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D9pai t mei i i of the N a v y
Co n t r a c t Nonr - 220( 28)
ION EXCHANGE KINETICS
A NONLINEAR DI FFUSI ON PROBLEM
F. t -i el f f eri ch and M. S. Plesset
Engi neer i ng Di vi s i on
C4LI FCj RN1A I b ~ 5 S l I Vb J ~ E Of JECHPNOLOG'at'
Pasadena, Cal i f or ni a
Repcirt NO. 85-7
Sspern ber 1957
Ap p r o v e d b y
M S, PIesset
Office of Naval Res ear ch
Depart ment of the Navy
Cont r act ~ o n r - 2 2 0 ( 2 8 )
ION EXCHANGE KINETICS
A Nonlinear Diffusion Pr obl em
F. Hel fferi ch and M. S, Pl es s et
Reproduction i n whole o r i n par t is permi t t ed f or any purpose of
the United St at es Government.
Engi neeri ng Division
Cal i forni a Institute of Technology
Pasadena, Cal i forni a
Repor t No. 85-7
Sept ember , 1957
Approved by
M, S. Pl es s et
ION EXCHANGE KINETICS
A Nonlinear Diffusion Probl em
by
F, Helfferich and M. S. Pl es s et
Summary
Ideal limiting laws a r e calculated for the kinetics of particle dif-
fusion controlled ion exchange processes involving ions s f different
mobilities between spheri cal ion exchanger beads of uniform size and
a well- s t i r r ed solution, The calculations a r e based on the nonlinear
Nernst -Pl anck equations of ionic motion, which take into account the
effect of the el ect r i c f or ces (diffusion potential) within the system.
Numeri cal r esul t s for counter ions of equal valence and s i x different
mobility rat i os a r e presented. They wer e obtained by use of a digital
computer. Thi s approach contains the well-known solution to the cor -
responding l i near problem a s a limiting case. An explicit empi ri cal
formul a approximating the numeri cal r esul t s is given.
1, Introduction
An ion e'xsrchange r es i n consi st s essent i al l y of a three-dimensional,
cross-l i nked network of hydrocarbon chains carryi ng fixed ionic groups,
the el ect ri c charge of which is compensated for by mobile ions of opposite
charge ("csuater ions"'), These counter ions axe f r ee to diffuse within
the r esi n network, Tn contact with an electrolyte solution the r esi n t akes
up solvent and some additional mobile ions (additional counter ions, and
l' co-ions" have the same charge sign a s the fixed ionic groups). In a n
ion exchange process the counter ion speci es present initially i s replaced
by another speci es,
We consider the ion exchange between spheri cal ion exchange resi n
beads of uniform size containing the counter ion speci es A and a well-
s t i r r ed solution containing the counter ion speci es B, During the process
ions A diffuse out of the bead and a r e repl aced by an equivalent amount of
ions B.
Id has been established that such processes a r e diffusion controlled:
the r at e determining mechanism i s the interdiffusion of the two speci es
A and B, ei t her within the r esi n part i cl es o r i n a Nernst diffusion layer
("film"] adherent to the particle surface, which is not affected by st i rri ng,
1
Limiting law8 for fi l m controlled exchange in i deal syst ems have been given
previously. i n this paper i deal limiting laws for particle controlled
processes a r e calculated. Part i cl e control is favored by concentrated solu-
tions, l arge di amet er and high degree of cross-linking of the beads, and
efficient st i rri ng.
3
The driving ' tforce" for the flux of a n ionic speci es i s, i n systems
without convection, the gradient of i t s general chemi cal potential, the
principal el ement s of which a r e the concentration gradient of the speci es
and the gradient of the el ect ri c potential. Even if no ext ernal el ect ri c
field is applied, a gradient of the el ect ri c potential will, a s a rule, be
built up by the diffusion process (diffusion potential). The corresponding
differential equations a r e nonlinear. The interdiffusion process con-
si dered here can be descri bed in t er ms of one interdiffusion coefficient
which, however, is not constant but changes with the concentration rat i o
of the two counter ion speci es present. Hence, the mathematical t r eat -
ment is that of a diffusion problem with varying diffusion coefficient,
Hitherto only the corresponding linear problem, i. e. , with constant i nt er-
4
diffusion coefficient, has been solved and applied to ion exchange
kine t i cs. In our approach the solution to the linear problem r epr e-
sent s a limiting case: the exchange of counter ions of equal mobility.
