Signalling (TS GSM 04.08 ) Supplementary Services Signalling (TS GSM 04.10) Radio Resource Management Signalling (TS GSM 04.08 ) SAPI = 3: Short Message Services (TS GSM 04.11)

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Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)

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2. Type of Control Channel


The type of control channel on which the Data Link Connection is to be established. This information is not carried in frames between Data Link Layer peer entities but is managed locally in each system and is carried in primitives between layers.

Procedure for Transmission of Message Unit


A. B. The Network Layer (Layer 3) will select the appropriate SAP and DLCI. The Network Layer (Layer 3) will indicate to the Data Link Layer which endpoint has been chosen.

Procedure upon Receipt of a Message Unit


A. When the Data Link Layer Receives a frame containing a Layer 3 message unit, it will have also received from the Physical Layer an indication concerning the type of channel on which the message unit was received. This combined information together with the SAPI will enable the Data Link Layer to deliver the Layer 3 message unit to the required Data Link connection endpoint of the indicated SAP.

B.

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Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)

Signalling model showing channels SAPs and SAPIs

Network Layer 3

SAPI = 0

SAPI = 3

Data Link Random Access

Data Link Procedure UI

Data Link Procedure UI

Data Link Procedure MF + UI

Data Link Procedure MF + UI

Data Link Procedure UI

Data Link Procedure MF

Data Link Distribution Procedure

Data Link Layer 2 Physical Layer 1

RACH

BCCH

PCH + AGCH

SDCCH

FACCH

SACCH + SDCCH

Key: UI = Unacknowledged Information MF = Multiframe Operation


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Air-interface Layer 2

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Air-interface Layer 2
Frame Format Peer-to-Peer Communication
A number of different frame formats exist for the Layer 2 peer-to-peer communication procedure (LAPDm).

Format A
This format is used on a DCCH for frames where there is no real Layer 3 information to be transmitted. It often occurs that Layer 2 (the receiving entity) does not have a Layer 3 message to send after receiving a frame, which requires acknowledging, from its peer. Should this be the case, the Layer 2 entity will simply transmit an empty frame to acknowledge receipt of the last frame, but as yet does not have any information to send in response. The empty frame will contain fill bits, coded with the hexadecimal value 2B or FF.

Format B
This format is used on a DCCH for frames containing an information field.

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Air-interface Layer 2

Layer 2 Frame Structures


Format A
Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Octet No 1 Address Field k Control Field Length Indicator Field n n+1 Fill Bits (Hexadecimal Value 2B or FF) N201+n k+1 k+2

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Format B
Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Octet No 1 Address Field k Control Field Length Indicator Field n n+1 Information Field N N+1 Fill Bits (Hexadecimal Value 2B or FF) N201+n k+1 k+2

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Air-interface Layer 2

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Frame Format Peer-to-Peer Communication


Format Bbis
This format is used only on BCCH, PCH and AGCH. Only used in the unacknowledging mode of signalling data transfer.

Format C
The random access procedure is not LAPDm. Layer 3 is responsible for generating the 8 bit information content of the random access burst and using the primitives will pass this information to the Data Link Layer, the primitives will also contain which type of channel to use. The Data Link Layer will then using the Physical primitives pass the information to the Physical Layer who will send the random access burst. The Physical Layer upon sending the random access burst will inform the Data Link Layer which burst the request was sent in, the Data Link Layer will pass this information up to Layer 3, again using primitives.

Note:
Primitives are the messages which are passed between each of the OSI layers to enable them to communicate with each other.

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Air-interface Layer 2

Format B-bis

Bit 8

Bit 7

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

Octet No 1

Information Field N201

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Frame Delimitation

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Frame Delimitation
(Start and end of frame and/or information elements) Frame delimitation is provided by the Physical Layer (Layer 1). See TS GSM 04.04.

Address Field
The address field may contain a variable number of octets. However, for applications on control channels the field consists of only one octet. The address field identifies the SAP for which a command frame is intended (note: the type of control channel i.e. BCCH, SDCCH etc, is determined using the primitives) and the SAP transmitting a response frame. EA Address Field Extension Bit If this field is coded with a 0 then there is more than one octet to the address field, a 1 in the field indicates that this is the final octet in the address field. C/R Command/Response Field Bit The C/R bit identifies a frame as either a command or response. The MS shall send commands with the C/R bit set to 0 and responds with the C/R bit set to 1. The BSS shall do opposite; that is commands are sent with the C/R bit set to 1 and response with the C/R bit set to 0.

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Address Field

Address Field

Bit 8 Spare

Bit 7

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4 SAPI

Bit 3

Bit 2 C/R

Bit 1 EA=1

Octet No 1

LPD

BSS and MS combinations:


Type Command Command Response Response Direction BS Side to MS Side MS Side to BS Side BS Side to MS Side MS Side to BS Side C/R value 1 0 0 1

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Address Field

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SAPI Service Access Point Identifier


The SAPI identifies a point at which Data Link Layer services are provided by the Data Link Layer to the Layer 3 entity. The SAPI allows 8 service access points to be specified, initially only two have been specified the remainder are reserved for future use.

LPD Link Protocol Discriminator


The Link Protocol Discriminator can take two values only with all other values reserved: 00 01 Corresponds to all other available data link protocols apart from SMSCB (These are defined within TS GSM 04.06). Correspond to the data link protocol used for SMSCB. (These are defined within TS GSM 04.12).

The Link Protocol Discriminator is used for discriminating between the GSM Protocol and other protocols (national or manufacturer specific).

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Address Field

Address Field SAPI Service Access Point Identifier:

SAPI Value 0

Related Entity Call Control Signalling Mobility Management Signalling Supplementary Services Signalling Radio Resource Management Signalling Short Message Service Reserved for future use

3 All Others LPD 00 01 Link Protocol Discriminator:

All other Data Link Protocols apart from SMSCB. Data Link Protocol used for SMSCB.

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Control Field Frame Formats

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Control Field Frame Formats


The control field identifies the type of frame and whether it will be either be a command or a response. The control field will contain receive and send sequence numbers, where applicable. Three types of control field formats are specified: S S Information format numbered information transfer between Layer 3 entities. Supervisory format performs data link supervisory functions, such as acknowledgement of I frames, request retransmission of I frames, and request a temporary suspension of I frames. Unnumbered format Additional unnumbered information transfer and control functions (this format does not contain sequence numbers)

P/F Poll/Final bit


The Poll/Final bit serves a function in both command and response frames. In command frames the P/F bit is referred to ass the P bit and in response frames the P/F bit is referred to as F. The P bit set to a 1 is used by the Data Link Layer entity to create a response from the peer Data Link Layer entity. The F bit set to 1 is used by a Data Link Layer peer entity to indicate the response frame transmitted as a result of a soliciting command. N(S) Send Sequence Number Only I frames contain N(S), the send sequence number of the transmitted I frames. N(R) Receive Sequence Number All I and S frames contain N(R), this is the expected send sequence number of the next received I frame. N(R) indicates that the Data Link Layer entity transmitting N(R) has correctly received all I frames numbered up to and including N(R)1.

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Control Field Frame Formats

Control Field Frame Formats

Bit 8 I Frame S Frame U Frame U

Bit 7 N(R) N(R) U

Bit 6

Bit 5 P P/F

Bit 4

Bit 3 N(S)

Bit 2

Bit 1 0

S U

S U

0 1

1 1

P/F

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Control Field Frame Formats

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S Supervisory Function Bit(s)


The following supervisory commands/responses have been defined using bit 3 and 4 of the control field.

RR Receiver Ready
The RR frame is used by the Data Link Layer entity to indicate: S S S it is ready to receive I frames acknowledge previously received I frames up to and including N(R)1 clear a busy condition which was previously indicated by a RNR frame sent by the same data link entity.

In addition an RR frame with the P bit set to a 1 may be used by the Data Link Layer entity to ask for the status of its peer Data Link Layer entity. No information field is permitted in the RR frame.

REJ Reject Command/response


The REJ command is used by a Data Link Layer entity to request retransmission of I frames starting at N(R). The value 0f N(R) in the REJ frame acknowledges I frames numbered up to and including N(R)1. In addition an REJ frame with the P bit set to a 1 may be used by the Data Link Layer entity to ask for the status of its peer Data Link Layer entity. No information field is permitted in the REJ frame.

RNR Receiver Not Ready


The RNR frame shall be used to by a Data Link Layer entity to indicate a busy condition, that is temporary inability to accept additional incoming I frames. The value of N(R) in the RNR frame acknowledges I frames numbered up to and including N(R)1. In addition an RNR frame with the P bit set to a 1 may be used by the Data Link Layer entity to ask for the status of its peer Data Link Layer entity. No information field is permitted in the RNR frame.

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Control Field Frame Formats

Supervisory Function Bits

Bit 4 0 0 1

Bit 3 0 1 0

Command/Response RR Receiver Ready RNR Receiver Not Ready REJ Receiver Reject

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Control Field Frame Formats

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U Unnumbered Function Bit


SABM Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Command
The SABM is used to place the addressed user side or network side into the modulo 8 multiple frame acknowledged operation (the ability to transfer I frames). If the SABM is in the MS to BSS direction in order to establish a SAPI=0 data link (for contention resolution after having transmitted a random access frame on the RACH), Layer 3 will indicate whether an information field is to be included.

Note:
SABM frames cannot contain Layer 3 frames which have to be segmented. A Data Link Layer entity confirms acceptance of a SABM command by transmission at the first opportunity of a UA response. Upon acceptance all variables for the for next transmitted I frame, next received I frame and acknowledged I frames are set to 0. Any currently unacknowledged I frames, remain unacknowledged and shall be discarded, it is the responsibility of the higher layers to recover form the loss of this information.

DISC Disconnect Command


The DISC unnumbered command is transmitted to terminate the multiple frame operation. Prior to actioning this command the Data Link Layer receiving the DISC command confirms the acceptance of the DISC command by the transmission of a UA response. The Data Link Layer entity sending the DISC command terminates multiple frame operation when it receives the acknowledging UA or DM response.

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Control Field Frame Formats

U Frames

Command SABM

Response DM

8 0 0 0 0

7 0 0 0 1 1

6 1 0 0 0 1

5 P F P P F

4 1 1 0 0 0

3 1 1 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

UI DISC UA

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Control Field Frame Formats

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U Unnumbered Function Bit


UI Unnumbered Information Command
When a Data Link Layer requests unacknowledged Information transfer, the UI unnumbered command shall be used to send information to its peer without affecting data link variables (number of acknowledged I frame, next I frame to be transmitted/received). UI frames do not carry a sequence number. Therefore a UI frame may be lost without notification to the Layer 3 entity if a Data Link Layer exception occurs during transmission of the command.

UA Unnumbered Acknowledgement Response


The UA frame is used by a Data Link Layer to acknowledge the receipt and acceptance of a SABM or DISC commands. The SABM or DISC commands are not actioned until the UA response is transmitted. If an information field is present in the received SABM then the UA response shall contain the same information field as received in the SABM. The transmission of a UA frame indicates the clearance of a busy condition that was reported earlier by the transmission of an RNR frame by the same Data Link Layer.

DM Disconnect Mode Response


The DM unnumbered response is used by a Data Link Layer to report to its peer that the Data Link Layer is in a state such that multiple frame operation cannot be performed. A Data Link Layer shall transmit a DM response to any valid command it received which it cannot action. No information field is present in the DM response.

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Control Field Frame Formats

U Frames

Command SABM

Response DM

8 0 0 0 0

7 0 0 0 1 1

6 1 0 0 0 1

5 P/F F P P F

4 1 1 0 0 0

3 1 1 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

UI DISC UA

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Control Field Frame Formats

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Length Indicator
EL Extension Bit
A 1 in the EL field indicates that this is the final octet of the length indicator field, a 0 indicates that the length indicator field is extended.

M More Data Bits


The M data bit is used to indicate segmentation of Layer 3 message data units on Data Link Layer frames. Only I frames shall contain segmented Layer 3 information. When the M bit is set to 1, it indicates that the information field of the frame contains only a segment of the Layer 3 message unit. The M bit set to 0 indicates S S that the information field contains a complete Layer 3 message unit provided that the M bit of the previous frame was set to 0 that the information frame contains the last segment of the Layer 3 message unit if the M bit of the previous frame was set to 1.

Note:
When the M bit is set to 1 the information field shall contain the maximum number of octets, N201 that an information frame can contain. Frames may contain fill bits, octets containing fill bits shall take the binary value 00101011 when sent by the network. Octets containing fill bits shall take the binary value 00101011 or 11111111 when sent by the MS.

Length length field bits


The length field bits shall be any value from 0N201 inclusive. A length= 0 shall be used in frames not containing an information field.

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Control Field Frame Formats

Length Indicator

Bit 8

Bit 7

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2
M

Bit 1
EL=1

Length

Key: EL = Extension Bit M = More Data Bits Length = length field bits

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List of System Parameters (LAPDm)

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List of System Parameters (LAPDm)


Timer T200
T200 is set such that it is possible to receive an acknowledgement from the peer entity of the transmitting Data Link Layer, taking into account all processing and propagation delays. If T200 Expires then the frame transmitted which started T200 is retransmitted and the counter N200 is incremented.

Counter N200
N200 is the maximum number of transactions between the Data Link Layers of an unacknowledged frame. For SAPI=0 and SAPI=3 the value of N200 shall be set = 5. In the state Timer Recovery the value of N200 shall be: 5 for use on SACCH 23 for use on SDCCH 34 for use on FACCH/full rate 29 for use on FACCH/half rate (Timer recovery is defined in TS GSM 04.06)

Maximum Number of outstanding I frames (k)


The maximum number of sequentially numbered I frames that may be outstanding (that is unacknowledged) at any given time for SAPI=0 and SAPI=3 the value shall be k=1.

Maximum number of Octets in an I, UI SABM and UA frame information field (N201)


The maximum number of octets in an information field (N201): S S S for the SACCH: N201=18 for the FACCH and SDCCH: N201=20 for the BCCH, AGCH + PGH: N201=23

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List of System Parameters (LAPDm)

System Parameters

Timer Counter Counter -

T200 N200 N201

Outstanding I Frames - k (k=1)

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Air-interface Layer 3

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Air-interface Layer 3
Introduction
The Signalling Layer 3 comprises of the following groups of signalling functions: S S S S S Call Control (CC) Short Message Service Support (SMS) Supplementary Services Support (SS) Mobility Management (MM) Radio Resource Management (RR)

These functional groups are realised by separate protocol control entities. Both RRM and MM have the task to route the messages according to the Protocol Discriminator (PD) and the Transaction Identifier (TI) which are part of the message header.

Services provided by Signalling Layer 3 at the MS side


The different classes of services provided by the Signalling Layer 3 at the MS side are accessible at the following Service Access Points. S S S S Registration Services at the MM REG SAP. CC services for normal and emergency calls including call related Supplementary Services at the MNCCSAP. Short Message Services support services at the MN SMSSAP. Call Independent Supplementary services, support services at the MNSSSAP.

The registration services (location updating IMSI attach/detach) are provided at the service access point MM REGSAP. These services are provided by and can be directly accessed at the MM sub-layer.

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Air-interface Layer 3

Layer 3 Signalling Model

MNCCSAP

MNSSSAP

MNSMSSAP

CONNECTION MANAGEMENT CALL CONTROL (CC) SUPP SERVICE SUPPORT (SS) SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS)

MM CCSAP MM REGSAP MMSSSAP TI TI TI

MMSMSSAP

MM
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT (MM)

CC
PD

SS

SMS

RR PD RADIO RESOURCES (RR)

RR

SAPI=0

SAPI=3

RACH

BCCH

AGC SDCCH SACCH FACCH H+PG H

SDCCH SACCH

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Radio Resource Management Sub-layer

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Radio Resource Management Sub-layer


The sub-layer is responsible for: S S S The management of the frequency spectrum The systems reactions to the changing radio environment The maintenance of a clear channel between the Public Land Mobile Network and the Mobile Subscriber

These responsibilities will include, channel assignment, power level control, time alignment and handovers. The Radio Resource sub-layer handles all the procedures necessary to establish, maintain and release dedicated radio connections.

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Radio Resource Management Sub-layer

Radio Resource Sub-layer:

Channel Assignment Procedures Channel Release Channel Change and Handover Procedures Change of: Channel Frequencies Hopping Sequences Measurement Reports Power Control Timing Advance Modification of Channel Modes (speech and data) Cipher Mode Setting

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Mobility Management Sub-layer

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Mobility Management Sub-layer


The Mobility Management Sub-layer has to deal with all the effects of handling a Mobile Subscriber that is not directly related to radio functions. These functions will include all tasks relevant to authorisation of a particular Mobile Subscriber for connection to the network. These tasks will include: S S S S S S Support a user mobility, registration and management of mobility data. Checking the user and the equipment identity. Checking if the user is allowed to use the services and what kind of extra services are allowed. Support of user confidentiality. Provision of user security. Provision of a Mobility Management connection, based on an existing Radio Resource connection to the Connection Management sub-layer

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Mobility Management Sub-layer

Mobility Management Sub-layer:

Location Update Procedure Periodic Updating Authentication Procedure IMSI Attach Procedure IMSI Detach Procedure TMSI Reallocation Procedure Identification Procedure

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Connection Management Sub-layer

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Connection Management Sub-layer


The Connection Management sub-layer is composed of: S S S Call Control GSM 04.08 Supplementary Service Support GSM 04.11 Short Message Service Support GSM 04.10

The sub-layer itself manages all the functions necessary for circuit-switched call control within the GSM Public Land Mobile Network. These functions are provided by the Call Control entity within the sub-layer, with the other entities providing Supplementary Services and Short Message Services.

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Connection Management Sub-layer

Connection Management Sub-layer

Call Control: S Call establishment procedure for mobile originated calls


S

Call establishment procedures for mobile terminated calls Call reestablishment after interruption of a Mobility Management connection DualTone Multifrequency (DTMF) control procedure for DTMF transmissions

Supplementary Services: S Specific variations of the way the basic service is provided to the user Short Message Services: S Provision of PointtoPoint Short Message Service

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Layer 3 Frame Structure

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Layer 3 Frame Structure


The Layer 3 information elements are defined in TS GSM 04.08. Every message, with the exception of the messages sent on the BCCH, downlink CCCH, SCH, RACH, and HANDOVER ACCESS message, is a standard Layer 3 message as defined in TS GSM 04.07.

The standard Layer 3 message consists of: S S S Protocol Discriminator (PD). Transaction Identifier (TI), or Skip Indicator. Message Type.

Other information elements as required.

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Layer 3 Frame Structure

Layer 3 Header

Bit 8

Bit 7

Bit 6

Bit 5

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

Transaction Identifier or Skip Indicator

Protocol Discriminator

Message Type Other information elements as required

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Protocol Discriminator/Skip Indicator

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Protocol Discriminator/Skip Indicator


Bits 1 to 4 of the first octet of a standard L3 message contain the Protocol Discriminator (PD) information element. The PD identifies the L3 protocol to which the standard Layer 3 message belongs. The correspondence between L3 protocols and PDs is one-to-one. The PD can take the following values:

bits 0 0 0

4 0 1 1 1

2 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 call control; call related SS messages mobility management messages radio resources management messages SMS messages non call related SS messages reserved for tests procedures described in TS GSM 11.10

1 1 0 0 1

If the network receives a standard L3 message with a protocol discriminator different from those specified above the network may ignore the message or initiate the channel release procedure. If the mobile station receives a standard L3 message with a protocol discriminator different from those specified above, the mobile station shall ignore the message.

Skip Indicator
Bits 5 to 8 of the first octet of every Radio Resource management message and Mobility Management message contains the skip indicator. A message received with skip indicator different from 0000 shall be ignored. A message received with skip indicator encoded as 0000 shall not be ignored (unless it is ignored for other reasons). A protocol entity sending a Radio Resource Management message or a Mobility Management message shall encode the skip indicator as 0000.

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Skip Indicator

Layer 3 Message Structure

OCTET 1

IE

TYPE

TI or Skip Indicator

PD

4 3 2 1 x x x x

bits

4 0 0 0 1 1 1

3 0 1 1 0 0 1

2 1 0 1 0 1 1

1 1 1 0 1 1 1 call control; call related SS messages mobility management messages radio resources management messages SMS messages non call related SS messages reserved for tests procedures described in TS GSM 11.10

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Transaction Identifier

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Transaction Identifier
The Transaction Identifier (TI) is a pointer with a length of four bits. It is used to distinguish between (possible) multiple parallel Connection Management connections and between the various transactions over these simultaneous Connection Management connections. Bits 5 to 8 of octet 1 of a standard L3 message may contain the Transaction Identifier (TI) IE. The TI IE is coded as shown opposite. It is composed of the TI value and the TI flag. The TI value and the TI flag occupy bits 57 and bit 8 of the first octet respectively. TI values are assigned by the side of the interface initiating a transaction. At the beginning of a transaction a free TI value (i.e. a value not yet used for the given PD and with the given originator) is chosen and assigned to this transaction. It then remains fixed for the life time of the transaction. After a transaction ends, the associated TI value is free and may be reassigned to a later transaction. Two identical transaction identifier values may be used when each value pertains to a transaction originated at opposite ends of the interface. In this case the TI flag should avoid ambiguity. The transaction identifier flag can take the values 0 or 1. The TI flag is used to identify which end of the radio interface originated a TI. The origination side always sets the TI flag to 0. The destination side always sets the TI flag to a 1. Hence the TI flag identifies who allocated the TI value for this transaction and the only purpose of the TI flag is to resolve simultaneous attempts to allocate the same TI value. TI flag (octet 1) Bit 8

0 1

The message is sent from the side that originates the TI. 1st The message is sent to the side that originates the TI. 2nd

TI value (octet 1)

7 6 5 0 0 0 TI value 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 1 1 Reserved for future extension

Note:
IE Information Element
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Transaction Identifier

Layer 3 Message Structure

OCTET 1

IE

TYPE

TI or Skip Indicator

PD

8 Key: IE Information Elements TI Transaction Identifier PD Protocol Discriminator


TI FLAG

6
TI VALUE

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Message Type

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Message Type
The message type element defined in the transparent L3 IEs is defined in TS GSM 04.08. The message defines if the message is for Radio Resource Management, Mobility Management or Connection Management. Bit 8 is reserved for possible future use as an extension bit. The Mobility Management messages and the Connection Management messages using SAPI= 0 sent from the Mobile Station to the network will specify the send sequence number N(SD) in bit 7. At the time when such a message is designated for transmission the value N(SD) for the message to be transferred is not equal to the value of the send state variable. In all other standard Layer 3 messages bit 7 is set to 0 by the sending side, the receiving side shall ignore such messages if bit 7 is set to 1. For a complete list of the different types of message elements refer to TS GSM 04.08. Note the information elements are defined in TS GSM 04.08.

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Message Type

Layer 3 Message Structure

INFORMAION ELEMENTS

TYPE

TRANSACTION OR SKIP IDENTIFIER

PROTOCOL DISCRIMINATOR

BIT 8

BIT 7 MESSAGE TYPE (RR)

RESERVED

MESSAGE TYPE (MM, CC)

1 OCTET
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Message Sequence Scenarios

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Message Sequence Scenarios


The best way of understanding the interface procedures is to examine the common message sequence scenarios which highlight the flow of messages between the Mobile Subscriber and the BTS. The main message sequence scenarios are shown: S S S S Mobile Originating Call Establishment. Mobile Terminating Call Establishment. Location Updating. Call Clearing

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Message Sequence Scenarios

Mobile originating call establishment Mobile terminating call establishment Location updating Call clearing

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Message Sequence Scenarios

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Mobile Originating Call Establishment


The mobile station initiates the call by transmitting a Channel Request. The Network will respond with an immediate assignment message informing the Mobile Station on which SDCCH the rest of the call set up procedure will take place. The Mobile Station establishes contact on the SDCCH by transmitting a SABM LAPDm frame containing the DTAP message CM Service Request. However, the Network could also respond with an assignment reject message. The Network may then initiate authentication and may start the ciphering mode setting. After sending the Ciphering Mode Complete message, the Mobile Station initiates the call establishment by sending the setup message to the network. The Network answers with a Call Proceeding message.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Mobile Originating Call Establishment

Mobile Station
Access Burst (Channel Request) Immediate Assignment
SABM UA RR RR MM MM MM RR RR CC CC RR

Network

CM Service Request Authentication Request Authentication Response Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Set up Call Proceeding Assignment Command SABM on FACCH

Authentication

Ciphering Mode Setting

Call Initialization

Assignment of a Traffic Channel


RR CC CC CC

UA

Assignment Complete Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge

User Alerting Call Accepted

Key: RR Radio Resources MM Mobility Management CC Call Control

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Message Sequence Scenarios

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Mobile Terminating Call Establishment


Mobile terminating call establishment is initiated by the Network sending a paging request message. Upon receiving this message the Mobile Station initiates the immediate assignment procedure and responds to the Network by sending the Paging Response message within a Layer 2 SABM frame. The Network returns a Layer 2 UA frame containing the same information field as was sent in the SABM frame. Authentication and ciphering are treated by the Network in the same way as defined for the Mobile originating call establishment. After ciphering has been started, the Network sends a setup message to the Mobile Station. The capability of the Mobile Station (at that time) to accept the call is confirmed when the mobile station returns a call confirmed message to the Network.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Mobile Terminating Call Establishment

Mobile Station
Paging Request Channel Request Immediate Assignment Paging Response Authentication Request

Network

Authentication
Authentication Response Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Set up Call Confirmed Assignment Command Assignment Complete Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge

Ciphering Mode Setting

Call Initialization Assignment of a Traffic Channel User Alerting Information Call Accepted

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Message Sequence Scenarios

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Location Updating
The updating procedure is always initiated by the Mobile Station for example: when the Mobile Station finds itself in a different location area from the one in which it was registered before. The location updating procedure is a general procedure which is used for the following purposes: S S S Normal location updating Periodic updating IMSI attach

Normal location updating procedure is used to update the registration of the actual location area of a Mobile Station in the Network. Periodic updating may be used to notify the availability of the Mobile Station to the Network. The IMSI attach procedure is used to indicate the IMSI as active in the Network. The Network may decide whether to allocate a new TMSI during location updating, this option is reflected in the example.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Location Updating

Mobile Station
Channel Request Immediate Assignment Location Updating Request Authentication Request Authentication Response Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Location Updating Accept TMSI Reallocation Complete Channel Release DISC UA or DM

Network

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Message Sequence Scenarios

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Call Clearing
Initiated by the Network:
The Network initiates the clearing of a call by sending a Disconnect message to the Mobile Station. Upon receiving the Disconnect message from the Network the Mobile Station sends a release message to the Network. Upon receiving the release message from the Mobile Station, the Network sends Release Complete to the Mobile Station and if the traffic channel is no longer needed performs the channel release procedure. Upon receiving the Release Complete message and if the cleared call was the last activity on the traffic channel, the Mobile Station waits for the release of the channel which is always initialised by the Network.

Initiated by the Mobile Station:


The Mobile Station initiates the clearing of a call by sending a Disconnect message to the Network. Upon receiving the Disconnect message from the Mobile Station the Network sends a Release Message to the Mobile Station. Upon receiving the Release Message from the network, the Mobile Station sends a Release Complete to the Network, which, if the traffic channel is no longer needed performs the channel release procedure.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Call Clearing Initiated by the Network


Mobile Station
Disconnect Call Clearing

Network

Release

Release Complete

Channel Release

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Call Clearing Initiated by the Mobile Station


Mobile Station
Disconnect Call Clearing

Network

Release

Release Complete

Channel Release

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Message Flow Scenarios

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Message Flow Scenarios


A practical session to show message flow scenarios across the Um interface will now be set up by your instructor.

The practical demonstrations will include: S S S S Call setup Handover Call clear down Paging response

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Message Flow Scenarios

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Exercise

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Exercise
The purpose of this exercise is to construct the Layer 2 and Layer 3 information elements for a MS to network CM Service Request using the SABM. The MS is to be identified by its TMSI. No Ciphering Key Sequence Number is available. The MS is a phase 1 mobile. A5/1 is available, A5/2 and A5/3 are not available. The MS is power class 2, GSM 900. Pseudo synchronisation capability is not present. Short message capability not present. The MS does not support the extension band G1 (extended GSM frequency range) No additional MS capability information is present.

Use the Table opposite for your answer. Supplementary Screen Indicator is 00

Hint:
You will need to refer to TS GSM 04.07, 04.08 and 04.80 for your answers.

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Exercise

Exercise


Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Element Address Field

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Exercise

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Chapter 4

Common Bearer [2 Mbit/s Links]

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Chapter 4 Common Bearer [2 Mbit/s Links] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Common Bearer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Links Common Channel Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Density Bipolar 3 (HDB3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rx Buffer/Slip Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slip Loss Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Alignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sync Loss Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sync Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GCLK Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Loss Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bit Error Rate (BER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BER Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BER Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cyclic Redundancy Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Database Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i
41 41 42 44 46 46 48 410 410 412 412 414 414 414 416 422 422 424 424 424 426 426 426 428

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Common Bearer

Common Bearer
Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S S S Identify the connectivity, using the 2 Mbit/s links. State the TDM frame format and alignment procedures. Identify the uses of CRC-4. Understand the implementation of GCLK synchronization.

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Introduction

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Introduction
As previously mentioned the GSM system entities are connected using a common bearer system this being the 2 Mbit/s link. For 75ohm cable termination we use T43 Interconnect Boards (T43IB) and for 120ohm twisted pair termination we use Balanced Line Interconnect Boards (BIB). Within the BSU two digital boards are used to interface the 2 Mbit/s links to the TDM highway. The first board is the Multiple Serial Interface board (MSI), this board can terminate up to two 2 Mbit/s links. The second board is the Transcoder Board (XCDR) which only terminates one 2 Mbit/s link but it also has the ability to perform the GSM defined transcoding function on up to 30 channels of the 32 channels on the 2 Mbit/s link.

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Introduction

Common Bearer (2 Mbit/s Link)

PSTN

MSC

MSC

CBC

RXCDR

OMCR

BSC BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS

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Signalling Links Common Channel Signalling

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Signalling Links Common Channel Signalling


The signalling links on the GSM terrestrial interfaces utilize common channel signalling. This means the signalling link is kept separate from the traffic. As the signalling is kept separate from the traffic, it does not have to follow the same physical route as the traffic. Using common channel signalling allows a signalling message to be transmitted whenever a slot becomes available, i.e. there is no dedicated time reserved for a particular traffic circuit to transmit its signalling data. The advantages of common channel signalling are: S S S S S S Signalling possible at any time Signalling repertoire is increased Signalling protocols are flexible Signalling can include processor and network management functions Signalling is more economical Signalling speed is increased

The terrestrial signalling links used in the Motorola GSM system are all 64 kbit/s timeslots on the common bearer (2 Mbit/s link). It is normal to have both traffic and signalling using a single 2 Mbit/s link for efficient use of the 2 Mbit/s link.

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Signalling Links Common Channel Signalling

Signalling Links Common Channel Signalling

2 Mbit/s Link

MSC

Traffic Channels

BSS

Control Processor
Signalling (64 Kbps Timeslot)

Control Processor

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Transmission Code

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Transmission Code
High Density Bipolar 3 (HDB3)
The transmission of a digital bit stream along a line has two main problems, the first is the introduction of a DC component. This has the effect of causing cross-talk/interference with other cable pairs. To overcome this we use a code called alternate mark inversion. In the diagram opposite a mark is normally a positive voltage. (In this case every other positive mark is inverted to a negative mark. This prevents the build up of a DC level on a copper wire, therefore making it easier for the receiving equipment to distinguish the difference between a 1 and a 0.) The second problem is that both ends of a digital link are required to be synchronised. This can be achieved by the transmission of a clock signal, but this will require an additional cable pair, however, it can also be achieved by using a transmission code. HDB3 is a type of transmission code which ensures that sufficient marks (1s) are sent to line so that the receiver can use the data stream to extract a clock, thus saving on the number of cable pairs required. HDB3 checks the data stream for the number of consecutive 0s. If this number reaches 4, the transmitter will alter this to a mark (1). To enable the receiver to determine that the transmitter has carried out this alteration, the transmitted mark is sent in the same polarity as the last mark, called a violation. The receiver recognising this violation mark reinserts the 0. If the data stream has a further consecutive number of 0s, then the transmitter will insert two violation bits, to indicate that this is the second count of 0s. These two violation bits are in the same polarity but the opposite from the last violation mark. This transmission code ensures that even with data of continuous 0s, there is a 50% duty cycle rate, thus the receiver can still extract the clock signal for synchronisation.

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Transmission Code

High Density Bipolar 3 (HDB3)

Data: 0 +ve 0v ve

Signal Data

TRANSMIT DATA STREAM


+ve
Vm

0v
Vm

Vm

ve

Vm

HDB3 Code
Key: Vm = Violation mark inserted

Balancing bits to ensure consecutive violations are opposite polarity and hence no dc component is introduced and the receiver can perform clock extraction.

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Transmission Code

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Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


When using time division multiplexing (TDM) a number of different channels can be transmitted on a single line by allowing each channel in turn to transmit to the line for a certain period of time. This period of allocated time is called a timeslot. The channels are sampled in turn and time division multiplexed before being transmitted, each channel (timeslot) being represented by an 8 bit code. The system bit rate (the speed of transmission) can be calculated as follows: Bit Rate = Sampling Frequency x Number of Bits per sample x Number of timeslots (Channels) 8000 x 8 x 32 = 2.048 Mbit/s. Usually referred to as 2 Mbit/s systems. Timeslot (TS) 0 does not carry traffic. Timeslot 0 in each frame is used for frame alignment purposes.

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Transmission Code

TDM Frame Format

Frame 0 125m sec (256 bits)


Timeslot

31

Traffic Timeslots

Alignment Timeslot 8 bits

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Transmission Code

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Rx Buffer/Slip Loss
The incoming bit stream is stored in a receive buffer which can accommodate two complete TDM frames (512 bits). The alignment procedure uses a sliding window to locate the frame alignment word (FAW), which indicates the start of the frame. The receiver knows how many bits there are in a single frame (256 bits) and therefore should be able to locate the complete frame in the buffer store. Slip loss is when either the frame alignment word or part of the frame structure can not be located within the buffer storage area. When this occurs the receiver buffer is required to be reset and consequently the loss of at least one frame.

Slip Loss Counters


These are database parameters and are equipped for every site, using the change_element command. Slip_loss_daily Number of slip errors in 24 hour period. (Minor alarm generated)

Slip_loss_hourly Number of slip errors in one hour period. (Major alarm generated) Slip loss_oos Number of slip errors before the link is taken out of service, within a 24 hour period. (Critical alarm generated)

Slip_loss_restore Minimum time period of error-free before link is restored to service. (Clear indication generated)

An occurrence of slip loss causes the hourly, daily and out-of-service (OOS) counters to be incremented.

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Transmission Code

Receive Buffer

Buffer Storage Area (512 bits) 128 bits TS 0 FRAME 256 bits SLIDING WINDOW
8 bits

128 bits

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Slip Loss

Buffer Storage Area

300 bits

TS 0

SLIDING WINDOW
8 bits

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Frame Alignment Procedures

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Frame Alignment Procedures


Timeslot (TS) 0 contains one of two fixed bit patterns so that the far end receive buffer can discriminate between different frames. One of the bit patterns is inserted into TS 0 of frame 0 and will be inserted into TS 0 of each even numbered frames. The other bit pattern will be inserted into each odd numbered frame. The two bit patterns are sent alternately and are known as the Frame Alignment Word (FAW) and Frame Data Word (FDW).

BIT 1

1
EVEN FRAMES FRAME ALIGNMENT WORD (FAW)

TOGGLE BIT FOR SYNCHRONIZATION USED FOR CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECKING

BIT 1

0 /1
REMOTE ALARM (BIT 3=1)

S
ODD FRAMES FRAME DATA WORD (FDW)

S=Spare bits, set to `0 ' if not used, can be used for low speed data.

