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8ALCAN!CA XXX\!!

8ALCAN!CA XXX\!!, 8clgradc 2007, 1340


BALCANICA
UDC 930.85(412) YU ISSN 03507653
SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS
INSTITUTE FOR BALKAN STUDIES
BELGRADE
2007
Editor-in-Chief
DUAN T. BATAKOVI
Director of the Institute for Balkan Studies
XXXVII
ANNUAL OF THE INSTITUTE FOR BALKAN STUDIES
Editorial Board
FRANCIS CONTE (Paris), DIMITRIJE DJORDJEVI (Santa Barbara),
DJORDJE S. KOSTI, LJUBOMIR MAKSIMOVI, DANICA POPOVI,
BILJANA SIKIMI, ANTHONY-EMIL TACHIAOS (Tessaloniki),
NIKOLA TASI, SVETLANA M. TOLSTAJA (Moscow),
GABRIELLA SCHUBERT (Jena)
\olumc XXX\!! ol thc annual Balcanica is printcd with nancial support lrom
thc Ministry ol Scicncc and nvironmcntal Protcction ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia
Tc origin ol thc !nstitutc gocs back to thc !nstitut dcs tudcs balkaniqucs
loundcd in 8clgradc in + as thc only ol thc kind in thc 8alkans. Tc
initiativc camc lrom King Alcxandcr ! Kardjordjcvi, whilc thc !nstitutcs
scholarly prolc was crcatcd by Ratko Parcanin and Svctozar Spanacvi.
Tc !nstitutc publishcd Fe.ue internationale des tudes balkaniques, which
asscmblcd most promincnt uropcan cxpcrts on thc 8alkans in various
disciplincs. !ts work was banncd by thc Nazi occupation authoritics in ++.
Tc !nstitutc was not rccstablishcd until +6, undcr its prcscntday namc
and undcr thc auspiccs ol thc Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts. !t
asscmblcd a tcam ol scholars to covcr thc 8alkans lrom prchistory to thc
modcrn agc and in a rangc ol dicrcnt clds ol study, such as archacology,
cthnography, anthropology, history, culturc, art, litcraturc, law. Tis
multidisciplinary approach rcmains its longtcrm oricntation.

Publishcr
!nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics
Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts
8clgradc, Kncz Mihailova
/!\
www.balkaninstitut.com
cmail: balkinstCsanu.ac.yu

CONTENTS
ARTCLES
ARCHAEOLOGY. CLASSCAL STUDES
!ladimir P. Petro.i, PrcRoman and Roman ardania: Historical and
Gcographical Considcrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sanja Pilipo.i, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary
Art: xamplc ol a Rclicl lrom Pincum . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
ANTHROPOLOGY. LNGUSTCS
Tanja Petro.i, Such Vcrc thc Timcs: Scrbian Pcasant Vomcn 8orn in
thc +:os and +os and thc Storics ol Tcir Livcs . . . . . . .
Iskra Likomano.a, Pcoplc ol My Lilc (Picturc ol Socialization) . . . . . 6+
MEDEVAL STUDES
Smilja Marjano.i-Duani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity in thc Royal
!dcology ol Mcdicval Scrbia: Continuity and Changc . . . . . 6
Boko Bojo.i, Mont Athos, lcs princcs roumains, Jcan Castriot ct la Tour
albanaisc (rbanaki pirg) dpcndancc dc Chilandar . . . . . . 8+
Mirjana Tati-Djuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic 8
HSTORY
Ljubinka Trgo.e.i, Tc nlightcnmcnt and thc 8cginnings ol Modcrn
Scrbian Culturc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +o
Mirosla. S.ire.i, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt
in thc Countics ol Ni, \ranjc, Toplica and Pirot Subscqucnt
to thc ScrboTurkish Vars ol +86+88 . . . . . . . . . . . . +++
Milan St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical
Movcmcnt +88++o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +:
Duan T. Batako.i, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc :
Lcs ds a la dmocratic parlcmcntairc scrbc +o++ . . . . +
!ojisla. Pa.lo.i, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc
du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ++
na S. Trbo.ich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc:
CroatoScrb Antagonism and Coopcration. . . . . . . . . . . +
lexis Troude, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc
dricnt ++++8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ::+
Traian Sandu, Lcs rclations roumanoscrbcs ct la qucstion du 8anat
durant la Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :+
Saa Mii, ScrboAlbanian 8ank +:+:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Jean-Paul Besse, Lphmrc glisc orthodoxc croatc ct son ct son
prolongcmcnt bosniaquc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :6
Milan Fisto.i, Linsurrcction dc dccmbrc a Athncs :
!ntcrvcntion britanniquc ct raction yougoslavc
(dccmbrc + janvicr +) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :+
Gordon N. Bardos, Tc 8alkans Ncw Political ynamics . . . . . . . . . :8
Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
REVEWS
Georges Castellan: Histoire du peuple serbe, d. uan T. 8atakovi . . . . o
Danica Popo.i: 8ranislav Todi & Milka anakMcdi, Manastir Deani o
leksandra Da.ido.-Temerinski: Ncw Jcrusalcms. Tc Translation ol Sacrcd
Spaccs in Christian Culturc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +
!eljko Stani: Gbor goston, Guns for the Sultan. Military Po.er and
the !eapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire . . . . . . . . . . . +
Biljana Sikimi: A Small ialcctological Atlas ol thc 8alkan Languagcs +8
nnemarie Sorescu-Marinko.i: De.elopment of Ethnic Structure
in the Banat :,c:,,:, cds. Tcdc Kahl & Pctcr Jordan . . . . :
Marija !uko.i: De.eloping Cultural Identity in the Balkans: Con.ergence .s.
Di.ergence, cds. Raymond ctrcz & Pictcr Plas. . . . . . . . . :
leksandra Kolako.i: John R. Lampc, Balkans into Southeastern Europe:
Century of !ar and Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :8
Mirosla. S.ire.i: Mark Mazowcr, Te Balkans: From the End of By.antium
to the Present Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
Mirosla. S.ire.i: Richard J. Crampton, Te Balkans since
the Second !orld !ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
Mirosla. S.ire.i: 8ranimir Anzulovic, Hea.enly Serbia: From Myth
to Genocide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\ladimir P. Pctrovi
Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania
Historical and Geographical Considerations
Tc 8alkan Pcninsula, in thc southcast ol contincntal uropc, with its
abundant lorcsts and mountains, and, accordingly, with rcmotc and hard
torcach placcs, lor a long timc was bclicvcd to bc a barcly acccssiblc rc
gion. Howcvcr, thc rcgion is crisscrosscd with vallcys, such as thosc ol thc
Morava, \ardar, Niava, Timok, !bar, Toplica and rim rivcrs, opcning up
obvious dircctions ol northward communication. Tc rivcrs, as il lollowing
a rulc, cut narrow gorgcs in thc rocks, connccting spacious and lcrtilc basins.
n thc rims ol thc basins, mountain rangcs oltcn rich in orcs ocr a good
raw matcrial basc lor thc dcvclopmcnt ol mctallurgy as wcll as impctus lor
tradc. Hospitablc lcrtilc zoncs and othcr natural rcsourccs ol thc 8alkans
havc attractcd human communitics lrom thc carlicst timcs. Tc ardani,
a prcRoman pcoplc, had occupicd thc ccntral arcas ol thc 8alkans
+
lrom
prchistoric timcs.
:
Tc locus hcrc bcing on thc antiquc pcriod ol ardania,
thc cthnogcncsis ol thc ardani will not bc dcalt with. Terminus post quem
+
Tc ccntral part ol thc 8alkan Pcninsula, with thc basin ol Ni (Roman Naissus) in its
midst, is crisscrosscd with natural communications thc courscs ol which lollow somc
gcological constants both longitudinally and transvcrsally. Tc most important longi
tudinal courscs havc bccn thc vallcys ol thc Morava and thc Marica rivcrs, on thc onc
sidc, and thosc ol thc Morava and thc \ardar, on thc othcr. Tc main transvcrsal com
munication was bctwccn Scutari, thc basin ol Kosovo and Mctohija and thc Morava,
as thc most convcnicnt natural conncction bctwccn thc intcrior and thc Adriatic coast.
A scrics ol dcprcssions, scparatcd by low barricrs bctwccn thc mcntioncd thrcc arcas
ol this important routc, togcthcr with thc vallcy ol thc rim rivcr, madc a clcar linc ol
communication. Vith all thc advantagcs ol thc conguration takcn into account, it bc
comcs obvious that thc transportation ol goods and pcrsons havc lollowcd thc courscs
outlincd abovc lrom carly prchistoric timcs, antiquity and thc Middlc Agcs to modcrn
timcs. n natural communications in thc ccntral 8alkans, scc Cviji +66, ++.
:
For thc arca ol protoardanian and prcardanian matcrial culturc, scc Tasi :oo,
o+.
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
lor this papcr will bc thc timc whcn Grcck authors rst took intcrcst in thc
ardani, an alrcady lormcd pcoplc cstablishcd in a tcrritory thcy wcrc to
inhabit throughout antiquity. ! bclicvc it important at this point to suggcst
that this papcr should bc sccn as an attcmpt to shcd somc light, lrom scv
cral pcrspcctivcs, on thc complcx issuc ol thc ardani and thcir socicty in
antiquity, and on thcir intcgration into thc tcrritorial and social lramcwork
ol thc Roman mpirc. Historical dcvclopmcnts prior to ardanias inclu
sion into thc Roman mpirc will bc lookcd at, as wcll as thc qucstion ol
idcntilying thc boundarics and charactcr ol thc ardanian arcas within thc
Roman administrativc organization. Spccial attcntion will bc paid to thc
ways in which thc cstablishmcnt ol Roman rulc acctcd thc dcvclopmcnt
ol ardanian socicty, cconomy, scttlcmcnt and communications. Mcth
odologically, thc approach to thc subjcct will bc bascd on dicrcnt classcs
ol matcrial, lrom thc availablc litcrary sourccs and cpigraphic cvidcncc to
somc valuablc rcsults ol archacological rcscarch.
Tc carlicst rclcrcncc to thc ardani can bc lound in Justin,

list
ing thc tribcs lorccd by Philip !! to rccognizc thc suprcmc powcr ol thc
Maccdonians, as suggcstcd by Fanula Papazoglu.

uring thc wars ol thc


iadochi, at thc timc Lysimachus crcatcd his cmpirc, lrom :8 to :8+ 8.C.,
thc ardani sccm to havc cvadcd Maccdonian rulc, and vcry soon thcy
bccamc a constant thrcat on thc northcrn bordcrs ol Maccdonia. Morc im
portant rclcrcnccs to thc ardani in thc sourccs datc lrom thc timcs ol thc
grcat Ccltic invasion, : 8.C., whcn thc ardanian land was ovcrrun by
numcrous Ccltic tribcs on thcir campaigns aimcd at looting thc trcasurics
ol Grcck tcmplcs. Tc Roman historian Livy givcs thc lollowing account ol
thcsc cvcnts:

large and mighty cro.d of the Gauls, goaded on by the po.erty


of their land or the desire to plunder, thinking that none of the peoples .hose ter-
ritories they had to pass could ri.al their po.er in arms, led by Brennus, came
to Dardania. Tc ardanian king, whosc namc, unlortunatcly, was not rc
cordcd, ocrcd thc Maccdonian king Ptolcmy Kcraunos his :o,ooo soldicrs
to countcract thc invading Cclts. Kcraunos dcclincd disdainlully thc ocr ol
his barbarian cncmy, somcwhat undcrcstimating thc strcngth ol thc Ccltic
warriors, and hc himscll dicd ghting thcm. !t is a wcllknown lact that thc
Cclts wcrc cvcntually stoppcd and dclcatcd only at clphi. Vithdrawing
towards thc north, thcy passcd through ardania, whcrc, as thc sourccs
rccord, thcy wcrc complctcly dcstroycd. Justin rccounts thcsc cvcnts in thc

!ust. \!!! 6, :.

n thc political history ol thc ardani, scc Papazoglu +6, +o+.

Liv. XXX\!!! +6.


\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania
lollowing passagc:
6
Te peoples and the tribes squabbled about them, .hen
they .ould nd them .andering about the elds, .orn out by hunger, cold and
exertion, as if they .ere spoils, whilc anothcr classical writcr cxprcssly statcs:
... and .hen passing through the Dardani land, they .ere all destroyed, so that
there .as no one left to go back home.

Tis, howcvcr, is a scrious cxaggcration,


sincc wc know that smallcr groups ol Cclts scttlcd around thc conucncc ol
thc Sava and anubc rivcrs undcr thc namc Scordisci.
8

Tcrc arc no lurthcr rclcrcnccs to thc ardani until thc :os 8.C.
Tcn thcrc cnsucd thcir constant wars with thc Maccdonians. Vith thc
arrival ol thc Romans in thc tcrritory ol !llyricum in :oo 8.C., thc ardani
took thc sidc ol thc Rcpublic and signicantly strcngthcncd thcir positions
against Maccdonia by occupying thc arca ol Paconia. Howcvcr, altcr thc
dclcat ol Pcrscus in +68 8.C., and cspccially lrom +8 8.C., whcn Macc
donia ccascd to bc indcpcndcnt and lcll undcr Roman rulc, thc ardani,
lclt without constant raids against thcir southcrn ncighbour, now cntcrcd
into conlrontation with Romc. Tc Roman occupation and anncxation ol
ardania was not carricd out in a short timc it was a proccss unlold
ing through scvcral war conicts and, ! would say, with ccrtain rcluctancc.
Namcly, thc rst contacts ol thc ardani with thc Roman army arc thought
to havc takcn placc in thc carly rst ccntury 8.C., but it was not until Scri
bonius Curios campaign against thc ardani, bellum Dardanicum, lrom
to 8.C., that ardania cxpcricnccd thc might ol thc Roman conqucr
ing lorcc. At thc hcad ol a hugc army ol about o,ooo troops, Curio scizcd
thc wholc ol ardania, thus bccoming thc rst Roman military lcadcr to
rcach thc banks ol thc anubc.

Curio was cxtraordinarily crucl in crush


ing thc rcsistancc ol thc most powcrlul pcoplc in thc inland 8alkans, but
this victory did not immcdiatcly rcsult in thc anncxation ol ardania to thc
Roman statc. Tcrc arc no rcliablc data as to whcn this actually occurrcd.
Cacsars data arc also worthy ol notc, inlorming us that in 8 8.C. Pompcy
rccruitcd thc ardani and 8cssi to his cavalry, both by lorcc and through
lricndly rclations.
+o
Howcvcr, it cannot bc clcarly undcrstood lrom this rc
port what thc status was ol thc ardani cavalrymcn uscd by Pompcy. !t
sccms quitc ccrtain that thc ardani had thc obligation ol providing troops
6
!ust. XXX!\ 8, ++6.

iodor, XX!! 8.
8
Papazoglu, +6, ++o.

Fcst. Bre.. c. : Dardanos et Moesicos Curio proconsul subegit et primus Fomanorum ducum
ad Danu.ium usque per.enit. !n F. Papazoglu (+6, + ) all thc important sourccs on
this campaign arc quotcd and translatcd into Scrbian.
+o
Cacs. Bell. ci.. !!!, , 6: Dardanos, Bessos partim mercenarios, partim imperio aut gratia
comparatos.
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
lor thc Romans, but thcy arc also likcly to havc bccn Pompcy mcrccnarics
or allics during thc civil war.
Littlc is known ol Mark Antonys campaigning against thc ardani,
but thc lact that such a campaign was launchcd at all lcads to thc assump
tion that not all ol ardania was conqucrcd and dclcatcd. Tc wars Marcus
Crassus wagcd in thc Triballian lands and in Mocsia in ::8 8.C. involvcd
thc ardani.
++
Spcaking ol thc causcs ol Marcus Crassus campaign against
thc acians and 8astarni in : 8.C., Cassius io says: Bastarni, ha.ing then
crossed the Ister, conquered Moesia .hich .as opposite their land, and then also
the Triballi .ho .ere her neighbours, and the Dardani li.ing in their (Trib-
allian) land. nd all the time they did that, they had nothing to do .ith the
Fomans, but .hen they crossed Mount Haemus... (prcscntday Stara Planina
or thc 8alkan Mountains).
+:
Tis rcmark about thc ardani living in thc
Triballian land may rclcr only to thc arca ol thc Juna (South) Morava and
Niava rivcrs, which thcn mcans that this tcrritory was not ol immcdiatc
intcrcst to thc Romans until Crassus campaign. Tcrc arc no rcports in thc
wakc ol this campaign cithcr on thc ardani, or on thc Romans ghting
thcm. !t sccms quitc probablc that thc ardani actually lost indcpcndcncc
in :8 8.C. Tus, thc nal occupation ol ardania by Romc has bccn con
ncctcd with thc bcginnings ol Augustus rulc, whilc its administrativc inclu
sion into thc mpirc to lorm thc provincc ol Mocsia appcars to havc takcn
placc in + 8.C.
+
As a rcsult ol thc division ol Mocsia undcr omitian, thc
ardanian tcrritory bccamc part ol thc ncwlycstablishcd provincc ol Up
pcr Mocsia or Moesia Superior.
Howcvcr, it is virtually unknown whcn Roman lcgions wcrc trans
lcrrcd lrom Maccdonia to ardania.
+
!t may bc assumcd that no pcrma
ncnt garrisons had bccn stationcd in ardania prior to +6 8.C., thc ycar thc
last Scordisci attack against Maccdonia mct with no organizcd rcsistancc in
++
Marcus Crassus campaign was provokcd by thc 8astarnian attack. Cassius io (Cass.
io L! :, : ) rcports that thc 8astarni crosscd thc anubc and occupicd Mocsia,
thc Triballi and thc Dardani li.ing in the Triballian territory, until thcir dclcat by thc
Romans. !t was not until thcy attackcd a Roman ally, thc cnthclcti, that thc Romans
dccidcd on military intcrvcntion. According to Fanula Papazoglu (+6, +:+), thc
arca around thc Juna Morava and thc lowcr coursc ol thc rivcr Niava should bc con
sidcrcd as thc Triballian land inhabitcd by thc ardani.
+:
Cass. io L! :, :.
+
Mirkovi +68, ::.
+
Somc authors suggcst that thc lcgions stationcd in thc north ol Maccdonia at thc bc
ginning ol thc Principatc wcrc undcr thc command ol onc lcgatus ugusti pro praetore,
cl. Patsch, Beitrage \, +, 86, Mirkovi +68, : , Symc ++, 6o, n. :.
\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania ++
ardania.
+
Tc movcmcnt ol lcgions may havc lollowcd thc crushing ol a
Tracian rcvolt in ++ 8.C., and it ccrtainly took placc bclorc a almatian
Pannonian uprising in A.. 6, at thc outbrcak ol which Caccina Scvcrus
camc to thc aid ol thc Romans bcsicgcd in Sirmium.
+6
As to thc location
ol thc rst Roman military camps in thc provincc ol Mocsia, ol lcgions
IIII Scythica and ! Macedonica, opinions divcrgc.
+
!t is quitc rcasonablc to
assumc that such camps must havc bccn at stratcgically important points,
such as Naissus
+8
or Scupi,
+
lrom whcrc thc conqucrcd pcoplcs, ardani,
Mocsi and Scordisci, could bc controllcd. Howcvcr, thc rst military in
scriptions lrom thc tcrritory ol Mocsia Supcrior, il wc disrcgard thc carlicst
oncs lrom thc Limes, datc lrom thc maturc Flavian agc and mostly comc
lrom thc sitcs connccting Naissus with thc anubian basin (Timacum Mi-
nus,
:o
quae/Prahovo,
:+
Taliata
::
).
Tc provincc ol Mocsia Supcrior, which includcd, as alrcady mcn
tioncd, thc arca ol ardania, cxistcd lor a rclativcly short timc, lrom A..
86 to ::, and had a spccic history and spccic military and administrativc
structurc.
:
Namcly, thc circumstanccs in Mocsia Supcrior dcpcndcd to a
largc cxtcnt on its cthnic divcrsity, its gcographic position along thc main
road connccting !taly with thc ast, and also on its divcrsc tcrrain and un
usual shapc (it strctchcd lrom thc anubc lar to thc south), but mostly on
its rich and varicd mincral rcsourccs.
According to thc notcs ol thc Roman sccondccntury lcgislator
Saturninus, Uppcr Mocsia was thought to bc a land rich in orcs,
:
in much
thc samc way as Alrica proconsularis was callcd thc granary.
:
According
+
Cass. io L!\, :o, .
+6
Cass. io L\, :, .
+
For thc translcr and accommodation ol thc rst Roman lcgions in thc tcrritory ol
ardania, and lor thc oldcst military inscriptions, scc Pctrovi +, o+ (with thc
carlicr bibliography). As rcgards thc stay ol lcgion IIII Scythica in Mocsia (ardania)
and its translcr to Gcrmania, scc uani +8b, o .
+8
T!R, K, Naissus, 8, Pctrovi +, +.
+
T!R, K, Naissus, ++:, ragojcviJosilovska +8:, :oo.
:o
T!R, K, Naissus, +:, Pctrovi +, o.
:+
T!R, L, Aquincum .
::
T!R, L, Aquincum +o, \ukoviTodorovi +6, +:+, Popovi +8:, :6
:8:.
:
uani :ooo, .
:
uani :oo, :, n. .
:
ig. 8.+.+6. +o (Saturninus): e.enit, ut eadem scelera in quibusdam pro.inciis
gra.ius plectantur, ut in frica messium incensores, in Mysia (!) .itium, ubi metalla sunt,
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
to Slobodan uani,
:6
apart lrom military (lcgionary) and municipal tcr
ritorics and privatc cstatcs, Uppcr Mocsia was dividcd into lour major units
namcd altcr thc local tribcs: thc ardani (ardania) in thc cntirc south ol
thc provincc,
:
and thc arcas ol Tricornicnscs (Tricorncnscs), Pinccnscs (Pi
ccnscs) and Mocsi in thc north.
:8
ach ol thc lour subdivisions combincd
two typcs ol tcrritorics: thosc rich in orcs bclongcd to thc impcrial trcasury,
scus, and thc rcst to tribal scttlcmcnts, ci.itates peregrinae. Tc lact that thc
ci.itates peregrinae and scal cstatcs (or at lcast thc mincs) borc thc samc
namcs is cxplaincd by thc scal domains bcing namcd altcr thc tribal com
munitics lrom which thcy had bccn scizcd. n thc othcr hand, thosc who
bclongcd to ci.itates peregrinae doubtlcssly had thc obligation ol labour on
thc cstatcs, cspccially in thc mincs. Tc unity ol pcrcgrinc and scal organi
zations was cnsurcd by military administration. !t is ol intcrcst to point to
thc rolc ol thc army in scrvicing thc res metallica, which basically was dual. !t
primarily protcctcd thc mincs, but it also took part in orc proccssing and was
involvcd in administration. Tc mincs nccdcd protcction duc to an incrcas
ing thrcat not only to thc orc pits but also to thc roads uscd lor transporting
prccious loads, cspccially altcr A.. :o. Military prcscncc in thc tcrritory
ol ardania, such as cohorts ! urelia Dardanorum (bascd at Naissus) and !!
urelia Dardanorum,
:
as local militias, was ncccssary bccausc ol thc dangcr
ol raidcrs latrones Dardaniae, robbing caravans and mcrchants, and raid
ing cstatcs in thc vicinity ol lorticd stations.
o
!nlormation on latrones can
bc lound in thc biography ol Marcus Aurclius.
+
!n this papcr ardania will not bc lookcd at as a Latc Roman prov
incc, a rcsult ol Aurclianus rclorms. Tc ardania to which this papcr rc
lcrs is thc arca that constitutcd a compositc scal domain (analogous to
an agricultural tractus dividcd into regiones) within thc provincc ol Uppcr
Mocsia. !n Mocsia Supcrior, thc division ol scal domains which includcd
adulteratoris monetae. For morc dctail about Saturninus notcs, cspccially conccrning
coin minting in mining districts, cl. uani +, ++6.
:6
uani :ooo, .
:
According to Pliny and Ptolcmy, ardania occupicd thc cntirc south ol thc provincc
ol Uppcr Mocsia, Plin. Nat. !!! +, Ptol. !!!, , :, !!!, , .
:8
n thc division ol Mocsia Supcrior into lour major cntitics, scc uani :ooo, .
According to uani :oo, :6, thc tcrritory ol Mocsia Supcrior was dividcd into two
largc zoncs: Dardania in thc south, and thc arca namcd Fipa Danu.ii in thc north ol
thc provincc.
:
n two cohorts ureliae Dardanorum, scc uani +8a, ::, Pctrovi +,
:.
o
n latrones Dardaniae, scc Mcsy +68.
+
SHA, .ita Marci, :+, : latrones etiam Dalmatiae atque Dardaniae milites fecit.
\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania +
mincs was idcntical to thc organization ol thc military, portoria and ci.itates
peregrinae in thc sccond and carly third ccnturics, until thc major uphcav
als that shook thc mpirc bctwccn :o and oo.
:
A mining arca (tractus),
such as ardania, was govcrncd by a procurator, thc procurator metallorum.
Gcncrally, thc impcrial mincs in ardania all bclongcd to thc scus, and
thus wcrc govcrncd indircctly by thc comes metallorum per Illyricum, who in
turn wcrc undcr thc comes sacrarum largitionum, judging by thc inlormation
lrom thc Notitia Dignitatum.

