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Drive_Index

Gears Gearboxes

Spur Gears

Introduction..... Standards..... Terminology..... Spur Gear Design..... Materials..... Basic

Equations..... Module..... Pressure Angle.....

Contact Ratio..... Forces- Torques etc..... Strength Durability calcs..... Design Process..... Internal

Gears..... Table of Lewis Form Factors.....

The notes below relate to spur gears. Notes specific to helical gears are included on a

separate page Helical Gears

Introduction

Gears are machine elements used to transmit rotary motion between two shafts, normally

with a constant ratio. The pinion is the smallest gear and the larger gear is called the gear

wheel.. A rack is a rectangular prism with gear teeth machined along one side- it is in

effect a gear wheel with an infinite pitch circle diameter. In practice the action of gears in

transmitting motion is a cam action each pair of mating teeth acting as cams. Gear design

has evolved to such a level that throughout the motion of each contacting pair of teeth the

velocity ratio of the gears is maintained fixed and the velocity ratio is still fixed as each

subsequent pair of teeth come into contact. When the teeth action is such that the driving

tooth moving at constant angular velocity produces a proportional constant velocity of the

driven tooth the action is termed a conjugate action. The teeth shape universally selected

for the gear teeth is the involute profile.

Consider one end of a piece of string is fastened to the OD of one cylinder and the other end

of the string is fastened to the OD of another cylinder parallel to the first and both cylinders

are rotated in the opposite directions to tension the string(see figure below). The point on

the string midway between the cylinder P is marked. As the left hand cylinder rotates

CCW the point moves towards this cylinder as it wraps on . The point moves away from

the right hand cylinder as the string unwraps. The point traces the involute form of the gear

teeth.

The lines normal to the point of contact of the gears always intersects the centre line joining

the gear centres at one point called the pitch point. For each gear the circle passing through

the pitch point is called the pitch circle. The gear ratio is proportional to the diameters of

the two pitch circles. For metric gears (as adopted by most of the worlds nations) the gear

proportions are based on the module.

m = (Pitch Circle Diameter(mm)) / (Number of teeth on gear).

In the USA the module is not used and instead the Diametric Pitch d

p

is used

d

p

= (Number of Teeth) / Diametrical Pitch (inches)

Profile of a standard 1mm module gear teeth for a gear with Infinite radius (Rack ).

Other module teeth profiles are directly proportion . e.g. 2mm module teeth are 2 x this

profile

Many gears trains are very low power applications with an object of transmitting motion

with minium torque e.g. watch and clock mechanisms, instruments, toys, music boxes etc.

These applications do not require detailed strength calculations.

Standards

AGMA 2001-C95 or AGMA-2101-C95 Fundamental Rating factors and

Calculation Methods for involute Spur Gear and Helical Gear Teeth

BS 436-4:1996, ISO 1328-1:1995..Spur and helical gears. Definitions and

allowable values of deviations relevant to corresponding flanks of gear

teeth

BS 436-5:1997, ISO 1328-2:1997..Spur and helical gears. Definitions and

allowable values of deviations relevant to radial composite deviations and

runout information

BS ISO 6336-1:1996 ..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical

gears. Basic principles, introduction and general influence factors

BS ISO 6336-2:1996..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical

gears. Calculation of surface durability (pitting)

BS ISO 6336-3:1996..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical

gears. Calculation of tooth bending strength

BS ISO 6336-5:2003..Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical

gears. Strength and quality of materials

If it is necessary to design a gearbox from scratch the design process in selecting the gear

size is not complicated - the various design formulea have all been developed over time and

are available in the relevant standards. However significant effort, judgement and expertise

is required in designing the whole system including the gears, shafts , bearings, gearbox,

lubrication. For the same duty many different gear options are available for the type of gear

, the materials and the quality. It is always preferable to procure gearboxes from specialised

gearbox manufacturers

Terminology - spur gears

Diametral pitch (d

p

)...... The number of teeth per one

inch of pitch circle diameter.

