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CnA1Lk 9
TYRES
9.1 Introduction
A tyre is a cushion provided with an automobile wheel. It consists of mainly the
outer cover ie., the tyre proper and the tube inside. The tyre-tube assembly is mounted
over the wheel rim. It is the air inside the tube that carriers the entire load and provides
the cushion. Figure below shows the cross section of the truck tyre



The tyre performs the following functions.
1. To support the vehicle load.
2. To provide cushion against shocks.
3. To transmit driving and braking forces to the road.
4. To provide cornering power for smooth steering.

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9.2 Tubeless tyre
Tubeless tyre does not enclose a tube. The air under pressure is filled in the tyre
itself. The tyre consists of an outer cover with a special inner lining. It does not employ
any sealant and depends upon an airtight cord fabric to retain the air. The valve is not
fitted to the tyre, but fitted in a hole in the wheel rim. Tubeless tyre is lighter and runs
cooler than the tubed tyre. The construction of the tyre is such that the nail puncture
results in very little or no air loss as long as the nail remains in the tyre. This is an
advantage. Any hole in the tubeless tyre can be repaired simply by rubber plugging.

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Ordinary puncture can be repaired without removing the tyre from the wheel. It can be
rethreaded in the same way as the tubed tyre.
The tubeless tyre should be inspected periodically and all the foreign objects
should be removed. If the objects are allowed to remain on the tubeless tyre, they tend
to enlarge the punctures and the repairs become more difficult.
9.3 Tubed tyre
This is the type of tyre used widely. Inside the tyre, there is an endless tube fitted
with a valve. Air is forced through the valve and is retained inside the tube under
pressure. The air inside the tube acts as the cushioning medium. Sometime a flap is
also used which prevents the tube, when deflated, from getting caught between the rim
and the tyre bead. The outer portion of the tyre which rolls on the road is called tread. At
the inner edges of the tyre, beads are formed by reinforcing with steel wires. The beads
act as strong shoulders form bearing against the wheel rim. Rayon or Nylon cords are
formed into number of plies. The beads, side walls and cords give strength to the tyre.
The tread provides resistance against slipping.
9.4 Parts of a tyre
The tyre is made of many different parts that are molded together to form the
complete structure. The parts are built up, one at a time on a collapsible drum. The
components of the tyre in the order of assembly are as follows:

1. Liner.
2. Cords and plies.
3. Beads or ribs.
4. Tread layer.
5. Side walls.
6. Outer rubber covering.
The liner and plies together is sometime
called inner casing or carcass. The
assembled parts are removed from the
drum and bonded together by a process
called vulcanizing. In this process, the
rubber is heated under pressure to give it the required form and characteristics.

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9.5 Desirable tyre properties
A tyre must have the following desired properties:
1. Non-skidding The tyre should not skid or slip on the road surface. It should
have good grip.
2. Uniform wear The tyre must wear uniformly over its outer circumference.
3. Load carrying The tyre should be able to carry the vehicle load, and also
the alternate stresses set up during each revolution.
4. Cushioning - The tyre should be able to absorb vibrations set up by the road
surfaces and therefore provide cushioning effect.
5. Power consumption While rolling on the road surface, the tyre should
consume minimum power developed by the engine.
6. Noise The tyre should create minimum noise while running on the road
surface.
7. Balancing Tyre should be balanced statically as well as dynamically.


9.6 Tubed Tyre versus Tubeless Tyre:
Simplified constructions indicate the difference between tubed and tubeless
tyres. The inner construction is almost similar in both the types but a tubeless tyre
contains a special air-retaining lining on its inside. The arrangement of air-filling valve is
another salient difference between them.







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Tubeless tyres are now getting increasing use on different categories of
vehicles. It is because of several advantages possessed by them over the tubed
tyres. These are:

1. Slow Leakage of Air: The air retaining liner in tubeless tyre does not stretch much
since it is less flexible than the tube of tubed tyre. It means that the air retaining ability of
tubeless tyre is better. Therefore, air leaks-out slowly if and when any happening
occurs.
2. Increased Safety: When the tubeless tyre gets punctured due to a nail or otherwise,
the air leaks slowly and therefore the chances of accidents are the least. This situation
is just opposite on a tubed tyre when a puncture in the tube (through tyre) causes
sudden release of air. This leads to an imminent accident.
3. Easier Repairing: A tubeless tyre can be easily plugged (sealed) at its puncture spot
by a suitable sealant, whereas in tubed tyre this is a time consuming process. In this
case, the tube is taken out of the tyre, vulcanization is done, and then the tube is
reinstalled inside the tyre.
4. Convenient Assembly: In a tubeless tyre, only the tyre has to be fitted over the rim.
But in tubed tyre, first tube and then tyre has to be mounted over the rim. During
assembly, the chances of bruises and puncture on the tube cannot be ruled-out.
5. Improved Driving Comfort: The tubeless tyre is lighter than the tubed tyre. This
means that the unsprung weight of the vehicle is reduced. Consequently, the wheel
bounce is also reduced and hence there is an increase in the driving comfort.