Administration ol scal tcrritorics such as ardania rcquircd a ccrtain


lorm ol ccntralization, which also involvcd portorium.

Tus ardania may


wcll havc constitutcd an administrativc cntity, but not a scparatc provincc
undcr thc Principatc. Spccial typc ol administrativc ccntrc was at Ulpiana,


and thc arca ol ardania consistcd ol scvcral ccntrcs unitcd into a lcw arcas,
ci.itates Dardanicae.
6
Tcrc wcrc at lcast vc subdivisions, in closc conncc
tion with thc cconomic intcrcsts ol thc scus, and abovc all with thc mincs
constituting thc Metalli Dardanici complcx. Tcir ccntrcs wcrc: +) Soanica
(Municipium ardanorum),

:) Ulpiana, ) in thc vicinity ol thc villagc


:
uani +8o, ::6.

Not. ig. Or. X!!! ++.

uani +a, o, n. .

T!R, K, Naissus, +:, crkov +6, ParoviPcikan +8:, Fidanovski +8, :8


. Fes publica Ulp(iana) appcars as thc dcdicant ol inscriptions on thrcc monumcnts
lound in thc arca ol Rcmcsiana, cl. Pctrovi +, +o++o. n. 6, o, +. !t is gcncrally
thought that this was thc town ol Ulpiana in prcscntday Kosovo (Mommscn, CIL, !!!,
68, Patsch +88, :8 , \uli +6+, :). !t is a lact that Ulpiana sct up thcsc monu
mcnts in Femesiana with thc approval lrom thc provincial govcrnor, which is cxplaincd
in thc scholarly litcraturc in various ways. Mommscn bclicvcd that thc monumcnts had
bccn simply translcrrcd lrom Ulpiana to Femesiana. Tc largc distancc bctwccn thc two
placcs makcs such an assumption unacccptablc. Starting lrom thcsc inscriptions, Patsch
concludcd that thc concilium ol thc provincc could havc bccn hcld in Femesiana and
that thcsc monumcnts had bccn sct up at thc timc ol thc conlcrcncc ol thc towns ol
Moesia Superior. N. \uli bclicvcd that thc prcscncc ol thcsc dcdications in Femesiana
could bc cxplaincd by thc towns bordcr position, and hc linkcd thcir crcction with thc
passing through ol Scptimius Scvcrus and Caracalla. Tc cnvoys ol Uppcr Mocsian
towns, Ulpiana includcd, arrivcd in Femesiana to grcct thc mpcrors whcn thcy cntcrcd
thc provincc. S. uani proposcs an intcrcsting and acccptablc thcsis pointing to thc
lact that Ulpiana and Femesiana wcrc mining ccntrcs and that thcy most probably wcrc
administrativc and tcrritorial communitics ol thc samc scal domain. Such an cxplana
tion shcds light on thc rcasons lor res publica Ulpiana to sct up an ocial inscription
in Femesiana with thc provincial govcrnors approval (uani +a, +, +b, +:,
:ooo, , n. +).
6
uani :ooo, , n. +8.

T!R, K, Naissus, 8, crkov +6, crkov +6.


8alcanica XXX\!! +
ol Lopatc (Lamud(um):),
8
Konjuh (\izi(anum):),

or Kratovo (Kratis
kara:),
o
) 8cla Palanka (Rcmcsiana),
+
and ) Ravna (Timacum Minus:).
:

Vith rcgard to that, judging by thc gcological constants and thc availablc
data on .ici metallorum, on scvcral toponyms d Fines, or customs stations
dcpcndcnt on thc mining tcrritory, thc ardanian mincs may bc classicd
into thc lollowing districts: !. !bar (Soanica), !!. Janjcvo (Ulpiana), !!!.
Kumanovo (Lopatc),

!\. 8cla Palanka (Rcmcsiana), \. Ravna (Timacum


Minus:). Tc administrativc position ol district \!, which is probably thc
arca: east KopaonikKurumlija

!eliki JastrebacLece,

rcmains rathcr un
clcar.
6
Tc cxtcnt ol Uppcr Mocsian ardania is lor thc most part known,
and it coincidcd with thc southcrn parts ol thc provincc ol Mocsia Supcrior.
Tcrclorc, according to Fanula Papazoglu,

it was an arca with its wcstcrn


boundarics wcst ol thc prcscntday linc jakovicaPcNoviPazar!van
jicaaak, and probably idcntical to thc bordcr ol thc Roman provincc.
8

!n thc southwcst ol ardania was thc tribordcr ol thc provinccs Mocsia,
8
T!R, K, Naissus, 8o.

T!R, K, Naissus, :. T!R, K, Naissus, :.


o
!t is unccrtain whcthcr thc arcas ol Kratovo and Zlctovo should bc assigncd to arda
nia or to thc provincc ol Uppcr Mocsia. According to uani +8o, :, n.+, Kratovo
mining rcgion lormcd part ol Tracc rathcr than ardania, but thc othcr hypothcsis
cannot bc complctcly ignorcd, cl. Patsch +, +, ::, Kcramiticv +, ++. Tc
inscriptions lrom KratovoZlctovo rcgion (Kcramiticv, +66) wcrc mostly in thc Latin
languagc, ragojcviJosilovska +8:, +, n. 6. From thc arca ol Kratovo originatcs a lc
malc statuc madc ol volcanic rock, prcsumably Libcra. n thc classication ol thc nd
and on thc conncction ol thc cult ol Libcra with mincral rcsourccs, scc Pilipovi :oo.
+
T!R, K, Naissus, +o8, Pctrovi +, +, Pctrovi :oob, ::8. :8..
:
uani :oo, :, :8.

!n thc placc ol Lopatc thcrc was a tcmplc dcdicatcd to Jupitcr olichcnus, whosc
rcligious lunction may bc vicwcd in thc contcxt ol thc mining panthcon, cl. ragojcvi
Josilovska +8:, n. :o8. n thc conncction ol olichcnus cult with mining, scc uani
+, +, Pctrovi :ooa, :+::.

T!R, K, Naissus, .

T!R, K, Naissus, 8.
6
uani :oo, :.

n thc boundarics ol ardania within Uppcr Mocsia, scc Papazoglu +6, ++6+.
8
According to cpigraphic tcstimonics (\uli ++, n. :+ !II Claudia, no. : I!
Fla.ia: lrom thc placc obruta or obruda) and gcomorphology, thc bordcr bctwccn
Uppcr Mocsian ardania and almatia in thc tcrritory ol prcscntday Mctohija was
idcntical to thc natural and modcrn bordcr ol Scrbia on onc sidc, and Albania and
Montcncgro on thc othcr, cl. Papazoglu +6, +o.
\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania +
almatia and Maccdonia, which sccms to havc bccn idcntical to thc prc
Roman Maccdonianardani!llyrian tribordcr. According to Ptolcmy,


this tribordcr was Mount Scardus, idcnticd as thc prcscntday mountain
rangc ol ar with Korab and othcr highlands conncctcd to it in thc dircc
tion ol cbar
o
and Kicvo. Tc southcrn ardanian bordcrs sccm to havc
lollowcd thc bordcr bctwccn thc Roman provinccs ol Mocsia Supcrior and
Maccdonia, which was also thc bordcr bctwccn Grcck and Latinspcaking
arcas. Tcy wcrc, thus, thc arcas bctwccn Mount ar and lurthcr on, along
thc bordcr ol Mocsia Supcrior, to 8ylazora,
+
an ancicnt town to thc north
ol prcscntday \clcs. Tc castcrn bordcrs ol ardania should bc lookcd
lor cast ol thc linc Kumanovo\ranjc8cla Palanka, that is in thc vicinity
ol antiquc Femesiana, on thc rivcr Niava, thc limit ol thc Latinspcaking
zonc in Roman timcs. Tc ardani, unlikc thcir prcRoman ncighbours,
prcscrvcd autochthonous traditions and rcmaincd nonHcllcnizcd. Vith
thc Roman conqucst, thcy adoptcd thc Latin languagc.
:
Tc northcrn bor
dcrs ol ardania arc vcry dicult to idcntily but it is bclicvcd, bascd on thc
vicw ol Fanula Papazoglu, that it was thc arca cncompasscd by thc rivcr Za
padna (Vcst) Morava and thc limits ol thc antiquc Naissus arca, cast ol thc
rivcr \clika Morava. As a contribution to this issuc wc should also mcntion
Ptolcmys inlormation on Naissus as onc ol thc lour towns ol ardania.

!n
idcntilying thc arca ol Naissus in ardania thc cpigraphic cvidcncc is also
important, notably thc tcxt Naisso Dardaniae

lrom thc arly mpirc pc


riod, lound in Romc, which supports Ptolcmys tcstimony. As lor thc limits
ol thc Naissus arca in thc north, it is also important that Marcus Aurclius,
at thc timc ol thc wars with thc Marcomanni, cstablishcd cohort II urelia
Dardanorum, bascd in Naissus. According to thc cpigraphic cvidcncc, this
cohort also staycd in lorts Praesidium Pompei

(ncar Alcksinac) and Tima-


cum Minus (Ravna), ncar thc rivcr Timok.
Tat thc tcrritory ol ardania could havc cxtcndcd cvcn lurthcr
north ol thc Zapadna Morava and antiquc Naissus is indicatcd by scvcral

Ptol. !!, +6, +, !!! , +.


o
T!R, K, Naissus, o.
+
T!R, K, Naissus, :.
:
Tc castcrn bordcr ol ardania most probably lay altcr thc station mutatio Latina
(T!R, K, Naissus, 8), on thc Roman road !iminaciumNaissusSerdicaCon-
stantinopolis (!tincrarium Hicrosolymitanum 6.+66.8), thc rst station cast ol Fe-
mesiana. Mutatio Latina was thc last placc whcrc, at lcast according to toponymy, Latin
was in usc, unlikc thc Grcckspcaking rcgions lurthcr cast, cl. Pctrovi :oo, 6.

Ptol. !!! , .

CIL \!, :.

T!R, K, Naissus, +o, Pctrovi +6 and +, :. Pctrovi +6 and +, :. +6 and +, :. +, :.


8alcanica XXX\!! +6
intcrcsting lacts. Namcly, as is known, Pliny statcs that thc rivcrs Margus
(Morava), Timachus (Timok) and goldbcaring Pingus (Pck) ow lrom
ardania.
6
Furthcrmorc, an cpigraphic piccc ol inlormation, which ac
cording to thc intcrprctation by Slobodan uani rclcrs to Dea Dardania,
originatcs lrom a placc larthcr to thc north, Kamcnica bctwccn Kragujcvac
and Gornji Milanovac.

!n parallcl with thc cstablishmcnt ol thcir rulc in thc ncwlycon


qucrcd tcrritorics, thc Romans dcvotcd thcmsclvcs to incorporating thcsc
arcas, through carclul and cautious planning, into thc cconomic systcm ol
thc mpirc. Tc ardanian socicty ol thc timc had scvcral strata: thc land
cd aristocracy, indcpcndcnt or scmidcpcndcnt larmcrs and cattlcbrccdcrs,
mincrs, tradcrs and craltsmcn. Scttlcmcnts that may bc intcrprctcd as urban
wcrc vcry rarc, and lunctioncd as thc scats ol thc local aristocracy, tradcrs
and craltsmcn. Tcy wcrc built on hilltops and cncloscd with carthcn walls,
so in timcs ol war thcy scrvcd also as salc havcns or refugia lor thc inhabit
ants ol ncarby villagcs.
8
Tc surviving toponymy ol Roman ardania tcsti
cs to thc antiquity ol thc scttlcmcnts in ardanian arcas. !n addition to
vcricd Grcck and Latin toponyms, thc namcs ol thc largcst numbcr ol
scttlcmcnts draw thcir roots lrom thc prcRoman inhabitants ol ardania.
As wc movc lrom thc cast towards thc wcst, thc widcsprcad toponymy ol
Tracian origin is gradually rcplaccd by thc toponymy ol ardanian and
!llyrian origin in thc lar wcst. Somc namcs, such as thosc ol thc towns Nais-
sus and Scupi, prcscrvcd thcir Ccltic roots.

8ascd on this bricl onomastic


obscrvation, thc cxistcncc ol many scttlcmcnts may bc assumcd cvcn prior
to thc Roman conqucst.
Gradual Romanization, involving thc planncd scttlcmcnt ol Roman
citizcns, rcsultcd in thc lormation ol urban ccntrcs with limitcd scllgovcrn
mcnt in ccrtain arcas ol ardania. Altcr thc Roman conqucst, duc to mili
tary, cconomic and administrativc rcasons, thc original prcRoman refugia
6
Plin. Nat. !!!, +: Flumina clara e Dardanis Margus, Pingus, Timachus, Papazoglu
+6, :o.

Mirkovi and uani +6, n. +6. Howcvcr, cvcn il this inscription was dcdicatcd
to ardania, it docs not ncccssarily mcan that Kamcnica ncar Kragujcvac was in arda
nia. ardanian scttlcrs in pulum in acia dcdicatcd two rclicls to thc samc goddcss,
pcrsonication ol ardania, cl. CIL !!!, , 8.
8
Tcy wcrc !ron Agc dclcnsivc hilllort scttlcmcnts. 8uilt on hilltops, thcy providcd
control ol thc surrounding arca. For thc archacologically attcstcd rcmains ol prcRo
man ardanian scttlcmcnts and lortications, such as thc hilllorts at 8clacvac, Gornjc
Gadimljc, Hisar, Kulinc, Samodrca (Tcnc o) in thc wcst ol Roman ardania, scc
Tasi, +8, +::.

Papazoglu +6, +8:o+.


\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania +
and .ici grcw into urban ccntrcs ol largcr arcas, such as Scupi and Naissus.
Tc inhabitants ol towns wcrc morc cxposcd to thc proccss ol Romaniza
tion than thc rural population, as a rulc morc conscrvativc and rcluctant to
adopt a ncw culturc. Tc ncwlylormcd urban ccntrcs wcrc sourccs lrom
which Roman inucncc and culturc sprcad among thc local population,
morcovcr, thcy wcrc also thc military, cconomic, administrativc and rcli
gious ccntrcs ol cntirc rcgions.
Tc rcasons lor an carly Romanization ol thc ardanian arcas lic
abovc all in thc Roman mpircs incrcasing nccds lor orcs containing silvcr,
gold, zinc, coppcr and lcad, ncccssary lor maintaining thc cmpircs monctary
stability. Tcrclorc, thc arcas rich in orcs, such as thc slopcs ol Stara Planina,
Svrljig and Kopaonik, wcrc organizcd into mining rcgions and impcrial do
mains. Tcn thc ccntrcs likc Municipium Dardanorum at thc conucncc ol
thc Soanika and !bar rivcrs, and Ulpiana in thc vicinity ol Graanica, ap
pcarcd. Tc risc ol scttlcmcnts was causcd by thc prcscncc ol othcr natural
rcsourccs as wcll, such as thc lcrtilc vallcys ol thc Niava and Morava rivcrs
(Margus), or thc wcalth ol thcrmal springs suitablc to bccomc spa ccntrcs
(Nika 8anja, Mcdiana,
6o
Kurumlijska 8anja
6+
). Howcvcr, thc largcst num
bcr ol scttlcmcnts was cstablishcd along thc roads, both main and local.
Tc roads rccordcd in Roman itincrarics
6:
(\iminaciumNais
susScrdicaConstantinopolis, NaissusRatiaria, NaissusLissus, Naissus
Scupi) wcrc built vcry carly, pcrhaps as carly as thc rst dccadcs ol thc rst
ccntury A.. Howcvcr, it is quitc probablc that thc Roman roads lollowcd
thc coursc ol carlicr, prcRoman, roads, and that in that scnsc thc Roman
conqucst ol thc ardani arcas brought no discontinuity.
6
arly consolida
tion ol thc road nctwork in Roman timcs is cxplaincd by thcir grcat stratc
gic importancc. Tc oldcst Roman roads conncctcd Stobi
6
with Scupi in thc
south ol ardania, and thcn with thc Morava rivcr vallcy and northwards to
thc anubc, whcrc thc army was translcrrcd. !nnumcrablc lcgions travcllcd
6o
T!R, K, Naissus, 8, 8, Pctrovi +.
6+
T!R, K, Naissus, .
6:
Tc tcrm itinerarium is dcrivcd lrom thc Latin word iter (routc) and dcnotcs a routc
map with dcscriptions ol Roman communication lincs. !tincrarics indicatcd scttlcmcnts
(stations) and thc intcrvcning distanccs. For thc tcrritory ol Roman ardania thc lol
lowing itincrarics arc ol importancc: Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum, 6.+66.8, Itin-
erarium ntonini, ++., Tabula Peutingeriana, scgm. \! and Fa.ennatis anonyimi
cosmographia (Anonymi Ravcnnatis) !\, . !\, ..
6
PrcRoman ardania maintaincd intcnsc contacts with thc Grcck colonics on thc
Adriatic coast (Apollonia, yrrhachium) along thc rim rivcr vallcy, and in thc cast,
with Maccdonia, along thc \ardar and Strumica rivcr vallcys, cl. Tasi +8, :+.
6
T!R, K, Naissus, +++:o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
thcsc roads at thc timc thc Romans wcrc consolidating thcir rulc in thc ccn
tral 8alkans, and at thc timc thcy wcrc rming up thc mpircs bordcrs on
thc anubc. Tc grcat antiquity ol ardanian roads is also supportcd by thc
abscncc lrom thc itincrarics ol somc important towns, such as Municipium
Dardanorum
6
and Ulpiana in wcst ardania. !t is obvious that thcsc towns,
bcing primarily cconomic ccntrcs, grcw altcr thc main communication lincs
had bccn constructcd. Namcly, upon ardanias incorporation into thc m
pirc, thcrc lollowcd a last dcvclopmcnt ol various cconomic activitics, abovc
all thc intcnsc cxploitation ol mincral raw matcrials. !n thc vicinity ol thc
alrcady known or ncwlycstablishcd mining arcas ncw urban ccntrcs wcrc
built, so that thc communications lincs constructcd in thc carly rst ccntury
and during thc sccond and third ccnturics gaincd grcat cconomic signi
cancc, though originally intcndcd lor military purposcs. Sincc ccrtain rc
gions rich in natural rcsourccs wcrc oltcn lar away lrom thc originally built
communication lincs, vcry soon an cntirc nctwork ol local roads dcvclopcd
lor thc purposc ol transporting orcs and othcr raw matcrials.
Although thc Romans rcgularly maintaincd thc roads, it sccms quitc
rcasonablc to assumc that in particular hcavy loads wcrc transportcd in oth
cr, chcapcr ways. !n addition to land modcs ol transport wc should takc into
account hcrc also thc possibility ol uvial transportation, or, morc prob
ably, a combination ol road and rivcr transport. For highly practical rcasons
transportation by watcrways would havc bccn uscd whcncvcr possiblc, cs
pccially sincc it is known that in antiquity, duc to a morc humid climatc and
dcnsc lorcsts, many rivcrs, cvcn smallcr oncs, wcrc navigablc. According to
Strabo, thc rivcr rim was navigablc lrom its mouth upstrcam to arda
nia,
66
and thc rivcr Niava was also navigablc in onc scction, according to thc
inscription ol a rccruit ol thc rivcr classis ol lcgion !II Claudia lrom Nais-
sus.
6
Goods could casily havc bccn transportcd by watcrways to thc ncarcst
sca ports, whcrc thcy would bc rcloadcd to largcr vcsscls to bc distributcd to
distant parts ol thc mpirc. Tis can bc supportcd by thc nd ol a sct ol lcad
ingots lrom Caesarea in modcrn !sracl.
68
Namcly, during thc archacologi
cal invcstigation in + ol thc vcstigcs ol a Roman mcrchant ship, which
obviously had sunk just o thc port, lcad ingots wcrc discovcrcd, two ol
which still borc clcarly visiblc stampcd inscriptions. nc inscription rclcrs
to mpcror omitian with thc namc Ger(manicus), which clcarly suggcsts a
6
Fidanovski +8, :8.
66
Strab. \!!, , . Strab. \!!, , . . \!!, , . \!!, , .
6
A soldicr ol lcgion !II Claudia scrvcd as Disce(n)s epibeta in thc rivcr classis, according
to thc inscription lrom thc lortrcss ol Ni, cl. Pctrovi +, +.
68
S. uani, Dardanian Lead Ingots at Caesarea Palestinae, lorthcoming.
\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania +
datc bctwccn A.. 8, whcn omitian gaincd that namc owing to his mili
tary victorics in Gcrmania, and A.. , thc last ycar ol his rcign. Tc othcr
stampcd inscription, ol intcrcst to our issuc, rcads: Met(alli) Dard(anici),
indicating thc ardanian origin ol thc prccious shipmcnt.
Unlortunatcly, thc traccs ol Roman roads in thc arca ol ardania arc
illprcscrvcd in our timcs. Tc rcason lor that lics in thc lact that thcy wcrc
lor thc most part ovcrlaid by latcr, mcdicval and modcrn roads, and also that
thc vcry conguration ol thc tcrrain has bccn unlavourablc lor thc prcscr
vation ol visiblc traccs.
6
Such a poor statc ol prcscrvation should also bc
attributcd to continuous dcvastation by local populations, givcn that similar
latc also bclcll othcr structurcs ol Roman datc in towns and villagcs.

