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Context The work in this unit is applied to transformations in unit S10 and so this topic has been left to unit 9 in the course. Matrices could be introduced

earlier in the course if desired.

Outline Rectangular, not square, matrices are used initially to help students appreciate how to add and subtract matrices and to find the product of two

matrices of appropriate order. When students have gained competence in these skills, the focus moves on to considering 2 2 matrices and their algebra,

leading to finding the determinant of a matrix and the inverse of a non-singular matrix.

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Resources

37 Display information in the form of a

matrix of any order; solve problems

involving the calculation of the sum and

product (where appropriate) of two

matrices and interpret the results;

calculate the product of a scalar quantity

and a matrix; use the algebra of 2 2

matrices including the zero and identity 2

2 matrices; calculate the determinant

and inverse of a non-singular matrix.

(A

-1

denotes the inverse of A.)

Start with an example such as a 3 4

matrix of numbers of 4 items in a shopping

order on three separate weeks, multiplied

by a 4 1 matrix of prices. Then extend

the 4 1 matrix to a 4 2 matrix to include

the new prices after an increase. Use this

example to discuss the layout and

principles of finding the product of two

matrices. You could use combining with

the shopping order of a neighbour to

demonstrate addition of matrices, and

similarly doubling an order to demonstrate

multiplication of a matrix by a scalar

quantity.

Apply these principles to rectangular

matrices of different shapes, including

using them to solve problems, before

focusing more on 2 2 matrices. Discuss

their algebra compared with the four

operations using numbers, for instance that

order of multiplication matters with AB

being different from BA in general. Give

the students some products which have the

http://www.sosmath.com/matrix/matrix0/matrix0.html has

an introduction to matrix algebra

identity matrix as answer, then lead on to

calculating the determinant and inverse of

a non-singular matrix. Show students the

use of inverse matrices in solving

simultaneous equations [they will also be

used in S10 to find the coordinates of

points after an inverse transformation].

.

UNIT N9

Recommended Prior Knowledge Units N1, A1 to A4

Context This unit is mostly a stand-alone unit and may be studied earlier in the O level course if wished, using examples that the students have studied so

far.

Outline Knowledge and understanding of set language and Venn diagrams is gradually built up, starting with simple examples of first one then two sets. This

leads on to considering combinations of the sets and using Venn diagrams and sets to solve problems.

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Resources

2 Use set language and set notation, and

Venn diagrams, to describe sets and

represent relationships between sets as

follows:

Definition of sets, e.g.

A ={x : x is a natural number}

B ={(x, y) : y =mx +c}

C ={x : a x b}

D ={a, b, c... }

Notation:

Union of A and B A B

Intersection of A and B A B

Number of elements in set A n(A)

...is an element of...

...is not an element of...

Complement of set A A

The empty set

The universal set E

A is a subset of B A B

A is a proper subset of B A B

A is not a subset of B A B

A is not a proper subset of B A B

Start with a list of items such as some

colours, which you write in set form, as in D

in the learning outcomes. Then write a set

for colours of the rainbow. Use the

brackets notation and also ask questions

about elements of sets to introduce this

language and the symbols , and n(A).

Draw a Venn diagram to show the two sets,

together with the universal set of colours.

Use an example such as A ={1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

and B ={2, 4, 6, 8, 10}to draw a Venn

diagram with mutually exclusive sets. Use

other examples to give the range of

different types of Venn diagrams and of the

notation of describing the elements of a

set. Give the students practice in the

language and diagrams used.

Then use the diagrams drawn already to

discuss the meaning of different areas of

the Venn diagram and introduce the rest of

the required set language and notation.

Give students practice in this, including

using Venn diagrams to solve problems to

find the number of elements in a set.

chapter 1 at

http://assets.cambridge.org/0521539021/sample/05215390

21WS.pdf

UNIT S9

Recommended Prior Knowledge Units S1 to S8.