The linear solution holds rigorously for isotopic exchange processes,
whereas for ot her cas es the deviations a r e considerable,
2. Model and Simplifying Assumptions
We use the si mpl est model conceivable and the si mpl est equations
proven to be adequate for the description of ionic diffusion processes, the
Nernst -Pl anck equations.
11-15
Without respect to i t s act ual porous st ruct ure the whole r esi n is
t reat ed a s a quasi-homogeneous phase. Individual diffusion constants for
the mobile ions present a r e defined correspondingly; they can be measured
by t r acer techniques in equilibrium syst ems. 1' 15-18 The assumption is
niade with exper i ment al support 15' 16' l8 t hat t hese individual diffusion
const ant s ar e, essent i al l y constant f or a given r esi n, i, e. , independent
of ionic composition. We make use of the i deal Ei nst ei n r el at i on between
the individual diffusion const ant s and the el ect r ochemi cal mobi l i t i es, We
neglect any coupling of ionic fluxes ot her than by el ect r i c f ar ces. We
as s ume a const ant concent rat i on of fixed ionic groups throughout the r esi n.
Any concent rat i on change and flux of the co-i ons i s di sr egar ded, si nce
they a r e s mal l a s compar ed with those of the count er i ons i f the concen-
t r at i on of the solution i s not too high and that of the fixed ionic groups not
too low. l3 We negl ect changes in ionic act i vi t y coefficients and swelling
condition of the r e s i n a s wel l a s the effect of gr adi ent s aP swelling pr es -
s ur e . Under the si mpl e boundary condition used her e, the magnitude of
the sel ect i vi t y coefficient i s i r r el evant . l9 We r es t r i ct our s el ves to
r adi al diffusion, i. e . , spher i cal symmet r y. We as s ume that i nt erdi f-
fusi on within the r es i n beads i s the r at e det ermi ni ng mechani sm through-
out the pr ocess. Thi s l ast assumpt i on i s not st r i ct l y valid; i t l eads to
exchange fl uxes t hat a r e infinite initially, wher eas the possible diffusion
r at e through the f i l m is finite. F o r a ver y s hor t i ni t i al period f i l m
diffusion mus t be the r at e controlling step.
The assumpt i ons and simplification l i st ed above a r e those usually
made i n the formul at i on of a model f or i on exchange ki net i cs.
5- 10
We do not negl ect the effect of the el ect r i c potential gradi ent on the
ionic fl uxes; i n t hi s r es pect our appr oach di f f er s f r om previous t heori es.
3, Formulation of the Pr obl em
Under the assumpt i ons mentioned, the fluxes of the two counter ion
speci es A and B a r e given by the Nernst -Pl anck equations
11-14
O B = - D B r ad CB -I zBCB (F/./RT) grad rg] ,
I l b)
where @ is the flux, 2) i s the individual diffusion constant, G i s the
mol ar concentration, z i s the el ect rochemi cal valence, is the
Far aday constant, R is the gas constant, T i s the absolute t emperat ure,
i s the el ect r i c potential, and the subscri pt s A and B r ef er to the
counter ion speci es,
El ect roneut ral i t y requi res that the total equivalent concentration of
counter ions is constant throughout the bead, since the concentrations of
both the fixed ionic groups and the co-ions a r e constant; thus
The absence of an el ect ri c cur r ent in combination with (2) gives the con-
dition
By use of (2) and (31, Eqs. ( l a ) and ( l b) may be combined to give
2
D ~ D ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ + .BeB)
2
grad CA .
D A A A zZ c + DBz BCB
%
'She quantity in bracket s may be t ermed the interdiffusion coefficient
D~~
of the process, Its value depends not only on the individual dif-
fusion constants DA and Dg; it i s al so a function of the concentration
rat i o cA/cB and t herefore a function of the time and space coordinates.
The dependence of the interdiffusion coefficient on ionic composition i s
shown in Fi g. 1 for various values of the rat i o D~ / D* . For CA 6( CB9
DAB as s umes the value DA, and f or CB ( CA the value DB. The ion
present in smal l er concentration always has the st ronger influence on
the interdiffusion coefficient. 33 l9 Thi s simple rul e i s a consequence of
of the fact that in (1) the concentration of the speci es ent er s i n the el ec-
t r i c t erm. It is al so physically evident since the el ect r i c field act s on
ever y ion present and thus causes a l arge t ransference of the species
present in high concentration, whereas the flux of the speci es present in
low concentration is hardly affected.