N Bit
It is possible to set an extra remote alarm bit, the n bit. The bit which is used for this purpose is bit 4 of the frame data word. The actual use of this bit is specified by the customer but the bit must be enabled using the modify_value command. Again this bit can be enabled for all sites using the all location index.
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Frame Alignment Procedures

Frame Structure

TS O FAW TS O FDW TS O FAW TS O FDW TS O FAW TS O FDW TS O FAW TS O FDW TS O FAW

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS O TS 1 FDW TS O FAW TS O FDW TS O FAW TS O FDW TS O FAW TS O FDW TS 1

TS 31

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

TS 1

TS 31

Key: FAW = Frame Alignment Word FDW = Frame Data Word

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Synchronization

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Synchronization
Synchronization is achieved when the sliding window detects the Frame Alignment Word (FAW) and sets the frame in the middle of the receiver buffer. Continued synchronization is dependant upon the window detecting the FAW and Frame Data Word (FDW) at 256 bit intervals.

Note: The synchronization is dependant on BIT 2 of the FAW/FDW toggling.


Synchronization loss occurs when 3 consecutive frame alignment signals (FAW/FDW) are received with an error. If this occurs then link alignment will recommence.

Sync Loss Counters


These are database parameters, which are equipped at every site and use the change_ element command.

sync_loss_daily sync_loss_hourly sync_loss_oos sync_loss_restore TIMER COUNTERS

Sync Timers
sync_timeoos Immediately a synchronization loss occurs the sync_time_oos is started, this sets the maximum time the error can exist before the link is taken out of service. At the same time a condition is sent to the distance end. sync_time_restore sets the minimum time after restoring synchronization, the link has to be free of sync errors before restoring to service.

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Synchronization

Synchronization Timers

Sync Error

Increment: Sync_loss_daily Sync_loss_oos Sync_loss_hourly

sync_time_oos = started

Expires Link = Unlock/Disbaled)

Sync restored

sync_time_restore = started (Link = Unlock/Enabled)

sync_time_restore expires without any sync_loss_errors (Link = Unlock/Busy)

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GCLK Synchronization

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GCLK Synchronization
The aim of the GCLK synchronization is to provide: S S RF carrier frequencies to within +/0.05ppm Synchronization of E1 or T1 links to minimise Frame slips On site calibrations

The network clock should be maintained at +/0.01ppm of 2,048 MHz E1, or 1.544 MHz T1. To maintain the link the clock or data should have no breaks greater than 80msecs, this would cause loss of synch. The synchronization circuit resides on the GCLK board (used in BSC, BTS & RXCDR). The feature will operate with BTSs in star, daisy chain and loop topologies. The network can be run from one high quality, high accuracy clock. There is still the ability to have two GCLKs at each Network element (BTS, RXCDR or BSC). Once synchronization to a known good clock source the Network Elements can self calibrate to this clock (calibration is not eliminated but its occurrence is reduced.

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GCLK Synchronization

GCLK Synchronization

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

MSC

Network Clock

GCLK RXCDR E 1 OR T1 Links

GCLK BTS 2 Mbs

GCLK BSC

GCLK BTS

GCLK BTS

GCLK BTS

GCLK BTS
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GCLK Synchronization

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GCLK Synchronization
In order to phase lock, a GCLK must have a span assigned as a reference source. Parameters in the database can be used to specify priorities applicable to each span at a site. These priorities will be used to determine the order of selection of spans as a reference source. Should the chosen span subsequently go out-of-service a GCLK reference fail alarm will be initiated. A timer controls the time the system will wait before selecting another span for extraction. If the current span returns to synch before the timer expires then it will remain the clock extraction source.

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GCLK Synchronization

GCLK Synchronization

chg_element phase_lock_gclk <*> <site> * 0 Disable phase locking 1 Enable phase locking

chg_element wait_for_reselection <*><site> * 0255 (seconds) Default Value: 10

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GCLK Synchronization

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GCLK Synchronization
To enable the GCLK to synchronize to an E1 or T1 a suitable source must exist. The priority for source selection is: 1. 2. 3. 4. MMS in service. Priority of MMS (database parameter) Number of times the MMS has gone out-of-service (oos) in a given period If priority and MMS oos are equal the order of selection of sources shall be on a rotation basis.

The priority of each MMS can be individually set: modify_value <site> mms_priority <*> mms <mms_id 1> <mms_id 2> * 0255 0 1 MMS will not be selected Lowest priority

255 Highest priority A count of the number of times the MMS goes oos is kept to enable the prioritizing algorithm to function. A reset period is used to delimit the time for which an oos count is held. At the end of each reset period the oos count is reset to zero and the count begins again. chg_element clk_src_fail_reset_period <*> <site> * 1255 Hours

After initialization of the site the GCLK will attempt to synchronize to the chosen MMS, the time duration taken for this synchronization will vary depending on the hardware revision level of the card. If the synchronization has been maintained for phase_lock_duration the CA will declare the GCLK phase locked. The default value for this variable is 0 which indicates that there is no change from the minimum period defined for the revision level of the GCLK. The variable may be set on an MMS basis to account for different transmission media. modify_value<site>phase_lock_duration <*> mms <mms_id 1> <mms_id 2> * 0 Default, GCLK revision level dependent, any MMS details ignored 1 3600 seconds MMS details used

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GCLK Synchronization

GCLK Synchronization

MMS Priority: modify_value <site> mms_priority <*> mms <mms_id 1> <mms_id 2> * 0255 0 MMS will not be selected 1 Lowest priority 255 Highest priority

Time for which OOS count is held: chg_element clk_src_fail_reset_period <*> <site> * 1255 Hours Synchronization period maintained: modify_value <site>phase_lock_duration <*> mms <mms_id 1> <mms_id 2> * 0 Default, GCLK revision level dependent, any mms details ignored 1 3600 seconds mms details used
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GCLK Synchronization

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Remote Alarm
When a synchronisation alarm occurs the sync_time_oos timer is started at the local end and remote flag alarm is set (bit 3 of the FDW). When the remote flag is detected the distant end starts a timer (remote_time_oos) and increments the counters, remote_loss_daily, remote_loss_hourly and remote_loss_oos . The timer remote_time_oos sets the period in which a remote flag must be received before the link is taken out of service and passed back to layer 1 for link alignment. If the link was taken out of service due to remote_time_oos then the link can only be returned back to service when there have been no remote_loss alarms for the time specified in timer remote_time_restore. remote_time_oos remote_time_restore

Remote Loss Alarms


Two database parameters are used which indicate the number of remote_loss alarms that can occur in a given period (hourly/daily) before an alarm message is generated.

Note: these alarms can only be generated once during the given period, e.g. if the alarm condition for the remote_loss_hourly was met in the first 10 minutes then an alarm message would be generated, no alarm messages could be generated after this initial one until the 1 hour period had elapsed and the remote_loss_hourly alarm was reset.
Another parameter is used to set an upper limit to the number of remote_loss alarms that we will allow in any one day before we take the link out of service, remote_loss_oos . If this parameter is met then an alarm is generated and the link is passed back to layer 1 for link realignment. If the link was taken out of service due to an remote_loss_oos then the link can only be restored back to service when there are no remote_loss alarms for a period of time defined in remote_loss_restore.

remote_loss_hourly remote_loss_daily remote_loss_oos remote_loss_restore

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GCLK Synchronization

Remote Timers

Distant
BIT 3 FDW SET (Remote Flag) remote_time_oos (STARTED) Increments: REMOTE_LOSS_DAILY REMOTE_LOSS_HOURLY REMOTE_LOSS_OOS remote_time_oos (EXPIRES) BIT 3 FDW SET (Remote Flag) BIT 3 FDW SET (Remote Flag) BIT 3 FDW SET (Remote Flag) BIT 3 FDW SET (Remote Flag)

Local
SYNC ALARM sync_time_oos (STARTED)

sync_time_oos (EXPIRES)

DISABLE MMS

DISABLE MMS (SYNCHRONIZATION GAINED)

BIT 3 FDW NOT SET remote_time_restore (STARTED) BIT 3 FDW NOT SET remote_time_restore (EXPIRES) BIT 3 FDW NOT SET remote_time_restore (EXPIRES) MMS in service

sync_time_restore (STARTED)

sync_time_restore (EXPIRES) MMS in service

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GCLK Synchronization

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Bit Error Rate (BER)


After the link has achieved link alignment/synchronisation, it is checked for bit errors over a period of time, to ensure that this is below a pre-determined value. Typical BER rate 10e4 eg. 1 error every 10,000 bits. Bit errors are constantly being checked against the known fixed bits in both the Frame Alignment Word and Frame Data Word (Bits 28 FAW/Bit 2 FDW). If any errors are detected in these 8 bits (over two frames time periods) a counter will be incremented and should the total errors over a particular time exceed the counters threshold then the link will be taken out of service.

BER Timers
These parameters form part of the firmware of the MSI/XCDR card and set the monitoring periods. The values may be changed using the modify value command. ber_oos_mon_period The amount of time that an in-service MMS must be above a set BER rate before it is taken oos.

ber_restore_mon_period The amount of time an oos MMS must be below a set BER before it is put back in service.

BER Counters
These parameters are part of the database and are set using the change_element command. Ber_loss_daily Ber_loss_hourly Indicates the BER daily alarms. Indicates the BER hourly alarms.

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GCLK Synchronization

BER Fixed Bits

*
2 Frames

Frame Alignment Word

0 *

_ 1 _1 _ 0 _ _
8 Fixed Bits

Frame Data Word

Bit Error Rate = 10e 4 1 = Fixed Bit

BER Timers:

ber_oos_mon_period ber_restore_mon_period ber_loss_daily ber_loss_hourly

BER Counters:

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GCLK Synchronization

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Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC)


Where there is a need to provide additional protection and enhanced error monitoring capacity, then Cyclic Redundancy Check4 (CRC4) procedure is used. All MSI/XCDR cards are fitted with this procedure but must be capable of interworking with equipment which does not incorporate the CRC procedures, this being optional. CRC4 procedure utilises bit 1 of each frame, over a complete multiframe (16 frames). This multiframe is further divided into two sub-multiframes (07) (815) each with a block size of 2048 bits. In those frames containing the Frame Alignment Word, bit 1 is used to transmit the CRC4 bits designated C1 C4, for each sub-multiframe. In those frames containing the frame data word bit 1 is used to transmit a 6-bit CRC4 multiframe alignment signal and two CRC4 error indication bits (E). This CRC multiframe alignment signal is 001011 spread over frames 111. The E-bits indicate a received error from either of the two sub-multiframes (frame 13 bit 1= sub-multiframe 1 frame 15 bit 1= sub-multiframe 2).

Cyclic Redundancy Check


For each sub-multiframe, which consists of 2048 bits a polynomial is generated M(x). This polynomial is multiplied by X4 and then divided by the generator polynomial X4 + x + 1. This calculation produces a remainder of 4 bits or less. This remainder is transmitted to the distant end as the CRC4 check bits (CC). At the distant end the CRC check bits are added to M(x) and the divided by G(x) the result should equal zero. If it does not then an error has occurred and a remote error will be transmitted to the distant end.

Database Command
To enable this command use: Modify_value <site> CRC <VALUE><LINK TYPE><LINK ID>, Site= Value= 0 40 0 is enabled 1 is disabled Link type= RSL, XBL, etc Link ID= Unique link ID at that site.

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GCLK Synchronization

Cyclic Redundancy Checking (Timeslot 0 of a 32 Timeslot Frame)

SUBMF (SMF)

FRAME NUMBER
FAW FDW FAW

BITS 1 TO 8 OF THE FRAME 1 C1 0 C2 0 C3 1 C4 0 C1 1 C2 1 C3 E C4 E 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 0 A 4 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 5 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 6 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 0 X 7 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 8 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

FDW FAW FDW FAW FDW FAW FDW FAW

FDW FAW FDW FAW FDW

Key: C1 to C4 are the CRC4 check bits Submultiframe alignment = 001011 E = CRC4 error indication bits A = Alarm Indication (Remote Flag) X = Spare bits

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High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)

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High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)


The purpose of HDSL is to allow transmission of high speed data over normal voice quality 64kbps twisted wire cables, thus reducing interconnectivity costs to the Network operator. A standard 2.048 Mbps E1 link is converted by a HDSL modem into two 1168kbps data links, each of these being transmitted down a twisted wire pair. Each pair of wires is capable of operating at full duplex so that the same two pairs can be used for transmission and reception at either end of the link. The HDSL modem effectively splits the 2.048 Mbps into two and adds its own coding information to the resultant data streams. This brings the data rate up to 1168kbps for each pair of wires. At the distant end the data from the two wires are recombined and the E1 link is then presented to the terminal equipment as a standard 2.048 E1 format. The E1 link can be said to be transmitted transparently as when it arrives at the distant terminal it is exactly the same as when it was transmitted. There are various modes of operation possible. Single pair mode is where only timeslots 0 to 16 are transported over a single HDSL pair of wires. At the other end a full E1 frame is reconstituted using idle code for timeslots 17 to 31. Data must be sent in contiguous blocks when using this mode, i.e. timeslots 1, 2, 3 and 4 is a permitted combination, but not 1, 3 and 5. Any unused timeslots of 1 to 16 are filled with idle code. This is an advantage where low capacity sites are used. There is a minimum quality threshold and this is determined by the gauge of wire used and the distance of transmission. This leads to maximum possible transmission distances for each grade of wire. Typically for 0dB of ETSI noise the minimum transmission range is as follows:

Cable Gauge 0 .4mm 0 .51mm 0 .61mm 0 .91mm

Transmission Distance Guaranteed Max 2.8km 3.7km 4.8km 6.8km Theoretical Max 3.2km 41.km 5.3km 7.6km

Typical applications are for M-CELLaccess (in buildings) and M-CELLmicro equipment where site interconnection distances are relatively small and possibly existing twisted pairs may be used.

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High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)

HDSL Modes of Operation

Unstructured Mode Transparent 2.048Mbps E1 transmission


2.048Mbps E1 Link 1.168Mbps Tx/Rx HDSL Modem Tx/Rx 1.168Mbps Tx/Rx HDSL Modem Tx/Rx 2.048Mbps E1 Link

Single Pair Mode E1 timeslots 0 16 only


2.048Mbps E1 Link 1.168Mbps Tx/Rx HDSL Modem Tx/Rx HDSL Modem 2.048Mbps E1 Link

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Chapter 5

BTS BSC Interface (A-bis)

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Chapter 5 BTS BSC Interface (A-bis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BTS BSC Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC BTS Interface (A-bis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-bis Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola A-bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Division between BSC and BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTP L3/SCCP Preselector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connectionless Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP State Machine (SSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Switch Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Resource Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Resource State Machine (RRSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola/GSM A-bis Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM A-bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola A-bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interface Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSI Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Links Logical Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Signalling Link (RSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transparent Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 Management Link (L2ML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Address Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEI Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unnumbered Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended (SABME) Command . . . . . . . . . . . Disconnect (DISC) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unnumbered Information (UI) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unnumbered Acknowledgment (UA) Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timer T203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Supervisory Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer 3 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Layer 2/Layer 3 Message Example (A-bis Defined) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encryption Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Discriminator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Originated Connection Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic Assignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic Assignment Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request Queued T11 Expiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Sequence Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Successful Intra-BTS Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Successful Inter-BSC Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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BTS BSC Interface

BTS BSC Interface


Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S S S S S S Identify the GSM Recommendations for the BSC BTS interface. State the functions of the BSC BTS interface. Identify the Layer 2 (LAPD) frame structure. Identify the limitations of the GSM A-bis interface. State the major components and functions of the Motorola BSC BTS A-bis interface. Identify the Layer 3 model. Identify the Layer 3 message structures.

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BSC BTS Interface (A-bis)

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BSC BTS Interface (A-bis)


Introduction
The interface is defined to be at the terrestrial link of a remote BTS connected to the BSC. The BSCBTS interface is specified by a set of characteristics including: S S S S S Physical and electrical parameters Channel structures Signalling transfer procedures Configuration and control procedures Operation and maintenance support.

The BSCBTS interface shall be capable of supporting all services offered to the GSM users and subscribers. In addition, it shall also allow control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the BTS. This interface is known as the A-bis within the GSM specifications, but was not rigorously defined. This has lead to various manufacturers developing their own specific signalling protocol. Motorolas interpretation of the A-bis link places more functionality at the BTS, this results in reduced signalling on the A-bis link in comparison to other implementations.

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BSC BTS Interface (A-bis)

BSC BTS Interface (A-bis)

BSC Motorolas implementation 1 x RSL at 64kbp/s per BTS (minimum)

32 x 64 kb/s timeslots (2 Mbit/s)

BTS
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GSM Specifications

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GSM Specifications
The A-bis interface is defined in the 08.5X series of GSM specifications, which is designed to support a wide range of possible architecture.

S S

08.51

General aspects of the interface.

08.52

Interface principles: This specification is intended to provide a unified way of connecting remotely located BTS to a BSC.

S S

08.54

Layer 1 the physical connectors alignment of the link.

08.56

Layer 2 specifies the link layer used for signalling with the Link Access procedure on the D-channel (LAPD) specification.

08.58

Layer 3 specifies the general structure of layer 3 and traffic management procedures and messages used on the A-bis interface to support the signalling procedures.

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GSM Specifications

GSM Specifications 08.5X

The Abis Interface is described in the 08.5X series of GSM Specifications. 08.51 08.52 08.54 08.56 08.58 General Aspects Interface Principles Layer 1: Physical Layer Layer 2: LAPD Layer 3 Specifications

S S S S S

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Signalling Model

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Signalling Model
The A-bis interface uses a single 64 kbit/s timeslot on the 2 Mbit/s common bearer link. Motorola have defined this signalling link as the Radio Signalling Link (RSL), which uses the LAPD frame structure. Radio Resource (RR) messages are mapped to BSSAP (BSS Application Part) in the BSC. In the BTS most of them are handled as transparent messages where the BTS only converts from one message format to another (eg. LAPDm LAPD). However, some of them have to be interpreted by BTS (eg. random access). The BTS Management (BTSM) entities contain procedures for handling these messages and other procedures for managing the BTS. These provide the mapping between BTSM and the relevant RR messages on the radio interface. The Layer 2 protocol over the A-bis interface is based on Link Access Procedure D-Channel (LAPD). Where each individual BTS site and DRCU/TCU/SCU are addressed separately using the Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) of LAPD. There are also a number of different Layer 2 procedures used for traffic management messages, which are indicated by the Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI).

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Signalling Model

A-bis Signalling Model

BTS Radio Signalling Link (RSL)

BSC

RR RR LAPDm Layer 1 BTSM LAPD Layer 1 BTSM LAPD Layer 1

BSSAP

SCCP MTP

Air interface

A-bis
BTSM = BTS Management
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A-bis Limitations

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A-bis Limitations
Introduction
The main idea of the A-bis interface is to create a Network element, the BTS, which is as simple as possible in order to minimize the interfacing required to the BSC. Therefore, due to the simple nature of the A-bis interface, this tends to limit what can be done to the architecture and the distribution of software functions among the various BSS components. Several of these limitations are listed:

Link Capacity
In the A-bis interface a single 64 kbit data link is used to connect the BSC to the BTS and it has been calculated that this would be inadequate capacity to handle a busy cell.

Processors
One of the implications of keeping the BTS as simple as possible is that minimal call processing is done at the BTS. Locating most call processing activities at the BSC places an additional burden on the BSCBTS data links which are already overloaded due to Mobility Management procedures (location update, paging etc).

Redundancy
A-bis does not allow redundancy at the BTS level. The A-bis interface states that a one-to-one correspondence at all times between traffic channels and the megastream timeslot to the BSC.

Summary
The A-bis interface is lacking in several respects. Redundant control links are not supported. It also has inadequate capacity to carry the message traffic calculated to exist on busy cells. It requires the BSC to keep track of the BTSs current GSM frame number, which could reduce delays in handovers.

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A-bis Limitations

GSM A-bis Limitations

Link Capacity S 16 or 64 kbit data link Relocation of Processors S Call processing at BSC only Redundancy S None admissible at BTS level

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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)

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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)


Introduction
To overcome the limitations of the GSM A-bis Motorola has defined its own A-bis interface. Where possible GSM A-bis message formats are implemented. The message transfer between the BSC and BTS is done through the internal workings of the Motorola BSS. To implement a GSM A-bis interface, the LAPD protocol is used between the two entities and a translation of the protocol TEI and internal BSS executive references (mailboxes and logical references) is necessary.

Motorola A-bis
Main areas of improvement within Motorola A-bis are: S Packing of pages; there is an inconsistency within the GSM Specifications as to when and where this procedure can be carried out. Motorola interface will implement this procedure at the BTS. Processing measurement reports/power control; if measurements are sent over the A-bis link, this increases the traffic flow. The Motorola approach is to have the measurement reports remain at the BTS, also have the power and timing advance information calculated here as well. Thus greatly reducing the message flow over the interface. Handover Detection; Since the measurements information is at the BTS, the handover detection algorithm is executed here. When conditions exist for a handover, an added message, handover_required , is passed over the A-bis interface. Reject mode; a message is sent across the A-bis interface which allows Call Processing to set the reject mode at the Radio Subsystem. Having this capacity reduces the message flow across the interface i.e. if the BSS is in a condition where every channel request would receive an immediate assignment reject (no channels available).

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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)

Motorola Defined A-bis Interface Advantages

Packing of pages; implemented at BTS Processing measurement reports/power control/Timing Advance (BTS) Handover Detection Reject Mode

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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)

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Functional Division between BSC and BTS


Under the Motorola system, the control of radio resources/procedures and terrestrial circuits (BSC to BTS) are split between the BSC and BTS. This split has enabled Motorola to reduce the number of signalling links required on the A-bis The BSC retains the processes which control the terrestrial links to the MSC and the switch manager. It also has the overall control of any handovers required via the SCCP state machine process.

MTP L3/SCCP Preselector


This process handles the protocol adaption of messages when transmitting or receiving messages from the A interface. It also decides what process a particular message is destined for by the message header and then routes the message to the required process.

Connectionless Manager
The Connectionless Manager process deals with the global control of a BSS. This process deals with the non-connection orientated portion of the C7 Signalling.

SCCP State Machine (SSM)


The Signalling Control Connection Part State Machine (SSM) is responsible for handling all the connection orientated portion of the C7 Signalling.

Switch Manager
The function of the Switch Manager is to connect a mobiles terrestrial trunk from the MSC (designated by the MSC), to the radio channel given to a mobile by the Cell Resource Manager in the BSS Software.

Cell Resource Manager


The Cell Resource Manager is responsible for the allocation of radio channels in response to either a mobile accessing the system or the MSC paging a mobile.

Radio Resource State Machine (RRSM)


The Radio Resource State Machine is responsible for maintaining the state of calls. This process is responsible for the activation of the radio channel on instructions from the Cell Resource Manager. When a mobile no longer requires a radio channel, the RRSM is responsible for closing the channel down.
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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)

Motorola System

MSC

MTP L3/SCCP Preprocessor BSC Connectionless Manager SCCP State Machine Switch Manager

Radio Resource State Machine

Radio Channel Interface

Cell Resource Manager

BTS

Radio subsystem

Radio subsystem

Radio Channel Process

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Radio Channel Interface


The Radio Channel Interface process changes the address of a mobile used in the RSS into the address used by the Layer 3 Call Processing processes.

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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)

Motorola System

MSC

MTP L3/SCCP Preprocessor BSC Connectionless Manager SCCP State Machine Switch Manager

Radio Resource State Machine

Radio Channel Interface

Cell Resource Manager

BTS

Radio subsystem

Radio subsystem

Radio Channel Process

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Motorola/GSM A-bis Comparison


To give a simple example of the advantage Motorola defined A-bis has over GSM A-bis is the message sequence for the mobile originated connection establishment.

GSM A-bis
The Mobile Station (MS) generates the Access Burst (RACH) which requires the BTS to request a channel from the BSC. The BSC responds with a SDCCH channel activation message, which requires acknowledging, before the BSC initiates the Immediate Assignment Command message. This in turn initiates the Immediate Assignment message on the AGCH to the MS. A Total of 4 messages on the BTSBSC interface.

Motorola A-bis
The Radio Resource State manager (RRSM) and Radio Channel Interface (RCI) are within the BTS, therefore, no messages required to be sent over the BSCBTS interface.

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Motorola Defined A-bis Interface (Mobis)

Motorola/GSM A-bis Comparison

GSM A-bis
MS RACH Access Burst Channel Required BTS Channel Required SDCCH Channel Activation Channel Activation Acknowledged Immediate Assignment Immediate Assignment Command BSC

AGCH

Motorola A-bis
No messages over BTSBSC interface

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Interface Structure

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Interface Structure
The Motorola interpretation of the A-bis interface recognises two types of communication channels:

S S

Traffic Channels Signalling channel

Carrying speech or data of one air interface radio channel (13 kbit/s traffic + 3 kbit/s of control) 64 kbit/s carrying signal information (both BSC BTS and BSC to MSC)

The signalling channel uses a single timeslot of the 2 Mbit/s common bearer. The A-bis interface software entity is within the RSS subsystem. Messages are passed between the RSS subsystem and other BSS entities. The A-bis interfaces communicates within the RSS with Handover/Measurement Evaluation and RSS Configuration and Fault Management. The A-bis interface software has the following major functions: S S S S S Check downlink message validity Translate downlink messages into internal RSS address Translate uplink messages into RSSCP messages Redundancy Operations for improved reliability Reporting/logging or erroneous states or events.

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Interface Structure

Signalling/Traffic Links

BSC
BTS Cabinet

RSL at 64 Kb/s (2 Mbit/s LINK)

MSI
MCAP

TDM highway (traffic and signalling) TDM highway (signalling)

KSW BTP
TDM highway traffic

DHP (RSS)
MCAP

LAN

DHP (RSS)
MCAP

DRIM/ DRCU

DRIM/ DRCU

MS

MS
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Interface Structure

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MSI Defaults
The BTS sites can be connected by multiple 2Mbit/s lines which carry the traffic and signalling link (RSL). The operator can specify the route between the BSC and BTS by the software function called PATH. To ensure that the BTS can re-establish the link in the event of a failure and reset conditions, at least one of these connections must be in the default position. Up to four default RSL timeslots can be used by the BTS to contact the BSC in ROM to support code loading during the Initialisation procedure. The IP uses fixed MSI card locations and fixed 64kbit/sec timeslots at the BTS. These default links can use the same 64kbit/sec timeslots as the RSL links equipped in the database for passing signalling traffic to the BTS once the site has been initiated. Therefore the operator is required to equip a PATH for at least one RSL which will terminate using one of the default MSI and MMS locations. DEFAULT POSITIONS ARE: CAGE 15 CAGE 15 CAGE 15 CAGE 14 SLOT 16 SLOT 16 SLOT 14 SLOT 16 PORT 0 PORT 1 PORT 0 PORT 0 TIMESLOT 1 TIMESLOT 2 TIMESLOT 2 TIMESLOT 2

The function of actually allocating timeslots on 2 Mbit/s lines is carried out by an algorithm. A timeslot is chosen independently for each 2 Mbit/s line in the PATH.

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Interface Structure

MSI Defaults

BSC
Path 0 RSL BTS 1 cage 15 MSI slot 16 port 0 timeslot 1 RSL BTS 2 software decision (any timeslot) RSL BTS 3 software decision (any timeslot)

BTS 1
Path 1 RSL BTS 2 cage 15 MSI slot 16 port 0 timeslot 1 RSL BTS 3 software decision (any timeslot) RSL BTS 3 cage 15 MSI slot 16 port 0 timeslot 1

BTS 2
Path 2

BTS 3

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Signalling Links Logical Channels

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Signalling Links Logical Channels


The addressing of each Radio Channel Unit DRCU/TCU as well as the Base Transceiver Processor (BTP) and MCU is made using separate Terminal Endpoint Identifiers (TEI). The Layer 2 protocol over the A-bis interface is based on Link Access Procedure D-channel (LAPD). There are different logical channels used for traffic management messages, these different logical channels are addressed using the Service Access Point identifier (SAPI) which forms part of the Layer 2 address field. The three logical links are defined for each TEI. S S S Radio Signalling Link (RSL) used for supporting traffic management procedures (MS to Network communication). Operations and Maintenance Link (OML) used for supporting Network management procedures. One Link per DRCU/TCU and BTP/MCU. Layer 2 Management Link (L2ML) used for transferring Layer 2 management messages to DRCU/TCU or BTP/MCU.

Only point to point signalling links are used.

Radio Signalling Link (RSL)


In every message, there is a message discriminator which is used to distinguish between transparent messages and non-transparent messages. The discriminator also defines the message group type. S S S S Radio Link Layer Management Dedicated Channel Management Common Channel Management TRX (Transceiver) Management

Transparent Messages
Transparent messages are used to convey Layer 3 messages to/from the radio interface for which the BSC and BTS has no specific action. These messages are defined in the GSM air-interface 04.08 and are referred to as Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP).

Layer 2 Management Link (L2ML)


This link is used by the BSC/BTS to carry reconfiguration and management messages.
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Signalling Links Logical Channels

Logical Channels

BSC

Logical channels

BTS

1 x 64 kbit TS BSP TEI = 0

DRCU/TCU/SCU TEI 003 DRCU/TCU/SCU TEI 002 BTP/MCU TEI 001

RSL (SAPI 0) LTML (SAPI 63) OML (SAPI 62)

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD


Introduction
This bit orientated data Link access protocol is a subset of High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) using the standard frame structure, with a ISDN address field layout. Specification GSM 08.56. (ITUTS Recom Q.921) The basic functional content of the Layer 2 protocol is shown opposite: This is achieved by the passage of messages over the data link, normally called frames, which uses a standardised structure. There are three different frame types: S S S Information (I) frame used for the passage of messages both control and signalling data. Supervisory (S) frame used to maintain the link and flow control. Unnumbered (U) frame used to establish the link (Layer 2 alignment)

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

Link Access Procedure D-channel (LAPD)

ITU-TS Recom Q.921 FUNCTIONS OF THE LAYER 2 PROTOCOL:


S

pointtopoint dedicated Layer 2 links addressing both physical entities and functional entities; basic functions for TEI assignment and management; basic priority functions; basic supervision of links when not carrying traffic; sequence control transmission error control; control errors not recoverable by retransmission.

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

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Frame Structure
The signalling information is passed by the LAPD protocol mechanism utilising a common frame structure. Each of the three different frames conform to this common frame structure, where each frame consists of a number of fields each of which is defined to cover the various functions of the interface protocol

Definition of Fields
Flag
The Flag pattern (01111110) denotes the start and end of each frame. The end flag can act as the start of the next frame providing it follows on immediately. The receiver will always assume that a flag pattern followed by a non flag pattern signifies the beginning of another frame. To prevent occurrence of this pattern within the frame a bit-stuffing technique is employed. This technique inserts an extra 0 after any 5 consecutive 1s detected at the transmitter, the receiver removes this extra 0 by a process called bit-stripping.

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

Frame Structure Flag

Information Type Frame 8 16 Var 8/16 16 8

Flag

Frame check sequence

Information (Layer 3)

Control

Address

Flag

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Unique Pattern 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 defines beginning and/or end of frame
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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

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Address Field
The address field identifies the intended receiver within a command frame, and the transmitter of the response frame, the format of the address field is shown opposite: This field contains: address field extension (EA) bits; a command/response indication (C/R) bit; a data link layer Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI) subfield and a Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) subfield. The address field can be made up of more than one octet, to indicate this the first bit of each octet is set to 0, indicating that this is not the final octet. The presence of a 1 in the first bit of any octet signals that this is the final octet of the address field. Command/response field bit (C/R): identifies the frame as either a command or response frame.

Service Access Point Identifier (SAPI)


The SAPI identifies a point at which data link layer services are provided and consequently the Layer 2/3 boundary. The following SAPIs are defined for use on the A-bis interface. SAPI 0= Call control procedures (normally referred to as the RSL) SAPI 62= Operation and Maintenance procedures (OML) SAPI 63= Layer 2 management procedures (L2ML)

Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI)


The TEI identifies a unique function or element within the BSS.

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

Address Field Format

Flag

Frame check Information sequence

Control

Address

Flag

EA =

Address field extension bit 1 signifies end of address field

C/R = Command/response field bit 1 command, 0 = response SAPI = Service Access Point Identifier (Valid SAPIs 0, 62, 63) TEI = Terminal Endpoint Identifier

Octet No 3

Octet No 2

TEI

EA 1

SAPI

C/R

EA 0

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Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI)


The TEI for a point-to-point system is the physical address of a single terminal equipment. Within the A-bis interface the address indicates the base station master GPROC (BTP)/MCU, the DRCUs/TCUs at the BTS site and the BSP at the BSC. Within the Motorola system a single BSC can control upto 40 BTS sites, where each site must be equipped with a BTP. This BSC can only support a maximum of 50 BTPs/MCU. Each DRCU/TCU and BTP/MCU would require its own TEI address.

TEI Allocation
The TEI number is assigned when the BSC is initialised and is part of the database set up. The TEIs are allocated in the same order as they are equipped in the database. Example: A BSC controls two remote BTSs, site 1 and site 2. Site 1 has 3 active carriers and site 2 has 1 active carrier.

TEI Allocation

Site BSC BSP Site 1, BTP/MCU TCU/SCU/DRCU 1 TCU/SCU/DRCU 2 TCU/SCUDRCU 3 Site 2 BTP/MCU TCU/SCU/DRCU 1

TEI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

TEI Allocation

Assigned when BSC initialized TEIs allocated as equipped in database

BSC

BSP

Site 1 BTP/MCU DRCU/TCU/SCU DRCU/TCU/SCU DRCU/TCU/SCU

BTP/MCU DRCU/TCU/SCU

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Control Field

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Control Field
This field identifies the type of frame which can be either a command or a response. Send sequence number N(S): Only Information (I) frames contain N(S) which is the number of each transmitted frame. Receive sequence number N(R): All Information frames and supervisory frames contain N(R), the expected send sequence number of the next received Information frame. The value of N(R) also indicates it has correctly received all information frames numbered up to and including N(R) 1 All frames contain the Poll/Final (P/F) bit. The P/F bit serves a function in both command and response frames. In command frames it is a P bit and response as a F bit. When set to a 1 in either cases indicates a command or response required. On the A-bis interface, Motorola uses the modulo 128 version of LAPD.

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Control Field

Control Field

(2 octets) Flag Frame check sequence Information Control Address Flag

Bit positions

1 Octet

(INFORMATION) N(S) Iframe (SUPERVISORY) RR RNR 0 0 0 REJ (UNNUMBERED) SABME DM UI DISC UA 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 P F P P F 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N(R) 0 N(R) 0 1 N(R) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 P/F 1 P/F 1 P/F N(R) 0 P

4 5

4 5 4 5 4 5

C/R C/R C/R

4 4 4 4 4

C R C C R

C = Command R = Response N(S) = Transmitter send sequence number N(R) = Transmitter receiver sequence number P/F = Poll bit (P) when as a command Final bit (F) when as a response
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Unnumbered Frames

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Unnumbered Frames
There are a number of different unnumbered frames which are used within the link alignment procedure.

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended (SABME) Command


The SABME command is used to place the addressed user side or network side into a modulo 128 multiple frame acknowledged operation. Upon acceptance of this command both N(S) and N(R) counter will be reset to 0.

Disconnect (DISC) Command


The DISC command is transmitted in order to terminate a multiframe operation. Either end can generate a DISC command, but only activate the command after receipt of either an UA or DM response.

Unnumbered Information (UI) Command


Sent when unacknowledged Information Transfer is requested.

Unnumbered Acknowledgment (UA) Response


The UA unnumbered response is used to acknowledge the receipt and acceptance of the mode setting commands (SABME or DISC).