Module. (m) ...... The length, in mm, of the pitch circle

diameter per tooth.

Circular pitch (p)...... The distance between adjacent

teeth measured along the are at the pitch circle diameter

Addendum ( h

a

)...... The height of the tooth above the

pitch circle diameter.

Centre distance (a)...... The distance between the axes of

two gears in mesh.

Circular tooth thickness (ctt)...... The width of a tooth

measured along the are at the pitch circle diameter.

Dedendum ( h

f

)...... The depth of the tooth below the

pitch circle diameter.

Outside diameter ( D

o

)...... The outside diameter of the

gear.

Base Circle diameter ( D

b

) ...... The diameter on which

the involute teeth profile is based.

Pitch circle dia ( p ) ...... The diameter of the pitch

circle.

Pitch point...... The point at which the pitch circle

diameters of two gears in mesh coincide.

Pitch to back...... The distance on a rack between the

pitch circle diameter line and the rear face of the rack.

Pressure angle ...... The angle between the tooth profile

at the pitch circle diameter and a radial line passing

through the same point.

Whole depth...... The total depth of the space between

adjacent teeth.

Spur Gear Design

The spur gear is is simplest type of gear manufactured and is generally used for

transmission of rotary motion between parallel shafts. The spur gear is the first choice

option for gears except when high speeds, loads, and ratios direct towards other

options. Other gear types may also be preferred to provide more silent low-vibration

operation. A single spur gear is generally selected to have a ratio range of between 1:1 and

1:6 with a pitch line velocity up to 25 m/s. The spur gear has an operating efficiency of 98-

99%. The pinion is made from a harder material than the wheel. A gear pair should be

selected to have the highest number of teeth consistent with a suitable safety margin in

strength and wear. The minimum number of teeth on a gear with a normal pressure angle

of 20 desgrees is 18.

The preferred number of teeth are as follows

12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 34

38 40 45 50 54 60

64 70 72 75 80 84 90 96 100 120 140 150

180 200 220 250

Materials used for gears

Mild steel is a poor material for gears as as it has poor resistance to surface loading. The

carbon content for unhardened gears is generally 0.4%(min) with 0.55%(min) carbon for the

pinions. Dissimilar materials should be used for the meshing gears - this particularly

applies to alloy steels. Alloy steels have superior fatigue properties compared to carbon

steels for comparable strengths. For extremely high gear loading case hardened steels are

used the surface hardening method employed should be such to provide sufficient case

depth for the final grinding process used.

Material Notes applications

Ferrous metals

Cast Iron

Low Cost easy to

machine with high

damping

Large moderate power,

commercial gears

Cast Steels

Low cost, reasonable

strength

Power gears with medium

rating to commercial

quality

Plain-Carbon Steels

Good machining, can

be heat treated

Power gears with medium

rating to

commercial/medium

quality

Alloy Steels

Heat Treatable to

provide highest

strength and durability

Highest power requirement.

For precision and high

precisiont

Stainless Steels

(Aust)

Good corrosion

resistance. Non-

magnetic

Corrosion resistance with

low power ratings. Up to

precision quality

Stainless Steels

(Mart)

Hardenable,

Reasonable corrosion

resistance, magnetic

Low to medium power

ratings Up to high precision

levels of quality

Non-Ferrous metals

Aluminium alloys Light weight, non- Light duty instrument gears

corrosive and good

machinability

up to high precision quality

Brass alloys

Low cost, non-

corrosive, excellent

machinability

low cost commercial

quality gears. Quality up to

medium precision

Bronze alloys

Excellent

machinability, low

friction and good

compatability with

steel

For use with steel power

gears. Quality up to high

precision

Magnesium alloys

Light weight with poor

corrosion resistance

Ligh weight low load gears.

Quality up to medium

precision

Nickel alloys

Low coefficient of

thermal expansion.