For the t reat ment of time dependent processes the equation of con-
tinuity must be introduced
In previous work on time dependent processes, only the limiting
l i near case has been considered, to which (4) and (5) reduce when a
constant interdiffusion coefficient DAB is assumed. Analytical solutions
to the linear problem have been derived for a number of syst ems including
those with spheri cal symmet ry with vari ous boundary conditions.
4, 20
However, Eq. (4) and Fig. 1 show that the assumption of a constant i nt er-
diffusion coefficient holds only i f the individual diffusion constants DA and
D a r e equal, a s is the case for example i n isotopic exchange processes.
B
Thi s paper de a l s with the general, nonlinear problem and will t reat
s pe~i f i cal l y syst ems with spheri cal symmet ry. Upon substitution of (4)
into (5) an expressi on i s obtained which can be wri t t en conveniently i n
dimensionless f or m with the introduction of the following dimensionless
vari abl es and paramet ers:
a s z D / z D - 1 ;
A A B B
b = aA/zB - 1
where t is time, r is the radi al coordinate, and ro is the radi us of the
beads. The resul t i ng equation
was derived i n a prel i mi nary note. The fract i on qA of the speci es A
st i l l present i n the sphere a t the dimensionless t i me T is expressed i n
t e r ms of the solution y ( p, .c ) of Eq. (7) a s follows:
The ion exchange r at e, deiined as the decr ease with time of the amount
QA of the speci es A (in mol es) present i n the spheres, may be written a s
where V is the t ot al volume of ion exchanger used.
If the problem is limited to the exchange of counter ions of equal
valence (zA = zB)$ SO that b = 0. the general equation (7) may be
simplified by the iniroduction of the new variable
to be come
which is a convenient f or m for numeri cal integration. The r esul t s
report ed a t the present time will be f or this case. Determination of the
solutions of Eq, (7) for non-zero values of b a r e planned for a l at er time.
We use the simple s t initial and boundary conditions possible, assumi ng
that initially the beads contain counter ions A only and the solution counter
ions B only, and that no concentration changes occur i n the solution,
The boundary condition (12b) corresponds to infinite solution volume or
to continuous renewal of the solution, The selection of initial and bound-
a r y conditions ot her than (12) would requi re the introduction of furt her
par amet er s which, for the numeri cal evaluation we car r i ed out, would
have to be chosen ar bi t r ar i l y and have l ed to r esul t s applicable i n speci al
cas es only. In cont rast , by using the conditions (121, mor e general l i mi t -
ing laws a r e obtained, which can be approached fai rl y closely by experi-
ment al techniques.
Even under the simple conditions (12) a n analytical solution to the
Eqs. (7) o r (11) was not obtained,
We have evaluated (11) numerically for
si x values of the rat i o D ~ / D ~ of the individual diffusion constants:
The result; a r e given i n section (5).
4. Calculation Procedure
For the numeri cal evaluation, (11) was approximated by the finite
difference f or m
- R- ( P) [u(P, 7 - u(P-AP,.I)]
where
g(p, = exp - 4 ~ 3 T If A 7 / ( AP ) ~ ;
By use of (13), U(P, z + h 7 ) can be calculated f r om u( p+~p, T ),
u(pI 1~ ), and u ( p - 4 , T ).
For the calculation the initial condition and the
boundary conditions for p = 0 and p = ]I a r e requi red. The initial
condition is obtained f r om (12a) and (10):
\
The boundary conditions a t the bead surface ( P = 1) i s given by (12b) and
It can be shown that the gradi ent s of y and u vanish a t the center of the
sphere:
( a u / a P I P ' 0 = o .
Hence the condition a t p = 0 becomes
By choice of Ap an upper limit is given for A T by the stability
condition f or the numeri cal integration. 22 In case of (131, this condition
The function u(p, 7 ) was calculated numerically f r om (13) and (14)
i n accord with the requi rement (15).
For the numeri cal integration corresponding to (a), which leads to
the fract i on qA st i l l present in the sphere, Si mpsonf s rul e was used:
where
The di mensi onl ess r at e, -dqA/d r, was approxi mat ed by
The cal cuht i on s t ar t s out with a step' function, Therefore, a ver y
fine subdivision of space and t i me is r equi r ed initially, The i ni t i al
spacing of p used was Ap = l/640, The spacing of AT was
sel ect ed i n accor dance with the stability condition (15).