!t sccms important to rcitcratc thc kcy idcas stcmming lrom our considcr
ations ol this complcx thcmc, attcmpting to outlinc somc important mo
mcnts in thc history ol prcRoman ardania, as wcll as to show all thc
complcxity, spccic position and particular structurc ol Roman ardania
undcr thc provincial organization ol thc mpirc. 8y shcdding light on thc
issuc ol dclincating thc cxtcnt ol Roman ardania within thc provincc ol
Uppcr Mocsia and pointing to ccrtain cpigraphic data and writtcn sourccs,
it has bccn shown that ardanias boundarics may bc movcd lurthcr north
ol thc rivcr Zapadna Morava, thc arca ol antiquc Naissus and Timacum Mi-
nus. Vhcn thc Romans appcarcd on thc historical stagc ol ardania, thcy
did not intcrlcrc much into thc straticd and stablc social structurc and hi
crarchy ol thc ncwlyconqucrcd arcas.
o
Attractcd by thc mincral rcsourccs
ol ardania and sccking to cxpand thc bordcrs ol thc mpirc to thc an
ubc, thc Romans rst constructcd main roads, rccordcd by thc itincrarics, in
continuity with thc courscs ol prcRoman communications. Howcvcr, thc
lact that, in contrast with Scupi and Naissus, somc important towns, such
as Ulpiana and Municipium Dardanorum, do not occur in thc itincrarics,
suggcsts thc antiquity ol ardanian scttlcmcnts and communications. 8y
simplc dcduction, thc lollowing phascs in thc dcvclopmcnt ol ardanian
scttlcmcnts and communication lincs may bc outlincd: I. Pre-Roman phase
charactcrizcd by .ici and rarc urban scttlcmcnts in thc lorm ol refugia,
as scats ol thc local aristocracy, tradc and cralts. Tc road nctwork was dc
tcrmincd by thc natural lcaturcs ol thc tcrrain and thc human nccd lor
movcmcnt and tradc. Tcsc communication lincs wcrc travcllcd by armics,
but thcy also carricd inucnccs ol morc advanccd Grcck and Maccdonian
6
crkov +6, .
o
Fidanovski +8, :88.
8alcanica XXX\!! :o
culturcs, II. Early Roman phase markcd by thc risc ol thc rst urban ccn
trcs ol largcr arcas. Communication lincs mostly lollowcd thc wcllprovcn
courscs ol prcRoman roads, and such roads wcrc uscd mostly by armics
and logistic support to thc troops on thc Limes (rst ccntury A..), and III.
Developed Roman phase lrom as carly as thc sccond and third ccnturics
A.., whcn thc dcvclopmcnt ol scttlcmcnts was signicantly inucnccd by
thc cxploitation ol mincral and othcr rcsourccs ol ardania. Tc main roads
in ardania assumcd a prcdominantly commcrcial and cconomic charactcr.
uc to abundant mincral rcsourccs and intcnsivc cxploitation ol thc impc
rial mincs, thc roads carricd rich loads ol mctals towards othcr parts ol thc
statc. Such loads attractcd robbcrs, latrones, making military prcscncc in thc
stations along thc roads ncccssary, cvcn altcr thc rm bordcr ol thc Limes
was cstablishcd.
!n thcsc last considcrations it is also important to bring attcntion to
thc point that, rcgardlcss ol thc wcllorganizcd protcction and maintcnancc
ol thc road nctwork, it is hardly imaginablc that hcavy loads (orcs) could
havc bccn transportcd solcly by land. !t appcars logical to assumc, cspc
cially in thc light ol thc lacts mcntioncd, that watcrways wcrc partly uscd
lor transporting goods towards thc ncarcst Adriatic and Acgcan scaports.
Hopclully thc assumption proposcd hcrc will nd lurthcr scholarly cor
roboration in thc timcs to comc.
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts
Belgrade
Abbreviations
Sources
!ust. Iuniani Iustini Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum
iodor. Diodorus Siculus
Fcst. Festi bre.iarium rerum gestarum populi Fomani
Cacs. Bell. ci.. C. Iuli Caesaris Commentariorum de bello ci.ili
Cass. io Cassi Dionis Historiae Fomanae epitome
Not. ig. Notitia Dignitatum
Plin. Nat. Naturalis historia
Ptol. Geogr. Ptolemaei geographia
Strab. Strabonis geographia
Liv. Titi Li.i ab urbe condita
Literature
ANRV ufstieg und Niedergang der romischen !elt, 8crlinNcw York
C!L Corpus inscriptiorum Latinarum
Patsch, Beitrage C. Patsch, Beitrage .ur !olkerkunde .on Sudosteuropa, !, :: us
cc Jahres .orromischer und romischer Geschichte Sudosteuropas bis
.ur Fest.et.ung der Fomer in Transdanu.ien. \icnna +:
UDC ,::.&:,,J(&Dardania)
\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania :+
SHA Scriptores Historiae ugustae
T!R, K, Naissus Tabula Imperii Fomani, NaissusDyrrachionScupiSerdica
Tessalonice. Ljubljana +68
T!R, L, Aquincum Tabula Imperii Fomani,quincumSarmi.egetusaSirmium.
8udapcst +68
A i.a antika. Skopjc
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Mocsia Supcrior, NF! !!/6, .
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srebra. 8clgradc, +++.
+. Tc Mincrs Cults in !llyricum. !n Ml. C. omcrguc, PLLS o, +:
+.
:ooo. Army and Mining in Mocsia Supcrior. !n Kaiser, Heer und Gesellschaft in der
Fomischen Kaiser.eit. Stuttgart, 6.
:oo. Roman mining in !llyricum: historical aspccts. !n Dall driatico al Danubio
LIllirico nell et greca e romana. Cividalc dcl Friuli, ::o.
ragojcviJosilovska, 8. +8:. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. \!: Scupi et la
region de Kumano.o. 8clgradc: Ccntar za antiku cpigraku i numizmatiku.
Fidanovski, S. +8. Rimski i ranovizantijski pcriod. !n rheoloko blago Koso.a i Me-
tohije: od neolita do ranog srednjeg .eka, : vols, cd. N. Tasi. 8clgradc: Gallcry ol thc
Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts, :8.
Kcramiticv, A. +6. Novi cpigralski spomcnici od !stona Makcdonija, , +o
++.
+. Novootkrivcni cpigralski spomcnici vo Kratovsko, , ++.
Mirkovi, M. +68. Fimski grado.i na Duna.u u Gornjoj Me.iji. 8clgradc: Arhcoloko
drutvo Jugoslavijc, +68.
Mirkovi, M. & S. uani +6. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. ! (Singidunum
ct lc nordoucst dc la provincc). 8clgradc: Ccntar za antiku cpigraku i numizma
tiku.
Mcsy, A. +68. Latroncs ardaniac, cta ntiqua cademiae Scientiarum Hungaricae,
T. X\!, +, +.
Papazoglu, F. +6. Srednjobalkanska plemena u predrimsko doba: Tribali, utarijati,
Dardanci, Skordisci i Me.i. Sarajcvo: Ccntar za balkanoloka ispitivanja.
8alcanica XXX\!! ::
ParoviPcikan, M. +8:. Antika Ulpijana prcma dosadanjim istraivanjima, Stari-
nar XXX!! (8clgradc), .
Patsch, C. +88. Festschrift fur Otto Benndorf .u seinem &c. Geburtstage ge.idmet .on
Schulern, Freunden und Fachgenossen. \icnna.
+. cr Kampl um dcn onauraum untcr omitian und Trajan, Sit..-Ber. k.
:+, +.
Pctrovi, P. +6. Ni u antiko doba. Ni.
+. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. !\ (NaissusRcmcsianaHorrcum Mar
gi). 8clgradc: Ccntar za antiku cpigraku i numizmatiku.
+. Medijana re.idencija rimskih care.a. 8clgradc.
+. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. !!!/: (Timacum Minus ct la vallc du
Timok). 8clgradc: Ccntar za antiku cpigraku i numizmatiku.
Pctrovi, \. :ooa. Saccrdos ol Jupitcr olichcnus lrom an !nscription Rcccntly is
covcrcd in thc \icinity ol \iminacium, Starinar L!!! (8clgradc), :+::.
:oob. Unc inscription romainc tardivc pacnnc dc Rcmcsiana (Provincc dc acia
Mcditcrranca), Federation internationale des associations detudes classiques !\. Athncs,
::8.
:oo. ardanski gradovi i nasclja u rimskim itincrarima, MA thcsis, Univcrsity ol
8clgradc, ++.
Pilipovi, S. :oo. \otivc Rclicl lrom 8arovo (Scupi): Contribution to Study ol thc
Libcr and Libcra Cult in Uppcr Mocsia, Starinar L\ (:oo), 8+.
Popovi, \. +8:. onji Milanovac\cliki Gradac (Taliata), lortcrcssc romanobyzan
tinc, Starinar XXX!!! XXX!\, :6:8:.
Symc, R. ++. Danubian Papers. 8ucharcst.
Tasi, N. +8. Gvozdcno doba. !n rheoloko blago Koso.a i Metohije: od neolita do
ranog srednjeg .eka, :vols. 8clgradc: Gallcry ol thc Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and
Arts, +::.
:oo. ardanians and ardanian Substratum, Pyraichmes !! (Kumanovo), 6:.
\ukoviTodorovi, . +6. Uc Porckc rckc. !n Stare kulture u Djerdapu. 8cl
gradc, +6+.
\uli, N. ++. Antiki spomcnici nac zcmljc, Spomenik LXX! (8clgradc), +:.
+6+. Nekoliko pitanja i. ntike istorije nae .emlje. 8clgradc: Scrbian Acadcmy ol
Scicnccs, sp. cd. CCCXL\!.
\. P. Pctrovi, PrcRoman and Roman ardania :
Map ol Uppcr Mocsian ardania
Sanja Pilipovi
Heroic Temes of the Trojan Cycle in Roman Iunerary Art
Example of a Relief from Pincum
Tc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lrom \cliko Graditc (Pincum), in thc arca
ol thc Uppcr Mocsian Limcs, today in thc National Muscum in 8clgradc,
has not so lar bccn analyzcd in thc scholarly litcraturc. Tc rclicl draws
most ol its signicancc lrom thc thcmc, inlrcqucntly shown in thc luncrary
stclac ol thc 8alkan and othcr provinccs ol thc mpirc. Although thc rclicl
has bccn prcscrvcd only as a lragmcnt, it is obvious that thc monumcnt was
claboratc in tcrms ol iconography and a piccc ol nc craltsmanship. Tis is
a sucicnt rcason to prcscnt thc rclicl and makc an attcmpt to placc it in a
rclcvant contcxt. !t also sccms csscntial to takc a look at othcr rclicls with
hcroic thcmcs lrom thc Trojan Cyclc lound not only in Uppcr Mocsia, but
also in othcr provinccs ol thc mpirc. Furthcrmorc, it appcars important to
cxaminc thc inscription discovcrcd along with this rclicl, and to invcstigatc
thc possibility ol thcir bcing lragmcnts ol a singlc luncrary monumcnt.
8clorc wc procccd to thcir analysis, both thc Pincum rclicl and thc
concurrcntly discovcrcd inscription will bc prcscntcd in a cataloguc lorm:
Rclicl: Rclicl on a damagcd lragmcnt ol whitc coarscgraincd marblc.
imcnsions: Lcngth 8o cm, mcdium width 6o cm, thickncss . cm.
iscovcry sitc: statc ol Kosta Markovi, \cliko Graditc (Pincum).
+
atc: 8cginning ol :nd ccntury.
Today: For a long timc propcrty ol Kosta Markovi, who madc a gilt ol
both thc rclicl and thc inscription to thc Archacological Socicty,
it was kcpt in Vcicrt Collcction, today in thc National Muscum,
8clgradc, !nv. no. :+/!!!.
cscription: Rclicl on thc lragmcnt ol a marblc slab, placcd in a squarc cld, is
damagcd on thrcc sidcs. Abovc thc rclicl thc rcmnant ol a at cld
with thc basc ol a scmicolumn is obscrvablc. Most probably it was
thc inscription cld ankcd by scmicolumns. Tc lowcr part ol
+
\altrovi +886, 6, Kanitz +8:, :. Howcvcr, in his rst rclcrcncc to this monumcnt
F. Kanitz (+86+, ++, Pl. /) citcs thc namc ol Stojan Marjanovi.
8alcanica XXX\!! :6
thc slab is narrowcr and its roughly drcsscd surlacc suggcsts that it
was in thc ground.
Tc lclt sidc shows a crcncllatcd round towcr ol drcsscd stonc
blocks with a gatc in its lowcr lclt part. To thc right ol thc towcr
is thc biga in which Achillcs stands, and to which Hcctors lcgs
arc bound. Hcctors nakcd body lics lilclcss on thc ground, with
his hair rucd, his right arm closc to thc body, and thc lclt abovc
thc hcad. Achillcs is armourcd and has a hclmct with a plumc ol
lcathcrs, his lclt loot is on thc biga, and thc right onc rcsts on
Hcctors bclly. Hc holds thc rcins ol his horsc and a round shicld
in his lclt hand, and thc right onc is raiscd to thc sidc, but thc
rclicl bcing damagcd, it is impossiblc to say whcthcr hc is holding
somcthing in it. At thc timc Kalinka and Swoboda saw thc rclicl
thc objcct was rccognizably a whip. 8clow thc shicld, horscs tails
arc rccognizablc.
Lcttcrs and can bc sccn on thc top lclt sidc abovc thc towcr,
and on thc top right sidc, abovc thc horscs hcads, arc thc lcttcrs ,
, and . Cyrillic lcttcrs wcrc most probably inscribcd at a latcr
datc.
!nscription Tc inscribcd lragmcnt was discovcrcd along with thc rclicl on thc
cstatc ol Kosta Markovi at \cliko Graditc (Pincum). !t now is
lost, and all that is known about it is bascd on oldcr documcnts.
\altrovi claimcd that thc inscription lragmcnt, as wcll as thc rc
licl lragmcnt, had cntcrcd thc National Muscum in 8clgradc lrom
Vcicrt Collcction, but thcrc is no inlormation in thc Muscums
rccords suggcsting that this lragmcnt has cvcr bccn thc propcrty
ol thc Muscum.
:
As lor thc matcrial ol thc inscribcd lragmcnt, ac
cording to M. \altrovi both thc inscription and thc rclicl wcrc cut
in .hite coarse-grained marble. 8ascd on thc dcscription, it is known
that thc slab with thc inscription was irrcgular in shapc, dcntcd on
all lour sidcs and, bascd on thc prcscrvcd part ol thc scmicolumn
on thc lowcr lclt sidc, probably ankcd by scmicolumns. \altrovi
supplics thc lollowing dimcnsions ol thc lragmcnt: lcngth o cm,
mcdium width 6 cm, thickncss cm.
!nscription
tcxt:

| ] | | XXX Fl(a.io,-ae?) Iucu|n(do,-dae?)| ]


| |r et eli (i ) ann(orum) ]
| |s et Iucundus ] | |s et Gaia her(edes) ]

| | Gaianus l(ius) ] | |c
h(ic) s(itus) e(st).
:
My gratitudc to thc curators ol thc National Muscum in 8clgradc \csclinka Ninkovi,
lor assistancc in my scarch lor data rclatcd to this inscription lragmcnt, and cana
Ratkovi, lor providing thc photograph ol thc rclicl.

! owc a dcbt ol gratitudc to Sncana Fcrjani, cpartmcnt ol History, Faculty ol


Philosophy, Univcrsity ol 8clgradc, lor hcr hclp in rcading this inscription. !t is ncccs
sary to notc that thc rcading ol this inscription cannot bc complctcly rcliablc duc to its
lragmcntary charactcr.
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art :
8ibliography: CIL !!!, 8o8 (6:8), Kanitz +86+, ++, T. /, \altrovi +886, 6
o, Kalinka, Swoboda +8o, :, no. :, Kanitz +8:, ::, \uli,
Ladck, Prcmcrstcin +o, , \uli +o, ++++.
Achillcs, thc grcat hcro ol thc Trojan Var, was onc ol thc most important
gurcs in Roman luncrary art. Achillcs cyclc compriscd, among othcrs, thc
lollowing compositions: immcrsing ol child Achillcs in thc Styx, Achil
lcs cducation with Chciron, his bcing lound on Skyros among Lycomcdcs
daughtcrs, killing ol Pcnthcsilcia, his cncountcr with Priam.

Tc rcprcscn
tation ol Achillcs dragging Hcctors body is just onc ol thc sccncs making
up thc vast Achillcs cyclc, but also thc crucial momcnt ol thc Trojan Cyclc,
dcpictcd in morc dctail on sarcophagi than on luncrary stclac. Sarcophagi
usually showcd thc cyclc, or a largcr numbcr ol sccncs with thc mythologi
cal thcmc.

Tc artistic rcprcscntations ol thc myth ol Achillcs and Hcctor on lu


ncrary stclac show littlc dicrcncc. Achillcs usually stands in a biga, trailing
thc victim on thc ground bchind him.
6
!conographic dicrcnccs arc usually
a mattcr ol dctail: thc biga may movc in dicrcnt dircctions, thc horscs may
bc in gallop or standing still. Tc basic sccnc Achillcs standing in thc biga
and dragging Hcctors body could bc cnrichcd with thc walls ol Troy in
thc background, or a gurc ol Achillcs lcllow warrior Patroclus, ol Andro
machc and \ictory, and at timcs Priam and Hccuba, or Athcna.

Comparcd
to thc basic typc, thc rclicl lrom Pincum is cnrichcd with a round towcr on
thc lclt. Tis iconographic dctail makcs it obvious that thc Pincum rclicl

Sichtcrmann, Koch +, ++, cl. Toynbcc +, 8:, o, L!MC !, s.v. Achil


lcus, no. 6o6o.

Tis myth is dcpictcd on numcrous Attica sarcophagi. Tc lragmcnt ol a sarcophagus


lrom almatia, lrom an unknown sitc, bcars sccncs ol this myth in an unusual, right
to lclt, scqucncc. Tc lront sidc probably borc Achillcs and Hcctor, on thc lclt was thc
sccnc ol Hcrmcs and Priam plcading lor Hcctors body, and on thc right thc warrior
halting Achillcs biga (Cambi +88, +, cat. no. 8), also, othcr sarcophagi arc charac
tcrizcd by complcx iconographics varying only in thc numbcr and sclcction ol sccncs.
Usually thc right sidc ol thc composition shows Priam knccling and plcading with
Achillcs lor his sons body, bchind him arc scrvants untying thc horscs ol Achillcs biga
to which Hcctors body is bound, Automcdon as thc chariotccr, and at thc cnd thcrc
is thc wagon with Priams ransom, Automcdon, most probably undcr Achillcs ordcrs,
draggcd thc body ol Hcctor around Patroclus gravc, and nally, thc unbinding ol Hcc
tors body to givc it his lathcr (LIMC !, s.v. Achillcus, no. 6+86o).
6
Toynbcc +, o8o.

LIMC !, s.v. Achillcus, no. 6o6o.


8alcanica XXX\!! :8
draws on Homcrs vcrscs about Achillcs dragging Hcctors body thrcc timcs
around thc walls ol Troy.
8
Tc composition ol Achillcs dragging Hcctors body and, consc
qucntly, thc rclicl lrom Pincum, may cxprcss its symbolic mcaning at scv
cral dicrcnt lcvcls. n thc rst lcvcl, Achillcs, thc cpic hcro ol thc Trojan
Cyclc, cmbodics !irtus in thc most cxplicit manncr.

8csidcs Mclcagcr, 8cl


lcrophon, Hcraclcs, and othcr cpic hcrocs, Achillcs was ccrtainly onc ol
thc most popular mythological charactcrs shown in luncrary art. All thcsc
thcmcs, rcgardlcss ol thcir cclccticism, symbolizcd thc union ol thc dc
ccascd with thc divinc world, and showcd that mortals could carn ctcrnal
lilc by thcir virtucs, cspccially hcroic virtucs.
+o
Scholars arc in agrccmcnt that Achillcs, as a symbol ol !irtus, was
raiscd to immortality by virtuc ol his conscious dccision.
++
According to
Homcr, Achillcs was givcn to choosc bctwccn a long and pcacclul lilc and
hcroic glory.
+:
8y dcciding to kill Hcctor, hc chosc to dic at a young agc and
win hcroic glory.
+
!n that contcxt, thc composition ol Achillcs dragging
Hcctors body and thc sccnc ol nding Achillcs on Skyros stand apart lrom
Achillcs cyclc. Tc dccision rcachcd on Skyros bcgins to bc brought to lul
lmcnt at thc momcnt ol Achillcs killing Hcctor, and that is why thcsc two
8
According to Homcr, Achillcs wcnt round thc city walls thrcc timcs, dragging Hcc
tors body bound with thc bclt givcn to Hcctor by Ajax (Il. XX!!), and altcr that, ovcr
whclmcd by gricl, Achillcs would risc at dawn and drag Hcctors body around Patroclus
gravc (Il. XX!\).

Studying .irtus as a thcmc in luncrary art, R. Turcan (+8, +o) suggcsts its var
icd cxprcssions. Tus, thc myth about Mclcagcr cxprcsscs symbolism through thc .ir-
tusdcath rclation, myths about Phacdra and Hippolytos, Sthcncboca and 8cllcrophon,
Ariadnc and Tcscus, arc cxprcssivc ol thc lovc.irtus rclation, whilc thc sccncs show
ing Achillcs on Skyros, Hcraclcs or thc Amazons cxcmplily .irtus.
+o
Schclold +6+, +8, Toynbcc +, o.
++
Cumont +:, ::, Schclold +6+, +8.
+:
Il. X\!!!, 88, ++++6, :, o+o, :o::, X!X, +o+6.
+
Achillcs lcarnt lrom his mothcr that hc would dic il hc killcd Hcctor out ol lovc lor
Patroclus, but also that, il hc did not, hc would livc to a ripc old agc in his homcland.
Tctis kncw that Achillcs would not rcturn lrom thc battlc, bccausc dcstiny mcant lor
him to makc thc dccision hc madc, so shc hid him on Skyros, whcrc Achillcs rcachcd
his dccision. Tc importancc ol this dccision is strcsscd by thc lact that, by Tctis ordcrs,
Achillcs was lollowcd cvcrywhcrc by thc scrvant Mncmon who was supposcd to kccp
rcminding him that should hc cvcr kill a son ol Apollos, hc would dic at Apollos hands.
Ancicnt writcrs say that Achillcs killcd Mncmon bccausc hc lailcd to rcmind him ol
Tctis words in good timc, and also claim that hc argucd with Agamcmnon thrcc timcs,
blaming him lor calling him to war only subscqucntly (Plut. Qu. Gr. :8, Apd. Ep. !!!,
+, Proclos, Chrest. +).
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art :
compositions may bc sccn as thc dccision and its practical rcalization, which
is shown in thc rclicl lrom Pincum. Accordingly, thc rcason lor this thcmc,
and thc onc lrom Pincum, to bc choscn lor thc dccoration ol luncrary mon
umcnts should bc sought in thc idca ol Imitatio chillis. Tc dcccascd carns
union ol his soul with thc divinc world by his virtuc, cspccially his valour.
+

