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NCERT solution Class X Science Acids, Bases and

Class X Self Evaluation Tests For Science :Acids, Bases and Salts
Q.1: A solution turns red litmus blue; its pH is likely to be a) 1 b) 4 c) 5 d) 10
Answer: (d)
Q.: A solution reacts wit! crus!ed e""#cells to "i$e a "as t!at turns lime water milky. %!e solution
contains #
a) &a'l b) H'l c) (i'l d) )'l
Answer: (b)
Q.*: 10 ml o+ a solution o+ &a,H is +ound to be completely neutrali-ed by . ml o+ a "i$en solution o+
H'l. /+ we take 0 ml o+ t!e same solution o+ &a,H0 t!e amount o+ H'( (t!e same solution as
be+ore) re1uired to neutrali-e it will be # a) 4 ml b) . ml c) 1 ml d) 12 ml
Answer: (d)
Q.4: 3!ic! one o+ t!e +ollowin" types o+ medicoines is used +r treatin" indi"estion4
a) Antibiotic b) Anal"esic c) Antacid d) Antiseptic
Answer: (c)
Q.2: 'ompounds suc! as alco!ols and "lucose also contain !ydro"en but are not cate"ori-ed as
acids. 5escribe an acti$ity to pro$e it.
Answer: %!e nails are +itted in a cork and are kept in a 100 ml beaker. %!en t!ese are connected to
t!e two terminals o+ a 2 $olt battery alon" wit! a bulb and a switc!. &ow some dilute H'l is poured in
t!e beaker and current is allowed to pass t!rou"! t!e circuit. %!e same e6periment is carried out
usin" "lucose and alco!ol solutions separately in place o+ H'l.
%!e bulb "lows in H'l solution only. %!e reason is t!at H'l solution dissociates into H7 and 'l8 ions
w!ic! !elp to conduct electricity w!ile "lucose and alco!ol solutions do not dissociate into ions and
so0 do not conduct electricity. %!at is w!y we +ind t!e bulb "lowin" in H'l solution only.
%!e abo$e acti$ity pro$es t!at all acids contain !ydro"en but not all compounds containin" !ydro"en
are acids. 5ue to t!is reason compounds suc! as alco!ols and "lucose alt!ou"! contain !ydro"en0
but t!ey are not cate"ori-ed as acids.
Q.9: 3!y does distilled water not conduct electricity0 w!ereas rain water does4
Answer: 5istilled water w!ic! is a pure +orm o+ water0 is neit!er acidic nor basic in nature. :o distilled
water does not dissociate into ions. :ince0 conduction o+ electricity re1uires +ree ions so0 distilled
water does not conduct electricity.
;ain water bein" an impure +orm o+ water0 contains many ionic species. %!ese ions are responsible
+or electrical conducti$ity o+ rain water.
Q..: 3!y do acids not s!ow acidic be!a$ior in t!e absence o+ water4
Answer: /n absence o+ water acids do not dissociate into ions and !ence0 t!ey do not s!ow acidic
Q.<: =i$e solutions A0 >0 '0 50 and ? w!en tested wit! uni$ersal indicator s!owed pH as 40 10 110 9
and <0 respecti$ely. 3!ic! solution is:
a) &eutral4 b) :tron"ly alkaline4 c) :tron"ly acidic4 d) 3eakly acidic4 e) 3eakly alkaline4
Arran"e t!e pH in increasin" order o+ !ydro"en ion concentration.
Ans: (a) 5 (b) ' (c) > (d) A (e) ?. pH in increasin" order o+ H7 ions concentration:
' (11) @ ? (<) @ 5 (9) @ A (4) @ > (1).
Q.10: ?1ual len"t!s o+ ma"nesium ribbons are taken in test tubes A and >. Hydroc!loric acid (H'l)
is added to test tube A0 w!ile acetic acid ('H*',,H) is added to test tube >. /n w!ic! test tube will
t!e +i--in" occur more $i"orously and w!y4
Ans: /n test tube A0 +i--in" occur more $i"orously. /t is because H'l is a stron"er acid t!an acetic
acid and t!ere+ore0 produces H "as at a +aster rate due to w!ic! +i--in" occurs.
