Control
System
Components
DC Control Components
potentiometer
tachogenerator
dc servo motor
dc amplifier
amplification of
slowly varying
signals is
difficult 
hence....
ac / carrier
control
Systems
ac control system components
synchro pair
ac tachogenerator
ac amplifier
ac servo motor
ac servo motor
special induction
motor
2  phase electric
supply
Torque speed
curve of an
induction motor
follows....
1.0
0
C
B
T
max
Torque
T
st
slip
s
Tmax
A
max
T
s
Portion AB  unstable
Portion BC  stable
s
Tmax
= R
2
/ X
2
1.0
0
C
B
T
max
Torque
T
st
slip
s
Tmax
A
1.0
0
C
B
T
max
Torque
T
st
slip
s
Tmax i
A
R
i
R
i i
s
Tmax ii
R
ii
> R
i
s
Tmax ii >
s
Tmax i
1.0
slip
C
B
Make X
2
= R
2
s
Tmax
= 1
0
Portion BC
extended for
the full speed
range.
Salient features of ac servo motor
Rotor with high resistance
Low inertia
Two phase operation
v
r
v
c
Rotor
Load
J, B
v
r
= V cos
c
t
v
c
= e sin
c
t
Two phase servo motor
Torque
speed
E
1
E
2
E
3
E
1
> E
2
> E
3
equation continues ....
T
m
= f ( E, )
Using taylor series,
T
m
= T
mo
+ 
E E = E
0
=
0
Tm
( E  E
0
) + 
E = E
0
=
0
Tm ( 
0
)
equation continues ....
T
m
 T
mo
= K
1
( E  E
0
)
 K
2
( 
0
)
T
m
= K
1
E
 K
2
= ( J s + B )
K
1
 = 
E K
2
+ Js + B
For position control,
the operating
point is
T
m0
= 0,
0
= 0 and
E
0
= 0
T
m
 T
mo
= K
1
( E  E
0
)
 K
2
( 
0
)
T
m
= K
1
E K
2
= ( J s + B )
Hence
e (s) / E(s) =
K
1
/ (Js+B+K
2
)
To evaluate
K
1
& K
2
Torque
speed
At = 0,
T = stall Torque
At T = 0,
= no load speed
Torque
speed
To evaluate
K
1
K
1
=
stall Torque ( rated voltage )
rated control phase voltage
K
2
Torque
speed
To evaluate
K
2
=
stall Torque ( rated voltage )
no load speed ( rated voltage )
Since the slope
of torque speed
curve reduces
as rated voltage
reduces .......
We take
K
2
=
1 stall torque ( rated voltage)
2
no load speed ( rated voltage)
for position control,
since the operating
point for position
control
is :
T
m
= 0 ,
= 0 and
E = 0
v
r
v
t
Rotor
AC Tacho generator
v
r
= v cos
c
t
v
t
= K
t
m
sin
c
t
AC Tacho generator
v
r
= v cos
c
t
v
t
= K
t
m
sin
c
t
v
t
is the output
whose amplitude
is proportional
to the speed.
Hence V
t
is an
amplitude
modulated
waveform
Rotor is thin
aluminium
cup.
Synchro pairs
 position error
detectors
Synchro
transmitter
Synchro control
transformer
v
r
Synchro
Transmitter
a
b
c
Synchro
Control
e
transformer
a
b
c
v
r
e
s
1
s
2
s
3
v
r
= V
r
sin
c
t
v
s1n
=
k
V
r
cos( +
120 ) sin
c
t
v
s2n
=
k V
r
cos sin
c
t
v
s3n
=
k V
r
cos( + 240 ) sin
c
t
v
r
e
rotor
( Transmitter )
rotor
(Control Transformer)
Amplitude of e is
maximum
v
r
e
rotor
(Control Transformer)
rotor
( transmitter )
Amplitude of e = 0
Amplitude of e is
proportional to
cosine of the angle
difference
Angle difference
= 90 + 
= 90  (  )
e = k V
r
cos (90  (  )) sin
c
t
= k V
r
sin (  ) sin
c
t
= k V
r
(  ) sin
c
t
Stepper Motor
permanent magnet
variable reluctance
permanent magnet
N
S
Rotor
permanent magnet
A
B
Stator
A
B
N
S
A ON
B OFF
A
B
N
S
S N
A ON
B OFF
N
S
C
D
C ON D OFF
N
S
N
S
C
D
C ON D OFF
Switching Table
N
S
N
S
A B C D
1 0 1 0
Switching Table
N
S
N
S
N
S
A B C D
1 0 1 0
Switching Table
N
N
S
S
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
A B C D
Switching Table
N
S
N
S
N
S
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
A B C D
90 CW
Switching Table
S
N S
N
A B C D
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
Switching Table
S
S
N S
N
N
A B C D
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
90 CW
Switching Table
S
S N
N
A B C D
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
Switching Table
S
S
S N
N
N
A B C D
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
90 CW
Switching Table
N
N
S N
S
S
A B C D
1 0 1 0
90 CW
Switching Table
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
A B C D
C
W
Switching Table
N
S
N
S
N
S
A B C D
1 0 1 0
Switching Table
N
S
N
S
N
S
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
A B C D 90 CW
Switching Table
S
S
N S
N
N
A B C D
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
90 CW
Switching Table
S
S
S N
N
N
A B C D
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
90 CW
Switching Table
N
N
S N
S
S
A B C D
1 0 1 0
90 CW
Switching Table
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
A B C D
C
W
For counterclockwise
rotation ????
Switching Table
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
A B C D
C
W
Switching Table
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
A B C D
C
W
C
C
W
Variable Reluctance
A
1
A
2
1
2
3
4
A ON
1 opp A
1
3 opp A
2
Variable Reluctance
A
1
A
2
1
2
3
4
A OFF B
ON
2 opp B
1
4 opp B
2
30 CCW
Variable Reluctance
A
1
A
2
1
2
3
4
B OFF C ON
3 opp C
1
1 opp C
2
30 CCW
Variable Reluctance
A
1
A
2
1
2
3
4
C OFF A ON
4 opp A
2
2 opp A
1
and so on .
30 CCW
S = no. of stator slots
R = no. of rotor slots
= 360 (1/R  1/S)
= 30
for CW operation
switching sequence
is ACB.
Multistack
arrangement
Variable Reluctance
Stepper
Rotor
Stator
A
B
C
air gap
= 360 / ( n T )
degrees
n = no. of stacks
T = no. of teeth
= 360/ (3 4)
= 30
Hydraulic components
Hydraulic power supply
reservoir
pump with prime mover
oil lines
valves
Hydraulic actuators
Hydraulic components
pumps :
positive
displacement
type
piston
vane
gear
Atmos.
pressure
Piston Pump
Inlet
Outlet
Pump out flow rate
Q
p
=
vol. of cylinder
no. of cylinders
speed
Pump can
act as
hydraulic
motor also
Hydraulic Linear Actuator
(Double acting Cylinder)
Pump
Sump
Sump Pump
Sump
Spool valve
Sump Pump
Sump
x
Q
K
v
1/A
v
1/s
y
Sump Pump
Sump
x
y
z
a
b
a
b
x
y
+
y
+
=
b
a + b
x
z
y