Studying thc luncrary contcxt ol Grcck myths, lszcwski cmphasizcs thc
importancc ol this thcmc lrom thc Trojan Cyclc.
+
Rclying on thc work by a
lamous soothsaycr ol thc Antoninc pcriod, Artcmidorus aldianus, hc sccs
thc myths ol Hcctors dcath and luncral, and ol Achillcs lorctold dcath, as
symbolizing thc scparation ol thc soul lrom thc body and its union with thc
divinc world.
+6
According to him, Hcctors tragic dcath also dcmonstratcs
thc importancc ol rctricving his rcmains to bc buricd in accordancc with thc
cstablishcd ritual.
8csidcs bcing a hcroic sccnc lrom thc Trojan cyclc, thc Pincum rc
licl may bc sccn in thc lollowing way as wcll. !n its csscncc, thc sccnc ol
Achillcs trailing Hcctors body is thc rcalization ol his choicc, namcly that
hcroic dcath and ctcrnal bliss should bc prclcrrcd ovcr a long and pcacc
lul lilc in this world. Tc motivc bchind this choicc, according to Plato, is
Achillcs lovc lor Patroclus.
+
Plato bclicvcs that Achillcs lollowcd Patroclus,
as Alccstis lollowcd Admctus, ycarning lor immortality. Tus undcrstood,
Achillcs dragging Hcctors body bccomcs an cxprcssion ol lovc rcwardcd by
thc gods. Tis act is, howcvcr, thc cxprcssion ol both lovc and valour. ut
ol lovc lor Patroclus, Achillcs chooscs not only to dic lor him, but to dic lor
him who is alrcady dcad. !n classical tcxts thc rclationship bctwccn Achillcs
and Patroclus was dcscribcd in dicrcnt ways. According to somc writcrs,
it was morc than just lricndship, in lact, thcy arc sccn as lovcrs.
+8
!t was
cvcn bclicvcd that thcy rcmaincd togcthcr cvcn altcr dcath, on thc island
ol Lcukc at thc mouth ol thc anubc.
+
Plato rclcrs to this honour paid to
Achillcs by thc gods whcn spcaking ol lovc and says that Achillcs rcward
+
Schclold +6+, +8.
+
lszcwski :oo+, + .
+6
Artcmidorus aldianus, Oneirocritica, cl. lszcwski :oo+, + and thc diagram on
p. +8.
+
Plat. Symp. +c+8oc, :o8 d, cl. Turcan +, 6.
+8
Acschyl. lr. 66, Plat. Symp. +c, Apd. Bibl. !!!, +, 8.
+
Paus. !!!, +, +, Antilochus was, ncxt to Patroclus, Achillcs bcst lricnd and hc was
thc onc cntrustcd with brcaking thc ncws ol Patroclus dcath to Achillcs (Apd. Bibl.
!!!, +o, 8, Hyg. Fab. 8+, ), spcaking about thc myth ol Achillcs, . Frcjdcnbcrg +8,
::6, mcntions also thc light symbolism dcscribcd in thc Iliad (Achillcs armour,
lorgcd by cry dcitics, radiatcs cry light around his hcad, bright gold cloud blazing.
Also, whcn thc body ol thc dcad Patroclus is laid out, thc Sun, against his will, undcr
8alcanica XXX\!! o
is grcatcr than Alccstis, lor shc was brought back to lilc, whilc hc was scnt
to thc 8lcsscd !slcs.
:o
Hc also links this idca with thc dicrcnt rolcs thcy
playcd in thcir rclationship, cmphasizing that thc rolc ol thc lovcr, in this
casc Achillcs, is morc important than thc rolc ol thc bclovcd. Tat is why
this hcroic thcmc ol thc Trojan Cyclc may bc also undcrstood as an indircct
cxprcssion ol lovc. Howcvcr, thc rcasons lor Achillcs hcroic advcnturc apart,
this thcmc lrom thc Trojan Cyclc lully cxprcsscs this luncrary symbolism
as thc most illustrious cxamplc ol .irtus, bccoming a paradigm ol thc souls
journcy altcr dcath and its union with thc divinc world carncd by thc hcroic
virtucs shown.
Altcr considcring basic iconographic and symbolic charactcristics ol
thc rclicl lrom Pincum, it is important to look at thc cxisting artistic analo
gics or othcr instanccs ol this thcmc in luncrary art. Achillcs and Hcctor
wcrc not oltcn rcprcscntcd in thc luncrary stclac, and not only in thc arca
ol Uppcr Mocsia whcrc this rclicl, as lar as is known, is thc uniquc cxamplc.
Tcrclorc, thc closcst analogics lor thc rclicl lrom Pincum arc lound in thc
luncrary art ol Noricum and Pannonia: a rclicl lrom \irunum
:+
in Nori
cum, and two imagcs lrom !ntcrcisa (unapcntilc) in Pannonia.
::
Sincc it
makcs only thrcc known rclicls with thc rcprcscntation ol Achillcs dragging
Hcctors body, thcy will bc givcn morc attcntion.
Tc rclicl lrom \irunum was rcuscd lor thc laadc ol thc Maria Saal
Church in Klagcnlurt, Austria.
:
!t is placcd in a squarc cld toppcd with a
NoricPannonian volutc. Tc action unlolds lrom right to lclt. Achillcs, na
kcd, with a capc ovcr his shouldcr and a spcar in his right hand, is standing
in a biga. Abovc thc biga is thc ying gurc ol \ictoria, with a palm branch
in hcr lclt hand and a triumphal wrcath ol thc immortals, corona triumphalis,
in hcr right. Hcctors nakcd body lics lilclcssly on thc ground with his lclt
arm abovc his hcad. Achillcs body is turncd to thc lclt, and his hcad in thc
othcr dircction. Hc is looking at his lcllow warrior, a nakcd gurc with a
capc ovcr thc shouldcr standing on a rock abovc Hcctors body at thc lar
right cnd ol thc composition. Tis lcllow warrior ol Achillcs, most probably
Patroclus, holds a largc shicld in his lclt hand, whilc his right hand is dam
agcd and it cannot bc sccn whcthcr hc uscd to hold any objcct.
Hcras ordcrs, must divc into thc torrcnts ol thc ccanus and sct (Il. X\!!!, :o:o,
X!X , 8:).
:o
Plat. Symp. +8od.
:+
Fcrri +, 8, g. 8+.
::
nc rclicl is simplcr, and thc othcr a morc claboratc composition, Toynbcc +, o,
i, ii.
:
Toynbcc +, o+, iii, cl. Allldy, +, T. +, Fcrri, +, 8, g. +.
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art +
nc ol thc rclicls lrom !ntcrcisa shows Achillcs standing in thc biga,
lully cquippcd lor war,
:
armourcd and hclmctcd, with an oval shicld on
his lclt arm, cxtcndcd to thc right. !n thc raiscd right hand hc is holding a
stonc to throw it at Hcctor, whosc body, bound to thc chariot, is lying on
thc ground bchind him. Tis rclicl is thc closcst analogy to thc rclicl lrom
Pincum, but it docs not show thc towcr dcpictcd in thc Uppcr Mocsian
cxamplc. Tc othcr rclicl lrom !ntcrcisa also shows Achillcs standing in a
biga, armourcd and hclmctcd.
:
Tc walls ol Troy, similar to thosc lrom thc
Pincum rclicl, also appcar hcrc abovc Hcctors body. At thc lclt cnd ol thc
rclicl is Andromachc, holding hcr hair with both hands.
!t is also important to point to thc cxistcncc ol othcr thcmcs lrom thc
Trojan Cyclc in thc luncrary art ol not only Uppcr Mocsia but also ol othcr
provinccs ol thc mpirc. Priams plcading with Achillcs lor thc body ol his
son Hcctor was anothcr rarcly dcpictcd sccnc in luncrary art. nc such
rclicl, originating lrom anubian Scrbia is discusscd by A. Jovanovi with
rclcrcncc to thc issuc ol its authcnticity.
:6
!l it wcrc indccd an authcntic rc
licl, thcn it would bc gcographically thc closcst rcprcscntation ol thc Trojan
Cyclc thcmc. Priam is shown knccling and kissing thc outstrctchcd hand
ol Achillcs. Achillcs is at tablc and intcrrupts his mcal, and bcsidc thc tablc
thcrc arc two hcrocs, most likcly Automcdon, Achillcs chariotccr, and Al
cimus lrom thc Iliad. Priams lcllow warriors arc bchind him, at thc lar lclt
cnd ol thc composition. 8clow thc rclicl is thc inscription LEG. !II CL.
:
!n addition to onc rclicl lrom distant Gaul, Priam and Achillcs arc
only shown in two rclicls, both lrom Pannonia.
:8
nc is kcpt in a muscum
in \icnna, whilc thc othcr, gcographically much closcr, comcs lrom Aquin
cum. Tc rclicl lrom Aquincum shows Priam with a Phrygian cap knccling
bclorc Achillcs. 8chind Achillcs is most probably Athcna, whilc thc right
sidc ol thc rclicl is damagcd.
:
Toynbcc +, o, i, Mscy +, T. b, rdlyi +, g. +86.
:
Toynbcc +, o, ii, rdlyi +, g. +8.
:6
Jovanovi :oo:, 8:.
:
A. Jovanovi (:oo:, +), in his analysis ol thc rclicl ol Priams plcading with Achillcs,
suggcsts that thc idca ol Imitatio chillis may bc applicd also to onc ol thc impcrators
or triumphators in thc ast, or rathcr in thc Lowcr anubian rcgion, island ol Lcukc,
Achillcs abodc altcr dcath. Tc choscn thcmc lrom thc Trojan Var would bc a mcta
phor lor thc victory ovcr thc cncmy, but also lor thc hardwon Grcck accord. l a largc
numbcr ol possibilitics Jovanovi dccidcs on Gallicnus (!ita Gall. +, ), suggcsting that
thc monumcnt cclcbratcs his campaigns in Achillcs wakc, his military triumphs in thc
Lowcr anubian arcas.
:8
Toynbcc +, +, cl. Mscy +, . .
8alcanica XXX\!! :
Tc soclc ol thc luncrary stcla ol Gaius Lucanius lrom Cclcia bcars
anothcr sccnc lrom thc Trojan Cyclc, quitc uniquc in luncrary art Mcnc
laus saving Patroclus body.
:
To thc rclicls with sccncs lrom thc Trojan Var may bc addcd thc
onc on thc luncrary stcla ol Gaius Cornclius Rulus lrom \iminacium. !t
dcpicts thc solcmn thcmc ol Hclcn and Mcnclaus mccting bclorc thc walls
ol Troy.
o
n thc lclt sidc ol this rclicl arc thc walls ol Troy. Abovc thcm arc
thc lragmcnts ol thrcc horsc hcads, onc abovc thc othcr. 8clorc thc walls
arc Hclcn, in a long gown, and Mcnclaus, clad as a Roman ccnturion with
a gorgoneion on his chcst. Tcy strctch thcir right arms towards cach othcr.
Mcnclaus hcad is almost complctcly dcstroycd. n thc lclt sidc ol thc com
position, bchind Mcnclaus, only thc lcgs and part ol thc capc ol his lcllow
warrior arc still disccrniblc.
Hclcn and Mcnclaus arc also shown in a rclicl lrom Aquincum, Pan
nonia, and in two rclicls lrom Noricum, onc lrom swaldgrabcn, thc othcr
lrom cmpctcr, Cclcia.
+
!n thc rclicl lrom Aquincum, Mcnclaus raiscs thc
sword at Hclcn, and ncxt to thcm stands ros on an altar. Similar iconog
raphy is rcpcatcd in thc rclicl lrom swaldgrabcn, whilc on thc rclicl lrom
cmpctcr, in addition to this mythological couplc, thcrc arc also a lcllow
warrior ol Mcnclaus and a lcmalc gurc, most probably Aphroditc.
Tcsc rclicls dcpicting thcmcs lrom thc Trojan Cyclc show that such
instanccs arc not numcrous and, also, that thcrc is not much iconographic
variation. !n that rcspcct, thc Pincum rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lully cor
rcsponds to thcsc most signicant picccs ol Roman luncrary art.
Carclul analysis ol thc prcscrvcd lragmcnt ol thc rclicl lrom Pincum
and its comparison with othcr Uppcr Mocsian monumcnts may provc usc
lul in rcconstructing thc original appcarancc ol thc luncrary monumcnt thc
rclicl lormcd part ol. Tc rclicl showing Achillcs dragging Hcctors body
was most probably placcd on thc soclc, givcn that thc marblc part bclow
thc rclicl is coarscr, lacks nish and is narrowcr, which indicatcs that it was
buricd in thc ground. Tc prcscrvcd basc ol a scmicolumn abovc thc rclicl
indicatcs that thc inscription cld was ankcd by scmicolumns. !n ordcr to
attcmpt a rcconstruction ol what thc uppcr part ol this luncrary monumcnt
was likc, it is ncccssary to takc a look at all thc othcr Uppcr Mocsian monu
mcnts whosc soclcs borc rclicl compositions surmountcd by thc inscription
cld ankcd by scmicolumns.
Studying thc typology ol Uppcr Mocsian luncrary monumcnts, or
thcir architcctural ordcr, \. Kondi lailcd to noticc any spccial cxprcssion
:
Toynbcc +, 6, cl. Schobcr +:, o+, g. .
o
Mirkovi +86, ++o+++, no. .
+
Toynbcc +, 66, ii, iii, iv.
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art
pcculiar to thcm.
:
Tosc with thc simplcst schcmc, a gablc, an inscription
cld and a soclc, arc prcscnt, as wcll as thosc ol a morc claboratc lorm with
thc intcrcld addcd, somctimcs cvcn with thc main cld dccoratcd in rc
licl.

xamining thc typology ol thc stclac lrom this provincc as wcll as


thcir rclicl dccoration, thc rclicl lrom Pincum may only bc comparcd to thc
most rcprcscntativc luncrary monumcnts lrom \iminacium.

Tc luncrary
stclac lrom \iminacium prcscrvcd in thcir original lorm, with compositions
in rclicl and thc inscription cld ankcd by scmicolumns abovc (IMS !!,
, IMS !!, :, IMS !! ++o, IMS !! +6), arc vcry hclplul in crcating a morc
complctc picturc ol thc rclicl lragmcnt lrom Pincum. Tc soclcs ol thcsc
monumcnts bcar thc lollowing gural sccncs: augurs, hunting horscmcn,
rapc ol uropa, and dolphins with a tridcnt.

n thcsc monumcnts, thc in


scription cld is surmountcd by a squarc cld dccoratcd in rclicl, or a gablc
with triangular clds outsidc thc tympanum, whilc onc ol thc monumcnts
is damagcd, and it cannot bc idcnticd what was shown in thc cld abovc
thc inscription.
6
Although it is impossiblc to know whcthcr thc uppcr part
ol thc Pincum monumcnt had a gablc or a ccntral rclicl, this obviously was
an architccturally claboratc monumcnt.

:
Kondi +6, ++.

!n thc typology ol stclac lrom southcastcrn Lowcr Pannonia, \. autova Rucvljan


shows that stclac with soclcs bclong to thc most dcvclopcd architcctural typc ol stclac.
Publishing thc luncrary monumcnts lrom that rcgion, shc citcs a singlc stcla dccoratcd
with a mythological composition (+8, , 6: , no. + and schcmatic prcscntation
on p. 66). Tc stcla comcs lrom 8assiana and datcs lrom thc turn ol thc +st and :nd
ccnturics. !ts soclc shows thc sccnc ol Clytcmncstras dcath and Agamcmnons gravc.
Sccncs with mythological narrativcs wcrc morc charactcristic ol thc provinccs Uppcr
Pannonia and Noricum (Schobcr +:).

Kondi +6, all volumcs ol thc IMS cdition.

Two monumcnts with thcir soclcs bcaring thc motil ol cantharos with vinc or a rc
licl which is not clcarly lcgiblc today, which also havc thc inscription cld ankcd by
scmicolumns abovc, arc not mcntioncd hcrc. nc ol thcsc two monumcnts has a richly
dccoratcd gablc abovc thc inscription, whilc thc uppcr part ol thc othcr has not survivcd
(Mirkovi +86, no. :o: and no. ).
6
Tc stclc with augurs on thc soclc, abovc thc inscription cld bcars thc lriczc with
wild animals on thc run, and abovc it thc rclicl ol Hclcn and Mcnclaus (no. ), thc
stclc with thc horscmcn hunting on its soclc docs not havc a prcscrvcd part abovc thc
inscription cld (no. :), whilc abovc thc inscription cld ol thc stclc with thc rapc ol
uropa thcrc is a rclicl ol thc rapc ol Pcrscphonc on thc soclc (no. ++o), and, nally,
abovc thc inscription cld ol thc stclc with dolphins and a tridcnt on thc soclc, thcrc is
a richly dccoratcd uppcr part with thc Triton and a doc in thc gablc, and lions in trian
gular clds surrounding it (no. +6) (Mirkovi +86).

Comparison with thc mcntioncd luncrary monumcnts lrom \iminacium, cspccially


with thosc showing thc Rapc ol uropa or thc augurs on thc soclc, may indicatc that
8alcanica XXX\!!
!n its monumcntal charactcr and dimcnsions, thc rclicl ol Achillcs
and Hcctor lrom Pincum is similar to thosc showing thc Rapc ol Pcrsc
phonc on thc stcla ol M. \alcrius Spcratus, Hclcn and Mcnclaus on thc stc
la ol C. Cornclius Rulus, or thc rclicl with Hcraclcs and Alccstis, now built
into thc lortrcss ol Smcdcrcvo.
8
Rcgarding its placcmcnt on thc stcla, thc
closcst analogics lor thc rclicl lrom Pincum can bc lound in thosc shown
on thc soclcs ol luxury luncrary monumcnts lrom \iminacium, in thc rclicl
with thc augurs or thc Rapc ol uropa.

!n spitc ol thcsc analogics, thc


rclicl lrom Pincum still lalls among monumcnts with hcroic thcmcs lrom
morc distant provinccs ol thc mpirc, Pannonia and Noricum.
Minor iconographic dicrcnccs in thc iconography ol thcsc picccs
with thc thcmcs lrom thc Trojan Cyclc, which arc not so numcrous, show
that thc carvcr who cut thc Pincum rclicl most probably had bclorc him a
pattcrnbook lrom !taly or somc othcr artistic ccntrc in thc wcstcrn provinc
cs ol thc mpirc, whcncc thc inucnccs rcachcd this part ol thc anubian
arcas ol Uppcr Mocsia anyway. According to \. Kondi, thc rclicl lrom Pin
cum, as wcll as thc rclicl ol Hcraclcs and Alccstis, or thc rclicls on thc sidcs
ol thc sarcophagi showing !phigcnia on Tauris, should not bc considcrcd as
imports, but as obviously madc hcrc with thc usc ol pattcrnbooks.
o

Tc rclicl with Achillcs and Hcctor lrom Pincum is in a rathcr poor
statc ol prcscrvation, and its cxact datc can hardly bc cstablishcd. !ts dcci
phcring is madc additionally dicult as thc rclicl has lost its original thrcc
dimcnsionality, howcvcr, thc richncss ol dctail and thc skillul organization
ol thc claboratc composition arc still obscrvablc. All this supports thc as
sumption that this rclicl, or thc monumcnt, should bc datcd to thc rst hall
ol sccond ccntury, which is thc datc ol most ol thc monumcnts with this
thcmatic rcpcrtoirc.
thc luncrary monumcnt lrom Pincum had a composition in rclicl abovc thc inscrip
tion cld. Tis assumption may bc supportcd by thc lact that thcrc wcrc workshops in
\iminacium whcrc such luxurious monumcnts wcrc madc. !t is important to notc that
thcsc luxurious monumcnts havc a charactcristic lriczc with wild animals on thc run,
placcd bctwccn thc inscription cld and thc ccntral rclicl abovc. Tus such a lriczc was
bcncath thc Rapc ol Pcrscphonc on thc stcla ol M. !alerius Speratus, bcncath Hclcn
and Mcnclaus on thc stclc ol C. Cornelius Fufus, and bcncath Hcraclcs and Alccstis on
thc stcla built into thc Smcdcrcvo lortrcss, ol which only thc uppcr part has survivcd
(Mirkovi +86, no. ++o and no. , Ladck, Prcmcrstcin, \uli +o+, +:, gurc , cl.
LIMC !, s.v. Alkcstis, no. :).
8
Mirkovi +86, nos. ++o and , Ladck, Prcmcrstcin, \uli +o+, +:, g. , LIMC
!, s.v. Alkcstis, no. :.

Mirkovi +86, nos. and ++o.


o
Kondi +6, :8:.
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art
Tc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lrom Pincum was discovcrcd along
with an inscription, prcscrvcd only lragmcntarily and lost today.
+
Tc au
thors who originally publishcd thcsc lragmcnts did not statc cxplicitly that
thcsc had lormcd part ol thc samc monumcnt, noncthclcss, thcy wcrc al
ways rclcrrcd to togcthcr.
:

!n ordcr to undcrstand whcthcr thcy arc thc lragmcnts ol onc scpul
chral wholc, it is important to point out thc lollowing lacts. Firstly, both
lragmcnts wcrc madc ol thc samc matcrial.

!n addition, thc prcscrvcd


basc ol thc lclt scmicolumn in thc inscription cld surmounting thc rc
licl indicatcs that thc inscription was ankcd by scmicolumns, or that thc
lragmcnt ol thc inscription was ankcd by scmicolumns, which is also
mcntioncd in thc litcraturc.

And nally, cvcn thc dimcnsions ol thc lrag


mcnts may suggcst that thcy oncc lormcd part ol onc wholc. Tc thickncss
ol thc inscribcd lragmcnt was cm, and ol thc rclicl bctwccn and cm.
Tc inscription, dcntcd on all lour sidcs, was o cm widc, and thc rclicl,
damagcd only on onc sidc, is 8o cm widc. Unlortunatcly, thc scarch through
thc National Muscums documcntation has so lar lailcd to conrm that thc
inscription lrom Pincum uscd to bc kcpt in thc Muscum, as statcd by carlicr
rcscarchcrs. Although thc two picccs arc vcry likcly to bc lragmcnts ol onc
luncrary monumcnt, it will not bc possiblc to say anything morc until ad
ditional inlormation is lound in thc Muscum documcntation.
vcn il thc inscription wcrc to bc takcn to havc bccn an intcgral part
ol thc monumcnt, not much could bc lcarnt about thc dcdicants ol thc lu
ncrary monumcnt lrom Pincum. As thc inscription, duc to its lragmcntary
prcscrvation, is, and was cvcn at thc timc ol its rst publication, vcry dil
cult to rcad, it is not quitc clcar to whom thc monumcnt was dcdicatcd.
Probably thrcc pcrsons, !ucundus, Gaia and Gaianus (thc son:), had thc
monumcnt crcctcd lor onc, or rathcr two pcrsons, ol which onc was Flavius
!ucundus, whilc thc namc ol thc othcr is impossiblc to rcconstruct. Vhat
can bc sccn lrom this inscription is that thosc wcrc gcntilc namcs Fla.ius
and elius. M. Mirkovi, in hcr rcscarch into thc origin ol thc inhabitants ol
Pincum, mcntions this vcry inscription, or its publishcd lragmcnt, as a con
rmation ol thc cxistcncc ol thc namcs Fla.ius and elius in thosc arcas.


elii might havc bccn original inhabitants, acquiring Roman citizcnship
+
\altrovi +886, 6o.
:
CIL !!!, 8o8 (-6:8), \altrovi +886, 6o, Kalinka, Swoboda +8o, :, no. :,
Kanitz +8:, ::, \uli, Ladck, Prcmcrstcin +o, , \uli +o, ++++.

\altrovi +886, 6o.

\altrovi +886, 6o, \uli +o, ++++, no. ++.

!n addition to thcsc gentilitia, impcratorial gcntilc namc urelius was also prcscnt in
Pincum. Flavius and Aurclius also appcar in a bronzc plaquc, today lost, oncc probably
8alcanica XXX\!! 6
undcr Hadrian, at thc timc thc mincs wcrc opcncd. Scttlcmcnt ol vctcrans
in thc vicinity ol lcss important military camps, likc thc onc in Pincum,
bcgan rclativcly carly, which is supportcd by cvidcncc on thcsc scttlcmcnts
lrom thc rst hall ol thc sccond ccntury and latcr.
6
From all this, thc in
scription may bc datcd to thc pcriod ol Hadrians rulc or thc pcriod altcr it,
and thc vcry lormula hic situs est conrms thc datc ol thc cnd ol thc rst and
bcginning ol thc sccond ccntury.


8caring in mind that thc rclicl lrom Pincum is a rcprcscntation ol
hcroic drama lrom thc Trojan Cyclc, it may bc assumcd that thc choicc
ol thcmc was consistcnt with thc military prolcssion ol thc dcccascd. !t is
not quitc ccrtain which units wcrc stationcd at Pincum during thc arly
mpirc. A largc numbcr ol stampcd bricks havc bccn discovcrcd at this
sitc to datc.
8
M. Mirkovi bclicvcs that most wcrc madc in \iminacium
and that somc wcrc manulacturcd at Pincum.

Tc largcst numbcr ol all


stampcd bricks rclcrs to lcgion \!! Claudia, whilc thosc stampcd with leg
IIII probably rclcr to !\ Fla.ia, scvcral units ol which may havc staycd lor
a short whilc at thc conucncc ol thc Pck.
o
!n addition to thcm, thc arca
has yicldcd two morc inscriptions rclcrring to \!! Claudia. nc mcntions
a lormcr soldicr ol this lcgion.
+
Tc othcr docs not cxplicitly mcntion this
lcgion, but M. Mirkovi bclicvcs that it also rclcrs to a pcrson scrving in this
lcgion.
:
All ol thc inscriptions mcntion thc troops ol Pincum and indicatc
that thcrc, as also bclicvcd by M. Mirkovi, \!! Claudia was stationcd.

!n
light ol thcsc lacts, thc dcdicant ol this luncrary monumcnt should bc sccn
as rclatcd to this lcgion, morcovcr as a pcrson aucnt cnough to aord such
a luxurious monumcnt.

part ol thc military diploma, Jahreshefte 6, 8cibl. +:, no. +, cl. \uli, Ladck, Prcmcrstcin
+o, , Mirkovi +68, +o, n. 6.
6
Mirkovi +68, ++8, n. , and +:o, n. .

n thc lormula hic situs est on Uppcr Mocsian monumcnts, scc Pctrovi +, 8o
8:.
8
M. Mirkovi (+68, +o:, no. +) mcntions thc inscriptions on thcsc bricks.

CIL !!!, 6:8, Jahreshefte 6, 8cibl. 6, no. 8: Pinco, Jahreshefte 6, 8cibl. 6, no. 8:
Cast(ra) Pinc(ensia), cl. Mirkovi +68, +o, n. :, Mirkovi :oob, .
o
Mirkovi +68, +o:.
+
ILJug :, 8+: Io.i .exillario leg(ionis) !II.
:
CIL !!!, :,c,:: Io.(i) opt(imo) m(aximo) Dulceno ex .ot(o) el(ius) Sil.anus het (-et)
Leonides leg(ionis) sig(nifer) EN MIF...(-Jahreshefte , 8cibl. , no.+, N. \uli com
plctcd thc last linc: |b|ene mer(enti), cl. Mirkovi, +68, +o:, n. :).

Mirkovi +68, +o:, +:o, n. .

Town administrators, dccurions, also sct up thc monumcnt with thc rclicl ol augurs
on thc soclc, and Hclcn and Mcnclaus in thc ccntral rclicl, and thc monumcnt with
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art
Tc dcscribcd qualitics ol thc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lrom Pin
cum, and thcrclorc thc luncrary monumcnt itscll, raisc many issucs con
ccrning this, obviously as yct uncxplorcd, antiquc scttlcmcnt. Vho wcrc its
inhabitants, who could aord such monumcnts, was this marblc monumcnt
pcrhaps an cxccption: Sincc thc rst rcscarch ol this archacological sitc in
\cliko Graditc and thc timc whcn F. Kanitz visitcd it, all that rcmaincd
ol thc lort was onc wall towards thc anubc, still visiblc in somc placcs.


Scholars havc idcnticd Pincum, thc Roman and arly 8yzantium lort
(. by . m), with thc antiquc station on thc road ncar thc anubc. !t
was probably a major scttlcmcnt, ccntrc ol thc mining district in thc Pck
vallcy.
6
Givcn that thc sitc that has not bccn invcstigatcd, thc archacologi
cal nds rccordcd to datc will bc listcd hcrc. Tc mcntioncd brick inscrip
tions comc lrom Pincum,

as wcll as thc two alrcady mcntioncd inscrip


tions rclcrring to legio \!! Claudia, which wcrc dcdicatcd to Jupitcr, onc by
a lormcr soldicr and thc othcr, abovc a lragmcntarily prcscrvcd sculptural
rcprcscntation, by Aclius Silvanus.
8
nc morc inscription on thc lragmcnt
ol a marblc slab should bc mcntioncd hcrc, dcdicatcd to thc Spirits ol thc
cpartcd, Dis Manibus,

and two inscriptions, dcdicatcd to thc Spirits ol


thc cpartcd in thc Undcrworld, Dis Infernis, cngravcd on bronzc votivc
plaqucs, oncc probably attachcd to urns or sarcophagi.
6o
Tc dcdicants ol
thcsc votivc tablcts wcrc town administrators, quinquennalis and decurio, in
a town whosc namc was abbrcviatcd to M or L and which can hardly bc
idcnticd.
6+
thc rclicls ol thc Rapc ol uropa on thc soclc and Rapc ol Pcrscphonc in thc ccntral
cld (Mirkovi +86, no. and no. ++o). For thc dcdicant ol Jasons sarcophagus, ol
high military ranking, and analysis ol thc iconography ol this sarcophagus, scc Pilipovi
:oo, 68, cl. Kanitz +8, +8:.