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6. Enhanced Tyre Life Due to Better Cooling: The tube is made of (synthetic +
natural) rubber and other compounds which are bad conductors of heat. The heat
contained in compressed air does not dissipate to the atmosphere through the tube in a
tubed tyre. It, however, passes easily to atmosphere in case of tubeless tyre due to
absence of a tube. Thus tubeless tyre runs cooler than the tubed tyre, and hence its life
is also prolonged.
7. Efficient Suspension: The unsprung weight of a vehicle mounted with tubeless tyre
is less than that employing a tubed tyre due to comparatively lighter construction of the
former type. It results in an improved suspension thereby minimizing the undesired
wheel bounce in the vehicle.
9.7 CARCASS TYPES
Carcass or skeleton of the tyre is of 3 types:
I. Cross ply or bias ply.
2. Radial ply.
3. Belted-bias type.
The tyre is named after the particular type of carcass it contains as this is the
main structure taking the stresses while in operation.
1. Cross ply type
In this type. the ply cords are woven at an angle (30- 40)to the tyre axis. There
are two layers which run in opposite directions as has been shown in the figure9.18.
However. the cords are not woven like wrap and weft of ordinary cloth. because that
would lead to rubbing of the two layers and thus produce heat which would damage the
tyre material.
2. Radial ply type
In this the ply cords run in the radial direction i.e. in the direction of the tyre axis.
Over this basic structure. run a number of breaker strips in the Cross-ply or bias ply
carcass. Radial ply carcass circumferential direction. The material for the breaker strips
must be flexible but inextensible as shown fig9.19. So that no change of circumference
takes place with change in the amount of inflation. Without the breaker strips. radial
plies would give very soft ride. but there wil1 not be any lateral stability. The inextensible
breaker strip behaves like a girder in its own plane and provides the directional stability.


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9.8 COMPARISON OF RADIAL AND BIAS. PLY TYRES
Radial ply tyres possess the following advantages over the bias-ply tyres :
(I) The side walls of radial ply tyres can bend readily. Their shock - absorbing deflection
is about 25 per cent more than the cross-ply tyres. Thus they can absorb more bounce
of rough roads and thus the ride is more comfortable at high speeds.
(ii) The breaker strips of the radial tyres act independently of the wall plies unlike in
cross-ply tyres where there is no breaker strip and the tread is supported only by the
higher wall plieS. Thus the tread of a cross-ply tyre is affected by the higher side wall
stiffness and is not held on to the road surface reducing its grip. On the other hand in
case of radial tyres. there is a continuous flat contact-patch area with the road surface.
improving the acceleration and braking
(iii) Lower rolling resistance (due to lower sidewall rigidity and consequently lesser
internal friction while rolling) and hysterisis loss. Which ultimately means reduced fuel
consumption



(iv) Longer tread-life; the extra life may be up to 100 per cent in some cases. This is on
account of two factors. Firstly there is less heat build up in the radial tyre and secondly.
This type of tyre does not squirm as it meets tite road. Regardless of construction. every
tyre undergoes three stress modes during one revolution. viz.. the foot print or the
contraction cycle A. the expansion cycle B and the normal stress cycle C (Fig. 9.26).
The effects of these stress modes on the tyre tread of the bias-ply and the radial-ply
tyres have been shown in Fig. 9.27. It is seen that in case of a bias-ply tyre. The

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contraction and expansion of the tyre tread occur alternately. whereas there is no such
contraction or expansion of the tread in case of a radial tyre. This contraction and
expansion of the tyre tread causes it to scrub on the road resulting in excessive wear in
case of bias-ply tyre. finer clarifies the point by showing prints of the two types of tyres.
It is the breaker belts in the radial tyre which are responsible for no sideways scrub.
(v) On account of greater sidewall flexibility and tread region stiffness in case of radial
tyres, the tendency of pattern grooves to slightly close in the contact patch area is not
present as in case of cross-ply tyres as explained above. Thus for similar tread design
the water removal efficiency and hence the braking efficiency on wet roads is better in
case of radial ply tyres.
(vi) Smaller slip angles and higher cornering power, which result in better steering
characteristics.
(vii) While taking turns, a radial tyre has less tendency to distort and lift off the road from
one side Thus there is better contact of tyre and hence less tendency to skid while
cornering. in case of radial tyres.
(viii) Larger resistance to punctures, cuts and impacts in the tread area on account of
the breaktr belts.
The following disadvantages also accompany the above advantages of Radial ply
tyres:
(1) Heavier steering at low speeds.
(2) Uncomfortable harsh ride at low speeds. This is due to the stiff belts used.
Harshness often leads to the wrong assumption that the'tyres are over inflated.
(3)These cost initially higher (about 20 per cent more than the cross-ply tyre).
9.9 Tyre Material