Poor machinability

Special gears for thermal

applications to commercial

quality

Titanium alloys

High strength, for low

weight, good corrosion

resistance

Special light weight high

strength gears to medium

precision

Di-cast alloys

Low cost with low

precision and strength

High production, low

quality gears to commercial

quality

Sintered powder

alloys

Low cost, low quality,

moderate strength

High production, low

quality to moderate

commercial quality

Non metals

Acetal (Delrin

Wear resistant, low

water absorbtion

Long life , low load

bearings to commercial

quality

Phenolic laminates

Low cost, low quality,

moderate strength

High production, low

quality to moderate

commercial quality

Nylons

No lubrication, no

lubricant, absorbs

water

Long life at low loads to

commercial quality

PTFE

Low friction and no

lubrication

Special low friction gears to

commercial quality

Equations for basic gear relationships

It is acceptable to marginally modify these relationships e.g to modify the addendum

/dedendum to allow Centre Distance adjustments. Any changes modifications will affect the

gear performance in good and bad ways...

Addendum h

a

= m = 0.3183 p

Base Circle diameter D

b

= d.cos

Centre distance a = ( d

g

+ d

p

) / 2

Circular pitch p = m.

Circular tooth thickness ctt = p/2

Dedendum h

f

= h - a = 1,25m = 0,3979 p

Module m = d /z

Number of teeth z = d / m

Outside diameter D

o

= (z + 2) x m

Pitch circle diameter d = z . m ... (d

g

= gear & d

p

= pinion )

Whole depth(min) h = 2.25 . m

Top land width(min) t

o

= 0,25 . m

Module (m)

The module is the ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth. The unit of the module

is milli-metres.Below is a diagram showing the relative size of teeth machined in a rack

with module ranging from module values of 0,5 mm to 6 mm

The preferred module values are

0,5 0,8 1 1,25 1,5 2,5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32

40 50

Normal Pressure angle

An important variable affecting the geometry of the gear teeth is the normal pressure

angle. This is generally standardised at 20

o

. Other pressure angles should be used only for

special reasons and using considered judgment. The following changes result from

increasing the pressure angle

Reduction in the danger of undercutting and interference

Reduction of slipping speeds

Increased loading capacity in contact, seizure and wear

Increased rigidity of the toothing

Increased noise and radial forces

Gears required to have low noise levels have pressure angles 15

o

to17.5

o

Contact Ratio

The gear design is such that when in mesh the rotating gears have more than one gear in

contact and transferring the torque for some of the time. This property is called the contact

ratio. This is a ratio of the length of the line-of-action to the base pitch. The higher the

contact ratio the more the load is shared between teeth. It is good practice to maintain a

contact ratio of 1.2 or greater. Under no circumstances should the ratio drop below 1.1.

A contact ratio between 1 and 2 means that part of the time two pairs of teeth are in contact

and during the remaining time one pair is in contact. A ratio between 2 and 3 means 2 or 3

pairs of teeth are always in contact. Such as high contact ratio generally is not obtained

with external spur gears, but can be developed in the meshing of an internal and external

spur gear pair or specially designed non-standard external spur gears.

(R

go

2

- R

gb

2

)

1/2

+ (R

po

2

- R

pb

2

)

1/2

- a sin

contact ratio m =

p cos

R

go

= D

go

/ 2..Radius of Outside Dia of Gear

R

gb

= D

gb

/ 2..Radius of Base Dia of Gear

R

po

= D

po

/ 2..Radius of Outside Dia of Pinion

R

pb

= D

pb

/ 2..Radius of Base Dia of Pinion

p = circular pitch.

a = ( d

g

+ d

p

)/2 = center distance.

Spur gear Forces, torques, velocities & Powers

F = tooth force between contacting teeth (at angle pressure angle

to pitch line tangent. (N)

F

t

= tangential component of tooth force (N)

F

s

= Separating component of tooth force

= Pressure angle

d

1

= Pitch Circle Dia -driving gear (m)

d

2

= Pitch Circle Dia -driven gear (m)

1

= Angular velocity of driver gear (Rads/s)

2

= Angular velocity of driven gear (Rads/s)

z

1

= Number of teeth on driver gear

z

2

= Number of teeth on driven gear

P = power transmitted (Watts)

M = torque (Nm)

= efficiency

Tangential force on gears F

t

= F cos

Separating force on gears F

s

= F

t

tan

Torque on driver gear T

1

= F

t

d

1

/ 2

Torque on driver gear T

2

= F

t

d

2

/ 2

Speed Ratio =

1

/

2

= d

2

/ d

1

= z

2

/z

1

Input Power P

1

= T

1

.