Mirkovi +68, +o:, cl. Kanitz +8:, :.


6
uani +, 6, uani +, +8 , P. Pctrovi ++, :+o:++, in his analysis
ol thc cxistcncc ol thc port and Roman cct, Classis Fla.ia Moesica on thc anubc,
touchcs on thc issuc ol thc port in this arca as wcll, and mcntions strovo ncar \cliko
Graditc, whcrc laint Roman traccs havc bccn rcgistcrcd.

Mirkovi +68, +o:, no. +.


8
For thc rst inscription, scc ILJug :, 8+, lor thc sccond inscription, cl. CIL !!!,
+o, +, Mirkovi +68, +o:, n. :, on thc sculptural rcprcscntation, scc \uli, Ladck,
Prcmcrstcin +o, .

\uli +, no. .
6o
Mirkovi :oo, 8, no. + and no. :.
6+
Mirkovi :oo, 8, nos. + and :, assumcs that thc namc Fla.iana rclcrs to thc arca
whcrc \iminacium and Margum wcrc situatcd, similarly to thc namc eliana lor thc
mining arca along thc Pck rivcr.
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
Numcrous sculptural works lrom Pincum wcrc not rccordcd and, as
lar as is known, thcy in lact wcrc individual, most oltcn accidcntal, nds.
nc ol thc carlicst rclcrcnccs was madc by F. Kanitz in +8:. Hc mcntions
bronzcs such as a small statuc ol Mcrcury, child 8acchus, Zcus and a con
vcntionally craltcd Nikc, which appcarcd in Trausche Sammlung collcction
in \icnna, via 8clgradc and 8udapcst.
6:
Such is Athcnas bronzc hcad,
6

thc mcntioncd luncrary monumcnt with thc inscription, abovc which was
thc lragmcntary marblc basc ol a sculpturc,
6
and a luncrary monumcnt,
today known only lrom oldcr litcraturc, with an inscription which was not
prcscrvcd, abovc which was thc bust ol a woman with a child and a strap
with hcrbal ornamcnt bcncath thc rclicl.
6
A dic lor striking thc obvcrsc ol
Hadrians dcnarius or aurcus,
66
and a goldcn ring whosc loop is lormcd by
two nakcd lcmalc gurcs holding in thcir raiscd hands a platc inlaid with
a whitc opal camco with Mcdusas hcad.
6
Tcrc arc also scvcral gravcs.
68

!n addition to scvcral ccramic and glass vcsscls, two mctal daggcrs wcrc
also lound,
6
and two mctal bucklcs uscd lor lastcning thc woodcn shcaths
lor thc sword whosc lragmcnt was also lound, as wcll as a goldcn carring.
M. Cunjak, bascd on thc rcsults ol smallscalc rcscuc cxcavations, simply
rcports a nccropolis with crcmation burials to thc northwcst ol Pincum,
and anothcr onc with inhumation burials to thc southwcst ol thc lort.
o

Tc mcntioncd picccs, in lact rarc archacological nds, support thc bclicl
that this is a sitc that has not bccn sucicntly invcstigatcd. Transccnding in
its signicancc thc provincial boundarics, thc monumcnt discusscd in this
papcr corroboratcs this bclicl.
6:
Kanitz +8:, :.
6
Tc hcight ol this bronzc lragmcnt was cm, \uli +, :+, no. +.
6
Tc dimcnsions ol this small marblc basc wcrc 8 x +: x cm, and thc hcight ol thc
sculptural rcprcscntation itscll was : cm (\uli, Ladck, Prcmcrstcin +o, , with a
drawing).
6
\uli, Ladck, Prcmcrstcin +o, .
66
Popovi +88, +o, typc , no. : (with carlicr bibliography), uani +, +8, g. 6.
6
Popovi +:, 6, no. 6o.
68
M. Cunjak +8, 8 mcntions thc rcsults ol archacological rcscarch conductcd
altcr accidcntal ndings during construction work at \cliko Graditc in +8.
6
A. Jovanovi :ooo, 8:, in his analysis ol thcsc daggcrs, suggcsts that thc two arc
complcmcntary and idcntics thcm as sica, a wcllknown wcapon ol Tracian or a
cian origin. Trough carclul analysis thc author arrivcs at thc conclusion that this is thc
gravc ol a (lormcr) soldicr ol !!!! Fla.ia or \!! Claudia, and datcs it to thc rst hall ol
thc :nd ccntury.
o
Cunjak +8, 8.
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art
!n conclusion, it may bc said that thc lragmcntcd rclicl lrom Pincum
with thc sccnc ol Achillcs dragging Hcctors body bclongcd to a luncr
ary stclac ol thc architcctural typc, and to a group ol not vcry numcrous
monumcnts with hcroic thcmcs lrom thc Trojan Cyclc. Tc idca to dcpict
thc hcroic thcmc with Achillcs and Hcctor on thc marblc rclicl lrom Pin
cum, and thc cmphasis on thc idca that only .irtus can carn ctcrnal lilc
may bc indicativc ol thc dcccascd pcrsons military prolcssion. Sincc lcgion
\!! Claudia was stationcd at Pincum, hc may havc bclongcd to onc ol its
units. Tc inscription discovcrcd along with this rclicl lragmcnt probably
bclongcd to thc samc scpulchral wholc. Although its rcading is madc di
cult by its lragmcntary statc ol prcscrvation, it suggcsts Romanizcd inhabit
ants whosc gcntilc namcs wcrc Fla.ius and elius. Tc luncrary monumcnt
may bc datcd to thc bcginning ol thc sccond ccntury, which is thc datc ol
its closcst analogics lound in luxurious luncrary monumcnts lrom \imina
cium or othcr provinccs ol thc mpirc such as Pannonia and Noricum.
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts
Belgrade
Abbreviations
Sources
Apd. Bibl. Apollodori, Bibliotheca
Apd. Ep. Apollodori, Epitome
Artcm. Artcmidorus aldianus, Oneirocritica
Il. Homcri, Ilias
Hyg. Fab. Hygini, Fabulae
Plat. Symp. Platon, Symposium
Plut. Qu. Gr. Plutarchus, Quaestiones Graecae
Proclos, Chrest. Proclos, Chrestomathia
Literature
E Lanee epigraphique, Paris.
EM rchaologisch-epigraphische Mittheilungen aus Osterreich,
\icnna.
NF! ufstieg und Niedergang der romischen !elt, 8crlinNcw York.
GSD Glasnik Srpskog arheolokog drut.a, 8clgradc.
GDKS Glasnik drut.a kon.er.atora Srbije, 8clgradc.
ILJug A. ct J. acl, Inscriptiones Latinae quae in Iugosla.ia inter
annos MCMXL et inter annos MCMLX et inter annos CMLX
et MCMLXX et inter annos MCMII et MCMXL repertae et
editae sunt, Ljubljana +6, +8, +86.
IMS Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure !, !!, !!!/:, !\, \!, 8clgradc +6.
Jahreshefte Jahrcschcltc dcs stcrrcichischcn archaologischcn !nstitutcs
in Vicn, \icnna.
UDC :&.::.c:.c,&.:J()
8alcanica XXX\!! o
LIMC Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae !\!!!, Zurich,
Munich, +8+, \!!!, Zurichusscldorl, +.
F Fe.ue archeologique, Paris.
Spomenik Spomenik SK. Scrbian Royal Acadcmy, 8clgradc.
Bibliography
Allldy, G. +. Noricum. London8oston: Routlcdgc & Kcgan Paul.
Cambi, N. +88. tiki sarkofa.i u Dalmaciji. Split: Knjicvni krug.
Cumont F. +:. Fecherches sur la symbolisme funeraire des Fomains. Paris: P. Gcuthncr.
Cunjak, M. +8. Zatitna arhcoloka iskopavanja nckropola Pinkuma. GDKS +o,
8.
autovaRucvljan, \. +8. Fimska kamena plastika u jugoslo.enskom delu pro.incije
Donje Me.ije. Novi Sad: \ojvodjanski muzcj.
uani, S. +. Aspccts ol Roman Mining in Noricum, Pannonia, almatia and
Mocsia Supcrior. NF! !! (6), :.
+. Kovanjc novca u rudnikim distriktima rimskog !lirika. !n Fadionice i ko.nice
srebra, cd. !. Popovi, T. Cvjctianin and 8. 8ori8rckovi, Procccdings ol thc conlcr
cncc hcld at thc National Muscum, 8clgradc ++ Novcmbcr, +++. 8clgradc:
National Muscum.
rdlyi, A. +. Fmai Kfaragas es Ks.obrs.at Magyarors.gon.
Fcrri, S. +. rte Fomana sul Danubio. Milan.
Frcjdcnbcrg, . +8. Mit i antika knjie.nost. 8clgradc: Prosvcta.
Jovanovi, A. :ooo. Arhcoloki tragovi impcrijalnog trijumla nad aanima sa prostora
Gornjc Mczijc, Zbornik Matice srpske .a klasine studije :, 8.
. Falsikati u arhcolokom matcrijaluupozoravajua aktuclnost. GSD +8,
86.
Kalinka, K. & S. Swoboda. +8o. 8cricht ubcr cinc Rcisc im Gabictc dcr rau und
Sacc, EM X!!!.
Kanitz, F. +86+. Die Fomischen Funde in Serbien. \icnna.
+8:. Studien in Serbien, cnkschriltcn dcr Kaiscr Akad. cr. Viss., Phil. Hist.
Classc XL!.
+8. Srbija, .emlja i stano.nit.o od rimskog doba do kraja XIX .eka !. 8clgradc: Srp
ska knjicvna zadruga (- Das Konigreich Serbien und das Serben.olk: .on den Fomer.eit
bis .ur Gegen.art. Lcipzig +o).
Kondi, \. +6. Scpulkralni spomcnici sa tcritorijc rimskc provincijc Gornjc Mczijc.
Ph.. thcsis, cpartmcnt ol Archacology, Faculty ol Philosophy, Univcrsity ol 8cl
gradc.
Ladck, F., A. von Prcmcrstcin & N. \uli. +o+. ntike Denkmaler in Serbien !!,
Jahrcshcltc !\, 8cibl., +6:.
Mirkovi, M. & S. uani, +6. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. !: Singidunum
et le nord-ouest de la pro.ince. 8clgradc.
Mirkovi, M. +68. Fimski grado.i na Duna.u u Gornjoj Me.iji. 8clgradc: Arhcoloko
drutvo Jugoslavijc.
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art +
+86. Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. !!: !iminacium et Margum. 8clgradc.
:oo. Ncuc inschriltcn aus \iminacium, !iminacium ++, +o.
:oob. Fomer an der Mittleren Donau. Fomische Strassen und Festungen .on Singi-
dunum bis quae. 8clgradc.
Mscy, A. +. Pannonia and Upper Moesia. London8oston: Routlcdgc & Kcgan
Paul.
lszcwski, M.T. :oo+. Lc langagc symboliquc dans la dcoration a scncs my
thologiqucs ct son scns dans lcs tombcs pcintcs dc lricnt romain nouvcllc approchc.
!n A. 8arbct, cd., La peinture funeraire antique, I!e sicle a.. J.-C.I!e sicle apr. J.-C.,
Actcs du \!!c colloquc dc lAssociation !ntcrnationalc pour la pcinturc muralc antiquc,
SaintRomaincnGal\icnna (6+o octobrc +8). Paris: ditions rrancc, ++6:.
Pctrovi, P. +. Paleograja rimskih natpisa u Gornjoj Me.iji. 8clgradc.
++. Classis Flavia mocsica na unavu u Gornjoj Mcziji, Starinar XLXL!, :o
:+6.
Pilipovi, S. :oo. A Contribution to thc Study ol thc Jason Sarcophagus lrom \imi
nacium, Starinar L!!!L!\, 68.
Popovi, !. +88. ntiko orudje od g.odja u Srbiji, 8clgradc: National Muscum.
+:. Prstenje. Fimski nakit u Narodnom mu.eju u Beogradu. 8clgradc: National Mu
scum.
Schclold, K. +6+. La lorcc cratricc du symbolismc lunrairc dcs Romains, F !!
(octdcc), +8:o.
Schobcr, A. +:. Die romischen Grabsteine .on Noricum und Panonien. \icnna.
Sichtcrmann, H. and G. Koch +. Griechische Mythen auf romischen Sarkophagen. Tu
bingcn: \crlag rnst Vasmuth.
Toynbcc, J. M. C. +. Grcck Myth in Roman Stonc, Latomus :6, +:.
Turcan, R. +8. Lcs sarcophagcs romains ct lc problmc du symbolismc lunrairc,
NF! !! +6.:, +oo+.
+. Messages doutre-tombe. Liconographie des sarcophages romains. Paris: c 8oc
card.
\altrovi, M. +886. Rimski rcljcl i ploa sa natpisom iz \. Gradita, Starinar !!, 6
o.
\uli, N. +o. Antiki spomcnici nac zcmljc, Spomenik XL\!!, +o++.
+. Antiki spomcnici nac zcmljc, Spomenik LXX\, 8.
\uli, N., A. v. Prcmcrstcin, F. Ladck. +o. Antiki spomcnici u Srbiji, Spomenik
XXX!X, 88.
8alcanica XXX\!! :
Fig. + Achillcs and Hcctor, marblc rclicl lound at \cliko Graditc (Pincum),
:nd ccntury A.. National Muscum, 8clgradc (photo National Muscum, 8clgradc)
Fig. : rawing ol thc rclicl ol Achillcs and Hcctor lound at \cliko Graditc (Pincum)
(altcr Kanitz +86+, Pl. /)
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art
Fig. Achillcs and Hcctor, marblc rclicl lound at !ntcrcisa. Muscum ol 8udapcst
(photo Mscy +, g. b)
Fig. Achillcs and Hcctor, marblc rclicl lound at !ntcrcisa. Muscum ol 8udapcst
(photo rdlyi, g. +8)
8alcanica XXX\!!
Fig. Achillcs and Hcctor, marblc rclicl lrom \irunum, built into
thc Maria Saal Church, Klagcnlurt (photo Fcrii +, 8, g. 8+)
Fig. 6 Priam and Achillcs, marblc rclicl lrom Acquincum. Muscum ol 8udapcst
(photo Mscy +, g. a)
S. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art
Fig. 8 Hclcn and Mcnclaus, rclicl lrom Acquincum.
Muscum ol 8udapcst (photo rdlyi +, g. +:)
Fig. Hclcn and Mcnclaus, rclicl on thc marblc stcla ol C. Cornclius Rulus lrom
\iminacium. National Muscum, Poarcvac (photo !. Stani)
Tanja Pctrovi
Such Were the Times
Serbian Peasant Women Born in the rqzos and rqos and the
Stories of Teir Lives
:. Life story as a source of information on history, culture and identity
Tc analysis prcscntcd in this papcr is bascd on cight lilc storics told by
womcn born in Scrbia in thc +:os and +os.
+
Most ol thc storics wcrc
rccordcd by studcnts ol thc Faculty ol Philology, 8clgradc, bctwccn +
and :ooo, and somc wcrc rccordcd by Soja RakiMiloradovi and 8iljana 8iljana
Sikimi.
:
All intcrvicwcrs wcrc lcmalc and signicantly youngcr than thcir
intcrvicwccs. Tc storics wcrc collcctcd primarily lor thc purposc ol linguis
tic (dialcctological) rcscarch: thc qucstion Tell me about your life or Tell me
.hat life .as like .hen you .ere young givcs thc intcrvicwccs thc possibility
ol tclling a cohcrcnt story which is ncithcr lcd nor oltcn intcrruptcd by
thc intcrvicwcrs qucstions, whcrcby linguistic intcrlcrcncc bctwccn thc col
locutors is rcduccd to a minimum, as rcquircd lor thc matcrial bcing uscd in
dialcctological studics.
Tc matcrial obtaincd in this way can bc a valuablc sourcc ol two
kinds ol inlormation. Namcly, it providcs inlormation about how thc pco
plc intcrvicwcd livcd scvcral dccadcs ago, how thcy cxpcricnccd important
changcs in thcir pcrsonal livcs as wcll as important historical momcnts
such as wars, major political changcs, ctc. n thc othcr hand, this matcrial
+
Z. M. (++), cpurc (ncar Parain), \. J. (+:8), Mirilovac (ncar Parain), . P.
(++), \cnanc (umadija, ccntral Scrbia), J. C. (+:), Kladovo (castcrn Scrbia), R.
. (+), Majur (ncar Jagodina), J. . (+:), Gubcrcvci (ncar Gua, wcstcrn Scrbia),
R. M. (+:6), 8agrdan (ncar Jagodina), 8. S. (+), 8anatska Palanka (southcrn 8anat,
\ojvodina, closc to thc Romanian bordcr).
:
! am gratclul to Radojc Simi (Faculty ol Philology, Univcrsity ol 8clgradc), Soja
RakiMiloradovi (!nstitutc lor thc Scrbian Languagc), and 8iljana Sikimi (!nstitutc
lor 8alkan Studics), who wcrc so kind as to makc matcrials lrom thcir archivcs availablc
lor my rcscarch.
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
constitutcs a linguistic unit, a pcrlormancc ol thc self in discoursc through
which an intcrvicwcc prcscnts hcrscll to an intcrvicwcr. iscursivc intcrac
tions bctwccn thc two may bc sccn as manilcstations ol proccsscs ol cultural
idcntity lormation.

Similarly to this vicw, Lindc strcsscs that lilc storics


cxprcss our scnsc ol scll: who wc arc and how wc got that way. Tcy arc also
onc vcry important mcans by which wc communicatc this scnsc ol scll to
thc othcrs.

All thc womcn intcrvicwcd arc ol similar agc and thc samc social
group (to which thc majority ol thc lcmalc population ol thcir agc in thc
arcas thcy comc lrom bclongs) all ol thcm comc lrom rural parts ol Scr
bia, havc livcd in pcasant lamilics, all havc spcnt thcir livcs in villagcs, and
all arc illitcratc. Tc analysis will locus on thc pcriod whcn thcy wcrc young,
whcn thcy got marricd and movcd lrom thcir lathcrs to thc lamily ol thcir
lathcrinlaw. Tis mcans that thc portion ol thcir lilc storics dcscribing
this pcriod in thcir livcs conccrns thc +os and +os. !n hcr cxtcnsivc and
dctailcd study publishcd in +66,

\cra St. rlich analyzcd approximatcly


thc samc pcriod (thc survcy was conductcd in ++), conccntrating on
thc issucs ol authority, conict, rank and position in thc lamily, as wcll as on
thc proccss ol translormation ol all lamily rclations. Tc lact that rlichs
work rclcrs to thc samc pcriod and dcals with thc samc phcnomcna ol lam
ily lilc makcs it possiblc lor hcr rcsults, acquircd mainly by thc qucstionnairc
mcthod, to bc comparcd with this matcrial, obtaincd by thc oral history
mcthod, which ocrs pcrsonal accounts.
:.:.Communicati.e situation
!n this articlc ! prcscnt thc way thc intcrvicwcd womcn scc what thcir posi
tion in thc lamily was o ycars ago. Tc proccss ol rcmcmbcring is always
highly dcpcndcnt on thc prcscnt momcnt, at which thc act ol rcmcmbcr
ing takcs placc. Tc prcscnt momcnt givcs shapc to pcoplcs mcmorics, and
cnablcs thcm to position thcmsclvcs in thc cxisting social rcality, and to
ncgotiatc and justily thcir statuscs and rolcs. nly in connccting thc past
with thc prcscnt, in positioning thcn in rclation to now, can thc lull mcan
ing ol mcmorics rcvcal itscll. Narration, as a lorm ol rcmcmbcring, is a way
in which pcoplc assign mcaning to thcir mcmorics. Narrativc is among thc

Cl. Felationality: Discursi.e Constructions of sian Pacic merican Identities, cds. A.


Lo and A. Rcycs, Pragmatics +/: (:oo), and thcrcin 8. Urciuoli, Tc iscursivc
mcrgcncc ol thc Cultural Actor, ::6+.

C. Lindc, Life Stories. Te Creation of Coherence (xlord Univcrsity Prcss, +), .

\. St. rlich, Family in Transition: Study of cc Yugosla. Families (Princcton Univcr


sity Prcss, +66).
T. Pctrovi, Such !ere the Times
most important social rcsourccs lor crcating and maintaining pcrsonal idcn
tity.
6
As Kathlccn Stcwart argucs, to narratc is to placc oncscll in an cvcnt
and a sccnc to makc an intcrprctativc spacc and to rclatc somcthing to
somconc: to makc an intcrprctativc spacc that is rclational and in which
mcanings havc dircct social rclcrcnts.

Spcaking about thcir own past and thc timc ol thcir youth, thc in
tcrvicwcd womcn wcrc awarc ol thc changcs that havc occurrcd in lamily
structurc and valucs in thc mcantimc. nc also has to bcar in mind thc lact
that thcy told thcir storics to young womcn coming lrom a complctcly dil
lcrcnt lamily and social background, this lact ccrtainly acctcd thc lorm,
conccpt and contcnts ol thcir lilc storics as strcsscd by Nicdcrmullcr, thc
vcrbalizcd lilc history is not an autonomous tcxt, constructcd only in thc
lunction ol thc lilc coursc ol thc spcakcr but much rathcr thc immancnt
product ol thc linguistic intcraction, thc psychological, sociological situa
tion bctwccn thc rcscarchcr and thc nativc.
8
As during thc intcrvicws thc
intcrvicwccs wcrc not lcd by spccic qucstions, thcy wcrc lrcc to makc
thcir own conccpt ol thc story thcy wcrc tclling

to strcss what thcy con


sidcrcd to bc important, to makc commcnts, cvaluations and comparisons,
as a rcsult, thc collcctcd matcrial shows which vcrbal stratcgics womcn uscd
in prcscnting thcmsclvcs. Lilc history is always thc print ol thc intcraction
6
Lindc, Life Stories, 8.

K. Stcwart, Nostalgia. A Polcmic, Cultural nthropology () (+88), ::.


8
P. Nicdcrmullcr, From thc Storics ol Lilc to thc Lilc History: Historic Contcxt,
Social Proccsscs and thc 8iographical Mcthod, in Life History as Cultural Construction
Performance, cds., T. Holcr and P. Nicdcrmullcr (8udapcst, +88), 8.