Disconnected mode (DM) response


The DM unnumbered response is used to report to its peer-protocol that multiframe operation cannot be performed.

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Unnumbered Frames

Types of U Frame used on the A-bis Link

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended (SABME) Disconnect (DISC) Unnumbered Information (UI) Unnumbered Acknowledgement (UA)

Disconnected Mode (DM)

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Alignment Procedures

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Alignment Procedures
Once the common bearer (2 Mbit/s) link has achieved synchronisation and checked the BER rate, the link will initiate a request for multiple frame operation, e.g. Layer 2 alignment. This is set by one end transmitting a SABME command. This condition causes timer T200 to be started, all existing conditions to be cleared and the retransmission counter (N200) to be reset. The distance end receiving this SABME command and is able to enter the multiframe establish state (e.g Link alignment) will respond with a UA frame, reset the sequence counter to zero (N(S), N(R)). On receipt of this UA frame, T200 is reset and sequence counters N(S), N(R) are reset to zero Now the link is available for information frames to be transmitted. If timer T200 expires before receiving the UA frame, then the SABME is retransmitted and T200 is reset. Also retransmission counter N200 is incremented by a count of 1. If N200 reaches its maximum value then link is passed back to Layer 1 e.g. resynchronisation.

Layer 2 timers
T200: This is the maximum time allowed without frames being exchanged. (eg. acknowledgment of SABME) Typical Value= 1 second However Motorola allow this value to be increased to 2.5 seconds when BTS to BSC links have long propagation delays.

Timer T203
This timer is the maximum time allowed without a frame being exchanged for each TEI. On an idle link, this will cause an RR frame to be transmitted as a sanity check.

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Alignment Procedures

Layer 2 Alignment

Successful BTS T200 started/N200=0 T200 Stopped N(S)=0 (N(R)=0 T200/T203 both started T200 Reset T203 Reset 2 Mbit/s Link SABME UA I FRAME BSC N(S)=0/N(R)=0

I FRAME

Unsuccessful BTS T200 started/N200=0 SABME BSC

Not received or not in synchronization T200 Expires N200 Incremented (N200=1) T200 started SABME

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Supervisory Control

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Supervisory Control
The other feature of the control field is to control the sequencing of frames and perform supervisory control. To do this there are four possible supervisory frames, only three are used on the A-bis interface.

Receive Ready (RR) command/response


S S S Indicates ready to receive Information (I) frames. Acknowledges previously received I frames numbered upto and including N(R)1 Clears a busy condition

Receive not Ready (RNR) command/response


S S Indicates a busy condition; e.g. a temporary inability to accept additional I frames. Acknowledges all frames up to N(R)1

Reject (REJ) command/response


S The REJ frame is used to request retransmission of I frames starting with the frame numbered N(R). All new I frames are held until acknowledgment of the retransmission frame. Each I frame increments the N(S) sequence counter, before being transmitted however the control field only has 7 bits to indicate this number, thus it is restricted to a count of 0127. This then is the maximum number (k) of sequentially numbered I frames that may be transmitted at a given time, before acknowledgment of one frame is required. To enable the transmission of further I frames, the distance end must reply with either an I frame or a RR frame with the appropriate N(R) set. To avoid infinite loop situations. Retransmissions are limited to a maximum value (N200) and the maximum wait time to wait for any response (T200).

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Supervisory Control

Supervisory Control

BTS

2 Mbit/s Link

BSC

N(R) 0 0 0

N(S) 0 1 2

I Frame I Frame I Frame N(S) RR I Frame I Frame REJ I Frame I Frame RR 0 2 N(R) 2 2 Ack Msg 0 REJECT MSG NO2 NEXT MSG EXPECTED

CLEAR BUFFER OF Msg 0 + Msg 1

1 1

2 3

Retransmission of msg No2 Retransmission of msg No3 4 NEXT Msg EXPECTED

Acknowledges Msg 2 and Msg 3 (msg 0+1 already Acknowledged)

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD


Frame Check Sequence (FCS) Field
The frame check sequence is a 16 bit cyclic redundancy check which is performed on the bits found in the following fields: Address Control Information

The FCS is used to detect the presence of errors resulting from transmission. The ITUTS defined D+CRC is x16 + x12 + x5 + 1 using this polynomial code we can catch all single and double errors, all errors with an odd number of bits. All burst errors of length 16 or less, 99.997% of 17 bit error bursts, and 99.998% of 18 bit and longer bursts. The following method is used to calculate the FCS: M(x) Message to be transmitted polynomial G(x) Generator polynomial (x16 +x12 + x5 + 1, CRC) xk The highest polynomial value in the Generator polynomial

Formula: M(x) . xk G (x) The result of this calculation will be a whole number and a remainder (16 bits or less) the remainder is the FCS which is transmitted to the distant end. At the distant end the Rx adds the FCS to the Rx message and divides the result by G(x) the answer should equal 0 (no errors) if the answer results in any other value then the frame is rejected.

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Layer 2 Link Access Procedure LAPD

Frame Check Sequence

ITUTS CRC x +x +x +1 Formula: M(x) . x G (x)


k 16 12 5

= whole number + remainder

Note: The remainder is 16 bits or less. The remainder is Tx as the FCS to the distant end.

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Layer 3 Model

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Layer 3 Model
All messages between the BSC and BTS are composed of a number of elements. The Layer 3 message is formatted as shown opposite. Executive Header Discriminator This is Motorola defined and is Motorola confidential. Transparent/non-transparent, Radio Link Layer Management, Dedicated Channel Management, Common Channel Management, TRX Management messages and Motorola defined internal messages. The message type is sent with all messages and uniquely identifies the function of the message being sent. It is a single octet in length. This element is defined by either GSM recs. 08.58 or Motorola. Information Elements The information elements are of variable length, the first octet is called the element identifier this is again either defined by GSM recs. 08.58 or by Motorola.

Message Type

Motorola due to their implementation of the BSS functionality do not use a large proportion of the GSM defined 08.58 messages across the RSL. A list of messages defined by Motorola and passed across the RSL are shown in Annex A.

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Layer 3 Model

Message Structure

Flag

Frame check sequence

Information

Control

Address

Flag

L2

Motorola information elements or A-bis 08.58 messages and/or complete L3 information for transparent messages (04.08)

Message type

Message discriminator

Motorola executive message header

L3

Information elements

Message type

Transaction identifier or skip indicator

Protocol discriminator

Complete L3 Info as defined in TS GSM 04.08 or TS GSM 08.58


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Complete Layer 2/Layer 3 Message Example (A-bis Defined)

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Complete Layer 2/Layer 3 Message Example (A-bis Defined)


As an example of a message on the A-bis link we will look at the CIPHERING MODE COMMAND which is sent from the MSC to the MS to start ciphering. This message cannot be sent as a TRANSPARENT message as would be expected but is sent as a NON-TRANSPARENT message as the BTS requires some of the information to enable ciphering at the BTS. Due to this fact the CIPHERING MODE COMMAND is replaced on the A-bis by ENCRYPTION COMMAND (TS GSM 08.58, section 8). The ENCRYPTION COMMAND fits in the Layer 2 message in the information field and is formatted:

Encryption Command
This message is sent from BSC to BTS to start ciphering mode operation

INFORMATION ELEMENT

REFER ENCE (TS GSM 08.58) 9.1 9.2 9.3.1 9.3.7 9.3.2 9.3.11

PRESENCE

LENGTH

Message discriminator Message type Channel number Encryption information Link Identifier L3 Info (CIPH MOD CMD)

M M M M M M

1 1 2 >=3 2 6

The L3 Info element contains the complete Ciphering Mode Command message as defined in Technical Specification GSM 04.08.

Note:
On the Motorola A-bis the CIPHERING MODE COMMAND from the MSC is replaced with a CIPHERING REQUEST. The definition of the Information elements of this message are either defined by Motorola or TS GSM 08.08:

INFORMATION ELEMENT Message Type SCCP Reference Number Layer 3 Header Information Encryption Information

REFER ENCE Motorola Motorola TS GSM 0 8.0 8 TS GSM 0 8.0 8

PRESENCE M M M M

LENGTH 1 4 4 4 -n

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L2/L3 Message Example (GSM A-bis)

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SAPI identifier and channel type (FACCH/SDCCH) (SACCH) 6 octets


L3 information (cipher mode command)

Algorithm identifier and key

Which channel the message is to be sent to

ENCRyption CoMmanD

Dedicated channel management message (non-transparent) 1 octet


Message discriminator

2 octets
Link identifier

> =3 octets
Encryption information

2 octets
Channel number

1 octet
Message type

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2 octets N(R) P N(S) X

Complete Layer 2/Layer 3 Message Example (A-bis Defined)

2 octets TEI EA 1

2 octets SAPI C/R EA 0

Flag 1 octet

Frame check sequence 2 octet

Information (Layer 3) n octets

Control 2 octets

Address 2 octets

Flag

1 octet

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Message Discriminator
A 1 octet field is used in all messages to discriminate between Transparent and Non-Transparent messages and also between Radio Link Layer Management, Dedicated Channel Management, Common Channel Management and TRX Management messages. The T-bit is set to 1 to indicate that the message is to be/was considered transparent by BTS. All other messages shall have the T-bit set to 0. The G-bits are used to group the messages as follows: G7 0 0 0 0 0 G6 0 0 0 0 0 G5 0 0 0 0 0 G4 0 0 0 1 0 G3 0 0 1 0 1 G2 0 0 0 0 1 G1 0 1 0 0 0 T Message Group reserved Radio Link Layer Management messages Dedicated Channel Management messages TRX Management messages Common Channel Management

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Complete Layer 2/Layer 3 Message Example (A-bis Defined)

Message Structure

Flag

Frame check Information sequence

Control

Address

Flag

L2

Motorola information elements or GSM 05.58 messages or Complete L3 information for transparent messages (04.08)

Type

Message discriminator

Motorola Executive message header

G7

G6

G5

G4

G3

G2

G1

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Message Type

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Message Type
The message Type uniquely identifies the function of the message being sent. It is a single octet in length. The following are GSM defined A-bis messages. Bit 8 is the extension bit and is reserved for future use. The following Message Types are used (all other values are reserved): 8 0 0 7 0 6 0 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
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3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 -

2 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1

Message Radio Link Layer Management messages: DATA REQuest } Transparent DATA INDication } Transparent ERROR INDication ESTablish REQuest ESTablish CONFirm ESTablish INDication RELease REQuest RELease CONFirm RELease INDication UNIT DATA REQuest } Transparent UNIT DATA INDication } Transparent Common Channel Management BCCH INFOrmation CCCH LOAD INDication CHANnel ReQuireD DELETE INDication PAGING CommanD IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND SMS BroadCast REQuest SMS Broadcast CoMmanD TRX Management Messages RF RESource INDication SACCH FILLing OVERLOAD ERROR REPORT Dedicated Channel Management messages: CHANnel ACTIVation CHANnel ACTIVation ACKnowledge CHANnel ACTIVation Negative ACK CONNection FAILure DEACTIVATE SACCH ENCRyption CoMmanD HANDOver DETection MEASurement RESult MODE MODIFY REQuest MODE MODIFY ACKnowledge MODE MODIFY Negative ACKnowledge PHYsical CONTEXT REQuest PHYsical CONTEXT CONFirm RF CHANnel RELease MS POWER CONTROL BS POWER CONTROL PREPROCessed CONFIGure PREPROCessed MEASurement RESult RF CHANnel RELease ACKnowledge
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1 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

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Message Type

Message Structure

Flag

Frame check Information sequence

Control

Address

Flag

L2

Motorola information elements or GSM 08.58 messages or Complete L3 information for transparent messages (04.08)

Type

Message discriminator

Motorola Executive message header

EM

Message type

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Message Sequence Scenarios

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Message Sequence Scenarios


The best way of understanding the interface procedures is to examine the common message sequence scenarios, which highlight the flow of messages between the MSC, BSC, BTS and MS. The messages between the MSC and BSC are defined within the A-interface (TS GSM 08.08) and will be covered later in the course. The messages between the BSC and the BTS are defined within the A-bis interface (TS GSM 08.58). The messages between the BTS and MS are defined within the Air-interface (TS GSM 04.08). The messages between the MSC and MS, referred to as Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) are transparent to the BSS. These messages/procedures will be covered later in the course so are not shown. The main message sequence scenarios are shown: S S S S Mobile Originated Connection Establishment; there are three different scenarios, successful, rejected by MSC and no radio resources available. Traffic Assignments four scenarios, successful, failure, Queued and T11 expiry. Handover procedures: These procedures are defined for both source and target cell for successful and failed. Also defined in intra-BSS handovers. Global Reset: Complete reset at either end.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Message Sequence Scenarios

Mobile Originated Connection Establishment

Traffic Assignment Procedures

Handover Procedures

Global Reset

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Message Sequence Scenarios


Global Reset
The Global Reset procedure on the A-bis interface is always initiated by the BSC. This however can be as a result of the BSC receiving a Global Reset command from the MSC. The Global Reset is when the BSC has to completely reboot all of its process procedures and as a consequence, cause each BTS to be taken out of Call Process and if need be rebooted. If it is the case that each BTS site has to reboot then each must re-register to the BSC. This procedure is the BTS site indicating to the BSC that each of its cells are in Call Processing mode and is capable of supporting traffic.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Global Reset

BSC
Global Reset Halt BSS Halt BSS Acknowledge Global Reset Global Reset Acknowledge Register Register Acknowledge Start BSS Start BSS Acknowledge

BTS

Reboot

Call process available

Traffic available

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Mobile Originated Connection Establishment

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Mobile Originated Connection Establishment


After the BSC and the BTS have completed the registration procedure, calls can be established. This is initiated by the Mobile transmitting an Access Burst on the appropriate Common Control Channel (CCCH). If the Mobile is detected by the BTS, this will generate the immediate Assignment message and send it over the Access Granted Channel (AGCH). This control tells the mobile on which Standalone Channel (SDCCH) the rest of the cell setup procedure will take place. The Mobile will establish contact on the SDCCH by transmitting a SABM LAPDm frame containing the DTAP message CM Service Request. The BTS carries out two actions. S S Send a UA LAPDm frame back to the Mobile. Generate the Initial Layer 3 Info message containing the DTAP message CM Service Request and sends it to the BSC.

It is at this stage that the BSC initiates the connection to the MSC using SCCP procedures (these will be covered later in the course). After the connection is made, the MSC can command the Mobile to go to cipher mode, before the rest of the setup procedure is carried out. These other procedures use the DTAP messages across the A-bis interface and are passed as transparent messages.

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Mobile Originated Connection Establishment

Mobile Originated Connection Establishment

A interface MSC BSC

Mobis BTS

LAPDm MS Access Burst Immediate Assignment SABM <CM Service Request> UA

SCCP Connections Request <CM Service Request> SCCP Connections Confirm Cipher Mode Command

Initial Layer 3 Info <CM Service Request>

Ciphering Request Ciphering Successful Cipher Mode Complete

Ciphering Mode Complete Ciphering Mode Complete

SETUP DTAP <SET-UP> DT1 <SET-UP> DT1 <Call Proceeding> DTAP <Call Proceeding> Call Proceeding

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Message Sequence Scenarios


Traffic Assignment Procedures
The traffic assignment procedure is initiated by the MSC sending the Assignment Request message to the BSC. This message will contain the type of channel required; classmark of the MS; the timeslot (traffic channel) on the BSCMSC link. The BSC request the BTS to allocate it a traffic channel. It also starts a timer (assign_successful) which sets the maximum time the BSC will wait for a reply. If this expires before receiving the Assignment Successful message, it will generate and Assignment Failure message back to the MSC. The BTS site after assigning the traffic channel will generate the Assignment Command message and transmits this to the mobile via the SDCCH. It will also start a timer (bssmap_t10) which is the maximum time the BTS will wait for the mobile to establish contact on the new traffic channel. This timer is stopped on receipt of the Assignment Complete message from the mobile. The BTS then generates the Assignment Successful message to the BSC and stops assign_successful.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Traffic Assignment Procedures

Successful MSC BSC BTS MS

Assignment Request
Information i.e. Type of channel required Classmark of the MS The timeslot Timer assign_successful Timer bssmap_t10

Initiate Assignment

Assignment Command

Assignment Complete

Assignment Successful

Assignment Complete

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Traffic Assignment Procedures

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Traffic Assignment Procedures


Request Queued T11 Expiry
Upon receipt of the Assignment Request message from the MSC the BSC sends an Initiate Assignment message to the BTS, if the BTS supports queuing and no resources are currently available then the BTS will send an Assignment queued message back to the BSC to indicate that no resources are currently available and the request is queued. Upon queuing of the Initiate assignment command the BTS starts timer T11 (bssmap_t11) if resources do not become available before T11 expires then a Release Request message is sent to the BSC, the BSC will then initiate the release of the channel resources already in use (SDCCH).

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Traffic Assignment Procedures

Traffic Assignment Queued

T11 Expiry

MSC

BSC

BTS

MS

Assignment Request Initiate Assignment Assignment Queued Queueing Indication Release Request Clear Request Clear Command Release Radio Channel Channel Release Radio Channel Released Clear Complete SCCP Release SCCP Release Complete Deallocate SCCP Number
T11 started bssmap_t11

T11 expires

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Message Sequence Scenarios


Successful Intra-BTS Handover
During a call the MS sends at least one Measurement Report (MR) per second to the BTS, the MR reports on the best six neighbours and the serving cell. The BTS will evaluate these MRs and based upon database values will generate a Handover Recognised message to the BSC. When the BTS generates the Handover Recognised message it starts a timer (1), this timer is the maximum time the BTS will wait for a response before it will generate another Handover Recognised Message (provided the same cause for the handover exists). From the Handover Recognised message (this contains a list of the preferred target cells for a handover) the BSC will select a target BTS and generate an Internal Handover Request message to the target BTS. The Internal Handover Request message asks the target BTS to supply a traffic channel. The BSC will also start timer (2) on issue of the Internal Handover Request message as this is the maximum time the BSC will wait for the BTS to respond. The target BTS will respond (providing there is a traffic channel available) with a Handover Allocation message. the target BTS will now start timer (3), this timer sets the maximum time the BTS will keep the traffic channel assigned for this handover. Upon receipt of the Handover Allocation message the BSC will stop timer (2) and issue a Initiate Handover message to the source BTS and start timer (4). This timer is used to set the maximum time the BSC waits for an internal handover to complete. Upon receipt of the Initiate Handover message the source BTS will stop timer (1) and issues a Handover Command to the MS and start timer (5), this timer sets the maximum time the source BTS will wait for a successful handover message. The MS will attempt to establish on the new traffic channel on the target BTS, once the target BTS detects the MS it generates a Handover Detect message to the BSC. Upon receipt of a Handover Complete message from the MS the target BTS stops (3) and issues a Handover Successful message to the BSC. The BSC on receipt of the Handover Successful message will stop timer (4) and generate a Handover Performed message to the MSC and a Blast message to the source BTS to clear down the resources held there.

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Message Sequence Scenarios

Handover BTS to BTS (intra-BTS)

MS Measurement Report
Timer (1)

BTS

BSC

BTS

BTS

Handover Recognized
Timer (2)

Internal Handover Request

Handover Allocation Initiate Handover


Timer (5) Timer (4)

Timer (3)

Handover Command Handover Access Handover Detect Handover Complete Handover Successful

Handover Performed BLAST

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Successful Inter-BSC Handover

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Successful Inter-BSC Handover


If after the Handover Recognised message has been passed to the BSC, the target BTS (cell) is not under control of the same BSC then a External Handover is required, normally referred to as a inter-BSC handover. The procedure is the same, but some extra messages are generated with different timers used. This is due to the extra time required to send/acknowledge these messages both on the A-bis (BTSBSC) interface and A-Interface (BSC to MSC). The diagram opposite shows the complete sequence at each side of the handover.

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Successful Inter-BSC Handover

Handover Inter-BSC (Source Cell)

BTS

BSC

MSC

BSC

BTS MR H/O REC

MS

H/O REQ SCCP CR H/O REQUEST H/O ALLOC SCCP CC


H/O REQUEST ACK H/O REQUEST

H/O COMMAND INITIATE H/O H/O COMMAND

H/O ACCESS H/O DETECT H/O DETECT H/O COMPLETE H/O SUCCESSFUL

H/O COMPLETE CLEAR COMMAND

BLAST

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Successful Inter-BSC Handover

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Appendix A

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BSC to BTS Interface Message Types

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BSC to BTS Interface Message Types Part A Message Types as Defined and Implemented by Motorola
BSC to BTS Messages
1. Audit Call Description: This message is sent periodically per cell between the BSC and BTS to verify that the call is still active at the other side of the link. The information in this message is compared with the local information to verify that the BSC and BTS have consistent call data. 2. Audit RRSM Call Response Description: This message is sent in response to an Audit Call message. 3. Blast Command Description: This message is sent to the BTS after an internal handover, to tear down the dedicated channel resources on the source cell if the handover is successful or the destination cell if the handover procedure fails. Upon receipt of this message, the call is released at the BTS and no response is returned to the BSC. 4. BSS Status Description: This message is sent to inform the BTS is the BSS BSSMAP subsystem goes into service or out of service. 5. Ciphering Request Description: This message is sent to initiate ciphering when a Cipher Mode Command is received from the MSC. 6. Deallocate SCCP Reference Number Description: Upon receipt of this message the BTS will mark the given SCCP reference number as unused. 7. Global Reset Description: This message is sent to the BTS so that it can reset its state tables after a global reset. 8. Halt BSS

Description: This message is sent by the BSC when it wishes to halt call processing activities due to a global reset. 9. Handover Request Description: This message is sent from the MSC to the BSS to indicate that a mobile is to be handed over to that BSS. The BSC sends this message to the BTS if it is contained in the data field of the SCCP Connection Request message. 10. Information Request Description: This message is sent to the BTS to request information about the idle resources when Resource Request message is received from the MSC. 11. Initiate Assignment Description: This message is sent to the BTS upon receipt of an Assignment Request message from the MSC.
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Part A Message Types as Defined and Implemented by Motorola

12.

Initiate Handover Description: This message is sent to the BTS which manages the source cell of a handover and includes the allocated destination channel information to be sent to the MS.

13.

Initiate Intra-Cell Handover Description: This message is sent to the BTS in order to initiate the intra-cell handover procedure.

14.

Internal Handover Initiated Acknowledge Description: This message is sent to the BTS in response to an Internal handover Initiated message. This message is used to avoid race conditions that may result if the MSC initiates a procedure at the same time as the BTS initiates an internal intra-cell handover.

15.

Internal Handover Request Description: This message is sent to the destination cell BTS in an intra-BSS handover. The BTS allocates the requested resources.

16.

MSC Status Description: This message is sent to the BTS to inform is of the state of the SCCP Layer or BSSAP Subsystem at the MSC.

17.

Page mobile Request Description: This message is sent to the BTS to instruct it to send a Paging Request message when a Paging message is received from the MSC.

18.

Register Acknowledge Description: This message is sent to the BTS to acknowledge registration.

19.

Release Radio Channel Description: This message is sent to the BTS to acknowledge registration.

20.

Remove From Queue Description: This message is sent to the BTS when a Handover Request message has been queued and guard timer (Tqho) has expired. The BTS removes the request from the queue and the handover procedure is aborted.

21.

Start BSS Description: This message is to the BTS to allow call processing activities to start.

22.

Trace Request Description: This message is to the BTS when data is required for call trace.

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Part A Message Types as Defined and Implemented by Motorola

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BTS to BSC Messages as Defined and Implemented by Motorola


1. Assignment Queued Description: This message is sent to the BSC when an assignment request has been queued by the BTS. 2. Assignment Successful Description: This message is sent to the BSC when an Assignment Complete is received from the MS. 3. Audit Call Description: This message is sent periodically per call between the BSC and BTS to verify that the call is still active at the other side of the link. The information in this message is compared with the local information to verify that the BSC and BTS have consistent call data. 4. Audit SSM Call Response Description: This message is sent to the BSC in response to an audit call message. 5. Call Trace Response Description: This message is sent to the BSC containing trace data that has been collected at the BTS. 6. Ciphering Successful Description: This message is sent to the BSC upon receipt of the Cipher Mode Complete message from the MS. 7. DTAP Message Description: This message is used to transfer a DTAP message internally between the BTS and the BSC in either the uplink or downlink direction. Please note that the DTAP message can be any DTAP message defined in GSM Recommendation 4.08. 8. Global Reset Acknowledge Description: This message is sent in response to a Global Reset message to inform the BSC that all tables at the BTS have been reset. 9. Halt BSS Acknowledge Description: This message is sent to the BTS to acknowledge that all call processing activities at the BTS have been stopped. 10. Handover Allocation Description: This message is sent to the BSC when a resource has been allocated for an external or internal handover. 11. Handover Detect Received Description: This message is sent to the BSC when the BTS receives the handover Access message from the MS. The BSC then sends the Handover Detect message to the MSC.
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Part A Message Types as Defined and Implemented by Motorola

12.

Handover Failure Description: This message is contained in the data field of the Connection refused SCCP message. This message is forwarded to the MSC from the BSC. it indicates to the MSC that there has been a failure in the resource allocation process on handover and that the handover has been aborted.

13.

Handover Recognised Received Description: This message is sent to the BSC when Measurement Report messages from the MS indicate that the specified call requires a handover to a new cell.

14.

Handover Request Queued Description: This message is sent to the BSC when a handover request has been queued by the BTS.

15.

Handover Resources Not Available Description: This message is sent to the BSC if the BTS is unable to allocate the requested resource for an internal handover.

16.

Handover Successful Description: This message is sent to the BSC when the MS has successfully accessed the allocated radio channel on the destination cell of a handover.

17.

Initial Layer 3 Information Description: This message is sent to initiate a call at the BSC. The BTS sends this message when the MS had established on a dedicated channel.

18.

Internal Handover Initiated Description: This message is sent to the BSC when the resources for an internal handover have been successfully allocated.

19.

Radio Channel Release Description: This message is sent to the BSC to indicate that the allocated radio channel has been released at the BTS.

20.

Register Description: This message is sent by the BTS to inform the BSC that the BTS is available for call processing activities.

21.

Release Request Description: This message is sent to the BSC when the guard timer on an assignment request queue times out before the requested resources become available.

22.

Resource Indication Description: This message is contained in the data field of the UDT SCCP message and forwarded directly to the MSC in response to a Resource Request message from the MSC.

23.

SCCP Number Assigned Description: This message is sent to the BSC if an SCCP Connection Request is received from the MSC without a handover request in the data field. The BTS assigns an SCCP Reference number and sends it within this message to the BSC. The BSC then sends an SCCP Connection Confirm to the MSC.

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Part A Message Types as Defined and Implemented by Motorola

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24.

Start BSS Acknowledge Description: This message is sent in response to a request by the BTS to start call processing activities.

25.

Unsuccessful Assignment Description: This message is sent to the BSC if the MS is unable to access the allocated resources in an assignment procedure.

26.

Unsuccessful Handover Description: This message is sent if the MS re-establishes on the source cell after an unsuccessful attempt to access the destination cell.

27.

Update Classmark Description: This message is sent to the BSC upon receipt of the Classmark Change message from the MS.

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Part B

Part B Message Elements


1) Message Elements defined by GSM 08.08
1. Circuit Identity Code This element defines the terrestrial channel over which the call will pass. If a 2048 kbit/s digital path is used then the circuit identification code contains in the 5 least significant bits of binary representation of the actual number of the timeslot which is assigned to the circuit. The remaining bits in the CIC are used where necessary, to identify one among several systems interconnecting an originating and destination point. 2. Radio Channel Identity In messages relating to the serving cell the element is coded as: 3. Resource Available This element gives the number of full and half rate channels available on any given cell at the time of construction of the message. It identifies these parameters in terms of the number of channels available in five interference bands, the boundaries of these bands being set by O & M. 4. Cause The cause element is used to indicate the reason for particular event to have occurred. 5. IMSI The IMSI is coded as a sequence of BCD digits, compressed two into each octet. This is a variable length element, and includes a length indicator. The end of the element is indicated by a code 15, if this does not equate to an integral number of octets in the message then a filter nibble will be added. 6. TMSI The TMSI is a variable length element, and therefore contains a length indicator. The TMSI is an unstructured number upto 4 octets in length, it is however an integral number of octets. 7. Number of MSs This is fixed length element which indicates the number of handover candidates that will be sent to the MSC. 8. Layer 3 Header Information This element is used to supply the BSS with information that needs to be included in the header of Layer 3 messages over the radio interface. 9. Encryption Information This element contains the user data encryption information used to control any equipment at the BSS. It is variable length element. 10. Channel Type This element contains all of the information that the BSS requires to determine the radio resource that is required.
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11.

Periodicity This element defines the periodicity of a particular procedure is as follows:

12.

Cell Identifier The element uniquely identifies a cell within a BSS and is of variable length.

13.

Priority This element indicates the priority of the request.

14.

Classmark Information Type 2 The classmark information type 2 defines certain attributes of the mobile station equipment in use on a particular transaction.

15.

Interference Band to be Used A bit map indicating which interference bands are acceptable.

16.

RR Cause This fixed length element is passed from the air interface to the MSC transparently, when received in a specification GSM 4.08 message.

17.

Trace Number A fixed length element giving a 16 bit binary reference number.

18.

Complete Layer 3 Information This is a variable element used to pass layer three messages from the air interface to the MSC unchanged it differs from the DTAP message because the BSS analyses part of the message as it passes through the BSS, it is not therefore a transparent message as such.

19.

DLCI This is a fixed length element indicating the channel on which the SAPI value over the air interface that the transaction concerns.

20.

Downlink DTX Flag A fixed length element indicating whether the DTX function in the BSS is to be disabled on a particular radio channel.

21.

Resource Indication Method This element defines the way the BSS shall transfer the resource information related to a cell to the MSC.

22.

Classmark Information Type 1 The classmark information type 1 defines certain attributes of the Mobile Station equipment in use on a particular transaction. It is coded as follows:

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Message Elements

2) Message Elements defined by GSM 08.58


1. Channel Number The Channel Number is used to identify the physical channel/subchannel. 2. Activation Type This element is used to indicate the type of activation requested in the Channel Activation message. 3. L3 Information This element contains a link layer service data unit (L3 message). It is used to forward a complete L3 message between the RSS and Call Processing. 4. MS Identity This element carries the identity of an MS (TMSI or IMSI). It is a variable length element. 5. Paging Group This element carries the paging population of an MS to be paged.

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3) Message Elements defined by GSM 04.08


1. Mobile Station Classmark 2 The purpose of the Mobile Station classmark 2 information elements is to provide the Network with information concerning aspects of both high an low priority of the MS equipment. This affects the matter in which the Network handles the operation of the MS. 2. Channel Description The purpose of the channel description information element is to provide a description of an allocatable channel together with its SACCH. The channel description is a type 3 information element with 4 octets length. 3. Mobile Allocation The purpose of the Mobile allocation information element is to provide that part of the RF channels belonging to the cell allocation (coded with a 1 in the cell channel description information element) which is used in the mobile hopping sequence. The Mobile allocation is a type 4 information element with 10 octets length maximal.

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Message Elements

4) Message Elements defined by GSM 04.08


1. SCCP Reference Number The SCCP reference number is defined to be unique per call and is used by the BSS to identify a call. 2. Local Cell Identifier This element is used to identify the logical cell identity. 3. Transaction Number This value is used in the Global reset message to keep track of the BTSs to which a Global reset message has been sent. The process must respond with an acknowledge which contains the same transaction number. 4. Carrier Number This value is used to indicate the logical carrier number referenced. 5. Channel type The channel type element is used to determine the type of channel request queued. 6. Trace Data This element contains an information element identifier, length of trace data following and the trace data. This element is included in the trace response message. 7. Interference Band This element contains an information element identifier, and both requested and current interference bands. 8. Audit Result This element is included in the Audit Call Response message from the RRSM to the SSM and vice versa to give the CRM reason for deallocating the channel. 9. MSC or BSS Status This element is included in the MSC Status message from the BSC to the BTS to give the BTS information on whether to send messages to the MSC or not. 10. Stats Cause This element is included in the Radio Channel Released message to specify whether an Assignment Command has been sent to the mobile before the radio channel was released. This is used for stats collection purposes only. 11. Message Discriminator

The T-bit is set to 1 to indicate that the message is to be/was considered transparent by the BTS. All other messages shall have the T-bit set to 0. 12. Message Type The Message Type uniquely identifies the function of the message being sent. 13. Handover Cause The field is included in handover recognised and Force handover fields. This field is included to indicate the reason for initiating a handover for the specified mobile.
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14.

Candidate Cells This field is included in the Handover Recognised message to indicate the candidate cells for a handover.

15.

Trace Mode This field is included in Trace Request message.

5) Message Elements defined by Motorola


Motorola Confidential Proprietary

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Appendix B

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BSC to BTS Interface (A-bis)

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BSC to BTS Interface (A-bis)


Exercise
1. Construct the Layer 2/Layer 3 message which has to be transmitted on the A-bis interface from the BSC to the BTS to page mobile subscriber (IMSI= 234101234567890). SAPI 0 is to be used and the TEI at the BTS is 3. This message is the second to be transmitted on the A-bis for this link and the BSC/BSP is acknowledging all messages upto and including message 5. The timeslot (TN) for the paging message to appear on is TN 2. The mobiles paging group is 4 (defined in TS GSM 05.02). This transaction requires the use of an SDCCH. For the purpose of this exercise the FCS is to be set at 1010111010111011. 2. Which message type will the BTS use on the A-bis link to the BSC in response to the above command assuming the MS responds to the PAGING REQUEST?

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BSC to BTS Interface (A-bis)

8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

BIT POSITION FLAG

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BSC to BTS Interface (A-bis)

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Chapter 6

BSCMSC Interface (A-interface)

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Chapter 6 BSCMSC Interface (A-interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BSCMSC Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface specification objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-interface Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08.0x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling System No7 (C7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Messages Transfer Part (MTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 2 Header Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LSSU Status Field Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alignment Status Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Signal Unit (MSU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Information Octet (SIO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Information Field (SIF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protocol Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Establishment Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP Message Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCCP Message Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Called/Calling Party Address Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSAP Message Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSAP Message Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DTAP Header Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP Header Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSAP Message Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Mobile Station (MS) to PSTN Call Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Interface Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal PSTN to MS Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-Interface Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call from PSTN to MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Circuit Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unblocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resource Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resource Indication Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Global Reset Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset at the MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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61 61 62 62 62 62 64 64 66 68 68 610 614 616 618 618 622 624 626 626 628 628 628 630 632 634 636 638 640 642 644 644 646 648 648 650 650 652 654 656 658 658 660 660 662 664 666 666 668 668
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Reset at the BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset Circuit at the MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset Circuit at the BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Candidate Enquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedures Dedicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Required Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Resource Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classmark Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initial MS Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Queueing Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTP Level 2 Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTP Level 3 Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSMAP Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

670 672 672 672 674 676 676 678 678 680 680 680 682 684 686 688 690 692 694 694 694 695

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BSCMSC Interface

BSCMSC Interface
Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S S S Identify the functions of the BSCMSC Interface. State the GSM Recommendations which apply to the A-interface. Identify the Signalling Protocol Reference Model. State the various parts of the CCITT signalling system Number 7. S S S S S Message Transfer Part (MTP) Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

Identify the procedure for SCCP establishment. State the structure of the BSS Application Part (BSSAP). Identify the Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) message type and structure. Identify the BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP) procedures. Identify complete A-interface message flow.

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Introduction

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Introduction
A-interface Capabilities
The BSSMSC interface shall be capable of supporting all the services offered to GSM users and subscribers. In addition it also allows for the allocation of suitable radio resources within the PLMN, and the operation and maintenance of those resources.