As the cal -
culation proceeded, Ap was i ncr eased stepwise to 1/320, 1/160,
1/80. 1/40 ( at about qA = 0. 9) , 1/20 ( at about qA = 0.6), and 1/10 (at
qA 4 0.1). AT was i ncr eased correspondingly. The est i mat ed max-
4-
irnurn e r r o r i n qA is t 0.01; the e r r o r i n dqA/d.r i s about - 2%.
The cal cul at i ons wer e car r i ed out on the "Datatronl' digital com-
puter (manufact ured by El ect rodat a, Inc. , Pasadena, California) in the
computing cent er a t the California Institute of Technology. Floating
point number s wer e used. The total t i me r equi r ed was about 35 hours.
5. Resul t s and Di scussi on
The calculation yi el ds the dimensionle s s functions u ( ~ , 7 ), qA( s ),
and -dqA( T ) / d l . The f i r s t i s readi l y convert ed to y (p. .r ), which
gi ves the r adi al concentration profiles of the speci es A. In tabulating
and plotting the r esul t s, we have followed gener al pract i ce and given
the f r act i onal at t ai nment of equilibrium, ~ ( s ), r at her than qA(7 ).
Under the i ni t i al and boundary conditions (121, t hi s quantity is given by
F ( 7 ) = 1 - qA( 7 ) (18)
The r epr esent at i on of the data i s kept i n di mensi onl ess f or m, since the
act ual values of the concentrations, the fract i onal attainment of equilib-
ri urn, and the r at es a t a given time t depend al so on D A# ro, C, and V.
They can be obtained frqm the tables and graphs by substituting numcri -
cal values for these quantities and using ( 6 ) and (9).
Table I gives the fract i onal attainment of equlibriurn,
F( T ), and
the dimensionless rat e, -dq / d q l for the vari ous cases. Fi gure 2
A
shows a plot of F ver s us T and includes the solution to the linear ease
4
(DA = DB) which is well known to be
2 2
cup(-n a T) . (19)
F ( T ) = f - -
mi! n = ~ n
It should be emphasized that the time coordinate T ~ont a i ns the
quantity DA; hence, these r esul t s can be used f or di r ect comparison of
different processes only i f the ion A initially present in the beads i s the
same in a l l cases. Fi gur e 2 shows that the curves for different rat i os
D ~ / D ~ can not be t ransformed into one another by a linear t ransforma-
tion of the time. If the ion B is s b we r , the process i s slower, but not
by a constant fact or, because the interdiffusion coefficient i ncr eases with
decreasi ng concentration of A, On the ot her hand, i f B i s f ast er , the
process i s fast er, but the interdiffusion coefficient decr eases during the
process.
It is of i nt er est to compare the r at es for forward and backward
exchange of two counter ion species. In Fi g, 3 we have plotted the f r ac-
-I-
tional attainment of equilibrium for the exchange processes H against
+ -I-
13' and Li agai nst H , assumi ng a rat i o D ~ / D ~ ~ = 10. For di rect
compari son we have chosen D t / r 2 a s the dimensionless time
H o
coordinate in both cases, i t is seen that the process is fast er i f H ' , the
f ast er ion, *i s initially present in the resi n, The half t i mes of exchange
differ by about the factpr 2, the time requi red f or 90% exchange by about
Che factor 3. According to previous t heoi i es, which assume a constant
interdiffusion coefficient, the two curves should coincide.
The radi al concentrakion profiles of the speci es A for 25%, 50%,
75%, and 90% exchange a r e shown in Fi g, 4. The profiles for the linear
case (D* = ~ g ) given by
4
2 2
sin (nnp) exp (-n n T ) (20)
T P , = 1 n
a r e included. The shape of the profiles depends strongly on the ratio
DA/Dg
If the ian present in the sphere initially is much the fast er one,
a comparatively sharp boundary moves i n toward the cent er of the bead
(I?ig. 4a). If the ion present in the bead initially is much the slower one,
the boundary is diffuse and the process reaches the center rapidly
(Fig. 4b). Again, the explanation is straightforward.
In the f i r st case
the concentration of the fast er ion is s mal l near the surface and large
near the cent er of the bead. Hence, the interdiffusion coefficient
decr eases toward the center.
Therefore the out er shells of the bead ar e
exhausted rapidly, whereas the exchange near the cent er remai ns slow,
In the second case, the opposite holds, The interdiffusion coefficient
i ncr eases toward the cant er; therefore the exhaustion is mor e uniform.
Previ ous t heori es lead to one set of curves for a l l cas es (Fig. 4g).