H. 8ausingcr, Constructions ol Lilc in Life History as Cultural Construction (p. 8),


mcntions thc Gcrman matcrial collcctcd by using thc samc mcthod: in thc latc +os
thc Tubingcn !nstitutc took part in an cxtcndcd projcct ol collccting, documcnting and
classilying dialcctological matcrial, which involvcd a largc numbcr ol intcrvicwccs. Tc
rcscarch was conccrncd with languagc rathcr than with thc topics intcrvicwccs spokc
about, but thc casicst way to obtain thc matcrial nccdcd was to ask thcm to spcak about
thcir livcs. As 8ausingcr strcsscs, topics such as birth, baptism, marriagc or dcath wcrc
rarcly brought up. Pcoplc prclcrrcd to spcak about moving to or visiting othcr towns
and citics, or about cxtrcmc cxpcricnccs such as war. 8y contrast, all lilc storics analyzcd
in this papcr contain passagcs about childhood, marrying into anothcr lamily, giving
birth to and rcaring thc childrcn. xplanation lor this dicrcncc may bc lound in thc
lact that thc living and social spacc ol thc intcrvicwcd womcn was cxtrcmcly limitcd
most had no cncountcrs with othcr pcoplc or placcs apart lrom thcir villagc. l coursc,
thosc who, lor instancc, had cxpcricnccs such as mccting 8ulgarian or Gcrman soldicrs
during VV!! did mcntion thcm in thcir lilc storics.
8alcanica XXX\!! o
bctwccn concrctc, pcrsonal cxpcricnccs and thc individual undcrstanding
ol rcality.
+o
Narrativcs produccd in thc particular communicativc situation arc
dialogic in naturc. ialogism, a conccpt dcvclopcd by 8akhtin |\oloshi
nov|,
++
has bccn lruitlully intcgratcd into thc thcorctical lramc ol anthropo
logical linguistics.
+:
Tc dialogic naturc ol autobiographic narrativcs rcachcs
bcyond mcrc dialogical intcractions bctwccn intcrvicwcr and intcrvicwcc
(as wc havc alrcady pointcd out, thcsc intcractions wcrc rclativcly rarc, sincc
thc intcrvicwcrs scldom intcrruptcd thc intcrvicwccs narrativcs): it is also
inherently dialogical, both with rcspcct to thc opposition then vs. no. and
to thc opposing valuc systcms prcvailing in thc two tcmporal lramcs. Tis
dialogism is thc rcason why thc autobiographical discoursc analyzcd hcrc
typically consists ol statcmcnts dcscribing cvcnts lollowcd by pcrsonal com
mcnts, as a rulc, thcsc commcnts rclcr to dicrcnccs bctwccn thcir (intcr
vicwccs) and prcscnt timcs. Tc lollowing quotation rcprcscnts thc typical
pattcrn ol narrating in thcsc autobiographics:
cvcnt~ Tere .ere three brothers and three sisters in my family. !hen I
.as old enough to take care of the co.s, my father decided to marry me to
a boy I had ne.er met.
commcnt~ I did not lo.e him, but I had to gi.e in life .as dierent
then, my dear, you had to listen to your parents back then. It .as not as it
is no. it .as impossible to marry .hom you .anted. Tere .as no lo.e
then. ( J. C.)
+o
Nicdcrmullcr, From Storics ol Lilc to Lilc History, 6.
++
Cl. M. M. 8akhtins works: Problems of the Poetics of Dostoye.sky |in Russian| (Mos
cow, +6), Te Dialogic Imagination, cd. M. Holquist, trans. C. mcrson & M. Holquist
(Univcrsity ol Tcxas Prcss, +8+), Speech Genres and Other Late Essays, cds. C. mcrson
& M. Holquist, trans. \. McGcc (Univcrsity ol Tcxas Prcss, +86).
+:
Cl. L. Tsitsipis, Linguistic nthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: r.antika (l-
banian) and Greek in Contact (xlord Univcrsity Prcss, +8), R. 8auman, Contcxtu
alization, Tradition and thc ialoguc ol Gcnrcs: !cclandic Lcgcnds ol thc Kraltaskld
in A. uranti and C. Goodwin, cds., Fethinking Context. Language as an Interacti.e Phe-
nomenon (Cambridgc Univcrsity Prcss, +:), +:+, R. 8auman and C. L. 8riggs,
Poctics and Pcrlormancc as Critical Pcrspcctivcs on Languagc and Social Lilc, n-
nual Fe.ie. of nthropology + (+o), 88, C. L. 8riggs, Learning ho. to ask: a socio-
linguistic appraisal of the role of the inter.ie. in social science research (Cambridgc Univcr
sity Prcss, +86), 8. Mannhcim and . Tcdlock, cds., Te Dialogic Emergence of Culture
(Univcrsity ol !llinois Prcss, +).
T. Pctrovi, Such !ere the Times +
:. Position of the young .oman (daughterdaughter-in-la.) in the Serbian
patriarchal family
!n thc analysis, ! locus on two phcnomcna quitc uncommon in currcnt cv
cryday cxpcricncc but, by contrast, common in thc intcrvicwccs youth: mar
riagc against thcir will and thc bridcs subordinatcd position in thc lamily
ol hcr lathcrinlaw. Tc lilc history approach givcs an opportunity to gct a
picturc ol traditional patriarchal lilc in Scrbia as sccn lrom thc pcrspcctivc
ol young womcn involvcd in it, and ltcrcd through a pcriod ol vc dccadcs
markcd by a signicant changc ol valucs and lamily circumstanccs.
:.:. Marriage against .omens .ill
8alkan lamily structurc is bascd on two main principlcs thc principlc ol
scniority and a malcdominatcd systcm ol rcgulations.
+
!n such a socicty
thc worst position in thc hicrarchy is that ol a young woman. Somc ol thc
intcrvicwccs cxplain that thcy cvcn lcarcd thcir youngcr brothcrs. Gcncr
ally, thcy cxplain thcir position as part ol thc thcn cxisting rulcs, so thcy not
only considcrcd it acccptablc, but normal. !n lact, thcy saw it as thc only
possibility in such a valuc systcm and thc prcvailing social ordcr. 8ut, at thc
samc timc thcy arc awarc that thc pcoplc thcy arc talking to havc complctcly
dicrcnt valuc systcms, so that a dicrcncc bctwccn thcir timc and this
timc is oltcn strcsscd:
Vhcn ! was young, lilc was not likc it is today. Tcrc wcrc no calcs,
no promcnadc, and my parcnts wcrc so strict that ! did not darc
cvcn talk with boys, ncvcr mind considcring going to calcs and
promcnadc. (R. M.)
Timcs havc changcd. !t was complctcly dicrcnt whcn ! was young,
unlikc youngstcrs marrying whom thcy want now. ( J. C.)
Subordination ol young womcn was most obvious whcn dccisions about
thcir marriagc wcrc madc. Tcy usually had no inucncc on thc choicc ol a
husband. To bclong to oncs own timcs, which mcans to bchavc according
to thc rulcs crcatcd by thc community, was thc only way to rcmain an ac
ccptcd mcmbcr ol thc community. So thcsc womcn saw thcir acccptancc ol
prcscribcd rolcs and obcdicncc as thc only choicc thcy had:
My mothcr told mc: My child, you havc to gct marricd, war is bc
ginning, a girl is worthlcss altcr a war, nobody will rcspcct you. So !
got marricd. (. P.)
+
M. Mittcraucr, A Patriarchal Culturc: Functions and Forms ol Family in thc 8al
kans, Beitraege .ur historichen So.ialkunde, sp. issuc (\icnna, +), +.
8alcanica XXX\!! :
For a woman, bcing an cxccption lrom thc cxisting sociocultural modcl
would havc had much worsc conscqucnccs than rcmaining in a subordi
natcd position as a marricd woman:
+
!t was shamclul back thcn to lcavc oncs husband and marry anothcr
man. Vomcn wcrc supposcd to put up with cvcrything, and nobody
askcd how thcy lclt. Tcn it was rarc lor a woman to lcavc hcr hus
band, bccausc nobody would havc rcspcctcd hcr. ( J. C.)
Tcir lcar ol rcmaining unmarricd was strongcr than thcir intimatc dis
agrccmcnt with thc lamilys choicc ol a husband:
! got alraid ! would rcmain unmarricd at thc agc ol ::. !n thc past
girls did not go to school and thcy marricd carlicr at thc agc ol +8,
+, cvcn as carly as +6. (Z. M.)
vcn whcn thc intcrvicwccs spcak ol othcr womcn who marricd against
thcir lamilys (lathcrs) will, thcy only cxplain thc possibility ol such bchav
iour by changing timcs:
nly my youngcst sistcr marricd against our lathcrs will. Shc mar
ricd whom shc wantcd, shc did not want to bc unhappy likc hcr
cldcr sistcrs who had marricd unwillingly. Shc sucrcd a lot, but shc
madc it. 8ut by thcn a ncw timc had alrcady bcgun, and cvcrybody
was looking lor lovc. Vhcn ! was gctting marricd, it was complctcly
dicrcnt. ( J. C.)
Howcvcr, whcn thc intcrvicwcd womcn talk about thcir nonvoluntary
marriagcs, a kind ol conict bctwccn thcir pcrsonal and social idcntitics
bccomcs obscrvablc:
+
bclonging to a ccrtain social structurc, thcy acccpt it
and considcr thcmsclvcs part ol it. 8ut pcrsonally, thcy disagrcc with thcir
position as imposcd by rural patriarchal socicty and scc it as a vcry bad and
humiliating statc:
!t was impossiblc to marry whom you wantcd, thcy bargaincd ovcr
you as il you had bccn a cow. ! kcpt thinking, God, do not lct mc havc
lcmalc childrcn. ! likc girls, but thcy sucr too much in lilc. (Z. M.)
Timcs wcrc dicrcnt thcn. ! likc thc way it is now. ( J. C.)
+
C. . Vorobcc, Peasant Fussia, Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation Pe-
riod (Northcrn !llinois Univcrsity Prcss, +), +8, strcsscs that it was a scrious crimc
lor a Russian pcasant womcn to dclault on hcr obligations to hcr husband, thc author
cxplains such an attitudc mainly by cconomic rcasons, in tcrms ol intcrdcpcndcnt la
bour rclationship ol spouscs.
+
M. lchinova, Autobiographical Story as ScllPrcscntation |in 8ulgarian|, Balgarski
folklor 6 (+), ::, cmphasizcs thc cxistcncc ol thc two typcs ol idcntity: Social
idcntity is thc individuals awarcncss ol bclonging to a ccrtain social group, with cmo
tional and valuablc signicancc lor thc group mcmbcrs, whilc individual idcntity con
sists ol a pcrsons intimatc imagcs ol thcmsclvcs.
T. Pctrovi, Such !ere the Times
:.:.:.Fethinking the past
8ausingcr says thc innatc contradiction ol autobiography is that somcthing
unnishcd has to bc prcscntcd as il it wcrc round and donc and closcd.
+6

Similarly, Lindc strcsscs that thc naturc ol thc proccss ol narration con
tributcs to thc crcation ol rccxivity, bccausc onc can ncvcr immcdi
atcly spcak thc prcscnt in thc prcscnt. Tis ncccssarily crcatcs a distinction
bctwccn thc narrator and thc protagonist ol thc narrativc, and intcrposcs
a distancc bctwccn thcm. Conscqucntly, thc narrator can obscrvc, rccct,
adjust thc amount ol distancc, and corrcct what is bcing crcatcd.
+
Rccxivity is also a charactcristic ol thc analyzcd lilc storics, which
lrcqucntly contain statcmcnts that rccapitulatc thc womcns livcs. Howcvcr,
dcspitc thc lact thcy considcr thcir nonvoluntary marriagcs as a bad and
humiliating thing, whilc rccapitulating thcir livcs thc intcrvicwcd womcn
always spcak about it in a good manncr:
Tcrc wcrc + pcrsons including mc in thc houschold ! camc into
whcn ! got marricd. Somchow ! havc spcnt my lilc thcrc and, you
scc, ! was happy with my husband. Vc havc spcnt :: ycars togcthcr.
(Z. M.)
! havc danccd and sung a lot in my lilctimc, and ! am not sorry at all
that ! got old. (Z. M.)
! was vcry unhappy, but ! had to agrcc and to marry thc husband my
lathcr chosc lor mc. Vc had childrcn latcr, and wc havc lovcd cach
othcr bccausc ol thc childrcn. ! got ill whcn ! was still young, but !
managcd to cducatc my childrcn and to raisc thcm propcrly. Tcy
havc thc childrcn ol thcir own now. So, that was my lilc, it was bru
tal in a way, but it has comc out wcll. Somchow, onc comcs to lovc
oncs husband latcr. ( J. C.)
Vc havc bccn marricd lor o ycars, my husband was oltcn away, hc
workcd a lot, hc spcnt :6 months in thc army. Vc had thrcc malc
childrcn, onc ol thcm dicd, so wc havc two sons and vc grandchil
drcn now. Tat is thc way wc arc living now. ( J. .)
:. :. Father and father-in-la.
For thc intcrvicwcd womcn, thcir lathcr was an absolutc authority. Tcy
strcss his dcspotic, authoritativc rolc in thc lamily:
My lathcr was vcry strict with mc, hc did not allow mc to go any
whcrc. ( J. .)
+6
8ausingcr, Constructions ol Lilc, 8+.
+
Lindc, Life Stories, +o.
8alcanica XXX\!!
My lathcr was vcry tough, ! was not cvcn allowcd to spcak |with
mcn|. (R. M.)
My lathcr would takc mc to a dancc, but hc would also takc a stick
along. And whcn ! danccd with somcbody, hc would stand right
ncxt to mc. !l hc dislikcd thc pcrson ! was dancing with, hc would
bcat mc with his stick. ( J. .)
ncc marricd and in a ncw lamily, thc position ol young womcn dcrivcd
lorm thc position ol thc daughtcrinlaw in homc ol lathcrinlaw and
mothcrinlaw. As \cra rlich dcscribcs, thc rclation bctwccn bridc and
husbands parcnts is morc important than hcr rclation to hcr husband shc
primarily bccomcs a snaha (daughtcrinlaw), not a wilc, so as a rulc mar
riagc mcant cntcring a homc not ol a husband, but ol a husbands par
cnts.
+8
rlich noticcs ccrtain customs rcgarding thc scniors which rccct
thc humility ol thc young wilc (and to somc cxtcnt cvcry wilc),
+
and mcn
tions thc custom lor a marricd woman to kiss thc hand ol mcn (rst ol all
hcr lathcrinlaws), to wash thc lcct ol hcr lathcrinlaw, and thc custom ol
standing at mcals. !n thc analyzcd lilc storics, thc rst two ol thcsc customs
arc oltcn mcntioncd:
! livcd with my lathcrinlaw lor +6 ycars. ! washcd his lcct, ! cut
his nails, ! washcd his hair, ! did his laundry. Hc lovcd mc as il ! had
bccn his daughtcr. ( J. C.)
! washcd my lathcrinlaws lcct lor vc ycars. 8clorc going to bcd,
! would go to him to say good night and kiss his hand. Tcn in thc
morning ! would go to say good morning and kiss his hand again.
Hc was lying in his bcd and ! had to kiss his hand. 8ut, what could !
do, such wcrc thc timcs. (R. Z.)
Such an obligation ol young womcns towards thc lathcrinlaw was insti
tutionalizcd in a patriarchal community. vcn though quitc cxtrcmc lrom
todays point ol vicw, it was considcrcd normal and thc womcn oltcn talk
about it. A bridc had similar obligations towards hcr mothcrinlaw, but
taking carc ol hcr intimatc aairs was taboocd and only onc ol thc intcr
vicwcd womcn was rcady to talk about it:
Vhcn my mothcrinlaw had a pcriod, ! had to wash hcr bloody
shirts. Shc did not wcar undcrwcar, only a long shirt. And ! had to
wash it whcn ! camc to thcir housc as a bridc. (8. S.)
+8
rlich, Family in Transition, ::8.
+
Ibid., ::.
T. Pctrovi, Such !ere the Times
. Father-in-la.daughter-in-la. alliance
Tc analyzcd narrativcs rcvcal somc issucs conccrning thc lamily structurc
and valuc systcm in thc Scrbian patriarchal community. Tc lilc story mcth
od givcs an opportunity to look at thc position ol a young woman within
that community lrom hcr own pcrspcctivc, this mcthod shcds a somcwhat
dicrcnt light on this issuc lrom thc qucstionnairc mcthod. So \cra St.
rlich in hcr study cxplains thc custom lor a bridc to kiss thc hand ol hcr
lathcrinlaw and to wash his lcct as a manilcstation ol thc womans cx
trcmcly subordinatcd position and humiliation. Howcvcr, thc way thc intcr
vicwcd womcn talk about thcsc customs in thcir autobiographics shows an
othcr dimcnsion ol thc daughtcrinlaw/lathcrinlaw rclationship whosc
main charactcristics arc mutual rcspcct and mutual condcncc rathcr than
humiliation and subordination. Vhilc lcar is thc basic lccling charactcriz
ing thc passagcs about thcir lathcrs, whcn spcaking about thcir lathcrsin
law thc womcns cmphasis is on coopcration and condcncc:
Vhcn ! got marricd, ! askcd my lathcrinlaw to buy a cow which !
would takc carc ol. And wc livcd o that cow. ( J. C.)
! askcd my lathcrinlaw: o you agrcc that wc can work in thc
cld with our own cattlc: And hc agrccd. And ! bcgan to work thc
land thc way ! had lcarnt in my lathcrs housc. At thc cnd ol thc ycar
my lathcrinlaw was vcry plcascd with mc and my work. (R. M.)
Tcsc womcn arc always vcry proud ol thc lact that thcir lathcrsinlaw
wcrc lond ol thcm:
Vhcn my husband and his brothcr dccidcd to livc apart, my lathcr
inlaw dccidcd to stay with us. ! was vcry happy with his dccision: it
showcd that ! was a good daughtcrinlaw. ! always cookcd thc lood
that my lathcrinlaw likcd. (Z. M.)
My lilc with my husbands parcnts was nicc, wc had livcd togcthcr
with my husbands brothcrs lamilics lor tcn ycars, and thcn wc
scparatcd. My lathcrinlaw and mothcrinlaw wcnt on living with
us. My lathcrinlaw uscd to say: onc docs not choosc a son, but a
daughtcrinlaw. nc should choosc a daughtcrinlaw who will
takc carc ol hcr husbands parcnts whcn thcy gct old. (\. J.)
\cra rlich strcsscs that thc grooms parcnts wcrc absolutc authoritics in
thc houschold into which thc bridc camc. 8ut, why is such an uncxpcctcdly
important rolc givcn to thcir lathcrsinlaw by thc womcn thcmsclvcs in
thcir lilc storics: !n thc scgmcnt ol thcir lilc storics dcscribing thc bridcs
lilc in thc ncw lamily, thc lathcrinlaw takcs up much morc spacc and
importancc than thc groom himscll. Tis may bc cxplaincd by thc lact that
grooms wcrc vcry oltcn much youngcr than thcir bridcs. Tc analyzcd auto
biographics givc cvidcncc lor this:
8alcanica XXX\!! 6
Altcr thc Sccond Vorld Var my lathcr dccidcd to marry mc to a
boy lrom thc samc villagc. 8ut almost all boys ol my agc had lclt or
dicd during thc war, and thc villagc was small, so thcrc wcrc only
vcry young boys lclt. Tcy wantcd to marry and gct bridcs lrom
good lamilics. 8ut thcy wcrc so young, short and immaturc, ! dis
likcd thcm vcry much. (\. J.)
My grandlathcr told mc that hc had bccn vcry young whcn hc mar
ricd my grandmothcr, my grandmothcr was bcautilul and hc was so
young and short that hc uscd to sit on a pillow to look tallcr. So, my
grandlathcr thought ! should marry a young boy as wcll. (M. R.)
!t sccms, howcvcr, that this phcnomcnon is not thc main rcason lor thc
intcrvicwcd to attach so much importancc to thcir lathcrsinlaw, morc im
portant is thc lact that thc lathcrinlaw was thc highcst authority and dcci
sionmaking pcrson in thc patriarchal lamily. 8y contrast, thc young bridc
who had just comc to his housc was thc pcrson in thc worst position, with no
inucncc in thc lamily. ominant communicativc lunctions ol lilc historics
bcing scllprcscntation and scllcxprcssion,
:o
an cmphasis on this kind ol
alliancc bctwccn thc most authoritativc and lcast authoritativc mcmbcrs ol
thc lamily scrvcs thcsc lunctions too. Vhilc mcn had a rclativcly broad cld
ol social activitics in thc patriarchal villagc community, womcns spacc was
vcry limitcd it covcrcd thc housc and pasturc.
:+
Tc communication which
womcn could cstablish was also limitcd, to thcir childrcn, othcr womcn
and junior community mcmbcrs. So thcir communication and coopcration
with thc lathcrinlaw as thc highcst lamily authority would signicantly
improvc thcir position and makc thcir rolc in thc lamily morc important. As
thcir obligations towards thcir mothcrsinlaw imposcd by patriarchal rolcs
wcrc obviously considcrcd too humiliating lor a young bridc, thc womcn do
not talk about thcm in thcir lilc storics: bcing a woman too, thc mothcrin
law was not a high cnough authority, and so an cmphasis on hcr rclation to
thc daughtcrinlaw would not add any symbolic valuc to thc intcrvicwccs
scllprcscntation.
Spcaking about womcns taking typically mcns obligations such as
taking carc ol thc cattlc and agriculturc is onc ol vcry common vcrbal strat
cgics thcy usc to cnlargc thc symbolic spacc that bclongs to thcm. ck
crt strcsscs that womcn, dcprivcd ol powcr can only gain compliancc
through thc indircct usc ol mans powcr, or through thc dcvclopmcnt ol pcr
:o
lchinova, Autobiographical Story, +.
:+
For morc on thcsc spatial distributions ol gcndcr rolcs in traditional socictics, cl. T.
Pctrovi, Struggling lor Spacc. Scllprcscntation in Autobiographics ol Vomcn in
Scrbia 8orn in +:os and +os in She in the Balkans, cds. . Tachcva and !. Ncdin
(8lagocvgrad, :ooo).
T. Pctrovi, Such !ere the Times
sonal inucncc. Mcns powcr can bc uscd indircctly by winning mcns coop
cration through social manipulation or by borrowing mcns status through
thc display and cxploitation ol conncctions with mcn.
::
Ardncr introduccd
thc tcrms dominant and dumb in ordcr to dcscribc thc uncqual positions ol
mcn and womcn in socicty:
:
mcn, bcing dominant, had thc opportunity to
lorm and cxprcss thcir signicancc in socicty, whilc womcn, bclonging to
thc group ol thc dumb, had no such possibility. 8ccausc ol that thcy wcrc
lorccd cithcr to translorm thcir own signicancc cxprcssing it through thc
dominant groups codc, or not to talk about it at all.
Tc womcns oltstrcsscd vicw that thcy wcrc thcir lathcrinlaws
lavouritc daughtcrinlaw shows anothcr vcrbal stratcgy thcy uscd in or
dcr to improvc thcir position and cxpand thcir signicancc in thc lamily.
Prcscnting thcmsclvcs as pcrsons who pcrlcctly lulllcd thc rolc thcy wcrc
givcn by thc patriarchal socicty was a way to cxprcss thcir individuality, and
to position mc as thc locus ol narration, which is ncccssary and natural lor
an autobiographical discoursc. Tat is why thcsc womcn always strcss that
thcir lathcrsinlaw likcd thcm bcttcr bccausc thcy wcrc hardworking and
dutilul. Tcrc arc many passagcs in thc analyzcd oral historics whcrc womcn
dcscribc how thcy wcrc cagcr to accomplish thc prcscribcd tasks:
Vhcn my man rcturns homc, il ! havcnt donc somcthing thc way it
should bc donc, ! would start crying at oncc. Hc would say, o not
cry lor that, woman. 8ut ! lclt bad lor not having donc it bclorc hc
camc. ! wantcd to havc cvcrything donc bclorc hc camc back homc,
so that hc could say, Vcll donc, woman! ( J. .)
! had to managc to gct cvcrything donc. ! would not lct anyonc say
! was latc, ! do not know what ! would do in that casc, ! would dic
ol humiliation. ! always got cvcrything donc on timc, cvcn though !
had no watch. ! could tcll thc timc by looking at thc sun. (Z. M.)
Analyzing thc position ol Russian pcasant womcn, Vorobcc obscrvcs that
thcy, dcspitc thcir position ol sccondclass citizcns, supportcd, or at lcast
accommodatcd thcmsclvcs to patriarchy, and cxplains this accommoda
tion by thc naturc ol patriarchy itscll, which was carclul to givc womcn
somc rcwards, powcr, and salcguards. Russian pcasants honourcd womcn as
mothcrs and diligcnt pcrsons.
:
Accordingly, Scrbian pcasant womcn also
sought to conlorm as closcly as possiblc to thc highcst valucs cxisting in thc
patriarchal community.
::
Quotcd in Lindc, Life Stories, +o.
:
Quotcd in P. \odcnicharov and K. Popova, So, ! was not thc last onc..., !ndividual
ity and mcns idcntity in biographical intcrvicws ol two Mohammcdan 8ulgarians lrom
Smolian rcgion |in 8ulgarian|, Balkanistic Forum + (+), :.
:
Vorobcc, Peasant Fussia, +:+6.
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
,. Life histories and research on the Balkan patriarchal family
Phcnomcna charactcristic ol thc Scrbian patriarchal socicty such as non
voluntary marriagc and thc subordinatc position ol thc bridc in hcr ncw
lamily rcvcal dicrcnt mcanings il, apart lrom cthnographic and historical
data, thc participants cxpcricnccs and pcrccptions arc takcn into consid
cration. Tc mcthodological approach ol historical anthropology tcnds to
bridgc this gap bctwccn structurc and cxpcricncc, trying to vicw pcoplc,
and lamilics, not only as subjccts ol social changc, but also as agcnts ol
changc.
:
Tc qucstion as to how pcoplc pcrccivcd social structurcs and
what kind ol stratcgics thcy lormulatcd as a rcsult ol thcir pcrccptions in
ordcr to achicvc thcir individual and collcctivc goals
:6
appcars to bc csscn
tial and unavoidablc. Ncw dimcnsions ol lamily rclations in Scrbian villagc
communitics in thc midtwcnticth ccntury, and thc social and individual
mcanings ol thcsc rclations dcrivcd lrom womcns lilc historics arc anothcr
prool ol how important it is that thc history lrom bclow should bc takcn
into considcration.
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts
Belgrade
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:
U. 8runnbaucr, Ncw ircctions in 8alkan Family Studics: 8ctwccn Numbcrs and
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lamily structurc.
:6
Ibid.
UDC :&.,.-c.:(,,.::):,:,:,
c::&.,:J(,,.::)
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8ulgaria |, cd. anicla Kolcva. Soa: L!K, :+:.
lchinova, M. +. |Autobio
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rlich, \. St. +66. Family in Transition: Study of cc Yugosla. !illages, Princcton
Univcrsity Prcss.
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vcrsity Prcss.
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Univcrsity ol !llinois Prcss.
Mittcraucr, M. +. A Patriarchal Culturc: Functions and Forms ol Family in thc
8alkans. Beitraege .ur historichen So.ialkunde, Spccial issuc, :o.
Nicdcrmullcr, P. +88. From thc Storics ol Lilc to thc Lilc History: Historic Contcxt,
Social Proccsscs and thc 8iographical Mcthod. !n T. Holcr and P. Nicdcrmullcr, cds.,
Life History as Cultural ConstructionPerformance. 8udapcst, +.
Pctrovi, T. :ooo. Struggling lor Spacc. Scllprcscntation in Autobiographics ol
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Tsitsipis, L. +8. Linguistic nthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: r.antika
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Stcwart, K. +88. Nostalgia. A Polcmic. Cultural nthropology (), :::+.
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Rcycs, cds., ::6+.
\odcnicharov, P. and K. Popova. +. , ...,
,
|So, ! was not thc last onc..., !ndividuality and mcns idcntity in bio
graphical intcrvicws ol two Mohammcdan 8ulgarians lrom Smolian rcgion|, Balkan-
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Vorobcc, C. . +. Peasant Fussia, Family and Community in the Post-Emancipation
Period. ckalb: Northcrn !llinois Univcrsity Prcss.
!skra Likomanova
People in My Life
(Picture of Socialization)
Ninc lilc historics ol cldcrly womcn (ovcr o ycars ol agc) lrom scvcral
small 8ulgarian towns arc analyzcd hcrc. Tc storics wcrc rccordcd ac
cording to a dcnitc mcthodology and subordinatcd to a dcnitc goal: to
outlinc thc narrators social sphcrcs. Tc narrativc structurc ol thc storics
is dcscribcd and analyzcd as wcll.
+
Tc storics arc prcdominantly mono
logucs, but thcy arc supplcmcntcd by way ol clarilying qucstions askcd by
thc rcscarchcr lollowing thc intcrvicwccs monologucs.
:
Tc storics takc up
about an hour cach.
Hcrc thc contcnt structurc ol lilc historics is bcing analyzcd, bascd
on thc dcsignations (nouns, adjcctivcs and pronouns) uscd lor pcrsons lrom
thc narrators cnvironmcnt.
+. Mcthodology ol rcscarch. Tc analysis combincs thc statistical and
qualitativc mcthods. Tc numbcr ol dcsignations lor a pcrson is studicd
statistically. For cxamplc, lor hcr father a lcmalc narrator may usc thc
lollowing dcsignations: my father, he, or just the .erb inexion (thc socallcd
zcro markcr), which is typical ol thc 8ulgarian languagc. Tc naming ol
onc and thc samc pcrson in thc story is studicd also in tcrms ol his/hcr
dcsignations in rclation to othcr pcoplc in thc story, c.g. my father-in-la. -
my husbands father, or my brother-in-la. - my husbands brother. So dcpcnding
on thc plot ol thc story onc and thc samc pcrson may bc dcsignatcd in thc
lollowing ways: my son, my daughter-in-la.s husband, my grand daughters
+
!. Likomanova, How do wc rctcll our lilcstory (Typology ol autobiographical story),
Communicating experience, Procccdings lrom !X !ntcrnational ral History Conlcrcncc
(Gothcnburg, +6), 8+8:o.
:
For morc, scc !. Likomanova, LilcHistorys iscoursc in Organi.ation in discourse,
cds. 8. Varvik, S.K. Tanskancn and R. Hitumcn, nglicana Turkuensia + (Turku, +),
6o, adcm, Lilc History discoursc (bctwccn monologuc and dialoguc), Proceed-
ings of E.aluation of Biographies (Klagcnlurt, +).
8alcanica XXX\!! 6:
father, my other daughter-in-la.s husbands brother, their son-in-la. (in
rclation to rclativcs by marriagc), their brother (in rclation to othcr childrcn)
and so on. Tc tcrminology dcsignating thc pcrsons in a largc patriarchal
lamily in tcrms ol lamily rclations is vcry widcly uscd in thc contcmporary
8ulgarian languagc.
:. igrcssions lrom thc topic about grammatical charactcristics
ol thc 8ulgarian languagc. Tc cxtrcmcly rich kinship tcrminology in thc
8ulgarian languagc givcs immcnsc opportunitics lor such typc ol studics.
Tc longlasting agricultural and patriarchal way ol lilc has dcvclopcd a
rich systcm ol kinship tcrms to dcscribc various rclations within a largc
lamily living around thc samc courtyard il not undcr thc samc rool. !n such
a lamily, thc sistcr ol thc lathcr, lor cxamplc, is dcsignatcd dicrcntly lrom
thc sistcr ol thc mothcr, thc samc gocs lor thcir spouscs, and in dicrcnt
rcgions ol thc country, in dicrcnt dialccts, thc dcsignations may bc similar,
but morc oltcn than not thcy arc dicrcnt. icrcnt is also thc modc ol
addrcss lor rclativcs bclonging to a dicrcnt gcncration lor whom thcrc arc
spccic dcsignating common nouns instcad ol propcr oncs.
Somcthing morc intcrcsting: kinship tcrms in 8ulgarian rccct a morc
obsolctc stagc in thc cvolution ol languagc bccausc thc typical catcgory ol
modcrn 8ulgarian dcnitcncssindcnitcncss is not applicd always or in
all kinship tcrms. Hcrc thc dicrcnccs arc distributcd along thc linc ol thc
opposition femalemale and along thc linc closermore distant in rclation to
thc narrators gcncration. For cxamplc:
8ulg. cna mi vs. ma mi |dcl:dcl |
my wilc vs. my husband,
8ulg. dtcrja mi vs. sina mi |dcl:dcl |
my daughtcr vs. my son,
as wcll as: 8ulg. zct mi vs. plcmcnnika mi |dcl:dcl |
my soninlaw vs. my ncphcw,
8ulg. brat mi vs. vnuka mi |dcl:dcl |
my brothcr vs. my grandson
8ascd on thcsc oppositions, ! considcrcd thcir usc in thc lilc history
important, morcovcr thcy wcrc manilcstcd quitc distinctly.
:.+. Lilc history as a rulc is chronological thc narratcd cvcnts in thc
lilc ol thc narrators bcgin with thcir birth, possiblc cducation, job, sctting
up thcir own lamily, building a homc, raising thc childrcn, and thcn lollow
thc cvcnts in which thc narrator is a participant in thc lilc ol hcr childrcn or
grandchildrcn: dcath, school, wcddings ctc.
From thc gcncral schcmc ol thc story it can bc assumcd that thc
basic social sphcrcs arc chronologically dctcrmincd and conditioncd by thc
narrators lilc cyclcs. !t turncd out, though, that thc cxtcnt ol thc inclusion
ol othcr pcrsons taking part in thcir livcs is dicrcnt in thc individual
!. Likomanova, Pcoplc in My Lilc 6
story ol cvcry particular narrator. Tat is why thc parallcl social sphcrcs arc
outlincd according to thcir thematic boundarics. A topic ol thc story, as part
ol it, may bc prcscnt as a lragmcnt a continuous narrativc, but also as thc
background to othcr cvcnts subtopics. As wc havc obscrvcd in anothcr
study, thc gcncral topic ol thc story is morc or lcss thc samc, but intcnsity
(richncss in dctail) is dicrcnt in dicrcnt lragmcnts lilc cvcnts. Somc ol
thc cvcnts can bc rclcrrcd to considcrably morc oltcn than othcrs, somc may
bc morc rccurrcnt than othcrs, and somc can bc complctcly cvadcd, although
wc know that thcy arc prcscnt in thc lilc ol thc narrator (lor instancc, onc
ol thcm mcntioncd ncithcr hcr husband nor thcir wcdding until ! askcd
a dircct qucstion, knowing shc had childrcn, anothcr told mc about hcr
parcnts and about hcr ncw housc, but hcr childrcn wcrc not prcscnt in hcr
story).