Q.11: =res! milk !as a pH o+ 2. How do you t!ink t!e pH will c!an"e as it turns into curd4 ?6plain
your answer.
Ans: 'urd is acidic in nature w!ic! means t!at t!e pH o+ +res! milk will start decreasin" +rom 2.
Q.1: A milkman adds a $ery small amount o+ bakin" soda to +res! milk.
(a) 3!y does !e s!i+t t!e pH o+ t!e +res! milk +rom 2 to sli"!tly alkaline4
(b) 3!y does t!is milk take a lon" time to set as curd4
(a) >y addin" small amount o+ bakin" soda0 t!e milkman s!i+ts t!e pH o+ t!e +res! milk +rom 2 to
sli"!tly alkaline so t!at !e can keep it +or lon"er time as t!e milk in alkaline condition0 does not set
curd easily.
(b) 5ue to t!e addition o+ bakin" soda t!is milk becomes sli"!tly basic because o+ w!ic! acids
produced in t!is milk due to bacterial actions are neutrali-ed. Hence0 t!is milk takes lon"er time to
set as curd.
Q.1*: Alaster o+ Aaris s!ould be stored ion a moisture#proo+ container. ?6plain w!y.
Answer: Alaster o+ Aaris easily absorbs water and +orms !ard "ypsum. %!us0 i+ Alaster o+ Aaris is not
kept in a moisture#proo+ container0 t!en all Alaster o+ Aaris will "et con$erted into "ypsum.
'a:,4.BH, 7 1BH, ##C 'a:,4.H,
Q.14: 3!at is a neutrali-ation reaction4 Di$e two e6amples.
Ans: A reaction in w!ic! an acid and a base react to "i$e a salt and water is known as a
Eneutrali-ation reactionF. =or e6ample0
&a,H (a1) 7 H'l (a1) ##C &a'l (a1) 7 H, (li1)
'a(,H) (a1) 7 H:,4 (a1) ##C 'a:,4 (s) 7 H,
Q.15: Di$e two important uses o+ was!in" soda and bakin" soda.
Gses o+ 3as!in" :oda:
1. :odium carbonate (was!in" soda) is used in "lass0 soap0 and paper industries.
. /t is used in t!e manu+acture o+ sodium compounds suc! as >ora6.
Gses o+ >akin" :oda:
1. :odium !ydro"en carbonate is also in"redient in antacids. >ein" alkaline0 it neutrali-es e6cess
acid in t!e stomac! and pro$ides relie+.
. /t is also used in soda#acid +ire e6tin"uis!ers.
*. /t is used as bakin" powder in con+ectionary items like cake0 pastry etc.
10th acid base and salt solved model sample paper
Question (1): Define the terms: Acid, alkali and salt.
Answer: An acid is a compound, which releases hydronium ions (H3
) as the only positi"eions in
An alkali is a compound, which releases hydro#yl ions (H
) as the only ne%ati"e ions in solution.
A salt is one of the products of neutrali&ation 'etween an acid and a 'ase( water 'ein% the only other
A salt %i"es positi"e ions other than H
ion and ne%ati"e ions other than H
ion in solution.
Question (*): +dentify the num'er of replacea'le hydro%en ions (H
) in the followin% acids: H,l,
,H3,H, H*-., H3/..
Answer: H,l 0 1 ,H3,H 0 1 H*-. 0 * H3/. 0 3.
Question (3): 1hat is a neutrali&ation reaction2
Answer: 3eutrali&ation is essentially a chemical reaction 'etween H3
ions of an acid with H
of the 'ase, to %i"e undissociated molecules of water.
Question (.): 1hat are stron% and weak acids2 4i"e one e#ample of each2
Answer: A stron% acid is one, which is almost completely dissociated in solution. 5#amples:
Dilute nitric acid, dilute sulphuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid.