Fo r pract i cal purposes, an explicit expressi on for F ( .c ) which
approximafes the numeri cal r esul t s will be useful. The relation
~ ( 2 ) =
2
- exp Cn ( f l ( a ) e t f 2( a) z2 + f 3 ( a ) ' z. ~)J] 1/2
where a =: D ~ / D ~ and the coefficients f a), f2( a ) , and f 3( a ) a r e
given by
t
f i t s al l the numeri cal r esul t s within a n e r r o r of - 6%. It should hold
equally wel l f or i nt ermedi at e values of the rat i o D ~ / D ~ . Equation (21)
was developed a s an extension of a si mpl er but l e s s accurat e approxi-
mation given by vermeul enZ3 f or the linear case.
We wish to emphasize again that the r esul t s r epr esent i deal limiting
laws only, f r om which the behavior of act ual syst ems may be expected to
show mor e or l es s pronounced deviations. However, the comparison with
the solution f or the linear case demonst rat es conclusively that the effect
of the el ect r i c potential included i n our approach is an essent i al feat ure of
the process which no theory can omit.
4. Acknowledgments
We a r e indebted to Drs. J. Franklin, C. B. Ray, and R. Nathan
f ox helpful suggestions concerning the numeri cal integration. We al so
wish to expr es s our gratitude to Mr . D. Brouillette and Mi ss Z. Lindberg
f or t hei r valuable assi st ance i n the computations.
FRACTIONAL ATTAINMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM, ~( t ) , AND DIMEI\TSIONLESS
RIZTE, - aqA(*)/a+ , FOR SIX D ~ W I T VALUES OF THE RATIO D ~ / D ~
TABLE I ( ~ o n t ' d , )
FRACTIONAL ATTAJXMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM, F ( * ) , AND DIMEXVSIONLESS
RATE, - dqA( r ) i d s , FOR SIX DI FFERWT VALUES OF 'PHE RRTIO ~ ~ 1 %
TABLE I (~ont'd.)
%
FRACTIONAL ATTAUNMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM, F( * ) , AND DLMENSIOIEZSS
RATE, - dqA( ( )/ d z , FOR SIX D~~ VALUES OF THE RATIO ~ ~ 1 %
TABLE I (C!ontfd,)
1
FRACTIONAL ATTAINMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM, F( ) , AND DIMENSIONLESS
RATE, - dqA( l ) / d~ FOR SIX DIFFEBEXQ VALUES OF THE RATIO D ~ / D ~
a) ~ ~ 1 % - 1/2
TABLE I (cont9d. )
x
FRACTIONAL ATTAINMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM, F( Z ) , AND DIMENSIONLESS
UTE, -aql((% ) / a~ , FOR SM ~rn- VALUES OF TIE WTO D ~ / D ~
FRACTIONAL ATTAIJSTMENT OF EQUILIBRIUM, F(*E' ), AND DLMENSIONLESS
RATE, - aqA(-z )/
, FOR SIX DIFFERENT VALUES OF THE RATIO D ~ / D ~
EQUIVALENT FRACTION OF B EQUIVALENT FRACTION OF B
Fig. 1. Dependence of the interdiffusion coefficient DAB on the ionic
composition of the exchanger, calculated from Eq. (4), for
the interdiffusion of ions of equal valence (left) and of a uni-
valent and a bivalent ion (right). The different curves cor-
respond to different ratios D* / D~ .
CH- pA
O 0.2
u .4 u
$"1&
b""; V
.*-+ 2
2% 2 ,
ZJ+\
4 +h X
IT.; <
0)
2 ; f.9;
U &I-*
*v c d *
k+?* e - c W
CrXJ d.2
1
( a) DA / DB=I O
W
-I
a
(el DA/DB= 2
> - 1.0
3
0
W
0.5
0
0 0. 5 1.0 0 0. 5 1.0
RADI AL COORDINATE p
'
RADIAL COORDINATE p
RADIAL COORDINATE p
Fi g. 4. Concentration profiles of the speci es A i n the bead for 2570,
5070, 7570, and 90% exchange (F = 0 . 2 5 , 0 . 5 0 , 0 . 7 5 , and 0. 90)
for seven different rat i os DA/ DB. The profiles for t he linear
case (DA = DB) wer e calculated f r om Eq. ( 20) .
<
Ref er ences
1
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$1
R. Schlogl and F, Helfferich, J. Chem. Phys. , Yol. 26, p. 5, 1957,
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Navy Depar t ment
Washirigton 25, D. C.