A-interface specification objectives


The MSC to BSS interface specifications shall allow the following: S S S S S S S Connection of various manufacturers BSSs to the same MSC The use of several manufacturers MSCs to the same type of BSS The use of the same BSS in any PLMN The use of the same MSC in any PLMN The separate evolution of MSC and BSS technology, and The separate evolution of O&M facilities Support of all services defined in the GSM 02 series of Technical Specifications

A-interface Characteristics
The interface is defined to be at the boundary of the MSC. The MSC to BSS interface is specified by a set of characteristics, including: S S S S Physical and electromagnetic parameters Channel structures Network operating procedures Operation and Maintenance information support

The definition of the MSC to BSS interface follows a layered approach similar to that in the ISDN. Layer 3 is for the most part based on Technical Specification GSM 04.08 with additional procedures added for the control of radio resources and the identification of transactions using the SCCP. Layer 2 is based on the signalling system No.7 (SS No.7) Message Transfer Part (MTP). Layer 1 is either digital (at 2048 kbit/s, based on ITUTS Rec G703 section 6) or analogue with the data being passed by the use of modems (this latter case is a national option).

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Introduction

MSCBSS Interface (A-interface)

PSTN

MSC

MSC

BSS
A-interface (2.048 Mbit/s) MS

BSC

BSS

BTS

BTS

MS
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MS

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GSM Specification

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GSM Specification
08.0x
The A-interface is defined in the 08.0X series of GSM specification, which is designed to support a wide range of possible architecture on both sides of the interface. S S 08.01 General Aspects

08.02

Interface Principle. This gives the functional split between the BSC and the MSC

S S

08.04

Layer 1 (2 Mbit/s)

08.06

Signalling Transport Mechanisms (ITUTS Signalling No7)

08.08

Layer 3 Specifications

BSSAP user part. BSSOMAP user part

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GSM Specification

GSM Specification A-Interface

S S S S

08.01 08.02 08.04 08.06 08.08

General Aspects Interface Principles Layer 1 Signalling Transport Mechanisms Layer 3 Specifications

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A-Interface Functions

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A-Interface Functions
The A-interface provides facilities to the traffic channels and signalling Links for the following functions: S S S S S Terrestrial management: allocation and blocking of terrestrial traffic channels. Radio channel Management: BSS Management radio channel allocations/control. Mobility Management: location update transparency between the MS and MSC. Call Control: setup for Mobile originating/terminating calls. Supplementary Services: transparency through the BSS.

The signalling is layered, similar to that in the OSI reference model, however the layers referred to are not identical. They are specified by ITUTS Signalling System No7 (C7). Once a mobile is established on a channel, be it a traffic channel or control channel, all signalling between the mobile and the MSC are transparent to the BSS software. All the BSS software undertakes is to maintain the channel to the mobile, whilst passing on any signalling to the mobile. The BSS software does not track the identity of a mobile.

CLM= Connectionless Manager SSM= SCCP State Machine SM= Switch Manager

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A-Interface Functions

MSCBSC Interface

Intelligent Network
Short Message Service

PSTN

HLR

MSC
(Call Control)
Supplementary Services

VLR
(Mobility Management)

2 Mbit/s

MTP CLM SSM


(Radio Channel Management)

BSC

SM

BTS

BTS

BTS
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Signalling System No7 (C7)

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Signalling System No7 (C7)


Introduction
The objective of Signalling System C7 is to provide an internationally standardized general purpose Common Channel Signalling (CCS) system which can: S S S Be optimized for operation in digital communications networks with stored program controlled exchanges. Meet present and further requirements regarding speed, flexibility to handle new services such as ISDN Provide a reliable means of transfer of information in correct sequence and without loss or duplication.

The signalling system is optimized for operation over a 64kbit/s digital channel. It is also suitable for operation over analogue channels at lower speeds and for point to point links. The initial specification of C7 was based on circuit related telephony control requirements and was specified in four functional levels, the MTP (Levels 13 Signalling Data Link, Link control and Signalling Network) and the User Part (Level 4). As new requirements have emerged, C7 has also evolved to meet these new requirements. The first was an additional sublayer, added on top of the MTP (the Signalling Connection Control Part SCCP) to obtain full OSI Layer 3 functionally. The second is the addition of a common support function called Transaction Capabilities (TC). TC forms two elements; Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) and Intermittent Service Part (ISP) (not yet defined). TCAP is a functional block residing above the ISP. It supports the various TC users such as OMAP and MAP. (Operations, Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP) Mobile Application Part (MAP)). BSS OMAP: BSSAP: Operation and Maintenance Application Part BSS Application Part which is sub-divided into two separate functions:

The Base Station Management Application Part (BSSMAP), which supports procedures between the MSC and BSS related to the MS, or to a cell within the BSS, or to the whole BSS. The Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP), used to transfer Call Control (CC) and Mobility Management (MM) messages to/from the MS.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Signalling Protocol Reference Model

BSS side

MSC side

A-interface
Other applications e.g. call control To other processes within the BSS Operation and Maintenance information to PLMN O & M

BSSAP
To air interface transmission equipment

BSSAP DTAP BSS MAP

DTAP

BSS MAP

OSI MODEL
Distribution function

OML
Distribution function

OML

Layer 47 Layer 3 Layer 13

SCCP MTP Physical Layer

SCCP MTP

To other users of the SCCP and MTP

DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part BSSMAP: BSS Management Application Part BSS OMAP: Operation and Maintenance Application Part SCCP: Signalling Connection Control Part MTP: Message Transfer Part BSS: Base Station System MSC: Mobile Services Switching Centre
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Signalling System No7 (C7)

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Messages Transfer Part (MTP)


Introduction
The MTP serves as a transport system for reliable transfer of messages between users. It is broken down into three levels which equate to Layers 13 of the OSI model. Signalling Data Link defines the physical, electrical and mechanical interface requirements. (Recommendations ITUTS Q.702). The standard signalling rate is 64kbit/s and the basic digital interface would be a 4-wire line using AMI/HDB3 encoding. The signalling link being assigned to the time slot 16 in a 2048kbits digital path (this is a typical assignment due to Motorolas design of the XCDR Board. The MTL may reside on any available TS). Signalling Link Control defines the functions and procedures for the controlling of the transfer of signalling messages over one individual signalling data Link (Recommendation ITUTS Q.703) Signalling Network in principle defines these transport functions and procedures that are common to and independent of the operation of individual signalling links (Recommendation ITUTS Q.704) The functions fall in to two main categories: S S Signalling Message Handling; which directs the message to the proper signalling Link or User part. Signalling Network Management; which controls the message routing and the configuration of the signalling network facilities.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Level Relationships

BSS AP

Application

SCCP
(virtual circuit call control)

Level 4

Signalling Network
(MTP L3)

Level 3

Signalling Link Control


(MTP L2)

Level 2

Message Transfer Part (MTP)

Signalling Data Link


(MSI CARD)

Level 1

Physical Medium

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

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Messages Transfer Part (MTP)


Signalling Unit Format
One of the fundamental concepts adopted for C7 is that of variable message length, where practically all messages are complete in themselves. Each message consists of three main parts: S S S Header Data User part; which may contain complete messages. Tail; Frame Check Sequence.

These messages are referred to as Signal Units (SU) of which there are three different types. S S S Message Signal Unit (MSU) Used for passing of higher Level signalling data. Link Status Signal Unit (LSSU) To enable the Level 2 MTP to be aligned and maintain the link. Fill-in Signal Units (FISU) If there are no MSU or LSSU to be passed along the link, then a FISU is periodically sent to maintain the signalling link

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

C7 Signalling Unit Format

TAIL

DATA

HEADER

SEQUENCE NUMBER LENGTH INDICATOR DATA (MSU, LSSU, FISU) FRAME CHECK SEQUENCE (ERROR CHECKING)

SIGNALLING UNITS (SU)


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Signalling System No7 (C7)

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Level 2 Header Part


The header sequence is the same for all types of Signalling Units (SU) and consists of the following: Flag (F) All SUs begin and end with an 8 bit flag. The flag bit pattern is 01111110. The flag pattern is added by Level 2 before transmission. To ensure a flag pattern is not contained in the data, a 0 is inserted after any 5 consecutive 1s at the transmitter. At the receiver, the 0 is removed. These processes are called Bit Stuffing and Bit Stripping. Backward Sequence Number (BSN) The BSN is the sequence number of an MSU being acknowledged. Backward Indicator Bit (BIB) Used with the BSN in the basic error control functions to perform SU sequence control and acknowledgement. Forward Sequence Number (FSN) The FSN is the sequence number of the SU in which it is being carried. The FSN and BSN are binary coded number in the range 0127. The FSN and BSN in a particular SU bear no relationship to each other. The FSN is only incremented when an MSU is transmitted. Forward Indicator Bit (FIB) Used with the FSN in the basic error control functions to perform SU sequence and acknowledgement. Length Indicator (LI) The length indicator field allows a cross-check on the closing flag and pre-allocation of buffer space (normal function of length indicator), the length indicator also provides the signal unit type. S S S Message Signal Units have data portions larger than 2 octets. Link Status Units have a data field of one of two octets. Fill-in Signal Units have a length zero indicator.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

MTP Level 2 Header Part

SPARE BITS 2

LI

F I B 1 HEADER

FSN

B I B 1

BSN

FLAG

Types of SUs: LI = 0 FISU LI = 1 or 2 LSSU LI = >2 MSU

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

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LSSU Status Field Format


This field is used to indicate the senders view of the actual signalling status of the link. At present only a single octet Status Field (SF) is defined. The first three bits of the Status Field are used, the remainder are spare. C B A 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 Indication Status O Out of alignment Status N Normal alignment Status E Emergency alignment Status OS Out of Service Status PO Processor Outage Status B Busy (Level 2 congestion)

Procedure
Status Indicator O is sent during the initial alignment until an LSSU indicating status O, N or E is received ie until frame alignment. Status Indication N indicates normal operation. Status Indication E is used for emergency alignment with a short proving period at the request of the network level.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

LSSU Status Field

TAIL

Status Field

HEADER

Length Indicator = 1 or 2

8 bits

Note: LSSUs have the highest priority of all signal units

*
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= Spare bits

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Alignment Procedure
The procedure is applicable to activation and to restoration of the link. The procedure provides a normal proving period for normal initial alignment and an emergency proving period for emergency initial alignment. The decision to apply either the normal or the emergency procedures is made unilaterally at Level 3. Only the signalling link to be aligned is involved in the initial alignment procedure (i.e. no transfer of alignment information over other signalling links is required).

Alignment Status Indications


The initial alignment procedure employs four different alignment status indications: S S S S status indication O: Out of alignment status indication N: Normal alignment status status indication E: Emergency alignment status status indication OS: Out of Service

These indications are carried in the status field of the Link Status Signal Units Status indication O is transmitted when initial alignment has been started and none of the status indications O, N or E are received from the link. Status indication N is transmitted when, after having started initial alignment, status indication O, N, or E is received and the terminal is in the normal alignment status. Status indication E is transmitted when, after having started initial alignment, status indication O, N or E ie received and the terminal is in the emergency alignment status, i.e. it must employ the short emergency proving period. Status indication N and E indicate the status of the transmitting signalling link terminal; this is not changed by reception of status indications indicating a different status at the remote signalling link terminal. Hence, if a signalling link terminal with a normal alignment status receives a status indication E it continues to send status indication N but initiates the short emergencyproving period. Status indication OS informs the remote signalling link terminal that for reasons other than processor outage (e.g. link failure) the signalling link terminal can neither receive nor transmit message signal units. Status indication OS is sent on completion of power on until initial alignment is started.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Alignment Procedure

BSS
START T1 IDLE
Start T2

MSC SIO SIO

Not aligned state


Stop T2 Start T3

SIE or SIN SIE or SIN

Aligned state
Stop T3 Start T4

SIE or SIN SIE or SIN SIE or SIN SIE or SIN

Proving period emergency or normal

T4 Expires

SIE or SIN FISU/MSU

Aligned ready state


Stop T1

FISU/MSU

T1 allows for up to four additional proving attempts


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Alignment Procedure
The alignment procedure passes through a number of states during the initial alignment: S S State Idle: the procedure is suspended State not aligned: the signalling link is not aligned and the terminal is sending status indication O. Time-out T23 is started on entry to State and stopped when State is left. State aligned: the signalling link is aligned and the terminal is sending status indication N or E, status indications N, E or OS are not received. Time-out T3 is started on entry to State and stopped when State is left. State, proving, the signalling link terminal is sending status indication N or E, status indication O or OS are not received, proving has been started. Proving is the means by which the signalling link terminal validates the links ability to carry signal units correctly by inspecting the signal units. Proving must last for a period of T4 before the link can enter the aligned ready link state. Expiry of timer T4 indicates a successful proving period unless the proving period has been previously aborted up to four times. S Following successful alignment and proving procedure, the signalling terminal enters Aligned Ready state and the aligned ready time-out T1 is stopped on entry in the In service state and the duration of time-out T1 should be chosen such that the remote end can perform four additional proving attempts.

The nominal values of the proving periods are: Pn= 216 octets transmission time Pe= 212 octets transmission time

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Alignment Procedure

BSS
START T1 IDLE
Start T2

MSC SIO SIO

Not aligned state


Stop T2 Start T3

SIE or SIN SIE or SIN

Aligned state
Stop T3 Start T4

SIE or SIN SIE or SIN SIE or SIN SIE or SIN

Proving period emergency or normal

T4 Expires

SIE or SIN FISU/MSU

Aligned ready state


Stop T1

FISU/MSU

T1 allows for up to four additional proving attempts


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Message Signal Unit (MSU)


Level 3 of the C7 MTP provides the functions and procedures to control the transfer of messages between the nodes of the signalling network. The functions can be divided into two basic categories. S S Signalling Message Handling Signalling Network Management Not Used

Signalling Network Management includes the functions necessary to reconfigure the Network in the event of failure and to execute traffic flow control. This facility is not implemented within the GSM A-interface, as only point-to-point operation is recommended. So the procedures for message re-routing are not required. Signalling Message Handling ensures that the messages originated by a User Part are delivered to the corresponding user part at the destination. These functions include, discrimination, distribution and routing. The discrimination and distribution functions are controlled by the SCCP and will be covered later.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Message Signal Unit

Message Signal Unit

TAIL
Signalling Info Field

Data Field
Service Info Octet

Level 2 MTP

Data

ROUTING LABEL

HEADER

Level 3 MTP

Data

HEADER

Level 4 SCCP

Data

BSSAP (DTAP or BSSMAP)

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Service Information Octet (SIO)


The service information octet only exists in Message Signal Units. It contains the Service Indicator and the Subservice Field (network indicator). The Service Indicator is assigned for each user within the message transfer part, this is then used to indicate which user should receive the message. The Subservice Field (network indicator) indicates if the traffic is national or international.

Service Indicator D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 to 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 Indication Signalling network management. Signalling network testing + maintenance Spare Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) Telephone User Part (TUP) ISDN User Part Data User Part (Call + cut related) Data User Part (facility registration and cancellation) MTP testing User Part

Spare

Sub-service Field

D 0 0 1 1 XX 0

C 0 1 1

B X X X X

A X X X X

Meaning International Network Spare National Network Reserved for national use Reserved

set in database by change element ni

Note: If ni (network identifier) is set incorrectly an error will occur giving an invalid SIO.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Service Information Octet L3 Header

Data Field

TAIL

SIF

SIO

HEADER

MTP Level 2

8 Bits
SUBSERVICE FIELD SERVICE INDICATOR

C NOTE:
1. 2.

No Signalling Network Management in GSM A-interface signalling. All messages via SCCP therefore, Service indicator set to (SCCP) Subservice field set to (National network) D 0 D 1 C 0 C 0 B 1 B X A 1 A X

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Signalling Information Field (SIF)


The signalling Information Field (SIF) is only used in MSUs and is the position for the actual signalling messages and accompanying routing information being transferred between signalling nodes. The field includes a routing label and the message. The routing label identifies the address of the destination to which the message is to be transferred. In the GSM application this is greatly simplified The interface is only used for point-to-point application, so the routing function in the MTP will be preset to select the point code appropriate to the parent MSC.

Routing Label
The part of the message label directly used for routing is called the routing label. The label is 32-bits, 4 octets in length and contains: S S S 14-bit Destination Point Code (DPC) 14-bit Originating Point Code (OPC) 4-bit Signalling Link Selector (SLS)

The origination and destination point code identifies the signalling points e.g. BSS and MSC of the A-interface link. The SLS identifies which MTL link to use.

Router Index
To improve the loadsharing of traffic on MTL links in the uplink direction from the BSS to the MSC. (Loadsharing from the MSC to the BSC is based on the routing function implemented at the MSC and is beyond the scope of this course.) This will be done by distribution of signalling traffic originating at the BSS across 64 virtual circuits. A router index in the range of 0 to 63 will be randomly assigned to each call block when a call is established. Random assignment will result in even distribution of routing indices to call blocks. The router index identifies the virutal circuit for all signalling messages associated wit the call block. The BSS MTP Layer 3 routing function will evenly distribute the 64 virtual circuits over the active MTLs. This routing function is compliant with the SS7 protocol because the BSS still routes all messaging associated with a given call over the same physical MTL. Delivery of messages in order is still guaranteed. A database element will be used for setting the loadshare granularity to either 16 or 64. Although the SLS will not be used to perform routing at the BSS, the SLS field will be filled in. The SLS may be used for message routing by the MSC or some other signalling point in the SS7 network.

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Signalling System No7 (C7)

Signalling Information Field

Data Field MTP Level 2 TAIL SIF SIO HEADER

Maximum 272 Octets

MESSAGE DATA

ROUTING LABEL

MTP Level 3

Signalling Link Selection (SLS) 4-bits


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Originating Point Code (OPC) 14-bits

Destination Point Code (DPC) 14-bits

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)


Introduction
The SCCP builds on the underlying MTP to provide a full network service as described by the OSI architecture. The SCCP accepts message units from the higher layer users, adds value in the form of network service features and gives the enhanced message units to the MTP for delivery. The SCCP provides two types of message transfer: S S Without logical signalling connection (connectionless transfer) With logical signalling connection (connection-oriented)

Connectionless message transfer is used to send single messages to other SCCP users. The SCCP generates a UDT message from the user data and from the determined address. This is then transferred to the MTP for transmission. Connection-oriented message transfer is used for an exchange of SCCP users. When the SCCP receives a request from a user to set up a signalling connection, it sends a Call Request (CR) message to the SCCP in the opposite signalling point. This CR message contains the local reference number, which is used to identify the connection.

Protocol Classes
To satisfy a variety of requirements the SCCP provide four classes of protocol. Two are associated with the connectionless service and two are connection-orientated. Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 provides a pure connectionless transfer service. Sequenced (MTP) connectionless class. Basic connection-orientated class. Flow control connection-orientated class

GSM Recommendations allows only Classes 0 (BSSMAP messages) and Class 2 (DTAP + BSSMAP messages)

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

ITUTS Recom Q.711Q.716 Message Transfer

Connection-orientated

Connectionless

Protocol Class 2 (DTAP BSSMAP messages)

Protocol Class 0 (BSSMAP messages)

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SCCP Message Format


The SCCPs objective is to provide the means to establish logical signalling connections within the C7 common channel signalling network. Each SCCP message is a message in its own right, where each message uses the routing label of the MTP. The SCCP message format is as shown, consisting: MESSAGE TYPE FIELD; identifying one of 16 defined messages. FIXED MANDATORY PART; This part includes a variable number of parameters each of fixed length for a particular message type. The order of these parameters are defined for each message type. VARIABLE MANDATORY PART; This part includes pointers to locate parameters in the variable length field. The name of the parameters and the order of listing is defined within the message type. OPTIONAL PART; If the message type allows an optional parameter field, the variable mandatory part will include a pointer to the optional part. The optional part is defined as parameter name, length of field and the parameter value.

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

SCCP Message Format

TAIL

SIF

SIO

HEADER

MTP Level 2

MESSAGE DATA

ROUTING LABEL

MTP Level 3

Optional Part
(DTAP or BSSMAP)

Variable Mandatory Part

Fixed Mandatory Part

Message Type

SCCP Level 4

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Establishment Procedure
A new connection is established when individual information related to a MS transaction has to be exchanged between a BSS and MSC. This establishment can be initiated by either the BSS or MSC. If initiated by the BSS then the user data field of the SCCP Connection Request message contains the BSSMAP message (COMPLETE L3 INFORMATION). A typical establishment procedure is for a Connection Request (CR) message to be sent, the user data field may contain BSSMAP or DTAP messages. After checking this message the connection confirm (CC) message is returned with the option of containing BSSMAP or DTAP messages. Connection Release procedure is always initiated by the MSC. The MSC sends a SCCP Released (RLSD) message. The user data field of this message is optional and may contain a transparent Layer 3 message to the MS or be empty. When receiving this message, the BSS releases all the radio resources allocated to the relevant MS and sends a SCCP Release Complete (RLC) message back to the MSC. The transfer of DTAP or BSSMAP data is via the data user field of the SCCP frames. This is optional in the Connection Request, connection confirm and released messages (except CR initiated by BSS). The user data field is a mandatory parameter of a Data message (DT1) which always contain either a DTAP or a BSSMAP message.

Message Type Connection Request Connection Confirm Connection Refused Released Release Complete Data Form 1 Unit Data Inactivity testing CR CC CREF RLSD RLC DT1 UDT IT

Code 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 1001 0000

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

SCCP Establishment Procedure

BSS
(BSSMAP; DTAP) CR

MSC

(ssm_t_v_0) CC (*)

(BSSMAP; DTAP) DTI

DTI (BSSMAP; DTAP)

RLSD (*)

RLC

* CC and RLSD has option for Data field


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SCCP Message Parameters


Listed below is a brief description of each of the message parameters used with the relative message type, along with the number of octets for that parameter. The overhead also shows if the parameter is used in the Fixed (F), Variable (V) or Optional (O) part of the message. Source Local Reference, parameter field is a 3-octet field containing a reference number which is generated and used by the local node (BSS or MSC) to identify the connection section. Destination Local Reference parameter field is a 3-octet field containing a reference number which outgoing messages, has been allocated by the remote node (BSS or MSC) Protocol Class parameter field is a four bit field containing the protocol class (i.e. Class 0 or 2 (connection-orientated/connectionless)). Called Party Address and Calling Party Address parameters which identify the sub-system which messages are using. Segmenting/reassembling parameter field is a 1-octet field and indicates if more data messages, relating to this message are required (not used in A-interface however the parameter must be still included for syntax reasons). Refusal Cause parameter field is a 1-octet field containing the reason for the refusal of the connection (full list ITUTS Q.713 para 3.11) Data parameter field is a variable length field containing SCCP user data to be transferred transparently between the SCCP user functions. End of Optional Parameter identifies the end of all the optional parameters, a single octet set to all zeros.

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

SCCP Message Parameters

Parameters
Source Local Reference Destination Local Reference Protocol Class Called Party Address Calling Party Address Segmenting/reassembling Refusal Cause Release Cause Data (DTAP/BSSMAP) End of Optional Parameter

Type (F,V,O)
F F F V O F F F O/V

Length (Octets)
3 3 1 3 min 4 min 1 1 1 3 min 256max 1

F = Fixed V = Variable O = Optional


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SCCP Message Example


This example is a typical SCCP connect request message. It illustrates a connect request message that contains 3 fixed mandatory parameters: S S S Message Type Code Source Local Reference Protocol Class (class 2)

One variable mandatory parameter: S Called Party Address

Three optional parameters: S S S Calling Party Address Data End of Optional Parameter

The mandatory variable part also contains two pointers: S S The first pointer indicates the start of the called party address parameter The second pointer indicates the start of the optional parameters

NOTE:
When the parameter is part of the Fixed or Variable Mandatory part of the message the parameter type code octet is not used. e.g. Called Party Address (Variable Mandatory) 3 octets. Calling Party Address (optional part) 4 Octets.

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

SCCP Message Example

Message Type: Connection Request (CR) PARAMETER


Message Type
Fixed Mandatory Part

CODE/INDICATION
0000 0001 Incoming Connection Identifier 0000 0010 0000 0010 0000 0100 Length Indicator Address Indicator Subsystem Number Parameter Type Code Length Indicator Address Indicator Subsystem Number 3 130 Octets 0000 0000
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(CR)

Source Local Reference Protocol Class Pointer to Variable

CLASS 2 (2) (4)

Variable Mandatory Part

Pointer to optional Called Party Address

Calling Party Address


Optional Part

Data End of Optional Parameter

BSSMAP or DTAP message

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Called/Calling Party Address Parameter


In order to limit the complexity of the address procedures the BSS exchanges signalling messages only with its parent MSC i.e. point-to-point working. Therefore, the address parameters, both Calling and Called Party Address are structured identically. They are primarily used to indicate the required application part and where to obtain the routing information. The A-interface has no global title so the Destination Point Code (DPC) which is coded in the MTP routing label and subsystem number in the Called Party Address allow the routing of the message. The encoding of the address indicator is 01000010 with the subsystem number being either. 11111110 BSSAP 11111101 OMAP Address indicator and subsystem number will always be the same in our messages. For calling and called party addresses are point to point routing provided with Level 3 (MTP routing label) OPC and DPC and national addressing (Ni= 2).

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Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)

Called/Calling Party Address Parameter

LENGTH INDICATOR

00000010

ADDRESS INDICATOR

01000010

SUBSYSTEM NUMBER

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 (BSSAP)

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Radio Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP)

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Radio Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP)


The user function of the SCCP called Radio Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP) uses one signalling connection per active Mobile Station for the transfer of Layer 3 messages related to that transaction. The BSSAP user function is further subdivided into two separate functions. The Direct Transfer Application Sub-Part (DTAP) is used to transfer Connection Management (CM) and Mobility Management (MM) messages to and from the mobile station (MS). The Layer 3 information in these messages is not interpreted by the BSS and a complete description is contained in the GSM Recommendation 04.08. The BSS Management Application Sub-Part (BSSMAP) supports other procedures between the MSC and BSS related to the MS (i.e. resource management, handover control), or to a cell within the BSS, or to the whole BSS. The description of the Level 3 protocol for BSSMAP is contained in GSM Recommendation 08.08, with the Radio resource management contained in GSM Recommendations 04.08.

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Radio Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP)

BSS Application Part (BSSAP)

Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) GSM Rec 04.08

BSS Management Part (BSSMAP)

Connection Management (CM)

Mobility Management (MM)

Radio Resource Management (RR) GSM 04.08

BSS Management BSSMAP GSM 08.08

Short Message
Service (SMS)
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Call Control (CC)

Supplementary Service Support (SSS)

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BSSAP Message Structure

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BSSAP Message Structure


The distribution of messages between BSSMAP and DTAP functions are performed by an intermediate layer of protocol between the BSSAP and SCCP. This is referred to as the Distribution Sub-layer. Each SCCP User Data Field contains a distribution data unit as a header, followed by the Level 3 BSSMAP or Layer 3 transparent DTAP message. The discrimination parameter indicates which message type is transparent or non-transparent

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BSSAP Message Structure

BSSAP Message Structure

Message Signal Unit

TAIL

MTP

Mandatory

E N D

Optional (Data)

Variable

Fixed

MESSAGE TYPE

SCCP

Transport Layer 3 Message (TS GSM 04.08)

DTAP Header either/or

Information Elements (TS GSM 04.08 and 08.08)

BSSMAP Header

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BSSAP Message Header

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BSSAP Message Header


DTAP Header Structure
The discriminator is one octet in length and discriminates between DTAP and BSSMAP type messages. For DTAP messages the D bit (bit 1 of the octet) is set to 1. The DLCI parameter is used by the MSC messages to indicate to the BSS the type of Data Link Connection to be used over the Air-interface. This is a single octet, which indicates the radio channel identification and the SAPI value used on the radio link. The LI states the number of octets remaining in the message.

DTAP Message Format:


S S S S Discriminator parameter Data link connection identification parameter Length indicator Message (Information elements)

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BSSAP Message Header

DTAP Header Structure

3 Octets

LI (1 Octet)

DLCI (1 Octet)

DISC (1 Octet)
D bit = 1

Data Link Connection Identification (DLCI)


C1 C2 0

0 0 S1 S2 S3 1 Octet

C1, C2 = 00 = FACCH, SDCCH C1, C2 = 01 = SACCH S1, S2, S3 = 000 = Call Control 011 = Short Message Service
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BSSAP Message Header

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BSSMAP Header Structure


The BSSMAP messages are to support the MSC to BSC interface and thus do not require any DLCI field. All messages apply only to the connected MSC/BSC. The first octet, discriminator, indicates by the first bit, being set to a 0, that the message contained within this MSU is a BSSMAP type. This is then followed by an octet indicating the length of the Level 3 message.

BSSMAP Message Format:


S S S Discriminator parameter Length indicator Message (Information elements)

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BSSAP Message Header

BSS Management Application Part Header

2 Octets

Message

Length Indicator

DISC

D bit = 0

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BSSAP Message Structure

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BSSAP Message Structure


Complete Message Format
The Direct Transfer Application Part is used to transfer Call Control (CC) and Mobility Management (MM) messages to and from the MS. These messages are transferred via the A-interface in the format shown but the information in these messages are not interpreted by the BSS at all, except in one case (stated below). The actual messages are defined in GSM Recommendation 04.08, of these messages the Radio Resource (RR) Management type are not transferred over the A-interface. The initial MS message received by the BSS will be analysed to allow the extraction, by the BSS, of the Classmark field (mobile capabilities). The entire initial message (e.g. CM service request, LOC update request, page response, re-establishment request) is passed to the MSC piggybacked on the complete layer 3 information message. The BSS uses the Classmark information to set timing and power requirements for the Air-interface.

Note:
LI= Length Indicator Discriminator

DISC=

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BSSAP Message Structure

BSSAP Message Format

Message Signal Unit Signal Information Field F B I FSN I BSN B B

CK

SIO

LI

MTP Level 2

SCCP Message

SLS

OPC

DPC

MTP Level 3 SCCP Message (DT1)

End of Message

Optional (Data)

Variable Mandatory

Fixed Mandatory

Message Type

DTAP Message
(TS GSM 04.08)

LI

DLCI

DISC = 1

DTAP Message

BSSMAP Message
(TS GSM 08.08)

Message Type

LI

DISC = 0

BSSMAP Message

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BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP)


Procedures
The BSSMAP supports all procedures between the MSC and BSS that require interpretation and processing of information related to single calls and resource management. There are a total of 18 procedures defined in GSM Recommendations 08.08 which can be defined into two groups. Global ; these procedures concern a complete cell/BSS, they use the connectionless services of the SCCP (e.g. UDT). These procedures are defined within GSM Recommendation 08.08 separately, to enable a more flexible approach to the buildup of complete call sequence. Global procedures include: S S S S S S S Blocking/Unblocking Resource Indication Reset Reset Circuit Paging Handover Candidate Enquiry Flow Control

Dedicated; these procedures concern a single dedicated radio resource on the radio-orientated services of the SCCP, thus the connection has to be set up to support the call or transaction. The procedures are defined separately but in many instances the procedures can exist simultaneously. Dedicated procedures include: S S S S S S S S S S S Assignment Handover Required Indication Handover Resource Allocation Handover Execution Release Classmark Update Cipher Mode Control Initial MS Message Queuing Indication Trace Invocation DataLink Control SAPI not equal to 0 External Handover

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BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP)

BSSMAP

PROCEDURES (18 Total) GSM Recom 08.08

GLOBAL (complete cell/BSS) Connectionless


Blocking/Unblocking Resource Indication Reset Reset Circuit Paging Handover Candidate Enquiry Flow Control

DEDICATED (single radio resource) Connectionorientated


Assignment Handover Required Indication Handover Required Allocation Handover Execution Release Classmark Update Cipher Mode Control Initial MS Message Queueing Indication Trace Invocation Data Link Control SAPI not Equal to 0

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Normal Mobile Station (MS) to PSTN Call Set.


The CM service request message (DTAP) is enveloped into Connection Request (CR) (SCCP) message. * When the Alerting message is received by the MS this generates the ringing tone in the MS, indicating the distant-end phone is ringing. Ring tone may be sent from the distant exchange.

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BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP)

MS to PSTN Call

Message Flow MSC : BSS

Type

CR ComL3inf (CM service request) CC (SCCP) [BSSMAP/DTAP] DT1 Cipher Mode Command (BSSMAP) DT1 Cipher Mode Complete (BSSMAP) DT1 Set up (DTAP) DT1 Call Proceeding (DTAP) DT1 Assignment Request (BSSMAP) DT1 Assignment Complete (BSSMAP) DT1 Alerting (DTAP) DT1 Connect (DTAP) DT1 Connect Ack (DTAP)
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A-Interface Messages

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A-Interface Messages
Normal Mobile Station (MS) to PSTN call setup when call is cleared.

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A-Interface Messages

MS Clears Call

Message Flow MSC : BSS

Type

DT1 Disconnect (DTAP)

DT1 Release (DTAP)

DT1 Release Complete (DTAP)

DT1 Clear Command (BSSMAP)

DT1 Clear Complete (BSSMAP)

RSLD Released (SCCP)

RLC Release Complete (SCCP)

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Normal PSTN to MS Call

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Normal PSTN to MS Call


The paging request message (BSSMAP) is enveloped into a Unit Data (SCCP) message and the BSS generates the required paging message over the air-interface BCCH/CCCH. The call set up is then similar to an MS originated call except for the Paging Response message (DTAP) enveloped into the ComL3inf message (BSSMAP) enveloped into the Connection Request (SCCP).

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Normal PSTN to MS Call

Normal PSTN to MS Call

Message Flow MSC : BSS

Type

UDT Paging (BSSMAP) CR ComL3inf (Paging Response) (BSSMAP/DTAP) CC (SCCP) DT1 Cipher Mode Command (BSSMAP) DT1 Cipher Mode Complete (BSSMAP) DT1 Set up (DTAP) DT1 Call Confirmed (DTAP) DT1 Assignment Request (BSSMAP) DT1 Assignment Complete (BSSMAP) DT1 Alerting (DTAP) DT1 Connect (DTAP) DT1 Connect Ack (DTAP)

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A-Interface Messages

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A-Interface Messages
Call from PSTN to MS
After the conversation either party can clear down, which is indicated by either Disconnect or Release.

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A-Interface Messages

PSTN User Clears Call

Example: Message Flow MSC : BSS

Call Cleared Type

DT1 Disconnect (DTAP)

DT1 Release (DTAP)

DT1 Release Complete (DTAP)

DT1 Clear Command (BSSMAP)

DT1 Clear Complete (BSSMAP)

RSLD Released (SCCP)

RLC Release Complete (SCCP)

can be with release message

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Procedures Global

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Procedures Global
Blocking
The assignment procedure depends upon the MSC choosing the terrestrial resource to be used. The MSC therefore needs to be informed of any terrestrial circuits that are out of service at the BSS. This is performed by using a simple blocking/unblocking procedure. The block messages used to support this procedure are sent as global messages (i.e. using the SCCP connectionless mode). Each message refers to one or more terrestrial circuits accessed through the BSS MSC interface. The circuit is identified by its Circuit Identity Code. A BSS may block a terrestrial circuit because: S S S Operation and Maintenance intervention makes the circuit unavailable for use (Cause value: O and M intervention). An equipment failure makes the circuit unavailable (Cause value: equipment failure) Radio resource is not accessible from the terrestrial circuit (Cause value: no radio resource available).