A weak acid ioni&ed in solution (de%ree of dissociation is 6378). 5#amples: Acetic acid, car'onic
acid and sulphurous acid.
Question (9): 1hy is acetic acid called a weak acid thou%h there are . :H: atoms in the molecule2
Answer: Acetic acid is called a mono'asic acid 'ecause only one of the . :H: atoms of the acid is
released as H
ion in solution.
Question (;): How does a stron% acid differ from a concentrated acid2
Answer: <he stren%th of an acid depends upon its dissociation power whereas concentration
depends on water content in the acid.
Question (=): 3ame a salt of a stron% acid H33 and a weak 'ase like 3H.H. )epresent the reaction
that takes place.
Answer: <he salt that results due to the a'o"e reaction is Ammonium nitrate (3H.33). <he
reaction is represented as: H33 ! 3H.H $$$$$$$$6 3H.33
Question (>): 1hat is the action of 3a*,3 solution on litmus and why2
5#amples: ?
(/otassium calcium phosphate) , 3a
(-odium potassium sulphate).
Question (@): 3ame the followin%:
Answer: 1) <wo non$hydrated crystalline salts are: sodium chloride (3a,l) and potassium
nitrate (?n3)
Question (17): 3ame the salts of sulphuric acid.
Answer: <he salts of sulphuric acid are 'isulphate and sulphate. 5#amples: 3aH-., ?H-.and
Question (11): Define the term ApHA( what doesA pHA stand for2
Ads by ;emarkitAd ,ptions
Ads by Hedia IiewAd ,ptions
Answer: <he term ApHA is defined as the ne%ati"e lo%arithm of H
ion concentration of a %i"en
solution( the concentration 'ein% e#pressed as moles per litre. Bathematically pH 0 $ lo% CH
D :pH:
stands for: /ower of hydro%en ion concentration, :p: for power and :H: for H
ion concentration.
Question (1*): 1hat is :pH: scale2 5#plain 'riefly.
Answer: <he stren%th of an acid or a 'ase is e#pressed in terms of hydronium ion concentration.
<his is e#pressed on a scale known as :pH: scale. +t is a 1. point scale( i.e., it has "alues ran%in% from
7 to 1., indicatin% the "alue of ne%ati"e lo%s of H
ion concentration of the solution. -ome important
'enchmark "alues in the pH scale are: pH 0 = indicates neutral solutions e.%., aEueous solutions. pH
6 = to 1. indicates alkaline solutions and pH F = to 7 indicate acidic solutions
Question (13): 1hat is the :pH: of pure water and that of rain water2 5#plain the difference.
Answer: <he pH of pure water is se"en. )ain water is sli%htly acidic 'ecause as rain drop fall, the
car'on dio#ide in the air dissol"es with drops to form "ery weak car'onic acid. Accordin%ly, rain
water has a pH that is sli%htly 'elow =.
Question (1.): 1hat is the pH of solution :A: which li'erates ,* %as with a car'onate salt2 4i"e the
Answer: <he pH of solution :A: is lesser than =. ,ar'onates salts react with acids (A) to li'erate
,* %as.
Question (19): 1hat is the pH of solution :G: which li'erates 3H3 %as with an ammonium salt2 4i"e
Answer: <he pH of solution :G: is lesser than = 'ecause :G: is an alkali as it li'erates
3H3 %as.Question (1;): How do you increase or decrease the pH of pure water2
Answer: Gy addin% a few drops of alkali to pure water, it:s pH increases( and 'y addin% a few drops
of an acid decreases the pH of pure water.
Question (1=): 1hat are indicators2
Answer: +ndicators are chemicals that show whether the %i"en solution is acidic or 'asic, 'y the
sudden chan%e of color.