Attn: Re s e a r c h and Devel op-
ment (Code 300)
Shi p Desi gn (Code 410)
( 1 1
Pr e l i mi n a r y Desi gn and
( 1)
Shi p Pr ot ect i on (Code 420) (1)
Sci ent i fi c, St r uct ur al and
Hydr odynami cs (Code 442) ( 1)
Submar i ne s (Code 5 25)
Pr o p e l l e r s and Shaft i ng
( 1)
(Code 554) ( 1)
Di r ect or Chi ef, Bur e a u of Yar ds and
Naval Re s e a r c h La bor a t or y Docks, Navy Depar t ment
Washi ngt on 25, D. C, Washi ngt on 25, D. C.
At t n: Code 2021 ( 6 ) Attn: Re s e a r c h Di vi si on ( 1)
Chi ef, Bur eau of Aer onaut i cs
Navy Depar trnent
Washi ngt on 25, D. C.
At t n: Re s e a r c h Di vi si on
Ae r o and Hydr o Br a nc h
( Code Ad-3)
Appl . Mech. Br a nc h
( Code DE-3)
Commander
Naval Or dnance Te s t St at i on
3202 E, Foot hi l l Bl vd.
( 1) Fks adena, Cal i f or ni a
At t n: Hcad, Under wat er Or d. ( 1)
(1) Head, Re s e a r c h Div. ( 1)
(1) Commander
Naval Qr dnance Te s t St at i on
Inyokern, Chi na La ke , Cal i f.
At t n: Techni cal Li b r a r y (1
Commanding Officer and Di r ect or
David Tayl or Model Basi n
Washington 7, D. C.
Attn: Hydromechani cs Lab.
Seawo r thine s s and Fl ui d
(1)
Dynami cs Div.
Li br a r y
Commanding Officer
Naval Ordnance Labor at or y
White Oak, Maryland
Attn: Underwater Or d. Dept. (1)
Commanding Officer
Naval Underwater Ordnance Sta.
Newport, Rhode Isl and (1)
Di r ect or
Underwater Sound Labor at or y
Fo r t Trumbul l
New London, Connecticut (1)
Li br ar i an
U. S. Naval Post gr aduat e School
Monterey, California (1)
Executive Secr et ar y
Res ear ch and Development Boar d
Depart ment sf Defense
The Pentagon
Washington 25, D. C. (1)
Chai rman
Under seas War f ar e Commi t t ee
National R e s ear ch Council
210 1 Constitution Avenue
Washington 25, D. 6 , (1)
Dr. J. El. McMillen
National Science Foundation
1520 I4 St r eet , N. W.
Washington, D. C. ( 1)
Di r ect or
National Bur eau of St andar ds
Washington 25, D. C.
-4ttn: Fl ui d Mecha.nic s Section
( I )
Dr . G, H. Keulegan
National Hydraulic Labor at or y
National Bur eau of St andar ds
Washington 25, D. C. (1)
Di rect or of Resear ch
National Advisory Commi t t ee
f or Aeronaut i cs
1512 H St r eet , N. W.
Washington 25, I). C. 0)
Di r ect or
Langley Aeronautical Labor at or y
National Advisory Commi t t ee
f or Aeronaut i cs
Langley Fi el d, Virginia (1)
Mr . J. B. Par ki nson
Langl ey Aeronaut i cal Labor at or y
National Advi ssry Commi t t ee
f or Aeronaut i cs
Langley Fi el d, Virginia ( 1)
Commander
Ai r Re s ear ch and Development
Command
P. O. Box 1395
Bal t i more 18, Maryl and
Attn: Fl ui d Mechani cs Div. ( I )
Di rect or
Waterways Exper i ment Station
Box 631
Vicksburg, Mi ssi s sippi (1)
Beach Er osi on Boar d
U. S . Ar my Cor ps of Engi neer s
Washington 25, D. G, (1)
Office of Ordnance Res ear ch
Depart ment of the Ar my
Washington 25, D. G. (1)
Office of the Chief of Engi neer s
Depart ment of the Ar my
Gravelly Point
Washington 25, D: C. (1)
Commi ssi oner
Bureau of Recl amat i on
Washington 25, D. C. (1)
Di rect or
Oak Ridge National Labor at or y
P. 0. Box P
Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1)
Di r ect or
Applied Physicsk Division
Sandia Labor at or y
Albuquerque, New Mexico (1)
P r o f c ~ s o r Ca r l E c k a r ~
Scr i pps 111s ti t ut e of Oceanogr aphy
L,a .Jolla, Cal i forni a
(1)
Do c u p e n t s s e r v i c e Cent er
A-i-med Ser vi ces Techni cal
I nf or mat i on Agency
Kno tt Bui l di ng
Dayt on 2, Ohi o (5)
Offl ce of Techni cal Se r vi c e s
Depar t ment of Comr ner ce
'Washington 2-5, D. C. (1)
Pol yt , echni c Inst i t ut e of Brookl yn
Depar t ment of Aer onaut i cal
Engi neer i ng and Appl i ed Mech.