Tc samc holds truc lor thc pcrsons in thc narrators lilc, and this
nds dircct cxprcssion in thc introduction ol and/or rclcrcncc to thcm in
thc story. ctailcd dcscription covcrs both closcly rclatcd pcoplc and morc
distant rclativcs along thc linc ol kinship tics and social charactcristics
(job, placc ol rcsidcncc, agc thc samc or closc to that ol thc narrator).
Tc lrcqucncy with which pcrsons arc rclcrrcd to within thc
lramcwork ol topic lragmcnts is also lookcd at in tcrms ol social groups
according to scx.
:.:. Tc pcrson prcscntcd with his/hcr lcaturcs and commcntcd on
will bc dcscribcd in maximum dctail. Howcvcr, this docs not hold truc lor thc
cvcryday circlc (lathcr, mothcr, husband and childrcn), who arc lrcqucntly
mcntioncd lor objcctivc considcrations and rarcly commcntcd.
Tat is why wc shall distinguish hcrc bctwccn thc objecti.e critcria
lor socialization (oncs own lamily, school) and thc subjecti.e oncs (work,
school, morc distant rclativcs, ncighbours).
:.. Any pcrson in his/hcr turn can bc introduccd not only in thc
monologuc portion ol thc lilc history but in thc dialoguc portion as wcll.
Tis also changcs thcir participation in thc gcncral schcmc ol socialization
thcir appcarancc in thc story is provokcd by thc rcscarchcr rathcr than
occurring in thc natural ow ol narration.
. 8asic topics ol lilc historics. Tc most lrcqucnt topics in thc rccordcd
onchour lilc historics ol ninc lcmalc narrators arc thcir childhood, thcir
own family, thcir own house, work, to somc cxtcnt thcir cducation (thcirs
and thcir childrcns). thcr pcriods or topics ol human lilc (youth, children,
diseases) arc somcwhat intcrwovcn with thc lour basic topics.
Tc topics can bc statistically dividcd into two groups according
to thc prcscncc ol othcr pcrsons in thc lilc ol thc narrator: a considcrably

For morc, scc !. Likomanova and T. Kmctova, Gaps in womcns discoursc, bstracts
for XI Balkan Congress (Athcns, +).
8alcanica XXX\!! 6
largcr numbcr ol pcrsons, rclcrrcd to in dicrcnt ways, appcar in thc topic
lragmcnts ol childhood (+o) and family (+o) as comparcd to thc othcr two
lragmcnts, house (+) and .ork (). Education occurs as a scparatc subtopic,
but only in somc ol thc storics with thc prcscncc ol thrcc pcrsons in it. Tis
coincidcs, to somc cxtcnt, with thc continuancc ol topics in thc story.
.+. Childhood. Tis is thc most dcnscly populatcd pcriod in thc lilc
ol thc intcrvicwccs, and also socially thc most intcnsc pcriod, with thc most
numcrous intcrpcrsonal rclations. nc hundrcd and scvcn dicrcnt pcrsons
lrom thc lilc ol thc narrator arc mcntioncd in it. Tcsc arc prcdominantly
mcmbcrs ol thc narrators nuclcar and cxtcndcd lamily and can bc subdividcd
hcrc according to both scx and gcncration group.
.+.+. !l thc intcrvicwccs gcncration is takcn as zcro |o|, wc can includc
hcr brothcrs and sistcrs into it, notwithstanding thcir agc dicrcnccs, which
may bc considcrablc. Tcn hcr parcnts and hcr cousins parcnts will bclong
to gcncration |+|, and thcir parcnts to gcncration |:|. !n gcncration |+|,
whcn mcntioncd, thcir childrcn arc includcd in an anticipatory way.
.+.:. Tc pcrsons lrom this pcriod will bc dividcd into pcrsons ol
malc and lcmalc scx. Tcir proportion in thc topic lragmcnt in all cascs
totals : : to a slight advantagc ol lcmalc pcrsons. Tis advantagc is casily
cxplaincd: childrcn arc surroundcd by mothcrs, grandmothcrs, sistcrs, oltcn
aunts, wivcs ol lathcrs brothcrs, and thc rclcrcncc to thcm is unilormly
distributcd among all pcrsons ol lcmalc scx as lollows: majka (mothcr)
: timcs, baba (grandmothcr) timcs, lelja (aunt) and strinka (wilc ol
lathcrs brothcr) + timcs, sestri (sistcrs) ++ timcs. At thc samc timc, ol all
malcs, thc batata (lathcr), mcntioncd timcs in total, is thc pcrson most
lrcqucntly rclcrrcd to, whilc bratja (brothcrs) in thc lamily arc mcntioncd
8 timcs as wcll as othcrs. n thc wholc, mcn arc lcwcr in thc story, but thc
rst man in thc lilc ol thc child is vcry activcly prcscnt in thc lilc history and
is prcscnt much morc than any woman.
!t is obscrvablc that in this lragmcnt ol thc story pcrsons lrom thc
intcrvicwccs closcst lamily and gcncrational cnvironmcnt arc prcscnt.
Tis is hcr rst lamily, and il ! havc choscn hcrc to labcl this lragmcnt as
childhood, it is not only to distinguish it lrom thc ncxt topic in thc story but
also bccausc thc lilc history ol thc intcrvicwcd was initiatcd by my qucstion:
Tell me about your childhood.
.:. Tc lamily ol thc intcrvicwcd. Tc womcn ! havc intcrvicwcd arc
about o ycars old. Tcy sct up thcir lamilics o or 6o ycars ago, bclorc thc
Sccond Vorld Var. Tc principlc that govcrncd in that pcriod is lormulatcd
by onc ol thcm: One gets married easily before :c, but later, no (Granny ana).
Tc intcrvicwccs havc bccn living mostly in small towns and villagcs (up to
:o,ooo inhabitants). Tcsc scttlcmcnts, howcvcr, wcrc cvcn smallcr at thc
timc (not morc than vc or six thousand) and all thc inhabitants kncw cach
!. Likomanova, Pcoplc in My Lilc 6
othcr. Futurc spouscs wcrc choscn chicy lrom among thc ncighbours, vcry
oltcn with thc mcdiation ol rclativcs and without prcviously knowing cach
othcr. nc ol thcm rcmcmbcrs how tcnacious shc was in hcr choicc and
hcr critcria lor hcr luturc husband: If he is rich, I dont .ant him, but if hes
poor, Ill take him (Granny Tina). Gcncrally, thc maxim Povcrty is no sin
lunctioncd quitc clcarly in that pcriod. Askcd what thcir lilc was likc, onc
ol thc womcn told mc: Our life .as nice, because .e .ere poor.
!n thc lamily lragmcnt, apart lrom thc cxpcctcd pcrsons lrom thc
rst lragmcnt ol thc story, thcrc also appcar pcrsons lrom thc husbands
lamily as wcll as thc husband himscll. l +o pcrsons prcscnt within thc
topic family, thc husband is mcntioncd o timcs, his parents and brothers
or sisters timcs, his rclativcs: etr.a (his brothcrs wilc) and .al.a (his
sistcr) timcs, and hcr own parcnts timcs (thcy arc alrcady pushcd
into thc background), hcr own brothers and sisters +o timcs (morc than
in thc rst pcriod or topic, childhood), hcr own relati.es ol gcncration
|+| (takcn as a wholc .ujni |hcr mothcrs brothcrs|, lelji |aunts|, strinki
|wivcs ol hcr lathcrs brothcrs| and io |unclcs|) +: timcs, hcr rclativcs
ol gcncration |:| arc still prcscnt: baba (grandmothcr), djado (grandlathcr)
8 timcs, hcr children, and othcrs, lor cxamplc thc craftsmen taking part in
thc construction ol a sharcd housc and so on. As rcgards thc malc/lcmalc
opposition, pcrsons ol thc two scxcs occur in virtually cqual proportions.
8ut it should bc takcn into account that outsidc this opposition rcmain thc
childrcn whcn thcy arc not spccicd in grcatcr dctail (son or daughtcr, !
would citc an inlormant who turncd to hcr son at thc birth ol his rst child
with thc lollowing words: Dont be mad, ne.er mind its a girl, God bless her),
thc husbands parcnts whcn thcy arc dcsignatcd with thc collcctivc noun
s.ato.ete (inlaws), as wcll as hcr own parcnts il also namcd collcctivcly as
my parents, and only lcw timcs thc womcn rclcrrcd to thcir own lamilics
using thc gcncralizing 8ulgarian pronoun nie (wc).
.. Tc housc. Hcrc dicrcnt pcrsons, mostly lrom thc closcst lamily
circlc, appcar + timcs (husband timcs, his parents timcs, narrators
o.n parents: mother timcs, grandmother : timcs, or brothers and sisters
timcs, children ++ timcs), but also .orkers, nephe.s and nieces 6
timcs. Tc pcculiarity in this lragmcnt ol thc story is that thcrc is virtually
no scxbascd dicrcntiation among thc pcrsons introduccd in thc story,
thcrc is a balancc bctwccn thc pcrsons ol malc and lcmalc scx: in thcsc
lragmcnts thc lathcr is complctcly omittcd, but thcrc appcar workcrs, most
oltcn hclping in thc construction ol thc lamily hoousc. n thc othcr hand,
womcn ol all gcncrations arc prcscnt, as thcy wcrc at thc bcginning, within
thc topic childhood. Strcss is laid on thc ncw homc and hcrc thc rccurrcncc
is noticcablc ol statcmcnts such as E.ery .oman is happy to get a house of
her o.n (Granny Nitcha), My-my, I .as so happy to li.e in my o.n house
8alcanica XXX\!! 66
(Granny ana), or It .as such a joy .hen .e built the house (Granny Kata).
nc ol thc lcw cmotionally positivcly chargcd clcmcnts ol thc wholc story
is thc onc conncctcd with mcmorics ol thc ncw homc.
.. Vork. nc ol thc intcrvicwcd said: Nobody .orked back then, .e
all .ere only farming. Tc topic .ork runs through all othcr topics bccausc
childrcn wcrc cngagcd in agricultural work lrom an carly agc and vcry oltcn
thcsc arc thc inlormants only childhood mcmorics grazing goats and shccp,
working on thc mastcrs clds. Agricultural work, howcvcr, is not considcrcd
as rcal work: !omen then took care of their children, the house and the cattle
(Granny \cta). !n this topic mainly pcrsons lrom thc prcvious lragmcnts arc
rcintroduccd and thcir total numbcr is . !n this topic lragmcnt, howcvcr,
mostly gurc malc pcrsons, thc only woman mcntioncd in scvcral storics in
this contcxt bcing thc mother. Tc othcr pcrsons arc: father 6 timcs, parents
timcs, thcrc arc also rclcrcnccs to malc/lcmalc colleagues 8 timcs, thc
master timcs and his sons : timcs, hcr brothers : timcs, bosses 6 timcs,
craftsmen timcs, thc salesman to whom thc youngcst daughtcr is scnt
lor shopping, and othcrs. Vork still pcrvadcs thc thoughts and drcams ol
thc intcrvicwcd cldcrly womcn. nc ol thcm admittcd to mc: !hen I .ake
up at night, I al.ays make plans about .hat I should do, and al.ays a .eek
ahead, and shc is a ycarold widow, hcr childrcn livc lar away and shc is
complctcly alonc.
. Tc ncxt typological lcaturc ol thc lilc historics is thc prcscncc
ol dcnitc, dcsignatcd pcrsons. Again rclcrcncc to thc closcst pcrsons has
bccn analyzcd, but this timc not just within thc dcncd topic lragmcnts but
throughout thc lilc history. ! havc choscn to analyzc thc pcrsons appcaring
morc than oncc in thc lilc history.
.+. Pcrsons lrom thc kinship circlc in thc story. Sincc all thc
intcrvicwccs arc lcmalc, thcy rcprcscnt thc womcns picturc ol thcir world:
in it thc husband is thc pcrson most lrcqucntly rclcrrcd to: hc appcars 6
timcs, rclcrrcd to by his name, by a noun husband, man, and by a pronoun
he, him, as wcll as by kinship tcrms in rclation to othcr pcrsons in thc
story: my mother-in-la.s son, chicy in thc contcxt and shc told him: My
son... !l wc rank thcm in ordcr ol lrcqucncy, thc narrators father takcs thc
sccond placc with timcs, and hcr mother comcs quitc closc with timcs.
Statistically, bctwccn thcm arc thc narrators children thcy arc mcntioncd
o timcs. Tc childrcn arc not prcscntcd hcrc scparatcly bccausc thc parcnts
thcmsclvcs rclcr to thcm by thc collcctivc noun the children. Morcovcr, thc
lamilics ol that gcncration, which is thc gcncration ol our grandmothcrs, as
a rulc wcrc not only numcrous, but also had a lot ol childrcn. Tat is why
hcrc ! dcscribc thcm in onc group children: sons + daughters.
Tcrc lollow thc narrators brothers :8 timcs, sisters +6 timcs,
thcn comc hcr uncles + timcs (thcy oltcn hclp in thc construction ol thc
!. Likomanova, Pcoplc in My Lilc 6
housc, thcy havc bccn workcd with sincc childhood somcthing typical ol
a big patriarchal lamily). thcr pcrsons arc mcntioncd considcrably lcss
lrcqucntly, but still thosc rclcrrcd to arc lrom thc kinship circlc: s.ekr
(lathcrinlaw) timcs, husbands brothers +o timcs, strina (wilc ol thc
lathcrs brothcr) timcs, lelja (aunt) 6 timcs, granddaughter timcs,
grandmother timcs, s.ekr.a (mothcrinlaw) timcs, .ujna (wilc ol
thc mothcrs brothcr) timcs, cousins timcs. thcr closc rclativcs arc
mcntioncd only oncc.
.+.+. As this survcy docs not havc as its aim to show thc mcrc
lrcqucncy ol rclcrcnccs in thc story, comparison with thc lrcqucncy
dictionary ol 8ulgarian colloquial spccch is appropriatc. Tcrc thc rst noun
lrom thc kinship vocabulary is majka (mothcr) it holds thc :nd placc,
but il combincd with mama (mummy), which holds placc no. :o8, it gcts
a highcr ranking position. Tcrc lollow: child placc +o, man +6, and
son +8. !l wc combinc father + daddy, thc male parent gcts placc no. +6+,
lollowcd by sister, brother, s.ekr.a (mothcrinlaw), grandfather, baby, .ujo
(mothcrs brothcr), snaha (daughtcrinlaw), uncle, cousin, daughter, s.ekr
(lathcrinlaw) and so on.
!n anothcr rccurrcncc survcy ol thc spccch ol cducatcd 8ulgarians
almost all ol thc lcxcmcs mcntioncd so lar arc abscnt cxccpt mother, mummy
and parent.
.:. Pcrsons lrom othcr social sphcrcs in thc story. Tcsc arc
prcdominantly mcmbcrs ol inlormal groups in thc villagc or town: boys
8 timcs, girls timcs, lads : timcs, malefemale friends, neighbours
timcs.
Tcsc also arc dicrcnt prolcssional circlcs with which thc narrator
has communicatcd in dicrcnt pcriods ol hcr lilc, on dicrcnt occasions and
in a varicty ol situations prcscntcd in thc story: colleagues, craftsmen, teachers
timcs, doctors timcs, thc master timcs, thc police timcs, thc
salesman : timcs, .orkers timcs, other .omen : timcs.
. Conclusions. n thc basis ol thc survcy thus conductcd (rccording
and analysis), ! proposc thc tcrms life presence vs. narrati.e presence ol a
pcrson in a givcn lilc history.
nly narrativc prcscncc has bccn dcscribcd abovc, thc onc which is
subjcctivc to thc narrator and rcccts hcr mcmorics and point ol vicw.
Vc know lrom thc contcnts ol thc lilc historics that thc lilc
(objcctivc) prcscncc ol a numbcr ol pcrsons has bccn dicrcnt lrom thc
picturc prcscntcd. Tus, lor instancc, thc mothcr is prcscnt in thc lilc ol a
child much morc activcly and with much morc timc, cspccially in thc childs
carly ycars. Childs mcmorics, howcvcr, bcgin at a latcr agc, whcn in lact thc
lathcrs impact on thc child is strongcr, whcn thc child bcgins to acquirc
8alcanica XXX\!! 68
indcpcndcncc through his/hcr initiation into labour, a proccss occurring at
a considcrably carlicr agc than today.
!n thc family topic, thc narrativc prcscncc ol a vcry broad lamily circlc
is disproportionatc to thc incidcntal participation ol childrcn, who appcarcd
quitc oltcn altcr a qucstion by thc intcrvicwcr.
8y way ol a working conclusion, it should bc notcd that thc dialoguc
approach in an intcrvicw did not provc appropriatc lor this typc ol statistical
qualitativc survcys ol socialization. Morc than oncc thc narrator gavc an
uncxpcctcd rcply to a purposivc qucstion. Tis typc ol dcviations should bc
thc subjcct ol anothcr rcscarch.
!n thc topics childhood and family thc distribution ol malc and lcmalc
rolcs on thc wholc coincidcs with thc usual pattcrn and hcrc thc intcrvicws
havc produccd a lairly accuratc picturc. Tc samc may bc said lor thc topic
.ork (8ulg. rabota), whcrc thc prcscncc ol dcsignatcd malc pcrsons is
dominant.
Faculty of Sla.ic Studies
Uni.ersity St Kliment Ohridski
Soa
UDC :::::&.&:,.,.
:.c:&
Smilja Marjanoviuani
Patterns of Martyrial Sanctity in the Royal deology of Medieval Serbia
Continuity and Change
A broad rcscarch cld such as that ocrcd by thc issuc ol royal sanctity
may bc approachcd in a numbcr ol ways.
+
Vithout losing sight ol dicrcnt
aspccts ol royal cults and thcir placc in mcdicval picty, wc havc choscn to lo
cus on thc political rolc ol a particular cult, that ol thc royal martyr. Tc holy
king cult to which, in a broadcr scnsc, that ol regnansmartyr also bclongs,
provcs to bc a uropcanwidc phcnomcnon. Rcccting both idcological
continuity and changc, it varics rcvcalingly with thc cpoch and cultural cn
vironmcnt ol thc protagonists involvcd.
Sccking to dcnc thc typc with morc prccision, modcrn scholarship
has lookcd at thc pcrsonalitics ol rulcrs, thc realia associatcd with thcir
rcigns, and thc vcry acts ol martyrdom.
:
Hagiographic portrayal ol a rulcr
and ol thc stylc ol his rulc is bascd on standardizcd imagcry, that is, on
thc principlcs ol idcal kingship lound in Christian moralizing litcraturc
such as PscudoCyprians trcatisc and mirrors ol kings, a typc ol writing
incrcasingly popular lrom thc ninth ccntury on. Tis litcraturc took shapc
undcr thc powcrlul inucncc ol thc monastic idcal, which proloundly
marks thc typical portrait ol a holy king. Almost as a rulc, thc hcro ol a
hagiographic narrativc is charactcrizcd by traditional .irtutes: noblc dcsccnt
and strict Christian upbringing, a proclivity lor asccticism, avidic humilitas,
gcncrosity towards thc poor, protcction lor thc wcak and thc sick, thc gilt ol
+
Tc phcnomcnon ol royal saints has bccn much writtcn about. G. Klaniczay, Holy Ful-
ers and Blessed Princesses. Dynastic Cults in Medie.al Central Europe (Cambridgc, :ooo),
ocrs a vcry good and dctailcd ovcrvicw ol thc amplc rclcvant litcraturc on thc subjcct.
:
For thc martyrcd rulcr typc, scc a vcry good study by N. !ngham, Tc Sovcrcign as
Martyr, ast and Vcst, Sla.ic and East European Journal +, no.+ (+), ++. n
this rulcr typc in dctail, R. Folz, Lcs saints rois du Moycn gc cn ccidcnt (\!
c
X!!!
c
siclcs), Subsidia Hagiographica 68 (8russcls: Socit dcs 8ollandistcs, +8), :6,
and his Lcs saintcs rcincs du Moycn gc cn ccidcnt (\!
c
X!!!
c
siclcs), Subsidia
Hagiographica 6 (8russcls: Socit dcs 8ollandistcs, +:).
8alcanica XXX\!! o
tcaching showing thc truc path to salvation, tcmpcrancc in cvcry way, and
cxccptional pietas. !t is this picty that lcads thc rulcr to choosc thc monastic
way ol lilc or practisc ascctic disciplinc. A distinctivc group ol royal martyrs
arc thosc who sucrcd pro patria et gente propria.