When and if the BSS decides to block a terrestrial circuit, the BSS shall immediately mark that terrestrial circuit as blocked (to stop any further allocation of that terrestrial circuit) and shall then send a block message to the MSC and start timer T1 (T20). The BLOCK message contains the Circuit Identity Code indicating the terrestrial circuit that is to be blocked and a Cause Information Element indicating the reason for blocking. Typical Cause values are: no radio resources available, O and M intervention, equipment failure. If the CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCK message is applied by the BSS the circuits to be blocked are indicated in the status field of the Circuit Identity Code list. Receipt of a block message (BLOCK or CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCK) at the MSC from the BSS will indicate to the MSC that the identified circuits are unavailable for reselection. If a call is in progress on any of the identified terrestrial circuits then it will be unaffected by this procedure, the circuits will however be camp on blocked. Such circuits shall be blocked as soon as that call is no longer in progress, or active. An appropriate blocking acknowledge message (BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE or CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE) will be returned to the BSS by the MSC to acknowledge receipt of the block message and to indicate that any necessary action has been taken. On receipt of the blocking acknowledge the BSS shall stop timer T1 (T20). The resource involved will be assumed to be blocked by the MSC until either an unblock (UNBLOCK or CIRCUIT GROUP UNBLOCK) or RESET message is received relevant to that resource.

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Procedures Global

Blocking

Informs the MSC of terrestrial circuits that are out of service at the BSS. Blocking BSS
T1 (T20) (BLOCK) UDT CIC = x Cause = Equipment fail UDT (BLOCKING ACK) CIC = x

MSC

Started
T1 (T20)

Stopped

OR BSS
T1 (T20)

MSC

(Circuit Group Block) UDT

Started
T1 (T20) (Circuit Group Block Acknowledge) UDT

Stopped
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Blocking
If blocking acknowledge message is not received for a block message within T1 (T20) seconds then the block message will be repeated. If this occurs a second time the circuits will be kept marked as blocked, and the situation must then be resolved internally within the BSS or by O&M procedures. It should be noted that this is a unidirectional procedure and that the MSC does not send block messages towards the BSS. If the MSC wishes to take a terrestrial circuit out of service this is achieved by local blocking within the MSC

Note: Timer T1 is used to supervise a single circuit block/unblock procedure whilst T20 is used to supervise the circuit group block/unblock procedure.
If an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or HANDOVER REQUEST message is received allocating a circuit which is marked at the BSS as blocked then an ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message or a HANDOVER FAILURE message (respectively) followed by a BLOCK message shall be sent to the MSC.

Group Circuit Procedures


Allows reduced messages across the A-interface. Faster completion of procedures is achieved by implementing group messages throughout the BSS software. To enable this function within the BSS the following change_element command must be entered at the BSC: chg_element group_block_unblock_allowed <element_value><bsc or 0) <element_value> 0: Disable the BSS sends single circuit Block/Unblock messages to the MSC. 1: Enable the BSS sends Circuit Group Block/Unblock messages to the MSC.

To indicate support of group block/unblock at the BSC the following command must be entered at the RXCDR: chg_rxcdr_gbu <bsc><bss_grp_block_unblock_allowed> <bsc> Represents the BSC associated with this RXCDR Range: 031

<bss_grp_block_unblock _allowed> off:BSC does not support Group block/unblock on: BSC does support Group block/unblock

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Procedures Global

Blocking

Informs the MSC of terrestrial circuits that are out of service at the BSS. Blocking BSS
T1 (T20) (BLOCK) UDT CIC = x Cause = Equipment fail UDT (BLOCKING ACK) CIC = x

MSC

Started
T1 (T20)

Stopped

OR BSS
T1 (T20)

MSC

(Circuit Group Block) UDT

Started
T1 (T20) (Circuit Group Block Acknowledge) UDT

Stopped
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Unblocking
If the BSS wishes to unblock a blocked circuit and return it to service then it shall immediately mark the circuit as unblocked and then send an unblock message, and start timer T1 (T20). If an unblock message (UNBLOCK or CIRCUIT GROUP UNBLOCK) is received at the MSC for a blocked resource then the resource will be marked as available for service and an unblocking acknowledge message (UNBLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE or CIRCUIT GROUP UNBLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE) will be returned to the BSS. The BSS shall stop timer T1 (T20) on receipt of this unblocking acknowledge. If an unblocking acknowledge message is not received for an unblock message before expiry of timer T1 (T20) then the unblock message will be repeated. If this occurs a second time, this situation may be reflected to the O&M, which shall resolve the possible conflict. The unblocking acknowledge message is repeated at most one time. Whatever the outcome of possible repetitions, the concerned circuits remain unblocked.

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Procedures Global

Unblocking

Informs the MSC of terrestrial circuits which require unblocking and returning

to service. Unblocking BSS


T1 (T20) (UNBLOCK) UDT

MSC

Started
T1 (T20) UDT (UNBLOCKING ACK)

Stopped CIC = Circuit Identity Code BSS


(Circuit Group Unblock) UDT

MSC

(Circuit Group Unblock Acknowledge) UDT

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Resource Indication
The purpose of the resource indication is to inform the MSC of the amount of radio resources that are spare at the BSS and available for carrying traffic. This information may be used by the MSC for external handover decisions. The procedure is for the MSC to indicate to the BSS one of the four methods of transferring the required information to the MSC. This is achieved by the MSC sending a Resource Request message containing the required method and the cell identity. The four methods are: S S S S Spontaneous indication expected; when conditions defined by O+M are met in the BSS (e.g. traffic thresholds, or time interval between two messages). Single indication expected; immediate one-off response. Periodic indication expected; immediately then periodically, set by MSC (100mS intervals) No indication expected; BSS to MSC transfer of resource indication information disabled until receipt of Resource Request

The resource indication message contains two pieces of information for each of the 5 interference bands: # # The number of half rate traffic channels available in each band. The number of full rate traffic channels available in each band.

The level of the 5 bands are defined by O+M (user).

Resource Indication Procedure


A change_element command has been introduced to enable this message to either report using the Phase 1 or Phase 2 message formats. In addition an acknowledge message with no information in the response to the Resource Request from the MSC is introduced. chg_element phase 2_resource_ind_allowed<element_value><bsc or 0> <element_value> 0: Disabled (default) the BSS sends Resource Indication messages to the MSC in the GSM phase 1 format. 1: Enabled the BSS send the resource Indication messages to the MSC in the GSM phase 2 format.

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Procedures Global

Resource Indication

Informs the MSC of the amount of radio resources that are available at the BSS. BSS
<UDT, Resource Request> <timeout>

MSC

<UDT, Resource Indication>

Phase2_resource_ind_allowed=0

BSS
<UDT, Resource Request> <UDT, Resource Indication>

MSC
Method: 1. Spontaneous indication expected

<timeout>

(acknowledgement with information) <UDT, Resource Indication>

2. Single indication expected 3. Periodic indication expected 4. No indication expected Disable reporting

Phase2_resource_ind_allowed=1

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Global Reset Procedure


The purpose of the reset procedure is to initialise the BSS and MSC in the event of a failure. The procedure is a global procedure applying to a whole BSS, and therefore all messages relating to the reset procedure are sent as global messages using the connectionless mode of the SCCP. If only a limited part of the MSC or BSS has suffered a failure then clearing procedures can be used to clear only those affected calls.

Reset at the MSC


In the event of a failure at the MSC which has resulted in the loss of transaction reference information, a RESET message is sent to the BSS. This message is used by the BSS to release affected calls and erase all affected references. Upon receipt of a RESET message from the MSC the BSS shall send block messages (BLOCK or CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCK) for all circuits that were previously blocked, the MSC shall respond to these with blocking acknowledge messages. After a guard period of T13 seconds a RESET ACKNOWLEDGE message is returned to the MSC, indicating that all MSs which were involved in a call are no longer transmitting and that all references at the BSS have been cleared. If the MSC sends a RESET message to the BSS and receives no RESET ACKNOWLEDGE message within a period T16 then it shall repeat the entire reset procedure. The sending of the RESET message is repeated a maximum of n times where n is an operator matter. After the n-th unsuccessful repetition the procedure is stopped and the maintenance system is informed.

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Procedures Global

Reset

MSC BSS
T13 STARTED

MSC UDT (RESET) UDT (BLOCK) UDT (CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCK) UDT (BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE)
UDT (CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE)
T16 STARTED

UDT (RESET ACKNOWLEDGE)


T13 EXPIRES T16 EXPIRES Max of N times for Reset Message

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Reset at the BSS

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Reset at the BSS


In the event of a failure at the BSS which has resulted in the loss of transaction reference information, a RESET message is sent to the MSC. This message is used by the MSC to release affected calls and erase all affected references, and to put all circuits into the idle state. After a guard period of T2 seconds a RESET ACKNOWLEDGE message is returned to the BSS indicating that all references have been cleared. After the sending of the RESET to the MSC the BSS shall initiate blocking procedures (Block or Circuit group block procedures) for all circuits that are blocked, the MSC shall respond with blocking acknowledge or check group block acknowledge. The sending of block messages shall be done without waiting for the acknowledgement to the RESET message. If the BSS sends a RESET message to the MSC and receives no RESET ACKNOWLEDGE message within a period T4 then it shall repeat the entire reset procedure. The sending of the RESET message is repeated a maximum of n times where n is an operator matter. After the n-th unsuccessful repetition the procedure is stopped and the maintenance system is informed. To specify the number of repetitions the following change_element command must be used. chg_element global_reset_repetitions <element_value><bsc or 0> <element_value> 0: 1 to 255: The Global Reset Message will repeat continuously until a reset acknowledge is received. The Global Reset Message will be repeated the number of times entered and the alarm No MSC Acknowledgement for Global Reset is generated.

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Reset at the BSS

Reset

BSS MSC
T2 STARTED

BSS UDT (RESET) UDT (BLOCK) UDT (CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCK) UDT (BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE)
UDT (CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE)
T4 STARTED

UDT (RESET ACKNOWLEDGE)


T2 EXPIRES Max of N times for Reset Message T4 EXPIRES

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Procedures Global

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Procedures Global
Reset Circuit at the MSC
If a circuit has to be put to idle at the MSC due to an abnormal SCCP-connection release, a RESET CIRCUIT message will be sent to the BSS. When the BSS receives a RESET CIRCUIT message, it shall respond with a RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE message in case the circuit can be put to idle. If the circuit is blocked at the BSS a BLOCK message shall be returned to the MSC. the MSC shall then respond with a BLOCKING ACKNOWLEDGE message. If the circuit is unknown at the BSS, the BSS shall return an UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT message to the MSC. Timer T12 is used at the MSC to supervise the reset circuit procedure. If the Timer elapses before a response (RESET, RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE, UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT or BLOCK) the reset circuit procedure is repeated.

Reset Circuit at the BSS


If the circuit to be put to idle at the BSS due to an abnormal SCCP-connection release, a RESET CIRCUIT message will be sent to the MSC. When the MSC receives this message, it clears the possible call and puts the circuit, if known, to the idle state. if the circuit is known, a RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE message is returned to the BSS. if the circuit is unknown in the MSC, an UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT message is returned to the BSS. Timer T19 is used at the BSS to supervise the reset circuit procedure. if the timer elapses before a response (RESET, RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE or UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT) is returned to the BSS, the procedure is repeated. If the BSC receives a message for a circuit identity code that is unequipped then it may respond with an unequipped circuit message. To enable this function the following change_element command has to be enabled. chg_element unequipped_circuit_allowed<element_value><bsc or 0> <element_value> 0: Disabled (default) the BSS shall not send Unequipped Circuit messages to the MSC id Unknown circuit Identity code is received. Enabled the BSS shall send Unequipped Circuit messages to the MSC.

1:

Note:
This parameter does not apply to RXCDR sites. This parameter requires a location of 0 or BSC. This parameter is used with a Phase 2 optional feature which must be purchased.

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Reset Circuit

MSC BSS UDT (RESET CIRCUIT) CIC = Y (RESET CIRCUIT ACK) UDT CIC = Y (BLOCK) UDT UDT (BLOCK ACK) (UNEQUIPPED CCT) OR BSS BSS
T19 STARTED

MSC
T12 STARTED T12 STOPPED ON RECEIPT OF: RESET CIRCUIT ACK RESET BLOCK UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT

(RESET CIRCUIT) UDT CIC = x UDT (RESET CIRCUIT ACK) CIC = x UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT

MSC

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Paging
PAGING messages for all MSs shall be sent via the BSSMAP as a connectionless message. These will include the IMSI of the MS to allow derivation of the paging population number; they also include an indication of which combination of channels will be needed for the subsequent transaction related to the paging. This type of PAGING message will then be stored and a corresponding radio interface paging message transmitted over the radio interface at the appropriate time. It should be noted that each PAGING message on the MSCBSS interface relates to only one MS and therefore the BSS has to pack the pages into the relevant Technical Specification GSM 04.08 radio interface paging message. If a radio interface PAGING RESPONSE message is received then the relevant connection is set up towards the MSC as described in Technical Specification GSM 08.06 and the radio interface PAGING RESPONSE message is passed to the MSC in a COMPLETE LAYER 3 INFORMATION message. A single PAGING message across the MSC to BSS interface contains information on the cells in which the page shall be broadcast.

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Paging

Contacting Mobile Stations: MS BSS UDT (PAGING) IMSI = X TMSI = Y CELL Identifier MSC

PAGING BROADCAST
TMSI = Y

PAGING RESPONSE (COML3INF) CR PAGING RESPONSE

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Handover Candidate Enquiry


The purpose of this procedure is to allow the MSC to ascertain if it is possible to handover any MSs that are currently being served by a particular cell to another nominated cell. The procedure uses both global and dedicated resource messages, and is relevant to an individual cell.

Flow Control
These procedures are defined to give some degree of flow control. At the BSS, the BSS processor or CCCH scheduler can indicate overload. The MSC can indicate to the BSS that it is in a congested state by sending an overload message.

MSC Overload
If the MSC becomes overloaded, it shall send an OVERLOAD message from the MSC to the BSS. The BSS receives this message and starts to reduce traffic loading on the MSC immediately. The BSS reduces the traffic load on the MSC by barring of mobile access classes within cells in the BSS. When a mobile access class is barred a group of mobile users are no longer allowed to make calls on the network and hence the load to the MSC is reduced. This mobile access class information is carried to the mobile subscriber in the SYSTEM INFORMATION message specified in GSM recommendations.

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Handover Candidate Enquiry


BSS HANDOVER CANDIDATE ENQUIRY HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER CANDIDATE RESPONSE MSC

Note: Receipt of the Handover Candidate Enquiry message causes the generation of a Handover Required message for each of candidate MS. These are sent as connection orientated messages. When all Handover Required messages have been generated a global Handover Candidate response message is returned.
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MSC Overload
MS BSS OVERLOAD (MSC OVERLOAD) OVERLOAD OVERLOAD (BSS OVERLOAD) OVERLOAD MSC

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Assignment
The purpose of the assignment procedure is to ensure that the correct dedicated radio resource can be allocated or re-allocated to a mobile as required. However, the initial random access by the MS and immediate assignment to a DCCH is handled autonomously by the BSS without reference to the MSC. The initial SETUP procedure (A-bis) has been assumed to have taken place. E.g. the MSC has been told type of call; channel required; dialled number etc by the MS. Then based on this information, an Assignment Request message is sent to the BSS. This message contains details of the resource that is required e.g. speech rate, channel type, data adaption priority level etc, it also contains the terrestrial channel that should be used between the MSC and BSS. When the BSS is satisfied that the radio Assignment procedure has been successfully accomplished (e.g. receipt of assignment complete) via Air-interface, it will return an Assignment Complete message to the MSC. If the assignment procedure fails for any reason, an Assignment Failure message will be returned, containing the appropriate cause value.

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Assignment

The purpose of the assignment procedure is to allocate the correct radio resource to an MS. MS
ASSIGN CMD (SDCCH) (Channel = FACCH) SABM (FACCH)

BSS

MSC
DT1 (ASSIGN. REQUEST) CHAN TYPE START T10 Speech rate
channel type data adaption priority level

UA (FACCH)

ASSIGN COMP (FACCH)

STOP T10 (ASSIGN COMPL) DT1

If procedure fails, an Assignment Failure message is returned, containing an appropriate cause value.

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External Handover
This procedure supports handover transitions to and from both DCCH and traffic channels. The defined procedures which can be used are: S S S Handover Required Indication Handover Resource Allocation Handover Execution

Handover Required Indication


The Handover Required Indication procedure allows an BSS to request that a handover be carried out for a particular mobile, currently allocated a dedicated resource. This is done by generating a Handover Required message from the BSS to MSC. This message contains the following information. S S S S S Message Type Cause for Handover (e.g. downlink quality) Response Request (response required for completion) Preferred List of Target Cells Source Cell

Handover Resource Allocation


This procedure allows the MSC to request that resources be reserved at a target BSS/cell for a subsequent handover. However, it does not result in the transmission of any messages over the radio interface. In order to support this procedure a SCCP connection is set up to the BSS and is then used to support all relevant BSSAP messages. The MSC sends a Handover Request message (piggybacked on SCCP CR message) to the BSS from which it requires radio resources. This message contains an indication of the type of channel and the terrestrial circuit to be used for the traffic channel. The BSS after allocating the required resources sends a Handover Request acknowledge message containing the appropriate channel and the radio interface HANDOVER COMMAND message to the MSC. The Handover Command message contains all the information the MS requires to access the new cell/BSS and is passed to the MS via the MSC and current source BSS. Part of this information is the Handover reference number which is to ensure the current MS accesses the new BSS radio resource.
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Handover Resource Allocation

This procedure allows the MSC to request that resources be reserved at the target cell/BSS for a subsequent handover. Target (new) BSS
CR (Handover Request)
Channel Type Encryption Info CIC etc.

MSC

(Handover Request Ack) CC


Handover Command (Handover Reference Number)

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Handover Execution
The MSC instructs the MS to handover to the target BSS using the Handover Command previously generated by the target BSS. A Handover Command message is generated by the MSC and sent to the current source BSS on which the concerned MS is connected. Upon receiving the Handover Command message, the BSS starts timer T8. A Handover Command message is then sent by the BSS to the concerned MS. This message must contain the handover reference number previously allocated by the target BSS The timer T8 is used to initiate the BSS clear sequence. The T8 is reset when either the MS returns to the source BSS (due to handover failure) or the MSC send a Clear Command (handover complete). Following reception of the Handover Command the MS accesses the target BSS: S S S The BSS checks the handover reference number to ensure that it is the same as expected. If it is as expected ( the reference number), it is passed to the MSC. When the MS is successfully in communications, it will send a handover complete message to the BSS, which is passed to the MSC.

The MSC sends the Clear Command to the old source BSS, to release the radio resources. If target BSS, or the MS are unable to establish a connect, or Timer T8 is expires then the MS returns to the original BSS and the handover failure message is sent to the MSC. The handover shows the complete Handover procedure:

Handover Required Indication

Handover Resources Allocation

Handover Execution 3

1 2 3

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Handover Procedure

MS

Target BSS

Source BSS

MSC
(Handover Required) DT1

(Handover Request Ack) CC

CR (Handover Request)

DT1 (Handover Command) Handover Command Set T8 Access (FACCH) (Handover Detect) DT1

Establish AirInterface Handover Complete (Handover Complete) DT1 DT1 (Clear Command) Reset T8 (Clear Command) DT1

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Release
The release procedure is to inform the BSS that the assigned radio resources and terrestrial resources should be released. This procedure can be initiated by the BSS, where the BSS generates a Clear Request message to the MSC. The MSC then initiates the same release procedure. Before the MSC initiates the MSC/BSS release it must have carried out the MSC/MS release procedure using the transparent messages via the DTAP protocol. The MSC will then send a BSSMAP Clear Command indicating that the radio resource should be released and the cause of the release (e.g. handover successful). When the BSS receives this clear command, the clearing of the radio resources is carried out. When completed it then sends a clear complete message to the MSC. The MSC then releases the assignment terrestrial resources. The MSC initiates the SCCP connection release by sending a SCCP Released (RSLD). The BSS returns the SCCP Release Complete RLC to the MSC.

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Release

The release procedure informs the BSS that the assigned radio resource should be released. MS BSS
DT1 (CLEAR COMMAND) Cause = ? Chan Rel DISC (FACCH) UA (CLEAR COMPLETE) DT1 Release Terrestrial Resources

MSC

SET T10

CIC = X etc.

RLSD RLC

The BSS can initiate this procedure by sending Clear request to the MSC.
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Classmark Update
The classmark is a way GSM have defined the types of MS that can be connected to the network. (e.g. vehicle and portable, portable or handheld). This will obviously have a bearing on the air-interface connection. Also these MS equipments may be altered (e.g. portable becomes vehicle while making a call). The BSS must be able to inform the MSC of a classmark update, when this is received from a MS. This message contains information on several transmission parameters relevant to the MS. This procedure will normally only be used where the power class of a MS change whilst the MS has a dedicated resource.

Note:
To enable the MSC to initiate a command enquiring a chg_element command has been introduced at the BSC. The new command enables the use of commands enquiry over the A-interface and supports the MOBILE STATION CLASSMARK 3 MESSAGE (classmark 3 element indicates the support of the additional encryption algorithms A5/4A5/7 chg_element phase2_classmark_allowed<element_value><bsc or 0> <element_value> 0: 1: Disabled (default) the BSS shall send only classmarks supported in GSM phase 1 to the MSC. Enabled the BSS shall send classmarks supported in GSM Phase 2 to the MSC (includes classmark 3).

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Classmark Update

The BSS uses this procedure to inform the MSC of a MS classmark change. MS
CLASSMARK CHANGE DCCH (SACCH) (CLASSMARK UPDATE) DT1

BSS

MSC

MS
DATA REQUEST

BSS
DT1

MSC

(CLASSMARK REQUEST)

(CLASSMARK ENQUIRY) DATA INDICATION (CLASSMARK CHANGE) DT1 (CLASSMARK UPDATE)

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Cipher Mode Control


The cipher mode control procedure allows the MSC to pass cipher mode information to the BSS to select and load the user data and signalling encryption device with the appropriate key. This is achieved by sending the BSS a Cipher Mode Command message. Receipt of the message at the BSS will invoke the encryption device and generate the Cipher Mode Command message via the radio interface. Receipt of the Cipher Mode Complete message via the air-interface is used internally by the BSS to achieve air-interface synchronisation. When this has been achieved a cipher mode complete message is returned to the MSC. If in the cipher_mode_command from the MSC the cipher response mode is present and it indicates that the International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) must be included by the mobile, then the BSC shall request in the ciphering mode command the mobile station to include its IMEI in the ciphering mode complete message. Phase 2 GSM recommendations introduced A5/2 encryption algorithm (place holders exist for additional A5 algorithms) if in the cipher mode command the MSC requests the BSS to use an A5 algorithm that it does not support the BSS shall return a cipher mode reject message with the cause clue Ciphering Algorithm not Supported. Also, a cipher mode reject will be returned to the MSC if the MSC requests a change of ciphering Algorithm when ciphering is already active.

Note:
1. To enable the use of the cipher mode reject message at the BSC the chg_element command must be used chg_element ciph_mode_rej_allowed<element_value><bsc or 0> <element_value> 0: 1: 2. Disabled the BSS shall not sent Cipher mode reject messages to the MSC. Enabled the BSS may send Cipher Mode Reject messages to the MSC.

The MSC must also support CIPHER_MODE_REJECT.

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Cipher Mode Control

The procedure allows the MSC to pass cipher mode information to the BSS (and MS). MS BSS
CIPHERING MODE COMMAND SACCH

MSC

DT1 (CIPHER MODE COMMAND)

CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE SDCCH CIPHER MODE COMPLETE

MS

BSS

MSC

DT1 (CIPHER MODE COMMAND)

(CIPHER MODE REJECT) DT1 CAUSE VALUE = CIPHERING ALGORITHM NOT SUPPORTED

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Initial MS Message
The initial L3 message from the MS which has to be passed to the MSC is received piggybacked on the Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode (SABM) frame. This could be Cipher Mode (CM)-Service Request, page response, re-establishment request, Location update request. Whichever message type the BSS needs to carry out two basic requirements: S S perform SCCP connection to the MSC to enable the passing of the message. analyse part of the MS information to enable correct connection to the MS.

Enabling the BSS to analyse the message to a level which allows the extraction of the classmark information. However the entire initial message is also passed to the MSC, using a Complete Layer 3 information message. This message is piggybacked on to the SCCP Connection Request (CR) message. This is a one-off procedure, as all other messages between MSC and MS use the DTAP transparent protocol.

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Initial MS Message

Initial Layer 3 message from MS is analyzed by the BSS to extract the Classmark Information, before passing to the MSC. BSS required to carry out two actions:
S S

Maintain (radio resource) link to MS. Establish SCCP connection to MSC. BSS MSC

MS
Access Burst RACH Immediate Assignment AGCH SABM SDCCH UA SDCCH

Complete L3 Information (CM SERV) CR CC

CM SERV.REQ = CM Service Request


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Queueing Indication
The purpose of the queueing indication procedure is to inform the MSC about a delay in the necessary dedication radio resources. This procedure is only relevant for Traffic Channels (TCH) assignment and /or for handover of Traffic Channels (TCH). After receiving the assignment request message but without the necessary TCH resources available the message is put into a queue. The queueing indication message is sent to the MSC and a timer T11 set. If T11 expires before the necessary resources become available an Clear request message is returned to the MSC. The procedure is terminated with a successful assignment of the traffic channel by sending an assignment complete.

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Queueing Indication

To inform the MSC about a delay in allocation of the necessay dedicated radio resources.

MS

BSS
DT1 (ASSIGN. REQUEST) No Resources Start T11 (Queueing Indication) DT1 Resources Available ASSIGN CMD ASSIGN CMP (ASSIGN. COMPL) DT1 CLEAR REQUEST

MSC

T11 Expires

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Timers

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Timers
The concept of timers is to ensure that an action/response that is required to be performed is carried out in the correct sequence and in the required time. If the system/process fails to carry out this action/response before the timer set has expired, then this generates another sequence of events, normally release/reset (indicated by failure message). Within the GSM system there are a number of different levels of timers, most of which have to be defined. The most critical within the A-interface are Message Transfer Part (MTP) Level 2 and Level 3 timers.

MTP Level 2 Timers


T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 PE PN Timer alignment ready Timer not aligned Timer aligned Proving period timer= 216 or 212 octet transmission time Timer sending SIB Timer remote congestion Timer excessive delay of acknowledgement Emergency proving period Normal proving period

MTP Level 3 Timers


T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17
694

Delay to avoid message mis-sequencing on changeover Waiting for changeover acknowledgement Time controlled diversion delay to avoid mis-sequencing on Waiting for changeback acknowledgement (first attempt) Waiting for changeback acknowledgement (second attempt) Delay to avoid message mis-sequencing on controlled rerouting Waiting for signalling data link connection acknowledgement Transfer prohibition timer (transient solution) Waiting to repeat signalling route set test message Transfer restricted timer Waiting for uninhibit acknowledgement Waiting for force uninhibit Waiting for inhibition acknowledgement Waiting to start signalling route set congestion test Waiting for route set congestion status update Delay to avoid oscillation of initial alignment failure and link restart SYS01 GSR5: GSM System Interfaces
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Timers

BSSMAP Timers
There is a number of timers defined with the GSM Recommendation 08.08 for the passage of BSSMAP messages. The actual time is set by the system Operations and Maintenance with the system data base. A complete list of timers in the BSSMAP procedures is as follows:

Timer T1: T2: T3: T4: T5: T6: T7: T8:

Title Time to receipt of blocking ack Reset guard period at the MSC Resource indication periodicity Time to return of Rest Ack Overload timer Overload timer Handover required periodicity Time to receipt of successful handover information Time to return of Assignment Complete or Assignment Failure form MS Maximum allowed queuing time Time to receipt of Reset Cit Ack Reset guard period at the BSS Time to return of Reset Ack at the MSC Maximum allowed queuing time for handover

LOC BSS MSC BSS BSS MSC/BSS MS/BSS BSS

BSS

T10:

BSS BSS MSC/BSS BSS MSC

T11: T12: T13: T16: Tqho:

BSS

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Appendix A

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Appendix A MSC to BSC Interface (A-interface)

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Appendix A MSC to BSC Interface (A-interface)


Exercise
Construct, using flow diagrams, the message sequence for a Mobile to Mobile call, where the originating Mobile has the capacity of encryption. The Network carries out complete authentication for each subscriber before allowing access to the system. For this particular call setup the two individual Mobiles are on the same BSC but are held on different BTS cells. Your answer should include the BSSAP message type, SCCP message type and in which direction the message is being passed over the MSCBSC interface.

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Appendix A MSC to BSC Interface (A-interface)

BSS

MSC

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Appendix B

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Appendix B MSCBSS Message Types

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Appendix B MSCBSS Message Types


DTAP Messages
The A interface carrys DTAP messages as defined in TS GSM 04.08. A summary of the message types is listed below for Call Control and Mobility Management.

Messages for Circuit-switched call control


Call establishment messages:
ALERTING CALL CONFIRMED 1) CALL PROCEEDING CONNECT CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE EMERGENCY SETUP 1) PROGRESS SETUP

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.8 9.3.17 9.3.23

Call Information phase message:


MODIFY 1) MODIFY COMPLETE 1) MODIFY REJECT 1) USER INFORMATION

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.3.13 9.3.14 9.3.15 9.3.31

Call Clearing messages


DISCONNECT RELEASE RELEASE COMPLETE

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.3.7 9.3.18 9.3.19

Messages for supplementary service control: TS GSM 04.08 Reference


FACILITY HOLD 1) HOLD ACKNOWLEDGE 1) HOLD REJECT 1) RETRIEVE 1) RETRIEVE ACKNOWLEDGE 1) RETRIEVE REJECT 1) 9.3.9 9.3.10 9.3.11 9.3.12 9.3.20 9.3.21 9.3.22

Miscellaneous messages:
CONGESTION CONTROL NOTIFY START DTMF 1) START DTMF ACKNOWLEDGE 1) START DTMF REJECT 1) STATUS STATUS ENQUIRY STOP DTMF 1) STOP DTMF ACKNOWLEDGE 1)

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.3.4 9.3.16 9.3.24 9.3.25 9.3.26 9.3.27 9.3.28 9.3.29 9.3.30

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Appendix B MSCBSS Message Types

BSSMAP
Below is a list of the Radio Resource and BSSMAP messages used on the A-Interface. The message types are defined in TS GSM 04.08 (Radio Resource) and TS GSM 08.08 (BSSMAP).

Messages for Radio Resources management


Channel establishment messages:
ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENT IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.1 9.1.18 9.1.19 9.1.20

Ciphering messages:
CIPHERING MODE COMMAND CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.9 9.1.10

Handover messages:
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT FAILURE HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER FAILURE PHYSICAL INFORMATION

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.14 9.1.15 9.1.16 9.1.17 9.1.28

Channel release messages:


CHANNEL RELEASE PARTIAL RELEASE PARTIAL RELEASE COMPLETE

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.7 9.1.26 9.1.27

Paging messages:
PAGING PAGING PAGING PAGING REQUEST TYPE 1 REQUEST TYPE 2 REQUEST TYPE 3 RESPONSE

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.22 9.1.23 9.1.24 9.1.25

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MSCBSS Message Types


BSSMAP
Messages for Radio Resources management
System Information messages:
SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION INFORMATION TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE 1 2 2bis 3 4 5 5bis 6 7 8

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.31 9.1.32 9.1.33 9.1.34 9.1.35 9.1.36 9.1.37 9.1.38 9.1.39 9.1.40

Miscellaneous messages:
CHANNEL MODE MODIFY CHANNEL MODE MODIFY ACKNOWLEDGE CHANNEL REQUEST CLASSMARK CHANGE CLASSMARK ENQUIRY FREQUENCY REDEFINITION MEASUREMENT REPORT SYNCHRONIZATION CHANNEL INFORMATION RR STATUS

TS GSM 04.08 Reference


9.1.5 9.1.6 9.1.8 9.1.11 9.1.12 9.1.13 9.1.21 9.1.30 9.1.29

BSSMAP Messages
Message Name:
ASSignment REQuest Assignment COMplete BLOck BLocking Acknowledge circuit group block circuit Group blockING acknowledge circuit group unblock circuit group unblockING acknowledge CLear command CLear COMplete CLear REQuest UnBLOck UnBLocking Ack HaNDover CaNDidate ENQuirE

TS GSM 08.08 Reference


3.2.1.1 3.2.1.2 3.2.1.3 3.2.1.4 3.2.1.41 3.2.1.42 3.2.1.43 3.2.1.44 3.2.1.21 3.2.1.22 3.2.1.20 3.2.1.6 3.2.1.7 3.2.1.14

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MSCBSS Message Types

BSSMAP Messages
HaNDover CaNDidate RESponse HaNDover REQuest HaNDover ReQuireD HaNDover ReQuired Reject HaNDover ReQuest ACKnowledge HaNDover COMmand HaNDover CoMPlete HaNDover FaiLuRe HaNDover PerForMed HaNDover DETect RESource REQuest ReSeT ReSeT ACK RESource indication Paging Overload MSC Invoke trace BSS Invoke trace Classmark update CLASSMARK REQUEST Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Cipher mode Reject Complete layer 3 information Queing indication SAPI n reject Reset circuit Reset circuit acknowledge CONFUSION UNEQUIPPED CIRCUIT 3.2.1.15 3.2.1.8 3.2.1.9 3.2.1.37 3.2.1.10 3.2.1.11 3.2.1.12 3.2.1.16 3.2.1.25 3.2.1.40 3.2.1.17 3.2.1.23 3.2.1.24 3.2.1.18 3.2.1.19 3.2.1.26 3.2.1.27 3.2.1.28 3.2.1.29 3.2.1.46 3.2.1.30 3.2.1.31 3.2.1.48 3.2.1.32 3.2.1.33 3.2.1.34 3.2.1.38 3.2.1.39 3.2.1.45 3.2.1.47

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Chapter 7

BSSOMCR Interface (OML)

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Chapter 7 BSSOMCR Interface (OML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BSSOMCR Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSSOMCR Interface (OML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Event/Alarm Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remote Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OMCBSS Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X.25 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Link Layer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Link Layer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Address Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Types Control field encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packet Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logical Channel Numbers (LCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packet Type Identifier (PTI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Packet Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OMC to BSS Communication DTE Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virtual Call Setup Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i
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BSSOMCR Interface

BSSOMCR Interface
Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S S S S State the BSSOMCR configurations available. Identify the structure of the X.25 layers. Identify the Layer 2 (data link) parameter. Identify the X.25 packet level protocol. State the procedure for establishing a X.25 call.

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BSSOMCR Interface (OML)

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BSSOMCR Interface (OML)


Introduction
The OMC communications requirements are via specific protocols derived from the OSI Network Management Model. The main Management interface between the OMC and the BSS is based on Motorola applications protocols, with CCITT X.25 protocols used as the bearer. These protocols are used to transfer all Operations and Maintenance data between the OMC and the BSS. The application protocols are: S S S File Transfer

Event/Alarm reporting

Remote Login

At the BSC the DTE address determine which default timeslots/2Mbit/s links we terminate the OML on. BSC 0 MSI slot 16 Port 0 TS 1 Cage 0 1 MSI slot 16 Port 1 TS 1 Cage 0 2 MSI slot 14 Port 0 TS 1 Cage 0 3 MSI slot 16 Port 0 TS 1 Cage 1

RXCDR 0 MSI 10 1 MSI 10 Port 0 TS 1 Cage 0 Port 1 TS 1 Cage 0

2 MSI 8 Port 0 TS 1 Cage 0 3 MSI 10 Port 0 TS 1 Cage 1

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BSSOMCR Interface (OML)

OMC-R Connections

OMCR
2 Mbit/s Link

OML (XCDR) MSI

OML (BSC)

RXCDR
MSI 2 Mbit/s Link

MSI

BSC
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Motorola Application Layer

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Motorola Application Layer


File Transfer
Files can be transferred from the OMC to BSS and vice versa. This protocol supports uploading of network element software and data. For example, backing-up databases, collecting statistics, up-grading Base Station software.