y

=
a
a + b
z
x
y
+
z

b
a + b
k
v
/As
a
a + b
Sump Pump
Sump
x
y
z
a
b
B
M
z
Suppose
Q = K
v
x  K
r
P
Where P is the
pressure of hydraulic
supply
b
a + b
K
v
+

K
r
P
1
A s
+ Q
a
a + b
x z

To find the
relation between
P and
connected load,
P A = force =
( M s
2
+ B s ) z
P ( s ) =
= G (s) z (s)
(say)
b
a + b
K
v
+

1
A s +
Q
a
a + b
x
z
G(s)
P
K
r

Pneumatic Components
Flapper Nozzle
Device.
b
a
Output
(pressure)
Air
supply
Orifice
P
b
P
s
x
e
A Flapper valve
Flapper valve
characteristic.
AP
b
Ae
Linear part
(slope K = P
b
/
e)
P
b
P
a
Output
(displacement)
Input
pressure
Pneumatic bellows.
a
b
x
p
b
P
s
x
b/(a+b) K
f
a
a+b
A
b
K
b
+

AP
b
AP
b
(s) / Ax (s)
( ) b a
Kb Ab
a
Kf
b a
b
+
+

.

\

+
=
/
1
a
b
x
P
b
R
C
P
c
RCs s Pb
s Pc
Pc Cs
R
Pc Pb
+
=
A
A
A =
A
1
1
) (
) (
K
f
a
a+b
+

b
a+b
x P
b
1
1+RCs
A Flapper valve
with relay
x
Input
(displacement)
F
l
a
p
p
e
r
To
atmosphere
Output
(pressure) P
Air
supply
P
b
ball
P
s
Pneumatic
actuator
Input
(pressure)
Spring
Backing
plate
Output
(displacement)