99 Li vi ngst on St r e e t
Brookl yn I , New Yor k
At t n: Pr o f , H. Re i s s ne r (1)
Di vi si on of Appl i ed Mat hemat i cs
Br own Uni ver si t y
Pr ovi dence 12, Rhode I sl and (1)
Cal i f or ni a I nst i t ut e of Technol ogy
Pas adena 4, Cal i f or ni a
Attn: Hydr odynami cs La bor a t or y
Pr o f e s s o r A. Hol l ander
Pr o f e s s o r R. T. Knapp
Pr o f e s s o r M, S . Pl e s s e t
I
Pr o f e s s o r V. A, Vanoni
(1)
GALCIT
(1)
Pr o f , G. E3. Mi l l i kan, Di r ect or (1)
Pr of . Har ol d Wayl and (1)
Uni ver si t y of Cal i f or ni a
Ber kel ey 4, Cal i f or ni a
At t n: Pr o f e s s o r H. A. Ei ns t ei n
Dept , of Engi neer i ng
Pr o f e s s o r El, A, Schade,
(1)
Di r , of Engr , Re s e a r c h (1)
Ca s e I nst i t ut e of Technol ogy
Depar t rnent of Mechani cal Engi neer i ng
Cl evel and, Ohi o
At t n: Pr o f e s s o r G, Kuer t i 0)
Cor nel l Uni ver s i t y
Gr aduat e School af Aer onaut i cal
Engi neer i ng
I t haca, New Yor k
Attn: Pr o f , W. R* Se a r s , Di r ect or ( 1)
H a r w r d Uni ver si t y
Dept. of Mat herrl at i cs
Cambr i dge 38, Mas s .
At t n: Pr of . G. Birkhoff
Uni ver s i t y of Il l i noi s
Dept. of Theoret i cal . and
Appl i ed Mechani cs
Col l ege of Engi neer i ng
Ur bana, I l l i noi s
Attn: Dr , J. M, Rober t s on
Indi ana Uni ver s i t y
Dept. of Mat hemat i cs
Bl oomi ngt on, Indiana
Attn: Pr o f e s s o r D. Gi l bar g
St at e Uni ver s i t y of Iowa
Iowa Inst i t ut e of Hvdr aul i c
Re s e a r c h, Iowa Ci t y, Iowa
Attn: Dr . Hunt er Rouse, Di r
Uni ver s i t y of Mar yl and
I ns t . f or Fl ui d Dynami cs and
Appl i ed Mat hema t i cs
Col l ege Pa r k , Mar yl and
At t n: Pr of . M. H, Mar t i n,
Di r e c t or
Pr of . J. R. Weslce
Mas s achus et t s Inst i t ut e of
Technol ogy
Cambr i dge 39, Ma s s ,
At t n: Pr of . W. M. Rohsenow,
Dept . Mech. Engr .
Pr of . A. T. Ippen,
Hydr odynami cs Labor at or y
Mi chi gan St at e Col l ege
Hydr aul i cs La bor a t or y
Ea s t Lansi ng, Mi chi gan
At t n: Pr o f , H. R. ' IIenry
Uni ver s i t y of Mi chi gan
Ann Ar bor , Mi chi gan
At t n: Di r ect or , Engi neer i ng
Re s e a r c h Inst i t ut e
Pr of . V. k. St r e e t e r ,
Ci vi l Engi neer i ng Dept .