1

Output Power P

2

=.T

1

.

2

Spur gear Strength and durability calculations

Designing spur gears is normally done in accordance with standards the two most popular

series are listed under standards above:

The notes below relate to approximate methods for estimating gear strengths. The methods

are really only useful for first approximations and/or selection of stock gears (ref links

below). Detailed design of spur and helical gears is best completed using the standards.

Books are available providing the necessary guidance. Software is also available making

the process very easy. A very reasonably priced and easy to use package is included in the

links below (Mitcalc.com)

The determination of the capacity of gears to transfer the required torque for the desired

operating life is completed by determining the strength of the gear teeth in bending and also

the durability i.e of the teeth ( resistance to wearing/bearing/scuffing loads ) .. The equations

below are based on methods used by Buckingham..

Bending

The basic bending stress for gear teeth is obtained by using the Lewis formula

= F

t

/ ( b

a

. m. Y )

F

t

= Tangential force on tooth

= Tooth Bending stress (MPa)

b

a

= Face width (mm)

Y = Lewis Form Factor

m = Module (mm)

Note: The Lewis formula is often expressed as

= F

t

/ ( b

a

. p. y )

Where y = Y/ and p = circular pitch

When a gear wheel is rotating the gear teeth come into contact with some degree of

impact. To allow for this a velocity factor ( K

v

) is introduced into the equation. This is

given by the Barth equation...

V = the pitch line velocity = d./2 (m/s)

The Lewis formula is thus modified as follows

= K

v

.F

t

/ ( b

a

. m. Y )

Surface Durability

This calculation involves determining the contact stress between the gear

teeth and uses the Herz Formula

w

= 2.F / ( .b .l )

w

= largest surface pressure

F = force pressing the two cylinders (gears) together

l = length of the cylinders (gear)

b = halfwidth =

d

1

,d

2

Are the diameters for the two contacting cylinders.

1

,

2

Poisson ratio for the two gear materials

E

1

,E

2

Are the Young's Modulus Values for the two gears

To arrive at the formula used for gear calculations the following changes

are made

F is replaced by F

t

/ cos

d is replaced by 2.r

l is replaced by W

The velocity factor K

v

as described above is introduced.

Also an elastic constant Z

E

is created

When the value of E used is in MPa then the units of C

p

are MPa =

KPa The resulting formula for the compressive stress developed is as

shown below

The dynamic contact stress

c

developed by the transmitted torque must

be less than the allowable contact stress S

e

...

Note: Values for Allowable stress values S

e

and Z

E

for some materials

are provided at Gear Table

r

1

= d

1

sin /2

r

2

= d

2

sin /2

Important Note: The above equations do not take into account the

various factors which are integral to calculations completed using the

relevant standards. These equations therefore yield results suitable for

first estimate design purposes only...

Design Process To select gears from a stock gear catalogue or do a first approximation for a

gear design select the gear material and obtain a safe working stress e.g Yield stress / Factor

of Safety. /Safe fatigue stress

Determine the input speed, output speed, ratio, torque to be transmitted

Select materials for the gears (pinion is more highly loaded than gear)

Determine safe working stresses (uts /factor of safety or yield stress/factor of safety

or Fatigue strength / Factor of safety )

Determine Allowable endurance Stress S

e

Select a module value and determine the resulting geometry of the gear

Use the lewis formula and the endurance formula to establish the resulting face

width

If the gear proportions are reasonable then - proceed to more detailed evaluations

If the resulting face width is excessive - change the module or material or both and

start again

The gear face width should be selected in the range 9-15 x module or for straight spur gears-

up to 60% of the pinion diameter.