Event/Alarm Reporting
This protocol provides a BSS with a mechanism for informing the OMC of changes in operational conditions. For example: S S the start of an alarm condition an indication that a statistics file is ready for collection.

Remote Login
Remote Login allows the OMC to access the MMI of a network element. The OMC uses this protocol to transfer information between an MMI session at the OMC and an MMI session at the Base Site. With the introduction of Software 1.4.1.0 it is now possible to have up to 4 simultaneous Remote Login sessions at a BSS, each to a different GPROC. The GPROCs are selected on a round-robin basis, with no GPROC having priority over any other.

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Motorola Application Layer

External Communications: OMC to NE

OSI Layers APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK DATA LINK PHYSICAL 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

SYSTEM PROCESSOR
REMOTE LOGIN TO BSS MMI

EVENT/ALARM REPORTING

FILE TRANSFER

Application Services

X.25 PLP X.25 HDLC (LAPB) X.21 bis

X.25

64Kb port interface X.25 Packet Switch 2 Mbps link

NE1
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NE2

NE64

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OMCBSS Interconnection

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OMCBSS Interconnection
Connections from the OMC to the BSS can be made via two methods.

Public/Private X.25 networks using the A-interface (MSCBSC). Normally via the Remote Transcoder, where the OMLs are multiplexed on to a 2 Mbit/s Link before the X.25 network. A dedicated 2 Mbit/s link to the BSS using one TS.

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OMCBSS Interconnection

External Communications: OMC to BSS

OM SYSC PROTEM CESSOR O&M Pack Data ets PAC X. SWI KET 25 TCH V.35 con(seven nections connecphysical tions)

2 MB link PSDN

MULTIPLEXER

2 MB link MSC

2 MB link 2 MB link 6 O TIM 4 K & Eb/ M SLO s T RXC DR

BS 1 S B 1 SS

2 MB link

2 MB link NAILED (ONE PER CONNECO&M TIME64 O& TIONS TIMESLOT) K M SLO b/ 2 MB T s link

BSS

B 2 SS

BSS

BSS

PSDN Public Switched Data Network


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OML

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OML
The download of software from the OMC to the BSC can take considerable time, to decrease this download time dual OML downloading is supported, provided the following provisions are met. S S S S S Two 2 Mbit/s links are required Two DTE addresses are required (one per link) Conventional code download only BSS executes in ROM Two GPROCs to support PLP processes

If the above conditions are met then the download time is reduced by approximately 40%. If only one code object is to be downloaded then there is no saving. Code objects are not shared across the X.25 links, therefore there is no height if only one code object is to be downloaded. The OML can now carry out 8 simultaneous uploads.

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OML

Dual OML Download (BSC)

OMCR

RXCDR

(Transparent to BSCs OMLs)

MSI

MSI
TDM HIGHWAY

PLP AGENT IP GPROC

PLP AGENT

GPROC

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X.25 Layers

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X.25 Layers
Introduction
The X.25 protocol specifies the format and protocols necessary to transfer information between DTE and DCE nodes for packet mode terminals connected to Public Data Network (PDN). It conforms to Layers 1, 2 and 3 of the OSI model. Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) The modem or digital interface that links to the data communications network. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) Any type of data communication equipment accessing the network. Virtual circuit A connection between DTEs through the network. The connection is not really patched through but packets are routed from one DTE to the other DTE by the network. More than one virtual circuit can exist on the physical link. There are two types of virtual circuits permanent (PVC) and switched (SVC). The OMC software does not handle PVCs only SVCs.

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X.25 Layers

X.25

D T E

D C E

PDN (Public Data Network)

D C E

D T E

X.25 interface between DTE and DCE for packet mode terminals connected to Public Data Network (PDN). DTE = Data Terminal Equipment DCE = Data Circuitterminating Equipment
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X.25

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X.25 Layers

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Physical Link Layer 1


The hardware characteristics that control the physical line between the DTE and the DCE conforms to (ITV) X.21 bis. The OMCBSS Link can be linked via the X.25 network to a MSI/XCDR on a BSC or RXCDR with Time slot 1 allocated on the 2Mbit/s link.

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X.25 Layers

X.25 Layers

Physical Link Layer 1:

X.21 bis - use of V.24 cct to access PDN Voltage defined by X27 (V10 and V11) Connection defined by ISO 4903 Functional pin characteristics defined in V.25 Physical port connection (OMC) V.35

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Data Link Layer 2

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Data Link Layer 2


Overview
This describes how data being carried between DTE and DCE is protected against errors. A bit-orientated protocol, a subset of High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) Asynchronous Balanced Mode, called Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) defines the frame envelope to carry the data across the physical link with a high degree of error and flow control. The basic frame structure of the LAPB frame is very similar to the LAPD frame covered in Section 3 (A-bis interface). Only the differences will be covered in this section.

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Data Link Layer 2

Frame Structure Layer 2

FLAG

FRAME CHECK SEQUENCE

INFORMATION

CONTROL

ADDRESS

FLAG

Flag is a unique pattern: 01111110 Three types of Frames: . Information (I) . Supervisory (S) . Unnumbered (U)
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Data Link Layer 2

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Address Field
The address field is a single octet as only two address are required within X.25. S S DTE address 03 hex DCE address 01 hex

All frames are either a Command or Response frame on each Link.

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Data Link Layer 2

Address Field

Command

01 hex

Response 01 hex DTE Command 03 hex Response 03 hex DCE

Only two addresses allowed. 03 hex - Commands from DCE to DTE


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01 hex - Commands form DTE to DCE

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Data Link Layer 2

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Frame Types Control field encoding


There are three types of frames: I-frame carries a packet for Layer 3, this is always a command, which must be acknowledged. S-frame Manages flow of I-frames, usually a response, contains N(R) for acknowledgment. U-frame Used to start and stop Layer 2 activity. # Exchange of SABM + UA opens Link; N(S) is set to 0 at each end. Exchange of DISC + UA closes Link.

P/F: P=0 in normal circumstances no hurry to respond. P=1 demands an immediate response ie. reduces window size to one. F in response must match P in command to which it relates.

# Only required from DTE (BSS) to DCE (OMC)

Control Field
Bit/s 1 or 1 and 2 determine which type of frame is being transmitted. If supervisory frame then bits 3 and 4 determine which type of supervisory frame is being transmitted. If unnumbered frame then bits 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 determine which type of unnumbered frame is being transmitted. bit 5 is always the P or F flag. Bit 6. 7 and 8 for I and S frames is coded as N(R) Bits 2, 3 and 4 for the I frame is coded as N (S)

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Data Link Layer 2

Control Field Encoding

8 FORMAT Informatransfer tion COMMAND I (Information) RR (Receive Ready) RNR (ReNot ceive Ready) REJ (Reject) SABM Asyn (SetBal Mode) DIS (DisconC nect) RESPONSE

N(R ) RR (Receive Ready) RNR (ReNot Ready) ceive REJ (Reject) 0 0 D (Disconnect M Mode) U (Unnumb A Ack) 0 0 1 N(R ) N(R ) N(R ) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0

ENCODING P N(S ) P/ F P/ F P/ F P P F F F 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Supervisory

Unnumbered

FRMR (Frame Rej)

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X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP)

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X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP)


Deals with the final end-to-end control procedure known as the PLP (Packet Level Protocol) Layer describing packet formats and control procedures for the exchange of data between the BSS and the OMC. A packet is the smallest unit of information originated and X.25 protocol stipulates that all packets will consist of whole number octets. The number of octets transmitted within each packet depends on the packet type, the minimum length being 3 octets (the header). The X.25 protocol allows packet lengths of up to 1024 octets, but has been set at a maximum length of 128 octets, within the OMC-R system. The packet format can be divided into a packet (control) header (Level 3) and data block, which forms the information field within the I-frame (Level 2).

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X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP)

X.25 Packet Level Protocol (PLP, Layer 3)

DATA

DATA Layer 2 Header

Packet Header

LAYER 3 Layer 2 Header

FLAG

FRAM CHECK E SEQUENCE

DATA

PH

CONTROL

ADDRESS

FLAG

INFORMATION FIELD (Max length 1024 octets) PH PACKET HEADER

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Packet Header

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Packet Header
All packets have a header consisting of 3 octets. General Format Identifier (GFI)

Q
Q= D=

X
Control)

qualifier bit used with X29 (control signal for remote PAD delivery bit (not used)

XX= Used to indicate the mode of operation: 01 for modulo 8 working (standard) 10 for modulo 128 working

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Packet Header

X.25 Packet Header Format

PACKET DAT A Data Header Control Address Flag

3 Octets

8 PTI (1 OCTET)

1 8

1 8

LCN (1 OCTET)

GFI

LCGN (1 OCTET)

LCGN GFI LCN PTI


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= = = =

Logical Channel Group Number General Format Identifier Logical Channel Number Packet Type Identifier

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Logical Channel Numbers (LCN)

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Logical Channel Numbers (LCN)


The Logical Channel Number LCN is used between the DTE and DCE to identify specific connections, it is local to the interface and indicates the virtual circuit. The LCN is allocated from a table of free LCNs at the call set up time. The DTE allocates the LCN for outgoing calls and the DCE allocates the LCN for incoming calls, with all packets of that call (in both directions) having the same LCN. There are a total of 4096 LCNs available but these have to be shared by all the users, therefore each user is allocated a group of LCNs to use. The LCNs have been divided into LCGNs as follows: 16 groups (LCGNs) with 256 LCNs in each group. BANDLCGN 0 0, 1 1 2, 3 2 4, 5 3 6, 7 Supports PVCs (LCNs 0511) Supports SVCs incoming only (512 1023) Supports SVCs bothways (incoming/outgoing, 1024 1535) Supports SVC outgoing (1535 2047)

All other LCNs are not specified and are left open. Motorola has been allocated LCNs 10241055, 32 LCNs in total, as we only have a maximum of 7 SVCs in use at any time we have no problems with allocation LCNs. The coding of the LCGN field determines the LCGN group, in Motorolas case this will always be LCGN 4, the LCNs for each LCGN group are coded in the range of 0255 (8 bits).

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Logical Channel Numbers (LCN)

Logical Channel Number (LCN)

7 GFI

3 LCGN

LCN PTI

LCN;
S

S S S

Independently assigned by DTE/DCE at connection set up Outgoing call assigned highest LCN available Incoming call assigned lowest LCN Available Motorola LCNs= 1024-1055

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Packet Type Identifier (PTI)

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Packet Type Identifier (PTI)


The Packet Type Identifier field is one octet in length. Bit 1 determines whether a data packet is being sent or a control packet: Bit 1= 0 Data packet 1 Control packet Bits 27 are coded as shown in the table opposite.

8 DATA

P (R)

P (S)

RR RNR REJ

P (R)

P (R) - Next receive packet expected P (S) - Packet send sequence number M" bit - More data bit (0 = More Packets) (1 = Last Packets)

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Packet Type Identifier (PTI)

Packet Type Identifier (PTI)

Packet Type From DCE to DTE From DTE to DCE


Call setup and clearing Incoming call Call request Call connected Call accepted Clear indication Clear request DCE clear confirmation DTE clear confirmation Data and interrupt DCE data DTE data DCE interrupt Expidited data DTE interrupt DCE interrupt confirmation DTE interrupt confirmation Flow control and reset DCE RR (modulo 8) DTE RR (modulo 8) DCE RNR (modulo 8) DTE RNR (modulo 8) DTE REJ (modulo 8)* Reset request DTE reset confirmation Restart Restart indication Restart request DCE restart confirmation DTE restart confirmation Diagnostic Diagnostic* Registration* Registration request Registration confirmation

Octet 3 Bits
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

x x x x x x x 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 x x x 0 0 x x x 0 0 x x x 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1

* Not necessarily available on every network


Note: A bit that is indicated as X" may be set to either 0 or 1. These are used as either P(S) or P(R) counters [P(S) bits 1, 2 & 4] [P(R) 6, 7 & 8] Bit 5 is an N" bit.
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Control Packet Types

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Control Packet Types


All these packet types are either Request or Confirmation where the appropriate confirmation is the only allowed response to the request. Types: a) CALL request/Accept. carrier full destination address. establishes virtual circuit; resets P(S) at each end to zero. b) CLEAR Request/Confirm Releases virtual circuit and LCN c) RESET Request/Confirm clears queues and resets P(S) to zero d) INTERRUPT Request/Confirm this packet can overtake data packets in a queue can carry one octet of data allows a break facility across the system. e) RESTART Request/Confirm carries LCN 000; clears all virtual circuits used to start packet activity.

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Control Packet Types

Packet Type Identifier

Control packets
PACKET TYPE DCE TO DTE DTE TO DCE Incoming CALL CALL connected CLEAR Indication DCE CLEAR CONF. DCE INTERRUPT DCE Interrupt CONF. RESET Indication DCE reset CONF. RESTART Indication DCE Restart CONF.
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8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

6 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

CODE 5 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

CALL Request CALL Accepted CLEAR Request DTE CLEAR CONF. DTE INTERRUPT DTE Interrupt Conf. RESET Request DTE reset CONF. RESTART Request DTE Restart CONF.

Example Message Flows (Connection Establishment)


Call Request 00001011 Call Connected 0000111 1 DTE DCE Incoming Call Call Accepted DCE 00001011 00001111 DTE

Data Network

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Additional Fields

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Additional Fields
Nearly all packet types contain additional fields along with the 3 octet header. To summarise these additional fields: S Data Field: Packet length (set to 128 octets for OMCR) option: 16, 32, 64, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096. Up to 16 octets of data allowed in CALL request packet. Full 128 octets allowed in CALL Request and clear request packet (fast select).

Address Field: Always present in call request packet. Contains both called/calling X.25 address.

Facilities Field: Always present in call request packet. Higher protocol can request new packet and window sizes.

Cause and Diagnostics Field: Always present in restart, reset and clear request packets. Indicates reason for packet.

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Additional Fields

Additional Fields
S

Data Field - Packet length optional (default 128 octets) - Fast select

Address Field (Part of the Layer 3 message of a connection request) - 14digit X.25 address - 12digit address + 2digit user defined extension

Facilities Field Used to negotiate network options e.g. packet length

Cause + Diagnostic Field Indicate reason for packet (restart, reset etc).

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OMC to BSS Communication DTE Addresses

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OMC to BSS Communication DTE Addresses


The diagram opposite demonstrates the full implementation of the X.25 DTE address system used by the Motorola GSM entities. This DTE address used to indicate a single L3 application at the OMC (OMCR DTE) or a single BSC or RXCDR (BSS DTE).

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BSC1 OML (B)


FAW/FDW OML (B)
BSS DTE Address Address 0: 79320101010001 Address 1: Not used Address 2: Not used Address 3: Not used OMCR DTE Address Address 0: 79310101040141 Address 1: 79310101040142 Address 2: 79310101040143 Address 3: 79310101040144 Address 4: 79310101040145 Address 5: 79310101040146 Address 6: 79310101040147 Address 7: Not used

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MIB CODEX
PACKET SWITCH
79320101010001
OML (B) FAW/FDW OML (C)

EVENT

PACKET MUX

TANDEM
79320101010000

79310101040141

BSC2 OML (C)

EVENT

79310101040142

DOWNLOAD
79320101010002
OML (C) OML (A)

79310101040143

DOWNLOAD
79320101010003
OML (E) OML (D)

BSS DTE Address Address 0: 79320101010000 Address 1: Not used Address 2: Not used Address 3: Not used OMCR DTE Address Address 0: 7931010104010141 Address 1: 7931010104010142 Address 2: 7931010104010143 Address 3: 7931010104010144 Address 4: 7931010104010145 Address 5: 7931010104010146 Address 6: 7931010104010147 Address 7: Not used

BSS DTE Address Address 0: 79320101010002 Address 1: Not used Address 2: Not used Address 3: Not used OMCR DTE Address Address 0: 79310101040141 Address 1: 79310101040142 Address 2: 79310101040143 Address 3: 79310101040144 Address 4: 79310101040145 Address 5: 79310101040146 Address 6: 79310101040147 Address 7: Not used

79310101040144

RXCDR OML (A)

BSC3 OML (D)


FAW/FDW OML (D)

REMOTE LOGIN
79320101010004

79310101040145

FAW/FDW OML (A) OML (C) OML (D) OML (E) FAW/FDW OML (E)

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UPLOAD

OMC to BSS Communication (DTE Addressing)


BSS DTE Address Address 0: 79320101010003 Address 1: Not used Address 2: Not used Address 3: Not used OMCR DTE Address Address 0: 79310101040141 Address 1: 79310101040142 Address 2: 79310101040143 Address 3: 79310101040144 Address 4: 79310101040145 Address 5: 79310101040146 Address 6: 7931010104047 Address 7: Not used

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79310101040146

UPLOAD

79310101040147

V.35 CONNECTION

V.24 CONNECTION

BSC3 OML (E)


BSS DTE Address Address 0: 79320101010004 Address 1: Not used Address 2: Not used Address 3: Not used OMCR DTE Address Address 0: 79310101040141 Address 1: 79310101040142 Address 2: 79310101040143 Address 3: 79310101040144 Address 4: 79310101040145 Address 5: 79310101040146 Address 6: 79310101040147 Address 7: Not used

OMC to BSS Communication DTE Addresses

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Virtual Call Setup Procedure

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Virtual Call Setup Procedure


Assuming the Layer 2 Link has been established using LAPB procedures and the Receiver Ready (RR) packets on the physical link. The DTE generates the Call Request packet which contains all the required facilities, i.e. packet length; reverse charging; window size etc. This is sent over the network where each node along the route checks the facilities requested and set the appropriate LCN for the duration of that call.

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Virtual Call Setup Procedure

Virtual Call Setup

DTE CALL REQUEST (LCN= 20)

DCE

DTE

INCOMING CALL (LCN=3)

CALL ACCEPTED (LCN=3)

CALL CONNECTED LCN= 20)

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Virtual Call Setup Procedure

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Chapter 8

SMS Cell Broadcast Link

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Chapter 8 SMS Cell Broadcast Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


SMS Cell Broadcast Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short Message Service Cell Broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Broadcast Link (CBL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBC, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobiles Cell Broadcast Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMS CB Database Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBL Message Flow Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CBL Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple SVC Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Broadcast Messages from BSC to BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRX Scheduling Message Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New SMS CB Message Bitmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New SMS CB Message Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Message Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Message Description Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Transmission of an SMS CB within the Schedule Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retransmission Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Message Slot, Optional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Message Slot, Reading Advised (not yet implemented by Motorola) . . . . . Reserved Codepoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i
81 81 82 84 86 88 810 812 812 812 814 816 816 818 820 822 824 824 824 826 826 826 828 828 828

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SMS Cell Broadcast Link

SMS Cell Broadcast Link


Objectives
On completion of this chapter the student will be able to: S S Understand the implementation of a CBL. Understand the operation of a CBL.

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Short Message Service Cell Broadcast

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Short Message Service Cell Broadcast


The Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) is responsible for downloading cell broadcast messages to the BSC, together with an indication of the repetition rate and the number of broadcasts per message. The BSC must interpret these messages and transmit each request to the appropriate BTS(s). Each BTS is responsible for storing and scheduling cell broadcast messages, as well as ensuring that each broadcast message is transmitted to cells under its control. To support interaction with the CBC, this feature shall provide the following functionality: S S S S S A real-time interface between the CBC and BSC; Storage and scheduling of broadcast messages at the Cell Broadcast Scheduler (CBS); DRX Schedule Messages, to provide the mobile with information on the next set of cell broadcast messages; Enable the operator to monitor and manage the link between the BSC and the CBC; Performance measurements for the CBC.

Note: This functionality co-exists with, but does not replace, multiple message functionality.

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Short Message Service Cell Broadcast

Short Message Service, Cell Broadcast Provides:

A realtime interface between the CBC and the BSC. Storage and scheduling of broadcast messages at the Cell Broadcast Scheduler (CBS). DRX Schedule Messages, to provide the mobile with information on the next set of cell broadcast messages. Enable the operator to monitor and manage the link between the BSC and the CBC. Performance measurements for the CBC.

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Cell Broadcast Link (CBL)

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Cell Broadcast Link (CBL)


To enable communication between the BSS and the CBC (Cell Broadcast Centre) on X.25 (LAPB) a link must exist between the BSS and the CBC (64k TIMESLOT). The BSS is responsible for activating a SVC (Switched Virtual cct) to Upload Information. The CBC is responsible for activating a SVC to Download Information. The CBL is a realtime link. The operator is able to manage the CBL device and monitor its status via the customer MMI. The application of the X.25 (PLP) is identical to that of the OML implementation.

Note: TYPE 1 and 2 BSCs only support this feature.

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Cell Broadcast Link (CBL)

Cell Broadcast Link (Terrestrial)

CBE Customer Specific Link CBC Cell Broadcast Entity

CUSTOMER SIT E

PLP

CBL (SVS) 64k X.25 (LAPB) Timeslot Configurable Real Time

(SLAVE) BSC (MASTER ) Cell Broadcast Agent Note: The at the BSC supports the protocol short stack. BTS Cell Broadcast Scheduler
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PLP Cell Broadcast Agent


RSL 64k LAPD Timeslot Configurable

LCF GPROC

BTP GPROC

Note: The CBS is responsible for the storing and scheduling of Cell Broadcast MSGS.

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CBC, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

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CBC, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities


The CBC has certain functions it should support, specified in GSM 03:41 (Technical realisation of SMS). The functions are shown opposite.

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CBC, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

CBC, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

The CBC has responsibility for the following: Allocation of message serial numbers. Modification and deletion of messages held at the BSC/BTS. Initiate new messages (and when necessary filling to 82 octets). Map messages to correct cells. By sending the message at a specific time it dictates the message broadcast start time. Allocation of message broadcast rate. Allocation of message broadcast finish time, by the fact that only so many messages are sent.

The term Cell Broadcast Entity (CBE) refers to a terminal or terminals that support the above functionality at the CBC.

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BSS, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

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BSS, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities


The BSS has certain functions it should support, specified in GSM 03.41 (Technical realisation of SMS). The functions are shown opposite. The BTS shall detect CBCH overload. If overload is detected the BSS shall reject any further requests from the CBC for cells with the overloaded CBCH.

Note: Motorola have placed the Cell Broadcast Scheduler and storage functionality at the BTS. GSM specifies that each message may be broadcast at a different frequency. It identifies the maximum frequency as once every 30 seconds, the minimum frequency as once every 32 minutes. GSM specifies the maximum number of broadcasts of a message as 2880, thereby enabling the message to be broadcast every 30 seconds for 24 hours. If the No_of_Broadcast_Requested is set to 0, the BSS shall broadcast the message indefinitely or until a CBSE_KILL_MESSAGE is received from the CBC.

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BSS, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

BSS, Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

BSC (Cell Broadcast Agent) The BSC has the following responsibilities:
S S

Interpretation of commands from the CBC. Inform the CBC if desired message repetition rate is not achievable. Inform the CBC of failed executions due to unexecutable messages. Routing of messages to correct BTSs (and Cells).

BTS (Cell Broadcast Scheduler) The BTS has the following responsibilities:
S

S S S

Inform the CBC, via the BSC, of successful receipt of all broadcast commands from the CBC. Generating schedule messages indicating schedule of transmissions (DRX schedule messages). Passing messages over air interface. Storage of Cell Broadcast Messages (Motorola). Scheduling of Cell Broadcast Messages on the CBCH (Motorola).

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Mobiles Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

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Mobiles Cell Broadcast Responsibilities


The mobile has certain functions it should support, specified in GSM 03:41 (Technical realisation of SMS). The functions are shown opposite.

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Mobiles Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

Mobiles Cell Broadcast Responsibilities

The mobile is responsible for the following: Recombination of message blocks received over the AirInterface. Discarding non consecutive message blocks. Discarding non suitable coding scheme messages. Discarding inappropriate message IDs. Ignoring repeat broadcasts. Have the ability to transfer information over the RInterface when supported. Optionally enter SMS CB DRX mode based on received schedule messages. Optionally skip reception of remaining blocks which do not contain cell broadcast information.

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SMS CB Database Commands

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SMS CB Database Commands


The following new command is introduced by this feature: add_link

Command Line
add_link <mms_a_id_l><mms_a_id_2><timeslot_number_a> <mms_b_id_l><mms_b_id_2><timeslot_number_b> The following inputs are inbound from BSC to the RXCDR.

MMS_a_id_1: MMS_a_id_2:

First ID of T1/E1 line 9 (values 050) Second ID of T1/E1 line 9 (values 0 or 1)

timeslot_numbera: Specifies timeslot on T1/E1 line 9. Values T1 1 to 24 Values E1 1 to 31 The following input parameters are outbound from the RXCDR to the MSC, OMC or CBC: MMS_b_id_1: MMS_b_id_2: timeslot_number_b:

Functional Description
The command add_link shall replace the existing commands add_oml and add_rxcdr_mtl. It shall enable the operator to establish a link between the following sites: S S S The BSC and the MSC. The BSC and the OMC. The BSC and the CBC.

This command shall be rejected under the following conditions: S S S S If the MMS timeslot is in use. If the command is entered outside SYSGEN mode. If the command is entered at an insufficient security level. If the command is entered at a non-RXCDR site.

Note: Other commands have been modified to include the new CBL device, i.e. equip cbl, ins_device, chg_dte and other supporting commands.
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SMS CB Database Commands

SMSCB Database Commands

add_link <mms_a_id_1><mms_a_id_2> <timeslot_number_a><mms_b_id_1><mms_b_id_2> <timeslot_number_b>

VALID RANGE mms_a/b_id_1 mms_a/b_id_2 timeslot_number_a/b 0 to 50 0 to 1 1 to 31

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CBL Message Flow Scenarios

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CBL Message Flow Scenarios


The establishment of a CBL SVC can be initiated by the CBC or the BSS. The procedure is shown opposite. The normal flow of information between CBC and BSS is by means of N_Data indications, requests and confirm messages.

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CBL Message Flow Scenarios

CBL Message Flow Scenarios

SVC Establishment (CBC Download)


CBC PLP
NCONNECT INDICATION NCONNECT RESPONSE

BSS PLP

OR
NDISCONNECT

IF LINK CANNOT BE ESTABLISHED

SVC Establishment (BSS Upload)


CBC PLP
NCONNECT REQUEST NCONNECT CONFIRM

BSS PLP

OR
NDISCONNECT

IF LINK CANNOT BE ESTABLISHED

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CBL Protocol

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CBL Protocol
The X.25 (LAPB) implementation is identical to that of the OML. The BSS supports a protocol stack which utilises an application layer convergence function for connecting the BSS and the CBC. This means it supports the lower 3 OSI layers in what is more commonly referred to as the short stack by GSM 03.49 (Example Protocol Stacks for Interconnecting CBC and BSC).

Multiple SVC Connections


The BSS shall support a maximum of 2 SVC connections the Upload SVC (BSS to the CBC) and the Download SVC (CBC to the BSS). The Upload SVC is controlled by the BSS and is established when the BSS needs to send restart or failure information to the CBC. The BSS shall tear down the SVC if the SVC is idle for longer than a timeout period. The Download SVC is established only at the request of the CBC. The BSS has no control over the Download SVC. It is not able to establish or tear down the connection, unless the operator requests a lock_device command at the MMI.

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CBL Protocol

A Protocol Stack which utilizes an Application-Network layer convergence function for interconnecting CBC and BSC

Application Layer CBS Application

Layers 4, 5 & 6 not used

Convergence Function:
Maps application entity protocol (CBSE) directly to network layer.

Layer 3 (Network Layer as defined by X.213) Layer 2 (Link Layer) Layer 1 (Physical Layer)

CBSE Cell Broadcast Short Message Element


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Cell Broadcast Messages from BSC to BTS

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Cell Broadcast Messages from BSC to BTS


GSM recommend that commands interpreted by the BSC will result in a sequence of 4 SMS BROADCAST REQUEST messages or 1 SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message being sent to a BTS, which in turn result in a sequence of 4 messages being transferred via the BTSMS interface (GSM 04.12). With the SMS BROADCAST REQUEST mode of operation, the 88 octet fixed length CBS page is split into four 22 octet blocks which are carried in SMS BROADCAST REQUEST messages as follows: octets 122 are transferred in the 1st SMS BROADCAST REQUEST with a sequence number (GSM 04.12) indicating first block octets 2344 are transferred in the 2nd SMS BROADCAST REQUEST with a sequence number (GSM 04.12) indicating second block octets 4566 are transferred in the 3rd SMS BROADCAST REQUEST with a sequence number (GSM 04.12) indicating third block octets 6788 are transferred in the 4th SMS BROADCAST REQUEST with a sequence number (see GSM 04.12) indicating fourth block

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Cell Broadcast Messages from BSC to BTS

Cell Broadcast Messages from BSC to BTS

BSC 64k LAPD (RSL) CELL BROADCAST AGENT

BTS

CELL BROADCAST SCHEDULER

MOTOROLA IMPLEMENT A SINGLE 88 OCTET MESSAGE FOR SMCB.

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)


GSM specifies that each message to be broadcast shall consist of a number of pages, where a page is of the following format: S S 6 octet header 82 octets of user data (93 characters)

GSM identifies a maximum number of pages as 15, with a minimum of 1. This feature currently supports a single page only. The BTS stores a maximum of 650 messages, where each message is a single page of up to 88 octets of message text plus queuing overhead. Each cell can send any or all of these messages.

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

SMS CB Message Structure

BLOCK TYPE The purpose of the Block Type is to identify the function of the block and message being sent.

Bit:

8 Spare 0

7 LPD 0

5 Spare 0

1 Octet:

Sequence Number 1

LPD = 01 All others are ignored Bit No: 4 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 First block Second block Third block Fourth block First schedule block: Message contains SMSCB scheduling information Null message (does not contain valid SMSCB information)

All other values of bits 4 to 1 are reserved for future use. The use of a reserved code point shall cause the message to be ignored. The SMS CB message is a message with four consecutive blocks, with Block Types first block, second block, third block and fourth block. A null message (which is indicated by the Sequence Number 1111) (binary) shall have octets 2 to 23, inclusive, filled with the value 2B (hex). The SMS CB message coding is defined in Technical Specification GSM 03.41.
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DRX Scheduling Message Coding


The BSS shall transmit DRX Schedule Messages (refer to TS GSM 04.12 [3]) to the Mobile to provide it with information on any following cell broadcast messages. The Schedule Message enables the Mobile to minimise battery usage, by allowing it to ignore transmissions of unwanted messages. The text of the Schedule Message provides information pertaining to the CB messages sent afterward. A Schedule Message consists of 4 consecutive blocks with Block Types first schedule block, second block, third block and fourth block. A Schedule Message containing scheduling data which does not fill the 88 octets shall be padded with the hexadecimal value 2B after the end of the used part of the message. The Schedule Message comprises a 2-octet header followed by three parts, the first of them of 6 octets, and the two others of variable length, as indicated on the opposite page. Octets following the last part (n+1 to 88 inclusive), if any, shall be ignored. When bits are indicated as spare, they shall be set to the indicated value (0 or 1) by the network, and their value shall be ignored by the Mobile Station.

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

SMSCB Message Structure

DRX SCHEDULE MESSAGE CODING Bit: 0 8 Type 0 End Slot Number 2 38 9 2m (m+1) n spare spare 0 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet: 1

Begin Slot Number

New CBSMS Message Bitmap New CBSMS Message Description Other Message Descriptions

Set type to 00" only. All other values will be ignored in schedule messages. Begin Slot Number Value Range 1 to 48 End Slot Number must be greater than or equal to the value of the Begin Slot Number (1 to 48)

If set out of range then message is ignored


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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

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New SMS CB Message Bitmap


NM i: The New Message bit i refers to the content of message slot i. Its meaning is as follows: 1. The message slot contains an SMS CB message which was either not sent during the previous schedule period, or sent unscheduled during the preceding schedule period; or, the message is indicated as of free usage, reading advised. The value is 1 both for the first transmission of a given SMS CB message in the schedule period or a repetition of it within the schedule period. 0. The message slot is such that value 1 is not suitable.

An SMS CB message fulfilling the criterion for bit value 1 is said in the following to be new. It should be noted that the broadcasting is not necessarily the first one. The network can choose not to send a given SMS CB message in all schedule periods. In this case it will be new each time it has not been sent in the previous schedule period. Another case is when a message is scheduled but its first transmission in the schedule period is pre-empted; the next time the SMS CB message is new.

New SMS CB Message Description


This part contains as many Message Descriptions as there are bits set to 1 in the New Message Bitmap. This part can then be empty. A message description is 1 or 2 octets long: New Message Description j: This one or two octet long field contains information about what is sent in the jth message slot for which NM i is set to 1. All descriptions pertaining to the first transmission of a new message shall be put at the beginning, so that mobile stations can determine rapidly where the new messages are.

Other Message Descriptions


This part contains a one or two octet message description for each of the remaining message slots in the schedule period, in the order of transmission. This part can be empty. The Message Slot Number for each description must be derived from the New SMS CB Message Bitmap.

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

SMS CB Message Structure

NEW SMS CB MESSAGE BITMAP This 6octet field encodes one bit per message slot, with the following indexation:

Bit:

8
NM 1

7
NM 2

6
NM 3

5
NM 4

4
NM 5

3
NM 6

2
NM 7

1
NM 8

Octet: 1 2 3 4 5 6

NM 9

NM 10 NM 11 NM 12 NM 13 NM 14 NM 15 NM 16

NM 17 NM 18 NM 19 NM 20 NM 21 NM 22 NM 23 NM 24

NM 25 NM 26 NM 27 NM 28 NM 29 NM 30 NM 31 NM 32

NM 33 NM 34 NM 35 NM 36 NM 37 NM 38 NM 39 NM 40

NM 41 NM 42 NM 43 NM 44 NM 45 NM 46 NM 47 NM 48

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NEW AND OTHER SMS CB MESSAGE DESCRIPTION

Bit:

1 Octet 1 9 2m

Message Description 1

Message Description p
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Message Description Encoding


Four different encoding formats are specified, respectively: 1) for the first transmission of an SMS CB message in the schedule period, 2) for the repetition of an SMS CB message, 3) for a message slot of unindicated usage that Mobile Stations can skip, and 4) for a message slot of unindicated usage that Mobile Stations should not skip. The different encoding formats are identified by the Message Description Type (MDT) field. The MDT field is of variable length. The length of a description can be determined from the value of bit 8 of the first octet, which can then be understood as a more bit. Value 1 indicates a single-octet field, and value 1 a 2-octet field.

First Transmission of an SMS CB within the Schedule Period


This describes the content of a message slot which contains the first transmission of an SMS CB message within the period: MDT, Message Description Type (octet 1 of Message Description, bit 8): 1-bit field set to 1 for the message description of a message slot containing the first transmission during the schedule period of a given SMS CB. MESSAGE IDENTIFIER (octet 1 bits 7 to 1 and octet 2 of Message Description): Consists of the low-order 15 bits of the corresponding field of the SMS CB message, as defined in Technical Specification GSM 03.41.

Retransmission Indication
When a message slot contains the repetition of an SMS CB message within the schedule period, the corresponding message description is coded on one octet, as shown opposite. MDT, Message Description Type (octet 1 of Message Description, bits 8 and 7): 2-bit field set to 00 for the message description of a message slot containing the repetition of an SMS CB message. Repeated Message Slot Number (octet 1 of Message Description, bits 6 to 1): This field encodes the message slot number of the first transmission during the schedule period of the repeated SMS CB message. The field is encoded in binary, range 1 to 47.

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

SMS CB Message Structure

FIRST TRANSMISSION OF AN SMSCB WITHIN THE SCHEDULE PERIOD Bit: 8 MDT 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet Message Identifier (high part) Message Identifier (low part) 1 2

RETRANSMISSION INDICATION Bit: 8 MDT 0 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet Repeated Message Slot Number 1

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Free Message Slot, Optional Reading


When no specific information about a message slot is provided, and Mobile Stations need not read its contents, the Message Description is coded as shown opposite. MDT, Message Description Type (octet 1 of Message Description): 8-bit field set to 01000000. The network can use such a message slot as needed, e.g. for unscheduled messages or for unscheduled Schedule Messages.