Uni ver s i t y of M~n n e s o t a
St . Arithony Fa l l s Hydraul i c L
Mi nneapol i s 14, Mi nnesot a
Attn: Dr . L. G. St r aub, Di r ,
New Yor k Uni ver s i t y
Inst i t ut e of Mat hemat i cal Sci ences
25 Waverl y Pl a c e
New Yor k 3, New Yor k
At t n: Pr of . R, Cour ant , a i r ,
(1)
Uni ver si t y of Not r e Da me
Col l ege of Engi neer i ng
Not r e Dame, Indi ana
~ t t r a : b e a n M. E, Schoeraherr
( I )
Pennsyl vani a St at e Uni ver s i t y
Or dnance Re s e a r c h Labor at or y
Uni ver si t y Pa r k , Penns yl vani a
Attn: Pr of . G. F. Wi s l i cenus (1)
Re ns s e l a e r Pol yt echni c Lnst.
Dept , of Mat hemat i cs
Tr oy, New Yor k
At t n: Dr , El i rsh Gohen (1)
St anf or d Uni ver s i t y
St anf or d, Cal i f or ni a
At t n: Appl i ed Mat h, and
St at i s t i cs Labor at or y
Pr of . P. R. Gar abedi an
(1)
Pr of . L. I. Schiff, Dept , of
(1)
Phys i c s
Pr of . J. K. Vennar d, Dept.
(1)
of Ci vi l Engi neer i ng (1)
St evens Inst i t ut e of Technol ogy
Exper i ment al Towi ng Ta nk
71 1 Hudson St r eet
Hoboken, New J e r s e y (1)
Wor ces t er Pol yt echni c I nst i t ut e
Al den Hydrat rl i c Labor at or y
Wor ces t er , Ma s s .
At t n: Pr of . J. L. Hooper ,
Di r ect or (1)
Dr . Th. von Ka r ma n
1051 S . Mar engo St r e e t
Pas adena, Cal i f or ni a (1)
Aer oj et Ge ne r a l Cor por at i on
6352 N. I r wi ndal e Avenue
Azusa, Cal i f or ni a
At t n: Mr . C. A, Gongwer
(1)
Dr . J. J. St oker
New Yor k Uni ver s i t y
I nst i t ut e of Mat hemat i cal Sci ences
25 Waver l y Pl a c e
New Yor k 3, New Yor k (1)
Pr of . G. C. Li n
Dept . of Mat hemat i cs
Mas s achus et t s I nst i t ut e of
Techno logy
Cambr i dge 39, Mas s .
(1)
Dr . Coburnbus I s el i n
Woods Eiole Oceanogr aphi c Inst .
Woods Hol e, Ma s s , (1)
Dr . A. 13, Ki neel , P r e s ,
Uni on Car bi de a n d Car bon Re -
s e a r c h Labor at or i es , Inc.
30 E. 42nd St .
New York, N. Y. 0 )
Dr . F. E. F o x
Cat hol i c Uni ver s i t y
Washi ngt on 17, D. C. (1)
D r . I mmanue 1 E s te r mann
Offi ce of Naval Re s e a r c h
Code 419
Navy Re par tnn en t
Washi ngt on 25, D. C.
Goodyear Ai r c r a f t Cor p.
Akr on 15, Ohio
At t n: Secur i t y Of f i cer (1)
Dr . F.V, Hunt
Di r e c t or Acous t i cs Re s e a r c h
Labor at or y
Ha r v a r d Uni ver s i t y
Cambr i dge, Ma s s . (1)
Pr of . Rober t Leonar d
Dept . of Phys i c s
Uni ver si t y of Cal i f or ni a a t
Lo s Angel es
Wes t Los Angel es, Cal i f. (1)
Pr of . R, E. H. Ra s mu s s e n
Euddenvej 47, Lyngl-~y
Copenhagen, Denr nar k
vi a: ONR, Pas adena, Cal i f. (1)
Techni cal Li br a r i a n
AVGO Manv. facturing Coxp,
2385 Re ve r e Beach Parkway
Ever et t 49, Ma s s ,
0)
Dr . L. Landv~ebes
Iowa I nst . of Hydr aul i c Research.
St at e Uni ver s i t y of Lawa
Iowa c i t y , Iowa (11
Dr, M. L, Ghai, Supervi sor
l i eat ~r a ns f e r / . Fl ui d Mechanics
Rocket Engine -Applied Resear ch
Building 600
Ai r cr af t Gas Tur bi ne Division
Gener al El ect r i c Company
Cincinnati 15, Ohio (11
Dr , W. W, Cl ausan
Rose Polytechnic Institute
R. R. No. 5
Te r r e tlaute, Indiana ( 4 )
Mr , Kur t Ber man
Rocket Engine Section
Ai r cr af t Gas Turbi ne
Development Dept.
Malta Te s t Station
Ballston Spa, New Uork