Context Trigonometry is extended from right-angled triangles to include acute and obtuse angled triangles. Column vectors have been met previously in unit

S5 in work on translations; the concept of vectors is now extended to cover the principal basics of vector geometry.

Outline Initially, right-angled trigonometry is used to find an unknown length in an acute angled triangle by splitting it into two right-angled triangles. The sine

and cosine rules are derived and used to find unknown lengths and angles, with the sine and cosine function definitions being extended to include obtuse

angles. The area formula ab sin C for the area of a triangle is obtained and used.

Attention then moves to vectors, starting with column vectors used in translations. From these, addition of vectors and the magnitude of vectors is discussed

before moving on to more general representations of vectors as line segments, and position vectors. Sums and differences of coplanar vectors are used in

geometrical problems.

Learning Outcomes Suggested Teaching Activities Resources

34 Extend sine and cosine functions to

angles between 90 and 180; solve

problems using the sine and cosine rules

for any triangle and the formula

ab sin C for the area of a triangle.

Give the students a right-angled triangle

where they are required to find a distance

using the sine function, and solve this

problem. Then give them an acute-angled

triangle where they need to find a length for

which the sine rule would be appropriate.

Ask them how they can solve this [if they

do not recommend dividing it into

appropriate right-angled triangles then give

them the hint by drawing in the appropriate

perpendicular height]. When this has been

solved together, give the same situation

using letters rather than numbers and use

the same method to obtain the sine rule.

After practice in using the sine rule to

obtain sides and angles in acute- angled

triangles, introduce an obtuse angled

triangle requiring use of the obtuse angle.

Show that this can be solved using the

supplementary angle, and then extend the

sine and cosine functions to include obtuse

http://www.catcode.com/trig/trig08.html has interactive

pages on extending sine and cosine functions such as sine

and cosine Do the wave

http://www.ex.ac.uk/cimt/mepres/allgcse/bka4.pdf sections

4.8 to 4.9 is about using trigonometry in non-right angled

triangles.

angles. You could demonstrate that sin =

sin (180 ) and cos =cos (180 )

when is obtuse using calculator values or

extend the definitions to generate the sine

and cosine waves at least as far as 180.

The cosine rule and the formula for the

area of a triangle may be developed

similarly to the sine rule activity above.

Give practice in using these, including

situations where students have to decide

which (or both) of the sine and cosine rules

they need to use.

39 Describe a translation by using a vector

represented by

uuur

,

x

AB

y

or a; add

vectors and multiply a vector by a scalar.

Calculate the magnitude of a vector

x

y

as +

2 2

x y .

(Vectors will be printed as or a and

their magnitudes indicated by modulus

signs, e.g. |

uuur

AB

uuur

| or |a|. In all their

answers to questions candidates are

expected to indicate a in some definite

way, e.g. by an arrow or by underlining,

thus

uuur

or

AB

AB a.)

Represent vectors by directed line

segments; use the sum and difference of

two vectors to express given vectors in

terms of two coplanar vectors; use

position vectors.

Revise the work on translations by asking

students to find the image of a point after a

translation and then after a further

translation, asking them to give the vector

for the combined transformation.

Generalise to representing vectors by

directed line segments, to adding and

subtracting column vectors and to

multiplying a column vector by a scalar.

Use Pythagoras theorem to find the

magnitude of a column vector. Introduce

the notation

uuur

and a for describing

vectors and modulus signs to indicate

magnitude.

AB

Discuss the relationship between vectors a

and ka. Use position vectors and show the

sum and difference of two vectors. Use

vectors to solve problems and demonstrate

properties of plane figures e.g. that the

diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each

other, or that the medians of a triangle

intersect, dividing the medians in the ratio

2:1.

http://standards.nctm.org/document/eexamples/chap7/7.1/p

art2.htm has interactive work about vector sums. Go to

http://www.standards.nctm.org/ and click the search button

to find resources on other topics from this site.

http://www.ex.ac.uk/cimt/mepres/allgcse/bkc19.pdf is a

chapter about vectors.

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