Free Message Slot, Reading Advised (not yet implemented by Motorola)


When no specific information about a message slot is provided, and Mobile Stations should read its contents, the Message Description is coded as shown opposite. MDT, Message Description Type (octet 1 of Message Description): 8-bit field set to 01000001. The network can use such a message slot as needed, e.g. for sending high-priority messages.

Reserved Codepoints
The values of MDT other than those specified in the previous sections are reserved for future use. They shall be treated as encoding a one octet message description.

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SMS CB Message Structure (Air-Interface)

SMS CB Message Structure

FREE MESSAGE SLOT (OPTIONAL READING)

Bit:

Octet 1

FREE MESSAGE SLOT (ADVISED READING)


NOTE: This is intended for emergency messages and is not yet implemented by Motorola. Bit: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Octet 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

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Appendix A The 24-Channel System

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The 24-Channel (T1) System

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The 24-Channel (T1) System


A digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544 mbps. T1 uses two pairs of normal twisted wires, and can normally handle 24 voice conversations, each one digitized at 64 kbp/s. Digitization and coding of analogue voice signals requires 8000 samples per second (two times the highest voice frequency of 4000 Hz) and its coding in 8-bit words yields the fundamental T1 building block of 64 kbp/s for voice. Combining 24 such voice channels into a serial bit stream using Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is performed on a frame by frame basis. A frame is a sample of 24 channels (24 x 8 = 192) plus a synchronization bit called a framing bit, which yields a block of 193 bits. Frames are transmitted at a rate of 8,000 per second (corresponding to the required sampling rate), thus creating a 1.544 mbp/s (8.000 x 193 = 1.544 mbp/s) transmission rate.

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The 24-Channel (T1) System

The 24-Channel PCM Frame Format

multiframe 1.5 ms

frames

10

11

12

speech channels

time slots

ch 1 1

ch 2 2

ch 3 3

ch 4 4

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

ch 21 21

ch 22 22

ch ch 23 24 23 24

frame 125 ms

frame alignment signal 1 bit in each add frame and multiframe alignment signal or CCS 1 bit in each even frame

0 .648 ms

bits

time slot 5.18 ms

pulse width = 0 .324


CAS 1 bit inslot every 6th and 12th frame

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24-Channel (T1) System

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24-Channel (T1) System


We can associate two types of signalling with a T1 system. Each one has fundamental differences each one described below.

Channel associated signalling


Channel-associated signalling for each channel is conveyed in every sixth frame, using the least-significant bit of each corresponding time-slot, a technique known as bit stealing. This means that for frames 1 to 5 and 7 to 11, 8 bits carry the encoded speech for each channel, while for frames 6 and 12 only 7 bits of encoded speech are carried. The perceived degradation to the quality of transmission is negligible. The bit stealing technique provides a 1.33 khz (i.e. 8 khz/6) signalling capacity for each channel within its time-slot. The signalling bits for each channel in the sixth and twelfth frames are known as the A bit and B bit respectively. The 12-bit frame alignment pattern is carried, one bit at a time, at the beginning of each odd frame. Similarly, the 12-frame 1.5 ms multiframe is identified by a 12-bit multiframe alignment pattern carried in the first bits of even frames.

Common channel signalling


Since a multiframe is not required for common-channel signalling, the first bit of successive even frames is used to convey common-channel signalling on a T1 system. This gives only a 4 kbit/s signalling capacity. However the T1 system can be modified to allow 64 kbit/s Common-channel Signalling to be carried transparently. This requires the elimination of the bit-7-zero-code-suppression process normally provided in T1 systems. The suppression process involves the setting of bit 7 to a 1 for any channel which has eight zeros in a frame. Although this occasional changing of bit 7 has no perceivable effect on speech transmission, it does prevent the use of time-slots for carrying 8 bits of data. The T1 system is thus sometimes referred to as having non-clear channels. With the necessary suppression, the T1 system can carry in its clear channels not only 64 kbit/s Common-channel Signalling but also any other 64 kbit/s data stream. The resulting loss of the zero suppression, with its consequent reduction in timing content, should not affect the performance of the newer time-transmission systems. With Clear-channel operation, the T1 system carries one common-channel signalling channel of 64 kbit/s and 23 traffic channels of 64 kbit/s.

Comparison of T1 and E1 Systems


There are significant differences between the 30-channel and 24-channel PCM systems. Apart from the number of speech channels within the frames and the companding laws used, the systems employ radically different methods of carrying signalling. The 30-channel system uses a separate dedicated time slot in a bunched format for channel associated and common-channel signalling, while the 24-channel system uses a dispersed format with a bit stealing-within time slot method for channel-associated signalling. Common-channel signalling on a 24-channel PCM (T1) system may be conveyed over a single-bit separate channel or within one of the 64 kbit//s 8-bit channels. It is important that these details are appreciated when considering the processes of digital switching.
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24-Channel (T1) System

Comparison of PCM Systems

PCM system Parameter Number of 8bit time slots Number of speech channels Number of encoding bits for speech Encoding law Signalling (channel associated) Signalling (commonchannel) Framealignment pattern Bits per frame Bit rate Line code CCITT CEPT 32 30 8 A Bunched in TS16 4 bits per channel every 16 frames (2 kbit/s) 8bit bytes in TS16 7 bits bunched in TSO of odd frames 256 2.0 48 Mbit/s HDB3 or 4B3T CCITT Regional (T1) 24 24 7/8(1) Mu 1 bit per channel ever 6 frames (1.3 kbit/s) 1 bit in every even frame(2) (4 kbit/s) 1 bit spread over odd frames 193 1.544 Mbit/s ADI/AMI

(1) 7 bits when channelassociated signal bit is used every 6m frame. (2) Unless modified.

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24-Channel (T1) System

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Glossary of Terms

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Numbers

Numbers
# 2 Mbit/s link Number. As used in this manual set, the term applies to the European 4-wire 2.048 Mbit/s digital line or link which can carry 30 A-law PCM channels or 120 16 kbit/s GSM channels. 4th Generation Language.

4GL

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A
A interface A3 A38 A5 A8 AB Abis interface Interface between MSC and BSS. Authentication algorithm that produces SRES, using RAND and Ki. A single algorithm performing the function of A3 and A8. Stream cipher algorithm, residing on an MS, that produces ciphertext out of plaintext, using Kc. Ciphering key generating algorithm that produces Kc using RAND and Ki. Access Burst. Interface between a remote BSC and BTS. Motorola offers a GSM standard and a unique Motorola Abis interface. The Motorola interface reduces the amount of message traffic and thus the number of 2 Mbit/s lines required between BSC and BTS. Answer Bid Ratio. ACDC Power Supply module. Alternating Current. Access Class (C0 to C15). Application Context. Automatic Congestion Control. Associated Control CHannel. ACKnowledgement. Accumulated Call meter. Address Complete Message. AC Power Interface Module. Used in M-Cell6 indor ac BTS equipment. AC Power Supply Module. Used in M-Cell6 BTS equipment. Associated Control Service Element. Antenna Combining Unit. Analogue to Digital (converter). ADministration Centre. Analogue to Digital Converter. ADvanced Communications Control Protocol. ADMinistration processor. ADMINistration. Abbreviated Dialling Number. Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. Application Entity. Accoustic Echo Control. Additional Elementary Functions.

ABR acdc PSM ac AC AC ACC ACCH ACK, Ack ACM ACM ACPIM AC PSM ACSE ACU A/D ADC ADC ADCCP ADM ADMIN ADN ADPCM AE AEC AEF

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AET

Active Events Table. Alarms and events are sent to the Events Log in the GUI. Different operators will have different subscription lists. All alarms and events are sent to the AET before they are re-routed to different subscription lists. Automatic Frequency Control. Absolute Frame Number. Automatic Gain Control. Access Grant CHannel. A GSM common control channel used to assign MS to a SDCCH or a TCH. Action indicator. Artificial Intelligence. Alarm Interface Board. A class of processor. The radio link between the BTS and the MS. Amplitude Modulation. Automatic Message Accounting (processor). Cell broadcast mobile terminated message. A message broadcast to all MSs in a cell. Advice of Change. Advice of Change Charging supplementary service. Advice of Change Information supplementary service. Automatic Output Control. Application Process. Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. An integer which defines the absolute RF channel number. Automatic ReQuest for retransmission. Address Resolution Protocol. Association Control Service Element. An ASE which provides an AP with the means to establish and control an association with an AP in a remote NE. Maps directly onto the Presentation layer (OMC). Application Service Element (OMC) Application Specific Entity (TCAP). Abstract Syntax Notation One. Alarm and Status Panel. Answer Seizure Ratio. All Trunks Busy. Antenna Transceiver Interface. ATTach. Automatic Trunk Testing Subsystem. Access Unit. Authentication Centre. A GSM network entity which provides the functionality for verifying the identity of an MS when requested by the system. Often a part of the HLR.

AFC AFN AGC AGCH Ai AI AIB AIO Air interface AM AMA AM/MP AoC AoCC AoCI AOC AP ARFCN ARQ ARP ASCE

ASE ASE ASN.1 ASP ASR ATB ATI ATT (flag) ATTS AU AuC

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AUT(H) AUTO

AUThentication. AUTOmatic mode.

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B
B Interface BA BAIC BAOC BBBX BBH BCC BCCH Interface between MSC and VLR. BCCH Allocation. The radio frequency channels allocated in a cell for BCCH transmission. Barring of All Incoming Calls supplementary service. Barring of All Outgoing Calls supplementary service. Battery Backup Board. Base Band Hopping. BTS Colour Code. Broadcast Control CHannel. A GSM control channel used to broadcast general information about a BTS site on a per cell or sector basis. Binary Coded Decimal. Base station Control Function. The GSM term for the digital control circuitry which controls the BTS. In Motorola cell sites this is a normally a BCU which includes DRI modules and is located in the BTS cabinet. Bearer Capability Information Element. Base station Control Unit. A functional entity of the BSS which provides the base control function at a BTS site. The term no longer applies to a type of shelf (see BSC and BSU). Base Controller Unit Power. Bit Error Rate. A measure of signal quality in the GSM system. Business Exchange Services. Bad Frame Indication. Busy Hour Call Attempt. all Barring of All Incoming call supplementary service. Balanced-line Interconnect Board. Provides interface to 12 balanced (6-pair) 120 ohm (37-pin D-type connector) lines for 2 Mbit/s circuits (See also T43). Barring of All Incoming Calls when Roaming outside the Home PLMN Country supplementary service. Balanced-line Interconnect Module. An area in a data array used to store information. BootLoad. Also known as download. For example, databases and software can be downloaded to the NEs from the BSS. BiLLiNG. Bits per second (bps). Full rate traffic channel. Bit Number. Number which identifies the position of a particular bit period within a timeslot. Bandpass Filter. mBCU Power Supply Module.

BCD BCF

BCIE BCU

BCUP BER BES BFI BHCA BI BIB

BICRoam BIM Bin BL BLLNG bit/s Bm BN BPF BPSM

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BS BS

Basic Service (group). Bearer Service. A type of telecommunication service that provides the capability for the transmission of signals between user-network interfaces. The PLMN connection type used to support a bearer service may be identical to that used to support other types of telecommunication service. Base Station Controller. A network component in the GSM PLMN which has the digital control function of controlling all BTSs. The BSC can be located within a single BTS cabinet (forming a BSS) but is more often located remotely and controls several BTSs (see BCF, BCU, and BSU). Basic Service Group. Base Transceiver Station Identity Code. A block of code, consisting of the GSM PLMN colour code and a base station colour code. One Base Station can have several Base Station Colour Codes. BSIC of an adjacent cell. Base Site control Processor (at BSC). Backward Sequence Number. Base Station System. The system of base station equipment (Transceivers, controllers and so on) which is viewed by the MSC through a single interface as defined by the GSM 08 series of recommendations, as being the entity responsible for communicating with MSs in a certain area. The radio equipment of a BSS may cover one or more cells. A BSS may consist of one or more base stations. If an internal interface is implemented according to the GSM 08.5x series of recommendations, then the BSS consists of one BSC and several BTSs. BSS Application Part (of Signalling System No. 7) (DTAP + BSSMAP). Base Station System Control cabinet. The cabinet which houses one or two BSU shelves at a BSC or one or two RXU shelves at a remote transcoder. Base Station System Management Application Part (6-8). BSS Operation and Maintenance Application Part (of Signalling System No. 7). Base Station Unit shelf. The shelf which houses the digital control modules for the BTS (p/o BTS cabinet) or BSC (p/o BSSC cabinet). British Telecom. Bus Terminator. Bus Terminator Card. Base Transceiver Function. Base Transceiver Processor (at BTS). One of the six basic task groups within the GPROC.

BSC

BSG BSIC

BSIC-NCELL BSP BSN BSS

BSSAP BSSC

BSSMAP BSSOMAP BSU

BT BT BTC BTF BTP

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BTS

Base Transceiver Station. A network component in the GSM PLMN which serves one cell, and is controlled by a BSC. The BTS contains one or more Transceivers (TRXs). A period of modulated carrier less than one timeslot. The physical content of a timeslot.

Burst

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C
C C Interface C7 CA CA CAB CADM Conditional. Interface between MSC and HLR/AUC. ITU-TSS Signalling System 7 (sometimes referred to as S7 or SS#7). Cell Allocation. The radio frequency channels allocated to a particular cell. Central Authority. Cabinet. Country ADMinistration. The Motorola procedure used within DataGen to create new country and network files in the DataGen database. Charge Advice Information. Cell Analysis Tool. Cell Broadcast. Circuit Breaker. Cell Broadcast Centre. Cell Broadcast CHannel. Combining Bandpass Filter. Cell Broadcast Link. Circuit Breaker Module. Cell Broadcast Message Identifier. Cell Broadcast Short Message Service. Clock Bus. Connection Confirm (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Country Code. Call Control. Cavity Combining Block, a three way RF combiner. There are two types of CCB, CCB (Output) and CCB (Extension). These, with up to two CCB Control cards, may comprise the TATI. The second card may be used for redundancy. Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber supplementary service. Common Control CHannels. A class of GSM control channels used to control paging and grant access. Includes AGCH, PCH, and RACH. Group of MSs in idle mode. Common Channel Distributor. Channel Coding Digital Signal Processor. Conditional Call Forwarding. Control CHannel. Control channels are channels which carry system management messages. Council for Communications Harmonization (referred to in GSM Recommendations).
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CAI CAT CB CB CBC CBCH CBF CBL CBM CBMI CBSMS CBUS CC CC CC CCB

CCBS CCCH

CCCH_GROUP CCD CCDSP CCF CCH CCH

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CCIT

Comit Consultatif International Tlgraphique et Tlphonique. This term has been superceded by ITUTSS (International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Sector). Current Call Meter. Capability/Configuration Parameter. Control Channel Protocol Entity. Hundred call-seconds. The unit in which amounts of telephone traffic are measured. A single call lasting one hundred seconds is one CCS. See also erlang. Circuit. Control Driver Board. Common Desktop Environment. Part of the SUN software (crontab cron job file). Call Detail Records. Chargeable DURation. Control Equalizer Board (BTS). Called station identifier. Central Equipment Identity Register. By GSM definition, a cell is an RF coverage area. At an omni-site, cell is synonymous with site; at a sectored site, cell is synonymous with sector. This differs from analogue systems where cell is taken to mean the same thing as site. (See below).

CCM CCP CCPE CCS

Cct CDB CDE CDR CDUR CEB CED CEIR Cell

1 Cell = 1 Sector

Omni Site 1-Cell Site (1 BTS)

6-Sector Site or 6-Cell Site (6 BTSs)

CEND CEPT CERM CF CF CFB CFC CFNRc CFNRy

End of charge point. Confrence des administrations Europennes des Postes et Telecommunications. Circuit Error Rate Monitor. Conversion Facility. all Call Forwarding services. Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Busy supplementary service. Conditional Call Forward. Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Not Reachable supplementary service. Call Forwarding on No Reply supplementary service.

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CFU Channel

Call Forwarding Unconditional supplementary service. A means of one-way transmission. A defined sequence of periods (for example, timeslots) in a TDMA system; a defined frequency band in an FDMA system; a defined sequence of periods and frequency bands in a frequency hopped system. Coaxial Interconnect Module. CHarging Point. Card Holder Verification information. Ciphering Key Sequence Number. Cell Identity. A block of code which identifies a cell within a location area. CUG Index. Circuit Identity Code. Carrier to Interference Ratio. Unintelligible data produced through the use of encipherment. Ciphering Key Sequence Number. Calling Line Identity. Calling Line Identification Presentation supplementary service. Calling Line Identification Restriction supplementary service. Clock. Clock Extender half size board. The fibre optic link that distributes GCLK to boards in system (p/o BSS etc). Connectionless Manager. CLeaR. Configuration Management. An OMC application. Connection Management. CoMmanD. Channel Mode Modify. Common Management Information Protocol. Common Management Information Service Element. An ASE which provides a means to transfer management information via CMIP messages with another NE over an association established by ASCE using ROSE (OMC). Cellular Manual Revision. CalliNg tone. COnnected Line Identity. Placed together; two or more items together in the same place. A cell which has a co-located neighbour whose cell boundary follows the boundary of the said cell. The coincident cell has a different frequency type, but the same BSIC, as that of the neighbour cell. COnnected Line Identification Presentation supplementary service.

CIM CHP CHV CKSN CI CI CIC CIR, C/I Ciphertext CKSN CLI CLIP CLIR CLK CLKX CLM CLR CM CM CMD CMM CMIP CMISE

CMR CNG COLI Collocated Coincident Cell

COLP

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COLR CODEX COM COM COMB CONNACK COMM, Comms CommsLink CONF CONFIG CP CPU C/R CR CR CRC CRE CREF CRM CRM-LS/HS

COnnected Line Identification Restriction supplementary service. Manufacturers name for a type of multiplexer and packet switch commonly installed at the Motorola OMC-R. Code Object Manager. COMplete. Combiner. CONNect ACKnowledgement. COMMunications. Communications Link. (2Mbit/s) CONFerence circuit. CONFIGuration Control Program. Call Processing. Central Processing Unit. Command/Response field bit. Carriage Return (RETURN). Connection Request (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Cyclic Redundancy Check (3 bit). Call RE-establishment procedure. Connection REFused (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Cell Resource Manager. Cellular Radio Modem-Low Speed/High Speed. Low speed modem used to interwork 300 to 2400 bit/s data services under V.22bis, V.23, or V.21 standards. High speed modem used to interwork 1200 to 9600 bit/s data services under V.22bis, V.32, or V.29/V.27ter/V.21 standards. Cathode Ray Tube (video display terminal). Code Storage Facility Processor (at BSC and BTS). Central Statistics Process. The statistics process in the BSC. Circuit Switched Public Data Network. Call Transfer supplementary service. Channel Tester. Channel Type. Call Trace Product (Tool). Common Technical Regulation. Clear to Send. Method of flow control (RS232 Interface). Compact Transceiver Unit (M-Cellhorizon radio). Closed User Group supplementary service. The total value for an entire statistical interval. Call Waiting supplementary service.

CRT CSFP CSP CSPDN CT CT CT CTP CTR CTS CTU CUG Cumulative value CW

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D
D Interface D/A DAB DAC DACS DAN DAS DAT DataGen dB DB DB DBA DBMS dc DCB DCCH Interface between VLR and HLR. Digital to Analogue (converter). Disribution Alarm Board. Digital to Analogue Converter. Digital Access Cross-connect System. Digital ANnouncer (for recorded announcements on MSC). Data Acquisition System. Digital Audio Tape. Sysgen Builder System. A Motorola offline BSS binary object configuration tool. Decibel. A unit of power ratio measurement. DataBase. Dummy Burst (see Dummy burst). DataBase Administration/Database Administrator. DataBase Management System. Direct Current. Diversity Control Board (p/o DRCU). Dedicated Control CHannel. A class of GSM control channels used to set up calls and report measurements. Includes SDCCH, FACCH, and SACCH. Data Carrier Detect signal. Data Circuit terminating Equipment. Data Communications Function. Duplexed Combining bandpass Filter. (Used in Horizonmacro). Data Communications Network. A DCN connects Network Elements with internal mediation functions or mediation devices to the Operations Systems. DC Power Supply Module. Digital Cellular System at 1800 MHz. A cellular phone network using digital techniques similar to those used in GSM 900, but operating on frequencies of 1710 1785 MHz and 1805 1880 MHz. Dual-stage Duplexed combining Filter. (Used in Horizonmacro). DataGen Directory Structure. Data Drive Storage. Direct Digital Synthesis. Diversity Equalizer Board. DETach. Decision Feedback Equalizer. Data Gathering Tool.
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DCD DCE DCF DCF DCN

DC PSM DCS1800

DDF DDS DDS DDS DEQB DET DFE DGT

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DHP DIA DINO E1/HDSL DINO T1 DISC Discon DIQ DIR DL DLCI DLD DLNB DLSP DLSP Dm DMA DMA DMR DMX DN DNIC Downlink DP DPC

Digital Host Processor. Drum Intercept Announcer. Line termination module. Line termination module. DISConnect. Discontiuous. Diversity In phase and Quadrature phase. Device Interface Routine. Data Link (layer). Data Link Connection Identifier. Data Link Discriminator. Diversity Low Noise Block. Data Link Service Process. Digital Link Signalling Processor. Control channel (ISDN terminology applied to mobile service). Deferred Maintenance Alarm. An alarm report level; an immediate or deferred response is required (see also PMA). Direct Memory Access. Digital Mobile Radio. Distributed Electronic Mobile Exchange (Motorolas networked EMX family). Directory Number. Data network identifier. Physical link from the BTS towards the MS (BTS transmits, MS receives). Dial/Dialled Pulse. Destination Point Code. A part of the label in a signalling message that uniquely identifies, in a signalling network, the (signalling) destination point of the message. Digital Processing and Control board. Digital Private Network Signalling System (BT standard for PABX interface). Dual Path Preselector. Dual Port Random Access Memory. Digital Power Supply Module. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Data Rate Converter board. Provides data and protocol conversion between PLMN and destination network for 8 circuits (p/o IWF). Diversity Radio Channel Unit. Contains transceiver, digital control circuits, and power supply (p/o BSS) (see RCU). Generic term for radio channel unit. May be standard RCU or diversity radio channel unit DRCU.

DPC DPNSS DPP DPR, DPRAM DPSM DRAM DRC

DRCU (D)RCU

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DRI DRIM DRIX DRX, DRx

Digital Radio Interface. Provides encoding/decoding and encryption/decryption for radio channel (p/o BSS). Digital Radio Interface extended Memory. A DRI with extra memory. DRI Extender half size board. Fibre optic link from DRI to BCU (p/o BSS). Discontinuous reception (mechanism). A means of saving battery power (for example in hand-portable units) by periodically and automatically switching the MS receiver on and off. German term for 2 Mbit/s line (PCM interface). Data Switching Exchange. Digital Speech Interpolation. Digital Signal Processor. Digital Subscriber Signalling No 1. Diversity Signal Strength Indication. Direct Transfer Application Part (6-8). Data Terminal Equipment. Digital Trunk Frame. DaTa form 1 (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Digital Trunk Interface. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (tone signalling type). Data Terminal Ready signal. Method of flow control (RS232 Interface). Dual Transceiver Module. (Radio used in M-Cellarena and M-Cellarena macro). Discontinuous Transmission (mechanism). A means of saving battery power (for example in hand-portable units) and reducing interference by automatically switching the transmitter off when no speech or data are to be sent. A period of carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation is a defined sequence that carries no useful information. A dummy burst fills a timeslot with an RF signal when no information is to be delivered to a channel. DYnamic NETwork. Used to specify BTSs sharing dynamic resources.

DS-2 DSE DSI DSP DSS1 DSSI DTAP DTE DTF DT1 DTI DTMF DTR DTRX DTX, DTx

Dummy burst

DYNET

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E
E E Interface EA EAS Eb/No EBCG EC ECB ECID ECM Ec/No ECT ECT EEL EEPROM EGSM900 EI EIR EIRP EIRP EL EM EMC EMF EMI eMLPP EMMI EMU EMX en bloc See Erlang. Interface between MSC and MSC. External Alarms. External Alarm System. Energy per Bit/Noise floor. Elementary Basic Service Group. Echo Canceller. Performs echo suppression for all voice circuits. Provides echo cancelling for telephone trunks for 30 channels (EC). The Motorola European Cellular Infrastructure Division. Error Correction Mode (facsimile). Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density. Event Counting Tool. Explicit Call Transfer supplementary service. Electric Echo Loss. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. Extended GSM900. Events Interface. Part of the OMC-R GUI. Equipment Identity Register. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power. Equipment Identity Register Procedure. Echo Loss. Event Management. An OMC application. ElectroMagnetic Compatibility. Electro Motive Force. Electro Magnetic Interference. enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption service. Electrical Man Machine Interface. Exchange office Management Unit (p/o Horizonoffice) Electronic Mobile Exchange (Motorolas MSC family). Fr. all at once (a CCITT #7 Digital Transmission scheme); En bloc sending means that digits are sent from one system to another ~ (that is, all the digits for a given call are sent at the same time as a group). ~ sending is the opposite of overlap sending. A system using ~ sending will wait until it has collected all the digits for a given call before it attempts to send digits to the next system. All the digits are then sent as a group. End of Tape. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.

EOT EPROM

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EPSM EQB EQCP EQ DSP Erlang

Enhanced Power Supply Module (+27 V). Equalizer Board. Control circuit for equalization for 8 time slots each with equalizing circuitry and a DSP (p/o RCU). Equalizer Control Processor. Equalizer Digitizer Signal Processor. International (dimensionless) unit of traffic intensity defined as the ratio of time a facility is occupied to the time it is available for occupancy. One erlang is equal to 36 CCS. In the US this is also known as a traffic unit (TU). Ear Reference Point. Effective Radiated Power. ERRor. Electro-static Point. Embedded SQL (Structured Query Language). An RDBMS programming interface language. Extended TACS (analogue cellular system, extended). Type of Local Area Network. ETSI Technical Report. European Telecommunication Standard. European Telecommunications Standards Institute. End of Transmission. Executive Process.

ERP ERP ERR ESP ESQL E-TACS Ethernet ETR ETS ETSI ETX EXEC

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F
F Interface FA FA FA FAC FACCH Interface between MSC and EIR. Fax Adaptor. Full Allocation. Functional Area. Final Assembly Code. Fast Associated Control Channel. A GSM dedicated control channel which is associated with a TCH and carries control information after a call is set up (see SDCCH). Fast Associated Control Channel/Full rate. Fast Associated Control Channel/Half rate. Frequency correction Burst (see Frequency correction burst). Fibre Channel Arbitration Loop. (Type of hard disc). Frequency Correction CHannel. A GSM broadcast control channel which carries information for frequency correction of the mobile (MS). Fault Collection Process (in BTS). Frame Check Sequence. Frequency Division Multiplex. Frequency Division Multiple Access. Fixed Dialling Number. Fault Diagnostic Procedure. Forward Error Correction. Front End Processor. Frame Erasure Ratio. For Further Study. Frequency Hopping. Forward Indicator Bit. Finite Impulse Response (filter type). Foreign Key. A database column attribute; the foreign key indicates an index into another table. Fault Management (at OMC). Frequency Modulation. Fault Management Initiated Clear. Fibre optic MUltipleXer. Frame Number. Identifies the position of a particular TDMA frame within a hyperframe. First Office Application. Fibre Optic eXtender. Full Rate. Refers to the current capacity of a data channel on the GSM air interface, that is, 8 simultaneous calls per carrier (see also HR Half Rate).

FACCH/F FACCH/H FB FC-AL FCCH

FCP FCS FDM FDMA FDN FDP FEC FEP FER FFS, FS FH FIB FIR FK FM FM FMIC FMUX FN FOA FOX FR

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FRU Frequency correction

Field Replaceable Unit. Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream allows frequency correction to be performed easily within an MS burst. Frequency Synchronization. Free Space Loss. The decrease in the strength of a radio signal as it travels between a transmitter and receiver. The FSL is a function of the frequency of the radio signal and the distance the radio signal has travelled from the point source. Forward Sequence Number. File Transfer, Access, and Management. An ASE which provides a means to transfer information from file to file (OMC). forwarded-to number. Fault Translation Process (in BTS). File Transfer Protocol.

FS FSL

FSN FTAM

ftn FTP FTP

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G
G Interface Gateway MSC Interface between VLR and VLR. An MSC that provides an entry point into the GSM PLMN from another network or service. A gateway MSC is also an interrogating node for incoming PLMN calls. Gigabyte. Gigabit Interface Converter. Generic Clock board. System clock source, one per site (p/o BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). Group Call Register. Generic DSP Processor board. Interchangeable with the XCDR board. GDP board configured for E1 link usage. GDP board configured for T1 link usage. Giga-Hertz (109). Group ID. A unique number used by the system to identify a users primary group. GSM Multiplexer Board (p/o BSC). GSM Manual Revision. Gateway Mobile-services Switching Centre (see Gateway MSC). Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying. The modulation technique used in GSM. GrouND. Grade of Service. GSM PLMN Area. General Protocol Converter. Generic Processor board. GSM generic processor board: a 68030 with 4 to 16 Mb RAM (p/o BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). Generic Processor board. GSM generic processor board: a 68040 with 32 Mb RAM (p/o BSS, BTS, BSC, IWF, RXCDR). General Packet Radio Service. Global Positioning by Satellite. GSM Service Area. The area in which an MS can be reached by a fixed subscriber, without the subscribers knowledge of the location of the MS. A GSA may include the areas served by several GSM PLMNs. GSM System Area. The group of GSM PLMN areas accessible by GSM MSs. Groupe Spcial Mobile (the committee). Global System for Mobile communications (the system). GSM Mobile Station. GSM Public Land Mobile Network.

GB, Gbyte GBIC GCLK GCR GDP GDP E1 GDP T1 GHz GID GMB GMR GMSC GMSK GND GOS GPA GPC GPROC

GPROC2 GPRS GPS GSA

GSA GSM GSM GSM MS GSM PLMN

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GSR GT GTE Guard period GUI GUI client GUI server

GSM Software Release. Global Title. Generic Table Editor. The Motorola procedure which allows users to display and edit MCDF input files. Period at the beginning and end of timeslot during which MS transmission is attenuated. Graphical User Interface. A computer used to display a GUI from an OMC-R GUI application which is beingbrun on a GUI server. A computer used to serve the OMC-R GUI application process running locally (on its processor) to other computers (Gui clients or other MMI processors). GateWaY (MSC/LR) interface to PSTN.

GWY

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H
H Interface H-M HAD, HAP HANDO, Handover Interface between HLR and AUC. Human-Machine Terminals. HLR Authentication Distributor. HANDOver. The action of switching a call in progress from one radio channel to another radio channel. Handover allows established calls to continue by switching them to another radio resource, as when an MS moves from one BTS area to another. Handovers may take place between the following GSM entities: timeslot, RF carrier, cell, BTS, BSS and MSC. Hybrid Combining Unit. (Used in Horizonmacro). High level Data Link Control. High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. High Layer Compatibility. The HLC can carry information defining the higher layer characteristics of a teleservice active on the terminal. Home Location Register. The LR where the current location and all subscriber parameters of an MS are permanently stored. Heat Management System. The system that provides environmental control of the components inside the ExCell, TopCell and M-Cell cabinets. HandOver. (see HANDO above). Hand Portable Unit. Call hold supplementary service. Home PLMN. Half Rate. Refers to a type of data channel that will double the current GSM air interface capacity to 16 simultaneous calls per carrier (see also FR Full Rate). HandSet. High Speed Interface card. HLR Subscriber Management. Hopping Sequence Number. Home Units. Hardware. 2048 superframes. The longest recurrent time period of the frame structure.

HCU HDLC HDSL HLC

HLR

HMS

HO HPU HOLD HPLMN HR

HS HSI/S HSM HSN HU HW Hyperframe

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I
I IA IA5 IADU IAM IAS IC IC IC(pref) ICB ICC ICM ICMP ID, Id IDN IDS IE IEC IEEE IEI I-ETS IF IFAM IM IMACS IMEI Information frames (RLP). Incomming Access (closed user group (CUG) SS (supplementary service)). International Alphanumeric 5. Integrated Antenna Distribution Unit. (The IADU is the equivalent of the Receive Matrix used on pre-M-Cell BTSs). Initial Address Message. Internal Alarm System. Integrated Circuit. Interlock Code (CUG SS). Interlock Code op the preferential CUG. Incoming Calls Barred. Integrated Circuit(s) Card. In-Call Modification. Internet Control Message Protocol. IDentification/IDentity/IDentifier. Integrated Digital Network. INFOMIX Database Server. (OMC-R relational database management system). Information Element (signalling). International Electrotechnical Commission. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Information Element Identifier. Interim European Telecommunication Standard. Intermediate Frequency. Initial and Final Address Message. InterModulation. Intelligent Monitor And Control System. International Mobile station Equipment Identity. Electronic serial number that uniquely identifies the MS as a piece or assembly of equipment. The IMEI is sent by the MS along with request for service. IMMediate assignment message. International Mobile Subscriber Identity. Published mobile number (prior to ISDN) (see also MSISDN) that uniquely identifies the subscription. It can serve as a key to derive subscriber information such as directory number(s) from the HLR. Intelligent Network. Interrogating Node. A switching node that interrogates an HLR, to route a call for an MS to the visited MSC. IN Service.
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IMM IMSI

IN IN INS

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INS InterAlg Interworking

Intelligent Network Service. Interference Algorithm. A single interference algorithm in a cell. The general term used to describe the inter-operation of networks, services, supplementary services and so on. See also IWF. A recording period of time in which a statistic is pegged. The end of an interval. Input/Output. Intelligent Optimization Platform. Initialisation Process. Internet Protocol. Inter-Process Communication. INtermodulation Products. Intellectual PRoperty. Integrated Power Supply Module (48 V). (A hardware component). Indexed Sequential Access Method. International Switching Centre. Integrated Services Digital Network. An integrated services network that provides digital connections between user-network interfaces. Motorola Information Systems group (formally CODEX). International Organisation for Standardization. Informix Structured Query Language. ISDN User Part (of signalling system No. 7). Inactivity Test (Part of SCCP network connectivity). Information Transfer Capability. International Telecommunication Union. International Telecommunication Union Telecommunications Sector. InterWorking Function. A network functional entity which provides network interworking, service interworking, supplementary service interworking or signalling interworking. It may be a part of one or more logical or physical entities in a GSM PLMN. InterWorking MSC. InterWorking Unit.

Interval Interval expiry I/O IOS IP IP IPC IP, INP IPR IPSM IPX ISAM ISC ISDN

ISG ISO ISQL ISUP IT ITC ITU ITUTSS IWF

IWMSC IWU

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K
k k K KAIO kb, kbit kbit/s, kbps kbyte Kc kHz Ki KIO KSW KSWX kW kilo (103). Windows size. Constraint length of the convolutional code. Kernal Asynchronous Input/Output. kilo-bit. kilo-bits per second. kilobyte. Ciphering key. A sequence of symbols that controls the operation of encipherment and decipherment. kilo-Hertz (103). Individual subscriber authentication Key (p/o authentication process of AUC). A class of processor. Kiloport SWitch board. TDM timeslot interchanger to connect calls (p/o BSS). KSW Expander half size board. Fibre optic distribution of TDM bus (p/o BSS). kilo-Watt.