Internal Gears

Advantages:

1. Geometry ideal for epicyclic gear design

2. Allows compact design since the center distance is less than for external gears.

3. A high contact ratio is possible.

4. Good surface endurance due to a convex profile surface working against a concave

surface.

Disadvantages:

1. Housing and bearing supports are more complicated, because the external gear nests

within the internal gear.

2. Low ratios are unsuitable and in many cases impossible because of interferences.

3. Fabrication is limited to the shaper generating process, and usually special tooling is

required.

Lewis form factor.

Table of lewis form factors for different tooth forms and pressure angles

No

Teeth

Load Near Tip of Teeth

Load at Near Middle of

Teeth

14 1/2 deg 20 deg FD 20 deg Stub 25 deg 14 1/2 deg 20 deg FD

Y y Y y Y y Y y Y y Y y

10 0,176 0,056 0,201 0,064 0,261 0,083 0,238 0,076

11 0,192 0,061 0,226 0,072 0,289 0,092 0,259 0,082

12 0,21 0,067 0,245 0,078 0,311 0,099 0,277 0,088 0,355 0,113 0,415 0,132

13 0,223 0,071 0,264 0,084 0,324 0,103 0,293 0,093 0,377 0,12 0,443 0,141

14 0,236 0,075 0,276 0,088 0,339 0,108 0,307 0,098 0,399 0,127 0,468 0,149

15 0,245 0,078 0,289 0,092 0,349 0,111 0,32 0,102 0,415 0,132 0,49 0,156

16 0,255 0,081 0,295 0,094 0,36 0,115 0,332 0,106 0,43 0,137 0,503 0,16

17 0,264 0,084 0,302 0,096 0,368 0,117 0,342 0,109 0,446 0,142 0,512 0,163

18 0,27 0,086 0,308 0,098 0,377 0,12 0,352 0,112 0,459 0,146 0,522 0,166

19 0,277 0,088 0,314 0,1 0,386 0,123 0,361 0,115 0,471 0,15 0,534 0,17

20 0,283 0,09 0,32 0,102 0,393 0,125 0,369 0,117 0,481 0,153 0,544 0,173

21 0,289 0,092 0,326 0,104 0,399 0,127 0,377 0,12 0,49 0,156 0,553 0,176

22 0,292 0,093 0,33 0,105 0,404 0,129 0,384 0,122 0,496 0,158 0,559 0,178

23 0,296 0,094 0,333 0,106 0,408 0,13 0,390 0,124 0,502 0,16 0,565 0,18

24 0,302 0,096 0,337 0,107 0,411 0,131 0,396 0,126 0,509 0,162 0,572 0,182

25 0,305 0,097 0,34 0,108 0,416 0,132 0,402 0,128 0,515 0,164 0,58 0,185

26 0,308 0,098 0,344 0,109 0,421 0,134 0,407 0,13 0,522 0,166 0,584 0,186

27 0,311 0,099 0,348 0,111 0,426 0,136 0,412 0,131 0,528 0,168 0,588 0,187

28 0,314 0,1 0,352 0,112 0,43 0,137 0,417 0,133 0,534 0,17 0,592 0,188

29 0,316 0,101 0,355 0,113 0,434 0,138 0,421 0,134 0,537 0,171 0,599 0,191

30 0,318 0,101 0,358 0,114 0,437 0,139 0,425 0,135 0,54 0,172 0,606 0,193

31 0,32 0,101 0,361 0,115 0,44 0,14 0,429 0,137 0,554 0,176 0,611 0,194

32 0,322 0,101 0,364 0,116 0,443 0,141 0,433 0,138 0,547 0,174 0,617 0,196

33 0,324 0,103 0,367 0,117 0,445 0,142 0,436 0,139 0,55 0,175 0,623 0,198

34 0,326 0,104 0,371 0,118 0,447 0,142 0,44 0,14 0,553 0,176 0,628 0,2

35 0,327 0,104 0,373 0,119 0,449 0,143 0,443 0,141 0,556 0,177 0,633 0,201

36 0,329 0,105 0,377 0,12 0,451 0,144 0,446 0,142 0,559 0,178 0,639 0,203

