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The Ancient City of Mesopotamia in the

Mesopotamian Empire

Jeongmin Hong
March 19

Ur was part of the Mesopotamian civilization and had many qualities of an
advanced city. Ur had a religious temple in the middle of the city which was
called Ziggurat. It had many specialized workers and skilled people, government
and technology too. Like Ziggurat and government, they also had complex
institutions in Ur. Ur was very advanced city. (5)

Ur had a large amount of specialized workers who did many things with
their specialized skills. Some of these jobs included builders who built building
structures such as Ziggurat. There were some other specialized workers like
scribes who recorded cuneiforms, priests who told the gods speech to people
and also take taxes from people. Those specialized people werent just farmers;
they did the jobs which require specialized skills. (4)

Complex Institutions usually deal with religion and government. In regards
to religion, Sumer believed in 7 different gods which mostly had to deal with their
nature (god of Earth, Sky, Sun, Moon, Salt water, Fresh water and Wind). They
had a huge religious temple called Ziggurat in the middle of the city and priests
and kings were in there. At the top of Ziggurat, people believed that the god is
living there. People spent a lot of time for praying to their god. They also had a
king which is part of a government. The king worked with priests and he was in
charge of everything including the trade and tax. (7)
In Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization, the record-keeping they used was
the cuneiform which was wedged shaped symbol and written on clay tablets.
Sumerians actually made those symbols because they wanted to record more
accurately than using drawings for recording. Cuneiforms were used all over
because it was basically the first writing system. Because of this Cuneiforms, the
Sumers record keeping skill improved and they had new specialized workers
called scribes. Governments used Cuneiforms for recording something and in
the temples like Ziggurat had cuneiforms inside too.(5)

Technology was important trait in which people could improve other traits
with technology. Sumerians invented wheels for example, they needed wheels
because it was hard for them to travel by land when they had to, and also
when they had to move or transport some things they had to carry it themselves
rather using their animals. But after the invention of wheel, it was much easier to
travel by lands because they could connect the wheel to the wagon and
connect the wagon to their animal so that it is much easier for animals to go
and people to rest during the journey. Moving the things became easier too,
with wheels. Another invention of Sumerians was plow. Plow made the farming
easier for farmers. It was much better to dig the ground for farming with plow
rather than using their hand. (7)

The environment of Sumer was like grassland. The climate was arid and hot
but there were 2 rivers along, the Tigris and Euphrates River. Mesopotamia was a
fertile crescent and surrounding countries were deserts. The flood was often, the
rain was little and it was always hot. There werent any forests so they couldnt
get wood and stone. It was mainly a flood plain.
Because of their environment, people could start the trade. There was mud so
Mesopotamians used bricks made out of mud for the building material. There
were also a lot of reeds that Mesopotamians used for building houses. (9)

Thank you very much(The End)

MLA Format (Easybib citations):

Works Cited
" Ziggurat of Ur." Panoramio. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.

Carnine, Douglas. World History: Ancient through Early Modern times. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell,
2009. Print.

"Ziggurat of Ur." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

"Ancient Mesopotamia." Classics Technology Center. AbleMedia, n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

Mark, Joshua J. "Ur." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Tsohost, Uservoice, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 13
Mar. 2014. <>.