Question (1>): 3ame the common acid$'ase indicators used in the la'oratory with their color
Answer: <he three common indicators used in the la'oratory are:
Question (1@): 1hat is a uni"ersal indicator2 1hat is its ad"anta%e2
Answer: A uni"ersal indicator is a mi#ed indicator of or%anic chemicals which not only shows
whether the %i"en solution is acidic or 'asic, 'ut also shows the appro#imate pH "alues 'y %i"in% a
wide particular colour for a specific "alue of pH.
Question (*7): 1hat is the action of litmus on ferric chloride solution and why2
Answer: An aEueous solution of He,l3 salt under%oes hydrolysis and releases H
ions from the
stron%er acid H,l formed. Hence, the resultin% solution is acidic and turns 'lue litmus turns red.
Hecl3 ! 3 H* $$$$$$$$$$$$$6 He (H)3 ! 3 H ,l
H,l $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6 H
! ,l
Question (*1): 1) 3ame a stron% 'ase and a weak 'ase. *) 3ame a hydrated salt.
Answer: 1) A stron% 'ase is sodium hydro#ide (3aH) and a weak 'ase is ammonium
hydro#ide (3H.H).
Question (**): 1hat is the action of 3aH-. solution on litmus and why2
Answer: Glue litmus turns red in 3aH-. solution due to the release of H
ions alon% with 3a
<hus, 3aH-. is an acid salt.
Question (*3): <hou%h 3aH-. solution releases H
ions, why is it not called an acid2
Answer: 3aH-. solution is not called an acid 'ecause an acid should release only H
ions as
positi"e ions and not any other positi"e ions. Gut 3aH-. is solution releases H
ions as well as
ions also as positi"e ion.
Question (*.): Define the term : normal salt : with e#amples.
Answer: A normal salt is produced when all the replacea'le :H: atoms of an acid are completely
replaced 'y a metal or 3H. %roup, durin% neutrali&ation with a 'ase. 5#amples: 3a,l, ?*,3and
Question (*9): Define the term :acid salt: with e#amples.
Answer: An acid salt is formed when the a"aila'le :H: atoms of an acid are only partially replaced 'y
a metal, durin% neutrali&ation with a 'ase, and hence there are still :H: atoms present in the salt that
are a"aila'le for replacement. 5#amples: 3aH-., 3aH,3, 3a*H/.and 3aH*/.
Question (*;): Define the term :'asic salt: with an e#ample.
Answer: A 'asic salt is formed 'y the incomplete neutrali&ation of a 'ase with an acid or partial
replacement of hydro#yl radicals of a diacidic 'ase or a triacidic 'ase with an acid radical. 5#ample:
In(H),l, ,u(H)33.
Question (*=): Define a dou'le salt. 4i"e some e#amples.
Answer: A dou'le salt is formed 'etween two simple salts 'y crystalli&ation from a saturated
solution of a mi#ture of the two.
?*-..Al*(-.)3.*.H* ( potash Alum),
(3H.)* Al*(-.)3.*.H* (Ammonium Alum)
He-.(3H.)* -..;H* (BohrJs -alt)
Question (*>): Define mi#ed salt %i"in% some e#amples.
Answer: Bi#ed salts contain more than one acid radical or 'asic radical other than H
and H
CGleachin% powder (,alcium chloro hypochlorite)D
Question *@: How is the concentration of hydronium ions (H3
) affected when a solution of an acid
is diluted2
Ans. : 1hen an acid is diluted, the concentration o+ !ydronium ions (H*,
) per unit $olume
decreases. %!is means t!at t!e stren"t! o+ t!e acid decreases.
Question (37): 1hat happens if 3aH is added to ferrous ammonium sulphate solution and
warmed2 1hat is the inference2
Answer: 1hen 3aH is added to ferrous ammonium sulphate solution and warmed, 'oth ferrous
ion and ammonium ion separate and e#hi'it their indi"idual properties. A %reen precipitate of
He(H)* is formed and the smell of 3H3 %as from (3H.)
ion is o'ser"ed. Hence it is an e#ample of
the formation of a dou'le salt.