37 0,33 0,105 0,38 0,121 0,454 0,145 0,449 0,143 0,563 0,179 0,645 0,205

38 0,333 0,106 0,384 0,122 0,455 0,145 0,452 0,144 0,565 0,18 0,65 0,207

39 0,335 0,107 0,386 0,123 0,457 0,145 0,454 0,145 0,568 0,181 0,655 0,208

40 0,336 0,107 0,389 0,124 0,459 0,146 0,457 0,145 0,57 0,181 0,659 0,21

43 0,339 0,108 0,397 0,126 0,467 0,149 0,464 0,148 0,574 0,183 0,668 0,213

45 0,34 0,108 0,399 0,127 0,468 0,149 0,468 0,149 0,579 0,184 0,678 0,216

50 0,346 0,11 0,408 0,13 0,474 0,151 0,477 0,152 0,588 0,187 0,694 0,221

55 0,352 0,112 0,415 0,132 0,48 0,153 0,484 0,154 0,596 0,19 0,704 0,224

60 0,355 0,113 0,421 0,134 0,484 0,154 0,491 0,156 0,603 0,192 0,713 0,227

65 0,358 0,114 0,425 0,135 0,488 0,155 0,496 0,158 0,607 0,193 0,721 0,23

70 0,36 0,115 0,429 0,137 0,493 0,157 0,501 0,159 0,61 0,194 0,728 0,232

75 0,361 0,115 0,433 0,138 0,496 0,158 0,506 0,161 0,613 0,195 0,735 0,234

80 0,363 0,116 0,436 0,139 0,499 0,159 0,509 0,162 0,615 0,196 0,739 0,235

90 0,366 0,117 0,442 0,141 0,503 0,16 0,516 0,164 0,619 0,197 0,747 0,238

100 0,368 0,117 0,446 0,142 0,506 0,161 0,521 0,166 0,622 0,198 0,755 0,24

150 0,375 0,119 0,458 0,146 0,518 0,165 0,537 0,171 0,635 0,202 0,778 0,248

200 0,378 0,12 0,463 0,147 0,524 0,167 0,545 0,173 0,64 0,204 0,787 0,251

300 0,38 0,122 0,471 0,15 0,534 0,17 0,554 0,176 0,65 0,207 0,801 0,255

Rack 0,39 0,124 0,484 0,154 0,55 0,175 0,566 0,18 0,66 0,21 0,823 0,262

Links to Gear Design

1. Excelcalcs;...Site includes number of excel based gear calculation sheets.(annual

subscription)

2. OnDrives-precision gears ... Supplier of Gears / Gearboxes,Including technical info (

download)

3. Gear Design ...A comprehensive source of Gear Design Information

4. Efunda ...Efunda -> Design Centre-> Gears.. Some useful Notes.

5. Gear Design Topics ... A site providing amazing motion graphics of different gear types

6. SEW Eurodrive...All the information on Gearboxes you will need

7. Quality Transmission Components...Supplier with downloadable Gear Design Handbook

8. Stock Drive Products= Sterling Instruments...Supplier with large quantity of

downloadable drive information

9. Mitcalc...Excel based software including coded gear design

10. Lenze...Drive system supplier with geared motor section

11. Davall Gears...UK Supplier of stock gears and gearboxes

12. Muffett gears...UK Supplier of stock gears and gearboxes

13. Gear Design Lecture Notes...Plymouth.ac.uk - Useful Notes on gear strength design

14. Gear Stress (PDF)...A very useful downloadable paper based on AGMA standards for

gear design

15. DR Gears...One stop resource for gear manufacturers

This Page is being developed

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Gears Gearboxes

Send Comments to Roy@roymech.co.uk

Last Updated 15/01/2011

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