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L
L1 L2ML L2R Layer 1. Layer 2 Management Link. Layer 2 Relay function. A function of an MS and IWF that adapts a users known layer2 protocol LAPB onto RLP for transmission between the MT and IWF. L2R Bit Orientated Protocol. L2R Character Orientated Protocol. Layer 3. Location Area. An area in which an MS may move freely without updating the location register. An LA may comprise one or several base station areas. Location Area Code. Location Area Identity. The information indicating the location area in which a cell is located. Local Area Network. LAN Extender half size board. Fibre optic distribution of LAN to/from other cabinets (p/o BSS etc). Link Access Protocol Balanced (of ITUTSS Rec. x.25). Link Access Protocol Data. Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel. Inductor Capacitor (type of filter). Link Control Function. Local Communications Network. Link Control Processor. Local Exchange. Light Emitting Diode. Line Feed. Length Indicator. Line Identity. Lower Layer Compatibility. The LLC can carry information defining the lower layer characteristics of the terminal. Traffic channel with capacity lower than a Bm. LAN Monitor Process. Least Mean Square. Local Mobile Station Identity. A unique identity temporarily allocated to visiting mobile subscribers in order to speed up the search for subscriber data in the VLR, when the MSRN allocation is done on a per cell basis. Local Maintenance Terminal. Low Noise Amplifier. Last Number Dialled.

L2R BOP L2R COP L3 LA

LAC LAI LAN LANX LAPB LAPD LAPDm LC LCF LCN LCP LE LED LF LI LI LLC Lm LMP LMS LMSI

LMT LNA LND

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Location area

An area in which a mobile station may move freely without updating the location register. A location area may comprise one or several base station areas. Linear Predictive Code. Local PLMN. Location Register. The GSM functional unit where MS location information is stored. The HLR and VLR are location registers. Link Stations Signalling Unit (Part of MTP transport system). Listener Side Tone Rating. Long Term Average. The value required in a BTSs GCLK frequency register to produce a 16.384 MHz clock. Local Terminal Emulator. Long Term Predictive. Line Terminating Unit. Local Units. Location Update. Length and Value.

LPC LPLMN LR

LSSU LSTR LTA LTE LTP LTU LU LU LV

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M
M M M-Cell M&TS Mandatory. Mega (106). Motorola Cell. Maintenance and Troubleshooting. Functional area of Network Management software which (1) collects and displays alarms, (2) collects and displays Software/Hardware errors, and (3) activates test diagnostics at the NEs (OMC). Mobile Allocation. The radio frequency channels allocated to an MS for use in its frequency hopping sequence. Medium Access Control. Mobile Allocation Channel Number. A cell in which the base station antenna is generally mounted away from buildings or above rooftop level. Mobile Additional Function. Mobile Access Hunting supplementary service. Mobile Allocation Index. Mean Accumulated Intrinsic Down Time. MAINTenance. Mobile Allocation Index Offset. Mobile Application Part (of signalling system No. 7). The inter-networking signalling between MSCs and LRs and EIRs. Mobile Application Part Processor. Megabyte. Megabits per second. Motorola Cellular Advanced Processor. Mobile Country Code. Motorola Customer Data Format used by DataGen for simple data entry and retrieval. Malicious Call Identification supplementary service. Motorola Customer Support Centre. Main Control Unit for M-Cell2/6. Also referred to as the Micro Control Unit in software. Main Control Unit, with dual FMUX. (Used in M-Cellhorizon). Main Control Unit for M-Cell Micro sites (M-Cellm). Also referred to as the Micro Control Unit in software. The software subtype representation of the Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) for the MCU-m. Mediation Device. (mobile) Management (entity) - Data Link (layer). Maintenance Entity (GSM Rec. 12.00).

MA MAC MACN Macrocell MAF MAH MAI MAIDT MAINT MAIO MAP MAPP MB, Mbyte Mbit/s MCAP MCC MCDF MCI MCSC MCU MCUF MCU-m MCUm MD MDL ME

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ME

Mobile Equipment. Equipment intended to access a set of GSM PLMN and/or DCS telecommunication services, but which does not contain subscriber related information. Services may be accessed while the equipment, capable of surface movement within the GSM system area, is in motion or during halts at unspecified points. Maintenance Entity Function (GSM Rec. 12.00). MultiFrame. Multi-Frequency (tone signalling type). MultiFunction block. Management. Manager. Message Handling System. Mobile Handling Service. Mega-Hertz (106). Maintenance Information. Management Information Base. A Motorola OMC-R database. There is a CM MIB and an EM MIB. Mobile Interface Controller. A cell in which the base station antenna is generally mounted below rooftop level. Radio wave propagation is by diffraction and scattering around buildings, the main propagation is within street canyons. minute(s). micro-second (106). Micro Base Control Unit. Management Information Tree. Name of a file on the Motorola OMC-R. Man Machine. Mobility Management. Mobile Management Entity. Middle Man Funnel process. Man Machine Interface. The method in which the user interfaces with the software to request a function or change parameters. A machine configured to use the OMC-R software from an MMI server. MMI client/MMI server. A computer which has its own local copy of the OMC-R software. It can run the OMC-R software for MMI clients to mount. Man Machine Language. The tool of MMI. Multiple Serial Interface Link. (see also 2Mbit/s link) Mobile Network Code. MaiNTenance.

MEF MF MF MF MGMT, mgmt MGR MHS MHS MHz MI MIB MIC Microcell

min ms mBCU MIT MM MM MME MMF MMI

MMI client MMI processor MMI server

MML MMS MNC MNT

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MO MO/PP MOMAP MoU MPC MPH MPTY MPX MRC MRN MRP MS MSC MSCM MSCU msec MSI MSIN MSISDN

Mobile Originated. Mobile Originated Point-to-Point messages. Motorola OMAP. Memorandum of Understanding. Multi Personal Computer (was p/o OMC). (mobile) Management (entity) - PHysical (layer) [primitive]. MultiParTY (Multi ParTY) supplementary service. MultiPleXed. Micro Radio Control Unit. Mobile Roaming Number. Mouth Reference Point. Mobile Station. The GSM subscriber unit. Mobile-services Switching Centre, Mobile Switching Centre. Mobile Station Class Mark. Mobile Station Control Unit. millisecond (.001 second). Multiple Serial Interface board. Intelligent interface to two 2 Mbit/s digital links (see 2 Mbit/s link and DS-2) (p/o BSS). Mobile Station Identification Number. Mobile Station International ISDN Number. Published mobile number (see also IMSI). Uniquely defines the mobile station as an ISDN terminal. It consists of three parts: the Country Code (CC), the National Destination Code (NDC) and the Subscriber Number (SN). Mobile Station Roaming Number. A number assigned by the MSC to service and track a visiting subscriber. Message Signal Unit (Part of MTP transport system). A signal unit containing a service information octet and a signalling information field which is retransmitted by the signalling link control, if it is received in error. Mobile Terminated. Describes a call or short message destined for an MS. Mobile Termination. The part of the MS which terminates the radio transmission to and from the network and adapts terminal equipment (TE) capabilities to those of the radio transmission. MT0 is mobile termination with no support for terminal, MT1 is mobile termination with support for an S-type interface and MT2 is mobile termination with support for an R-type interface. Mobile-To-Mobile (call). Message Transfer Part. Mobile Terminated Point-to-Point messages. Mean Time Between Failures. Message Transfer LinK. MTP Transport Layer Link (A interface).

MSRN MSU

MT MT (0, 1, 2)

MTM MTP MT/PP MTBF MTK MTL

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MTP MTTR Multiframe

Message Transfer Part. Mean Time To Repair. Two types of multiframe are defined in the system: a 26-frame multiframe with a period of 120 ms and a 51-frame multiframe with a period of 3060/13 ms. Mark Up. Multi User Mobile Station. Multiplexer.

MU MUMS MUX

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N
N/W NB NBIN NCC NCELL NCH ND Network. Normal Burst (see Normal burst). A parameter in the hoping sequence. Network (PLMN) Colour Code. Neighbouring (of current serving) Cell. Notification CHannel. No Duplicates. A database column attribute meaning the column contains unique values (used only with indexed columns). National Destination Code. Network Determined User Busy. Network Element (Network Entity). Network Element Function block. Norme Europennes de Telecommunications. Frequency planning tool. Network Function. Network File System. Network Health Analyst. Optional OMC-R processor feature. Network Interface Card. Network Independent Clocking. Network Information Service. It allows centralised control of network information for example hostnames, IP addresses and passwords. Network Interface Unit. Network Interface Unit, micro. Network LinK processor(s). Newton metres. Network Management (manager). NM is all activities which control, monitor and record the use and the performance of resources of a telecommunications network in order to provide telecommunication services to customers/users at a certain level of quality. Network Management Application Service Element. Network Management Centre. The NMC node of the GSM TMN provides global and centralised GSM PLMN monitoring and control, by being at the top of the TMN hierarchy and linked to subordinate OMC nodes. National Mobile Station Identification number. Nordic Mobile Telephone system. No Nulls. A database column attribute meaning the column must contain a value in all rows. A period of modulated carrier less than a timeslot. Number Plan Identifier.

NDC NDUB NE NEF NET NETPlan NF NFS NHA NIC NIC NIS

NIU NIU-m NLK Nm NM

NMASE NMC

NMSI NMT NN Normal burst NPI

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NRZ NSAP NSP NSS NT NT NTAAB NUA NUI NUP NV NVRAM nW

Non Return to Zero. Network Service Access Point. Network Service Provider. Network Status Summary. Network Termination. Non Transparent. New Type Approval Advisory Board. Network User Access. Network User Identification. National User Part (of signalling system No. 7). NonVolatile. Non-Volatile Random Access Memory. Nano-Watt (109).

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O
O OA O&M OASCU Optional. Outgoing Access (CUG SS). Operations and Maintenance. Off-Air-Call-Set-Up. The procedure in which a telecommunication connection is being established whilst the RF link between the MS and the BTS is not occupied. Outgoing Calls Barred within the CUG. Oversized Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator. Optional for operators to implement for their aim. % OverFlow. IDS shutdown state. IDS normal operatng state. Operator Initiated Clear. Off_Line MIB. A Motorola DataGen database, used to modify and carry out Radio Frequency planning on multiple BSS binary files. Overall Loudness Rating. Operations and Maintenance Application Part (of signalling system No. 7) (was OAMP). Operations and Maintenance Centre. The OMC node of the GSM TMN provides dynamic O&M monitoring and control of the PLMN nodes operating in the geographical area controlled by the specific OMC. Operations and Maintenance Centre Gateway Part. (Iridium) Operations and Maintenance Centre GPRS Part. Operations and Maintenance Centre Radio Part. Operations and Maintenance Centre Switch Part. Operations and Maintenance Function (at BSC). Operations and Maintenance Link. Operation and Maintenance Processor. Operation and Maintenance System (BSCOMC). Operation and Maintenance SubSystem. Out Of Service. Originating Point Code. A part of the label in a signalling message that uniquely identifies, in a signalling network, the (signalling) origination point of the message. Olympus Radio Architecture Chipset. Operating System. Open Systems Interconnection. OSI Reference Model. Operation Systems Function block.

OCB OCXO OD OFL offline online OIC OLM

OLR OMAP OMC

OMC-G OMC-G OMC-R OMC-S OMF OML OMP OMS OMSS OOS OPC

ORAC OS OSI OSI RM OSF

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OSF/MOTIF OSS Overlap

Open Software Foundation Motif. The basis of the GUI used for the Motorola OMC-R MMI. Operator Services System. Overlap sending means that digits are sent from one system to another as soon as they are received by the sending system. A system using ~ will not wait until it has received all digits of a call before it starts to send the digits to the next system. This is the opposite of en bloc sending where all digits for a given call are sent at one time.

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P
PA PAB PABX PAD Paging Power Amplifier. Power Alarm Board. Private Automatic Branch eXchange. Packet Assembler/Disassembler facility. The procedure by which a GSM PLMN fixed infrastructure attempts to reach an MS within its location area, before any other network-initiated procedure can take place. CEPT 2 Mbit/s route through the BSS network. Processor Bus. Private Branch eXchange. Personal Computer. Paging CHannel. A GSM common control channel used to send paging messages to the MSs. Paging Channel Network. Physical Channel. Pulse Code Modulation (see also 2 Mbit/s link which is the physical bearer of PCM). Personal Communications Network. Preventative Cyclic Retransmission. A form of error correction suitable for use on links with long transmission delays, such as satellite links. Packet Control Unit (p/o GPRS). Picocell Control unit (p/o M-Cellaccess). Potential difference. Protocol Discriminator. Public Data. Power Distribution Board. Power Distribution Frame (MSC/LR). Public Data Networks. Power Distribution Unit. Protected Data Unit. Pan European Digital Cellular. A single incremental action modifying the value of a statistic. Modifying a statistical value. Packet Handler. PHysical (layer). Packet Handler Interface. Presentation Indicator. A cell site where the base station antenna is mounted within a building. Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement.

PATH PBUS PBX PC PCH PCHN PCHN PCM PCN PCR

PCU PCU pd PD PD PDB PDF PDN PDU PDU PEDC Peg Pegging PH PH PHI PI Picocell PICS

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PID PIM PIN PIN PIX PIXT PK Plaintext PlaNET PLL PLMN PM PM-UI PMA PMS PMUX PN PNE POI POTS p/o pp, p-p PP ppb PPE ppm Pref CUG Primary Cell

Process IDentifier/Process ID. PCM Interface Module (MSC). Personal Identification Number. Problem Identification Number. Parallel Interface Extender half size board. Customer alarm interface (p/o BSS). Protocol Implementation eXtra information for Testing. Primary Key. A database column attribute, the primary key is a not-null, non-duplicate index. Unciphered data. Frequency planning tool. Phase Lock Loop (refers to phase locking the GCLK in the BTS). Public Land Mobile Network. The mobile communications network. Performance Management. An OMC application. Performance Management User Interface. Prompt Maintenance Alarm. An alarm report level; immediate action is necessary (see also DMA). Pseudo MMS. PCM MUltipleXer. Permanent Nucleus (of GSM). Prsentation des Normes Europennes. Point of Interconnection (with PSTN). Plain Old Telephone Service (basic telephone services). Part of. Peak-to-peak. Point-to-Point. Parts per billion. Primative Procedure Entity. Parts per million (x 106). Preferential CUG. A cell which is already optimized in the network and has a co-located neighbour whose cell boundary follows the boundary of the said cell. The primary cell has a preferred band equal to the frequency type of the coincident cell. Programmable Read Only Memory. Location probability. Periodic Supervision of Accessability. Presentation Services Access Point. Power Supply Module.

PROM Ps PSA PSAP PSM

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PSPDN

Packet Switched Public Data Network. Public data communications network. x.25 links required for NE to OMC communications will probably be carried by PSPDN. Public Switched Telephone Network. The UK land line telephone network. Power Supply Unit. Pure Sine Wave. Public Telecommunications Operator. Price per Unit Currency Table. Permanent Virtual Circuit. Pass Word. Power. Private eXchange Public Data Network.

PSTN PSU PSW PTO PUCT PVC PW PWR PXPDN

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Q
QA Q3 Q-adapter QAF QEI QIC QOS Quiescent mode Q (Interface) Adapter. Interface between NMC and GSM network. Used to connect MEs and SEs to TMN (GSM Rec. 12.00). Q-Adapter Function. Quad European Interface. Interfaces four 2 Mbit/s circuits to TDM switch highway (see MSI). Quarter Inch Cartridge (Data storage format). Quality Of Service. IDS intermediate state before shutdown.

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R
R Value of reduction of the MS transmitted RF power relative to the maximum allowed output power of the highest power class of MS (A). RAndom mode request information field. Random Access Burst. Random Access Control CHannel. A GSM common control channel used to originate a call or respond to a page. Random Access CHannel. Random Access Memory. RANDom number (used for authentication). Receive Antenna Transceiver Interface. Rate Adaptation. Remote BSS Diagnostic System (a discontinued Motorola diagnostic facility). Residual Bit Error Ratio. Remote Base Transceiver Station. Radio Control Board (p/o DRCU). Radio Channel Identifier. Radio Control Processor. Radio Channel Unit. Contains transceiver, digital control circuits, and power supply (p/o BSS) (see DRCU). Receiver. Relational DataBase Management System (INFORMIX). Radio Digital Interface System. Restricted Digital Information. Reference Distribution Module. Relative Distinguished Name. A series of RDN form a unique identifier, the distinguished name, for a particular network element. RECommendation. REJect(ion). RELease. Residual Excited Linear Predictive. RELP Long Term Prediction. A name for GSM full rate (see full rate). Resynchronize/resynchronization. REQuest. A Motorola DataGen utility for producing an MMI script from a binary object database. Radio Frequency.

RA RAB RACCH RACH RAM RAND RATI RAx RBDS RBER RBTS RCB RCI RCP RCU RCVR RDBMS RDI RDIS RDM RDN

REC, Rec REJ REL RELP RELP-LTP resync REQ Revgen RF

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RFC, RFCH

Radio Frequency Channel. A partition of the system RF spectrum allocation with a defined bandwidth and centre frequency. Receiver Front End (shelf). Receiver Front End Board (p/o DRCU II). Radio Frequency Interference. Radio Frequency Module. Reduced TDMA Frame Number. Reserved for Future Use. Network cable/Connector type. Reduced Instruction Set Computer. Remote login. Release Complete. Radio Link Protocol. An ARQ protocol used to transfer user data between an MT and IWF. See GSM 04.22. Receiver Loudness Rating. ReLeaSeD. Root Mean Square (value). Remote Mobile Switching Unit. Table of 128 integers in the hopping sequence. Read Only Memory. Remote Operations Service Element. An ASE which carries a message between devices over an association established by ASCE (a CCITT specification for O & M) (OMC). Time period between transmit and receive instant of a timeslot in the BTS, propagation determined by the response behaviour of the MS and the MS to BTS delay distance. Regular Pulse Excited. Regular Pulse Excitation - Long Term Prediction. The GSM digital speech coding scheme. Recognised Private Operating Agency. Read Privilege Required. Access to the column is allowed only for privileged accounts. Radio Resource management. Receive Ready (frame). Radio Resource State Machine. Standard serial interface. Radio System Entity. Radio Signalling Link. Radio System Link Function. Radio System Link Processor. Radio SubSystem (replaced by BSS). Received Signal Strength Indicator.

RFE RFEB RFI RFM RFN RFU RJ45 RISC RL RLC RLP RLR RLSD RMS RMSU RNTABLE ROM ROSE

Roundtrip

RPE RPE-LTP RPOA RPR RR RR RRSM RS232 RSE RSL RSLF RSLP RSS RSSI

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RSZI RTC RTE RTF RTF RTS RU Run level Rx RXCDR RXF RXLEV-D RXLEV-U RXQUAL-D RXQUAL-U RXU

Regional Subscription Zone Identity. Remotely Tuneable Channel Combiner. Remote Terminal Emulator. Radio Transceiver Function. Receive Transmit Functions. Request to Send. Method of flow control (RS232 Interface). Rack Unit. System processor operating mode. Receive(r). Remote Transcoder. Receive Function (of the RTF). Received signal level downlink. Received signal level uplink. Received signal quality downlink. Received signal quality uplink. Remote Transcoder Unit. The shelf which houses the remote transcoder modules in a BSSC cabinet at a remote transcoder site.

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S
S/W SABM SABME SACCH SoftWare. Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode. A message which establishes the signalling link over the air interface. SABM Extended. Slow Associated Control CHannel. A GSM control channel used by the MS for reporting RSSI and signal quality measurements. Slow Associated Control CHannel/SDCCH/4. Slow Associated Control CHannel/SDCCH/8. Slow Associated Control CHannel/Traffic channel. Slow Associated Control CHannel/Traffic channel Full rate. Slow Associated Control CHannel/Traffic channel Half rate. A brand of trunk test equipment. Service Access Point. In the reference model for OSI, SAPs of a layer are defined as gates through which services are offered to an adjacent higher layer. System Audits Process. Service Access Point Indicator (identifier). Surface Acoustic Wave. Synchronization Burst (see Synchronization burst). Serial Bus. Service Centre (used for Short Message Service). Service Code. System Change Control Administration. Software module which allows full or partial software download to the NE (OMC). Signalling Connection Control Part (6-8). Speech Coding Experts Group (of GSM). Synchronization CHannel. A GSM broadcast control channel used to carry information for frame synchronization of MSs and identification of base stations. Status Control Interface. Serial Communication Interface Processor. Status Control Manager. Sub-Channel Number. One of the parameters defining a particular physical channel in a BS. Service Control Point (an intelligent network entity). Small Computer Systems Interface. Slim Channel Unit. Slim Channel Unit for GSM900. Stand-alone Dedicated Control CHannel. A GSM control channel where the majority of call setup occurs. Used for MS to BTS communications before MS assigned to TCH.
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SACCH/C4 SACCH/C8 SACCH/T SACCH/TF SACCH/TH SAGE SAP

SAP SAPI SAW SB SBUS SC SC SCCA

SCCP SCEG SCH

SCI SCIP SCM SCN SCP SCSI SCU SCU900 SDCCH

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SDL SDT SDU SDR SE Secondary Cell

Specification Description Language. SDL Developement Tool. Service Data Unit. Special Drawing Rights (an international basket currency for billing). Support Entity (GSM Rec. 12.00). A cell which is not optimized in the network and has a co-located neighbour whose cell boundary follows the boundary of the said cell. The secondary cell has a preferred band the same as that of its own frequency type. Support Entity Function (GSM Rec.12.00). Slow Frequency Hopping. Screening Indicator. Service Interworking. Supplementary Information. Supplementary Information A. Silence Descriptor. Signal Information Field. The bits of a message signal unit that carry information for a certain user transaction; the SIF always contains a label. Subscriber Identity Module. Removable module which is inserted into a mobile equipment; it is considered as part of the MS. It contains security related information (IMSI, Ki, PIN), other subscriber related information and the algorithms A3 and A8. Single Inline Memory module. System Integrated Memory Module. Service Information Octet. Eight bits contained in a message signal unit, comprising the service indicator and sub-service field. BSC, BTS or collocated BSC-BTS site. Serial Interface eXtender. Converts interface levels to TTL levels. Used to extend 2 serial ports from GPROC to external devices (RS232, RS422, and fibre optics). Secondary Key. A database column attribute, the secondary key indicates an additional index and/or usage as a composite key. Signalling Link. Serial Link. Send Loudness Rating. Signalling Link Test Message. Switch Manager. Summing Manager. System Management Application Entity (CCITT Q795, ISO 9596). Short Message Cell Broadcast.

SEF SFH SI SI SI SIA SID SIF

SIM

SIMM SIMM SIO

SITE SIX

SK

SL SLNK SLR SLTM SM SM SMAE SMCB

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SME SMG SMP SMS SMSCB SMS-SC SMS/PP Smt SN SND SNDR SNR SOA SP

Short Message Entity. Special Mobile Group. Motorola Software Maintenance Program. Short Message Service. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast. Short Message Service - Service Centre. Short Message Service/Point-to-Point. Short message terminal. Subscriber Number. SeND. SeNDeR. Serial NumbeR. Suppress Outgoing Access (CUG SS). Service Provider. The organisation through which the subscriber obtains GSM telecommunications services. This may be a network operator or possibly a separate body. Signalling Point. Special Product. SPare. Signalling Point Code. Suppress Preferential CUG. Signalling Point Inaccessible. Single Path Preselector. Signal Quality Error. Structured Query Language. Service Request Distributor. Signed RESponse (authentication). Supplementary Service. A modification of, or a supplement to, a basic telecommunication service. System Simulator. SCCP messages, Subsystem-allowed (see CCITT Q.712 para 1.15). Site System Audits Processor. Supplementary Service Control string. Subservice Field. The level 3 field containing the network indicator and two spare bits. Signalling State Machine. SubSystem Number. Service Switching Point (an intelligent network element). SCCP messages, Subsystem-prohibited (see CCITT Q.712 para 1.18). SubSystem Prohibited message.

SP SP SP SPC SPC SPI SPP SQE SQL SRD SRES SS SS SSA SSAP SSC SSF SSM SSN SSP SSP SSP

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SSS SS7 STAN STAT stats STC STMR SUERM STP Superframe Super user SURF SVC SVM SVN SW SWFM sync Synchronization burst

Switching SubSystem (comprising the MSC and the LRs). ANSI Signalling System No. 7 (alias C7). Statistical ANalysis (processor). STATistics. Statistics. System Timing Controller. Side Tone Masking rating. Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor. Signalling Transfer Point. 51 traffic/associated control multiframes or 26 broadcast/common control multiframes (period 6.12s). User account that can access all files, regardless of protection settings, and control all user accounts. Sectorized Universal Receiver Front-end (Used in Horizonmacro). Switch Virtual Circuit. SerVice Manager. Software Version Number. Software. SoftWare Fault Management. synchronize/synchronization. Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream carries information for the MS to synchronize its frame to that of the received signal. SYStem. SYStem GENeration. The Motorola procedure for loading a configuration database into a BTS.

SYS SYSGEN

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T
T T T T43 Timer. Transparent. Type only. Type 43 Interconnect Board. Provides interface to 12 unbalanced (6-pair) 75 ohm (T43 coax connectors) lines for 2 Mbit/s circuits (See BIB). Terminal Adaptor. A physical entity in the MS providing terminal adaptation functions (see GSM 04.02). Timing Advance. Type Approval Code. Total Access Communications System (European analogue cellular system). Terminal Adaptation Function. Transmit Antenna Transceiver Interface. The TATI consists of RF combining equipments, either Hybrid or Cavity Combining. (See CCB). Transparent Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver Interface (physical layer). To Be Determined. Technical Basis for Regulation. TDM Bus. Transaction Capabilities. Transaction Capabilities Application Part (of Signalling System No. 7). TATI Control Board. Traffic CHannel. GSM logical channels which carry either encoded speech or user data. A full rate TCH. A full rate TCH at  2.4 kbit/s. A full rate TCH at 4.8 kbit/s. A full rate TCH at 9.6 kbit/s. A full rate Speech TCH. A half rate TCH. A half rate TCH at  2.4 kbit/s. A half rate TCH at 4.8 kbit/s. A half rate Speech TCH). Transceiver Control Interface. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Technical Commitee Technical Report. Transceiver Control Unit. Twin Duplexed Filter. (Used in M-Cellhorizon). Time Division Multiplexing.
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TA TA TAC TACS TAF TATI

TAXI TBD TBR TBUS TC TCAP TCB TCH TCH/F TCH/F2.4 TCH/F4.8 TCH/F9.6 TCH/FS TCH/H TCH/H2.4 TCH/H4.8 TCH/HS TCI TCP/IP TC-TR TCU TDF TDM

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TDMA TDU TE

Time Division Multiple Access. TopCell Digital Unit. Terminal Equipment. Equipment that provides the functions necessary for the operation of the access protocols by the user. Terminal endpoint identifier. Terminal Equipment Identity. TEMPorary. TEST control processor. TransFer Allowed. TransFer Prohibited. Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Transaction Identifier. The multiplex subdivision in which voice and signalling bits are sent over the air. Each RF carrier is divided into 8 timeslots. A signal sent by the BTS to the MS. It enables the MS to advance the timing of its transmission to the BTS so as to compensate for propagation delay. Type, Length and Value. Traffic Manager. TDM Modem Interface board. Provides analogue interface from IWF to modems for 16 circuits (p/o IWF). Traffic Metering and Measuring. Telecommunications Management Network. The implementation of the Network Management functionality required for the PLMN is in terms of physical entities which together constitute the TMN. Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. A unique identity temporarily allocated by the MSC to a visiting mobile subscriber to process a call. May be changed between calls and even during a call, to preserve subscriber confidentiality. Timeslot Number. Type Of Number. Channels which carry users speech or data (see also TCH). Equivalent to an erlang. Sequence of modulating bits employed to facilitate timing recovery and channel equalization in the receiver. Transcoder Rate Adaption Unit. TopCell Radio unit. Transceiver(s). A network component which can serve full duplex communication on 8 full-rate traffic channels according to specification GSM 05.02. If Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) is not used, then the TRX serves the communication on one RF carrier. Technical Specification.

Tei TEI TEMP TEST TFA TFP TFTP TI Timeslot

Timing advance

TLV TM TMI TMM TMN

TMSI

TN TON Traffic channels Traffic unit Training sequence TRAU TRU TRX

TS

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TS TS TSA TSA TSDA TSC TSI TSDI TSM TSW TTCN TTL TTY TU TUP TV Tx TXF TXPWR

TeleService. TimeSlot (see Timeslot). TimeSlot Acquisition. TimeSlot Assignment. Transceiver Speech & Data Interface. Training Sequence Code. TimeSlot Interchange. Transceiver Speech and Data Interface. Transceiver Station Manager. Timeslot SWitch. Tree and Tabular Combined Notation. Transistor to Transistor Logic. TeleTYpe (refers to any terminal). Traffic Unit. Telephone User Part (SS7). Type and Value. Transmit(ter). Transmit Function (of the RTF). Transmit PoWeR. Tx power level in the MS_TXPWR_REQUEST and MS_TXPWR_CONF parameters. Transmit Bandpass Filter.

TxBPF

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U
UA Unnumbered Acknowledgment. A message sent from the MS to the BSS to acknowledge release of radio resources when a call is being cleared. Unrestricted Digital Information. User Datagram Protocol. User Determined User Busy. Ultra High Frequency. Unnumbered Information (Frame). Union International des Chemins de Fer. User ID. Unique number used by the system to identify the user. Upload (of software or database from an NE to a BSS). Air interface. Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. Uniform PCM Interface (13 bit). Up to Date. Physical link from the MS towards the BTS (MS transmits, BTS receives). Uninterruptable Power Supply. User Part Unavailable. That part of the burst used by the demodulator; differs from the full burst because of the bit shift of the I and Q parts of the GMSK signal. Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. User-to-User Signalling supplementary service.

UDI UDP UDUB UHF UI UIC UID UL Um UMTS UPCMI UPD Uplink UPS UPU Useful part of burst

USSD UUS

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V
V VA VAD VAP VBS VC VCO VCXO VDU VGCS VLR Value only. Viterbi Algorithm (used in channel equalizers). Voice Activity Detection. A process used to identify presence or absence of speech data bits. VAD is used with DTX. Videotex Access Point. Voice Broadcast Service. Virtual Circuit. Voltage Controlled Oscillator. Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator. Visual Display Unit. Voice Group Call Service. Visitor Location Register. A GSM network element which provides a temporary register for subscriber information for a visiting subscriber. Often a part of the MSC. Very Large Scale Integration (in ICs). Visited MSC. (Recommendation not to be used). Voice Operated Transmission. Visited PLMN. Videotex Service Centre. Send state variable. Vehicular Speaker Phone. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. The components dedecated to Videotex service.

VLSI VMSC VOX VPLMN VSC V(SD) VSP VSWR VTX host

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W
WAN WPA WS Wide Area Network. Wrong Password Attempts (counter). Work Station. The remote device via which O&M personnel execute input and output transactions for network management purposes. Work Station Function block. World Wide Web.

WSF WWW

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X
X.25 X.25 link XBL XCB XCDR XCDR board CCITT specification and protocols for public packet-switched networks (see PSPDN). A communications link which conforms to X.25 specifications and uses X.25 protocol (NE to OMC links). Transcoder to BSS Link. The carrier communications link between the Transcoder (XCDR) and the BSS. Transceiver Control Board (p/o Transceiver). Full-rate Transcoder. Provides speech transcoding and 4:1 submultiplexing (p/o BSS, BSC or XCDR). The circuit board required to perform speech transcoding at the BSS or (R)XCDR). Also known as the MSI (XCDR) board. Interchangeable with the GDP board. Transfer. eXchange IDentifier. X terminal window.

XFER XID X-Term

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Z
ZC Zone Code

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Answers

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Chapter 1 Answer Signalling Links

MSC

NAME: MTL

PROTOCOL: C7

BSC

BSC

NAME: XBL

PROTOCOL: LAPD

RXCDR

BSC

NAME: OML

PROTOCOL: X25

OMC-R

BSC

NAME: RSL

PROTOCOL:

LAPD

BTS

RXCDR

NAME: OML

PROTOCOL:

X25

OMC-R

MS

NAME: SDCCH

PROTOCOL:

LAPDm

BTS

NAME: CBL

PROTOCOL:

X25

BSC

CBC

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Chapter 3 Exercise Answer


Bit 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bit 7 0 0 0 0 Bit 6 0 Bit 5 0 Bit 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Bit 3 0 Bit 2 0 0 0 0 0 Bit 1 1 1 1 1 0 Element Address Field Control Field 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Length Indicator x 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Protocol Discriminator and Skip Indicator Message Type - CM Service Request 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 CM Service Type Ciphering key sequence number Octet 3 - Classmark 2 Octet 4 - Classmark 2 Octet 5 - Classmark 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 Length of Mobile Station Classmark 1 1 x x x x 1 x x x x Length - Mobile Identity Octet 4 - TMSI octet 1 Octet 5 - TMSI octet 2 Octet 6 - TMSI octet 3 Octet 7 - TMSI octet 4 1 x x x x 1 x x x x 1 x x x x 1 x x x x Octet 3 - Mobile Identity x x x x x x x x

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Chapter 5 Appendix B Exercise Answers


1. The A-bis message to be transmitted is PAGING CoMmanD. The BSC receives a PAGING REQUEST message from the MSC but on the A-bis link this is converted into a PAGING CoMmanD message (TS GSM 08.58 section 8).

8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 x 1 1 0 1.

7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 x 0 0 1

6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 x 1 1 1

5 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 x 1 0 1

4 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 x 1 1 1

3 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 x 0 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

BIT POSITION FLAG ADDRESS octet 1 LAYER 2 ADDRESS octet 2 CONTROL octet 1 CONTROL octet 2 MESSAGE DISCRIMINATOR MESSAGE TYPEPAGING COMMAND CHANNEL No element identifier CHANNEL No octet 2 PAGING GROUP element identifier PAGING GROUP octet 2 MS IDENTITY element identifier MS IDENTITY length indicator

LAYER 3 IDENTITY IMSI TYPE

CHANNEL NEEDED element identifier CHANNEL NEEDED octet 2 FCS octet 1 FCS octet 2 LAYER 2 FLAG

The MS will respond with a RACH (TS GSM 04.08) with an ESTABLISHMENT CAUSE ANSWER TO PAGING. The BTS will allocate an SDCCH channel in response to this and send an ESTablish INDication message type on the A-bis interface to the BSC.

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Chapter 6 Appendix A Answers


BSS
CR - L3 INFO (CM SERVICE REQUEST) CC - (SCCP ) See NOTE 2 DTI - AUTHENTICATION REQUEST (DTAP) DTI - AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE (DTAP) DTI - CIPHER MODE COMMAND (BSSMAP) DTI - CIPHER MODE COMPLETE (BSSMAP) DTI - SETUP (DTAP) DTI - CALL PROCEEDING (DTAP) DTI - ASSIGNMENT REQUEST (BSSMAP) DTI - ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE (BSSMAP) UDT - PAGING (BSSMAP)* CR - PAGING RESPONSE (LAYER 3 INFO)* CC - (SCCP)* See NOTE 2 DTI - AUTHENTICATION REQUEST (DTAP)* DTI - AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE (DTAP)* DTI - CIPHER MODE COMMAND (BSSMAP)* DTI - CIPHER MODE COMPLETE (BSSMAP)* DTI - SETUP (DTAP)* DTI - CALL CONFIRMED (DTAP)* DTI - ASSIGNMENT REQUEST* (BSSMAP) DTI - ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE (BSSMAP) DTI - ALERTING (DTAP) DTI - ALERTING (DTAP)* DTI - CONNECT (DTAP)* DTI - CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE (DTAP)* DTI - CONNECT (DTAP) DTI - CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE (DTAP)
NOTE: Where an * appears next to a message denotes the message flow between the MSC and the CALLED MS NOTE 2: The CC may carry the authentication request

MSC

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Answers8

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