Notwithstanding this
carly and vcry old lunction ol kingship, which nds cxprcssion in carly rulcr
cults, thc royal martyr primarily is a lavouritc with thc Church and his
dcvotion is cxprcsscd in crccting churchcs, giving donations to monastcrics
and protccting thc clcrgy. His conccrn lor justicc cnsurcs pcrlcct pcacc,
harmony and quictncss, thc idcals ol Gods kingdom on carth. Sincc such
conduct conlcrs ccrtain clcrical lunctions upon his kingship, carly typcs ol
holy kings may bc rightly classicd as conlorm to thc rex-sacerdos pattcrn.
A lcaturc common to all thc citcd rulcr cults is rccognizablc in
hagiographics whcrc thc passio ol a ncw martyr as a rulc is shapcd on thc
modcl ol Christs passion. !n that scnsc, somcwhat latcr typcs ol royal
martyrs such as thc passionsucrcrs 8oris and Glcb basically t into thc
samc hagiographic pattcrn dcspitc thcir dicrcnt datcs ol origin.

8y thc cnd
ol thc clcvcnth ccntury thc cults ol holy rulcrs had consolidatcd in uropc
as a lcgitimatc lorm ol rcligious support to kingly authority.

l particular
intcrcst in studying thc holy rulcrs cults is to obscrvc thc phcnomcnon ol
linking up saintly cults with authority and socicty.
6
A closc link cstablishcd
bctwccn sainthood, authority and noblc blood bccomcs a commonplacc in
all hagiographics.
!n that rcspcct, cspccially important lor thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc
holy king conccpt with thc Scrbs appcars to bc thc carly pcriod ol Scrbian
sovcrcignty, initially in Zcta, and subscqucntly in Raka undcr Stclan
Ncmanja and his dcsccndants. Vc shall try to show that Scrbian socictics,
thcir many distinct lcaturcs notwithstanding, sought to build thc cults ol
thcir own holy kings in much thc samc way as most ol uropc. Tc clcvcnth

n this idcal rulcr typc, scc . H. Kantorowicz, Mourir pour la patric (Pro patria
mori) dans la pcnsc politiquc mdivalc, in Mourir pour la patrie et autres textes (Paris:
PUF, +8), +o++.

J.P. Arrignon, L!nhumation dcs princcs ct dcs saints dc la Fus dc Kicv, in Le sacre et
son inscription dans l espace By.ance et en Occident. tudes comparees, cd. Michcl Kaplan
(Paris, :oo+), ++. Cl. also G. Lcnho, Te Martyred Princes Boris and Gleb: Socio-
Cultural Study of the Cult and the Texts, UCLA Slavic Studics + (Columbus, hio:
Slavic Publishcrs, +8), :, with carlicr litcraturc.

F. Graus, La sanctication du souvcrain dans luropc ccntralc dcs X


c
ct X!
c
siclcs
in Hagiographie, cultures et societes I!
e
XII
e
sicles, Actcs du Colloquc organis a Nantcrrc
ct a Paris : mai + (Paris, +8+), 6+:.
6
P. 8rown, Chorotopc: Tcodorc ol Sykcon and his sacrcd landscapc, in Hierotopy.
Te Creation of Sacred Spaces in By.antium and Medie.al Fussia, cd. A. Lidov (Moscow,
:oo6), +++:.
S. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity +
ccntury provcs to bc lormativc in that rcspcct. !t was thcn that thc carlicst
cult ol a holy rulcr was shapcd, that ol Jovan \ladimir ol Zcta. cspitc
a signicant idcological gap bctwccn thc nccd ol thc cmcrging uropcan
nations to cnsurc thcir placc in sacrcd history by clcvating a national rulcr
to thc rank ol saint and thc situation in Constantinoplc, ccrtain traditions,
ccntral to undcrstanding thc ways in which thc holy king cult was dcsigncd
and put into practicc with thc Scrbs, wcrc undcr a trcmcndous inucncc ol
thc idcologically prcstigious cmpirc on thc 8osporus.
!t cannot bc a coincidcncc, thcn, that it is in thc clcvcnth ccntury that
ncw pattcrns ol thc rulcrs imagc risc to promincncc. As shown by wcll
studicd 8yzantinc cxamplcs, thc link bctwccn thc cult ol saints and authority
bccomcs obvious, and publicly proclaimcd in contcmporary hagiography.


Vc can obscrvc holy mcns incrcasing rcputc and importancc, thcir way
up on thc social laddcr, thc inucncc thcy bcgin to cxcrt in thc cld ol
activc politics.
8
Holy mcn act as spiritual lathcrs ol thc lcading gurcs ol
thc sccular hicrarchy, and thcir prophctic visions and advicc havc an ccct
on thc actions ol thc political clitc. Tc popularity ol a monastic vocation in
thc astcrn Christian world lcads to thc monastic idcal bcing cmbraccd by
rcprcscntativcs ol thc highcst political circlcs as carly as thc tcnth ccntury,
and it cvcn lcavcs its mark on thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc cmpcror cult.

Tc said modcl undoubtcdly inucnccd thc cult ol cmpcror Nikcphoros


!! Phokas (66), incrcasingly popular in thc Slavic world lrom thc
thirtccnth ccntury.
+o
wing mostly to thc widclyrcad ulogy on cmpcror
Nikcphoros !! Phokas and his spousc Tcophano,
++
thc cmpcrors cult
bccomcs thc prclcrrcd prototypc ol thc rulcrmonk. Contcmporary wcstcrn
Livcs ol martyrcd rulcrs mccting thcir cnd whilc praying, at thc church
door, or pcrlorming ascctical practiccs as cmpcror Phokas did by slccping

For 8yzantinc cxamplcs, scc thc cxccptionally usclul volumc Te By.antine Saint: Uni-
.ersity of Birmingham Fourteenth Spring Symposium of By.antine Studies, cd. S. Hackcl
(8irmingham, +8+), and thcrcin, csp. . Patlagcan, Saintct ct Pouvoir, , and R.
Morris, Tc Political Saint ol thc lcvcnth Ccntury, o. Tc clcvation to sanctity
ol highcstranking mcmbcrs ol thc sccular and church hicrarchics in 8yzantium is ob
scrvablc in thc thirtccnth ccntury as wcll, scc, in thc samc volumc, R. Macridcs, Saints
and Sainthood in thc arly Palaiologan Pcriod, 68.
8
n thc conccpt ol thc holy man, scc A. Camcron, n dcning thc holy mcn in Te
Cult of Saints in Late ntiquity and the Middle ges. Essays on the Contribution of Peter
Bro.n, cds. J. HowardJohnson and P. A. Hayward (xlord, +), :.

As shown by thc rcscarch ol P. Magdalino, Tc 8yzantinc Holy Man in thc Twcllth


Ccntury, in By.antine Saint, +66.
+o
Patlagcan, Saintct ct Pouvoir, .
++
A critical cdition ol thc tcxt ol thc ulogy, . Turdcanu, Le dit de l empereur Nicephore
II Phocas et de son epouse Teophano (Tcssaloniki, +6).
8alcanica XXX\!! :
on jaggcd stoncs, as a rulc contrast thc hcro ol thc Lilc with his murdcrcr
who prots lrom thc crimc and takcs powcr. A wclllikcd topos in such tcxts
is thc murdcrcrs rcpcntancc and his assumption ol thc lcading rolc in thc
cnsuing proccss ol canonization. !n thc abovcmcntioncd 8yzantinc tcxt, thc
pattcrn is applicablc to John Tzimiskcs, who subscqucntly also rcccivcs a cult,
cultivatcd cspccially on Mount Athos along with that ol Nikcphoros Phokas.
!n thc clcvcnth ccntury Phokas rcccivcs an occ, rcad on ++ cccmbcr, thc
day ol his dcath, honouring him as a martyr, an ascctic, and thc bringcr ol
victory sprcading thc glory ol thc Romaion arms. Rclcvant to thc shaping
ol thc cmpcrors cultic imagc was thc lact that thc monk Athanasios actcd
as his spiritual lathcr. An cmphasis on this ncw spiritual lincagc and thc
ascctical tradition cmbraccd by Phokas accommodatc thc cclcbration ol thc
cmpcrors sanctity to thc lramc ol currcnt picty and popularity ol thc cult ol
ascctics and martyrs.
+:
Subscqucnt Scrbian hagiography and cspccially thc
lashioning ol thc popular rulcrmonk pattcrn undoubtcdly drcw upon thc
rclatcd litcrary gcnrc cultivatcd in thc 8yzantinc cultural orbit. !t cannot
bc an accidcnt that thc popularity ol thc Eulogy and Oce to thc cmpcror,
composcd at thc Grcat Lavra and honouring him as an ascctically inclincd
rulcr closc to thc Athonitc monastic circlcs, coincidcs with thc growing
popularity ol royal monkhood which lrom thc timc ol Manucl Komncnos
bccomcs an acccptcd modcl in Ncmanji Scrbia.
+
uring thc clcvcnth ccntury, cults ol royal martyrs arisc across
thc Slavic world, rccciving a most cnthusiastic rcsponsc conncctcd with
thc sprcad ol thc martyrial and monastic idcals in 8yzantium.
+
Carclul
comparativc analysis ol thc clcvcnthccntury royal martyrs cults rcvcals
signicant similaritics in thc manncr ol shaping thc contcmporary cults ol
+:
!mpcrial sanctity and its conncction with thc assassination ol cmpcrors has bccn
discusscd by . Patlagcan, Lc 8asilcus Assasin ct la saintct impcrialc, in Media in
Francia. Fecueil de melanges oert Karl Ferdinand !erner (Paris: !nstitut Historiquc
Allcmand, +8), , P. Schrcincr, Aspcktc dcr politischcn Hciligcnvcrchrung in
8yzanz in Politik und Heiligen.erehrung im Hochmittelalter, cd. J. Pctcrson (Sigmarin
gcn, +), 68.
+
P. Magdalino, Te Empire of Manuel I Komnenos (::,::c) (Cambridgc, +),
chap. Tc cmpcror and his imagc, +88. n thc application ol thc said modcl in
mcdicval Scrbia, cl. S. Marjanoviuani, !ladarska ideologija Nemanjia (Lidologic
monarchiquc dc la dynastic dcs Nmanidcs) (8clgradc, +), ::86, and by thc
samc author, Lidologic monarchiquc dans lcs chartcs dc la dynastic dcs Nmanidcs
(++6++). tudc diplomatiquc, rchi. fur Diplomatik, Schriftgeschichte, Siegel- und
!appenkunde :6 (:oo6), ++8.
+
Patlagcan, 8asilcus Assasin, 8, :.
S. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity
St \aclav, Sts 8oris and Glcb, and St Jovan \ladimir, kne. ol Zcta.
+
Tc cult
ol St Jovan \ladimir is thc carlicst royal saints cult with thc Scrbs, and it is
rightlully sct apart lrom thc idcologically consistcnt wholc cncompassing
thc subscqucnt cults ol thc Ncmanji rulcrs. Tc Life ol Jovan \ladimir
writtcn shortly altcr his hcinous murdcr in +o+6 is now lost. Tc surviving
vcrsion, known as thc Lcgcnd ol Jovan and Kosara, is incorporatcd into
thc twcllthccntury Latin chroniclc Te nnals of a Priest of Dioclea.
+6
Tc
writcr ol \ladimirs original Lilc, or thc anonymous pricst ol 8ar who
composcd thc chroniclc, ocrs a standard dcscription ol thc saints imagc
conlorming to thc cxamplc sct by Christ in all ol its major points. Although
thc act ol ultimatc sacricc is thc main rcquircmcnt lor martyrdom, thc
Livcs ol royal martyrs as a rulc introducc thc rcadcr, or thc listcncr, to
thcir prospcctivc sanctity. Tc Life ol Jovan \ladimir also makcs usc ol wcll
provcn mcchanisms bascd on rccognizablc topoi. Tcy bcgin by dcscribing
thc hcro as a child cndowcd with all manncr ol skills and holincss,
+
on
whom miraculous signs arc manilcstcd. Tc king is dcscribcd as a holy man
+8
and, as such, hc rcluscs to conlront thc cncmy dircctly, but withdraws
humbly to thc hill ol blik bclorc Samuils attack. vcn thcn, bcsicgcd
on blik, thc king bcgins to work miraclcs (thc miraclc with a snakc). Tis
typc ol miraclcs, pcrlormcd during lilctimc, lalls among thc cxpcctcd topoi
whcn it comcs to thc holy mans attributcs,
+
obviously lamiliar with thc
rulcs ol thc gcnrc, thc writcr knowingly builds up thc imagc ol a luturc
martyr. Possibly as a rcsult ol subscqucnt intcrpolations into thc original tcxt
ol thc Lilc, thcrc arc surrounding this miraclc rclcrcnccs to contcmporary
lcgcnds about how \ladimir savcd his pcoplc with his praycr which God
hcard and grantcd.
:o
As thcrc is no martyrdom without sacricc, and no
+
n thc cvolution ol thc cult ol St \aclav, most cxhaustivcly, F. Graus, Lebendige
!ergangenheit. Uberlieferung im Mittelalter und in den !orstellungen .om Mittelalter (Co
lognc, +), ++8+.
+6
Ljetopis popa Dukljanina, in Stara srpska knjicvnost u : knjigc |ld Scrbian Litcra
turc in : \olumcs|, cd. S. Mijukovi (8clgradc, +88).
+
Tc child \ladimir, having asccndcd to thc thronc, was growing up cndowcd with all
manncr ol skills and holincss, ibid., +:.
+8
Tc king, who was a holy man, humbly withdrcw with his mcn and asccndcd to thc
hill namcd blik, ibid., +:.
+
For a dctailcd account ol thc powcr ol working miraclcs during lilctimc as an impor
tant attributc ol holy mcn, scc P. 8rown, Tc Risc and Function ol thc Holy Man
in Latc Antiquity, in Society and the Holy in Late ntiquity, (8crkclcyLos Angclcs,
+8:), +o+:.
:o
Lcgcnd has it that cvcn at thc timc thc chroniclc was writtcn indccd, cvcn today, il a
man or an animal gcts bittcn by a snakc on that hill, both thc man and thc animal comc
8alcanica XXX\!!
sacricc without bctrayal, lollowing this biblical pattcrn, thc traitor was
lound in thc gurc ol thc local lord who dcnounccd \ladimir to thc tsar, hc
is cxplicitly dcscribcd as bcing likc thc traitor Judas. 8idding larcwcll to
his pcoplc, thc king proclaims himscll a good shcphcrd giving up his soul
lor his ock. So my brcthrcn, ! would rathcr givc my soul lor you all and
willingly lct my body bc mutilatcd or killcd than lct you bc impcrillcd by
laminc or sword.
:+
Quitc in thc spirit ol contcmporary Livcs ol martyrcd
rulcrs, cmphasis is not only on making a sacricc lor thc pcoplc, but also
on willingly acccpting thc sacricc and consciously choosing thc dcath ol a
martyr. 8ut \ladimir was not to sucr dcath immcdiatcly, hc was shacklcd
and thrown into thc impcrial dungcon. vcn in thosc conditions, hc
cxcrciscs thc cxcmplary Christian virtucs, lasting and praying day and night.
Unsurprisingly, a divinc mcsscngcr appcars to him. Gods angcl announccs
thc coursc ol luturc cvcnts and thcir lortunatc outcomc, namcly that hc is
to carn thc Kingdom ol God and bc rcwardcd with thc unwithcring wrcath
ol ctcrnal lilc.
!n thc cultic vcncration ol thc royal saints ol thc martyr typc, thc
dramatic climax ol thc hagiographic narrativc is thcir passivc acccptancc
ol a violcnt dcath.
::
Tc undcrlying idca ol this hagiographic pattcrn is
thc saints idcntication with Christ or thc rcpctition ol thc sacricc ol
Christ, and an idcntical imitatio consistcntly rccurs in thc accounts ol thcir
stylc ol ruling and cataloguc ol virtucs. Not at all inlrcqucntly, cvcn thc list
ol posthumous miraclcs includcs somc that in lact arc rccognizablc Ncw
Tcstamcnt motils.
:
Tc schcmc ol thc hagiographic narrativc about St Jovan \ladimir
shows much rcscmblancc to thc contcmporary biographics ol martyr
saints.
:
At cmotional lcvcl, thc rcadcrs compassion clicitcd by Glcbs
words, Tis is not a murdcr, this is thc lclling ol a young lorcst, nds
its countcrpart in thc romantic background against which unlolds thc lovc
story ol princc \ladimir and his rcscucr princcss Kosara. Tc dcscription ol
thcir marital lovc is carclully dcviscd: And thus king \ladimir livcd with
his wilc Kosara in absolutc holincss and chastity, loving and scrving God
out alivc and unharmcd. n that hill, cvcr sincc thc day thc blcsscd \ladimir praycd till
this day, snakcs sccm to bc vcnomlcss, Ljetopis, +:.
:+
Ibid., +:6.
::
Klaniczay, Holy Fulers, 6:++.
:
S. Marjanoviuani, ynastic ct saintct a lpoquc dc la lamillc dcs Lazarcvi:
cxcmplcs ancicns ct nouvcaux modlcs, Fecueil des tra.aux de l Institut detudes by.an-
tines XL!!! (:oo6), 8.
:
N. V. !ngham, Tc Sovcrcign as Martyr, Sla.ic and East European Journal +, no. +
(+), ++, Arrignon, L !nhumation dcs princcs, ++.
S. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity
day and night. Tc kings virtuousncss, a common motil in thc accounts ol a
prospcctivc saints rcign, also rcvcals itscll in his pcrlcct rulc ovcr his pcoplc,
consistcnt with avids psalm about thc lcar ol God as thc bcginning ol all
wisdom. Tis is not only thc wisdom ol a monk, but indccd ol a statcsman.
!n thc twcllth ccntury, whcn thc nnals of a Priest of Dioclea was composcd,
thc imagc ol a martyrrulcr gradually bccomcs accommodatcd to thc thcn
popular chivalrous idcal.
:
!n thc tcxt itscll this proccss is obscrvablc in thc
dcscription ol thc latc rulcr as an avcngcr garbcd in knightly armour. !nstcad
ol a knight, it is Gods angcl that dclivcrs coup dc gracc to thc cncmy, whcrcby
thc saints murdcrous imagc bccomcs sublimatcd, which is a wcllknown
hagiographic motil. Typical ol thc clcvcnth ccntury in all ol its dctails, and
comparablc with similar cults lrom thc Slavic world, thc cult ol this royal
saint undcrgocs a changc in thc twcllth ccntury as rcgards thc imagc ol thc
cxcmplary rulcr. Tc martyrial cults ol holy kings cmcrgc in mcdicval Scrbia
only in thc ltccnth ccntury, undcr thc inucncc ol complctcly dicrcnt
motivcs. Tcy bccomc ttcd into a changcd cultic lramcwork and bcar littlc
rcscmblancc to thc clcvcnthccntury cults ol martyrs.
Tc cults ol national royal saints associatc domcstic dynastics with thc
ld Tcstamcntbascd traditions ol Godchoscnncss, which play a ccntral rolc
in thc proccsscs ol sccuring political lcgitimation lor ruling houscs.
:6
At thc
turn ol thc lourtccnth and ltccnth ccnturics, wc can scc both thc national
and univcrsal rclics bcing uscd lor raising an awarcncss ol choscnncss,
obscrvablc in cxpanding thc sacrcd rcalm as thc lathcrlands praycrlul shicld.
!n that scnsc, allChristian rclics, cspccially thosc ol Constantinopolitan
provcnancc, bccomc intcgratcd into domcstic traditions.
:
Such proccsscs arc
widcly obscrvablc in thc 8yzantinc commonwcalth: in shaping thc conccpt
ol thc capital city,
:8
in thc cults ol patron saints adoptcd,
:
in a changcd picty
thc public display ol which is vcry wcll documcntcd in tcxts crcatcd lor thc
:
G. Klaniczay, Limagc chcvalcrcsquc du saint roi au X!!
c
siclc in La Foyaute sacree
dans le monde Chretien, cds. A. 8ourcau and C.S. !ngcrom (Paris, +:), 6+.
:6
For thc Scrbian cxamplc, scc Marjanoviuani, L Ideologie, 6o and passim.
:
Marjanoviuani, ynastic ct saintct, o:.
:8
n thc shaping ol thc conccpt ol thc capital city, scc 8. Kuhncl, Tc Usc and Abusc
ol Jcrusalcm in Te Feal and Ideal Jerusalem in Je.ish, Christian and Islamic rt, sp. issuc
ol Je.ish rt : (+/8), J. rdcljan, 8clgradc as Ncw Jcrusalcm, Fecueil des tra.aus
de l Institut dEtudes by.antines (:oo6), ++o.
:
. Popovi, Moti svctog Lukc srpska cpizoda (Tc Rclics ol St Lukc thc Scr
bian pisodc), in adcm, Pod okriljem s.etosti (Under the uspices of Sanctity) (8clgradc:
!nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, :oo6), :8:+.
8alcanica XXX\!! 6
purposcs ol cphcmcral spcctaclcs,
o
and cspccially in an insistcncc on thc
conccpt ol a polyscmic translatio rccognizablc as ccntral both in thc political
and in thc rcligious shaping ol a ncw world. Tis conccpt ol translation,
varicdly vicwcd, and distributcd ovcr a vast arca lrom \cnicc to Moscow,
is cxprcsscd in thc translation ol both thc sacral csscncc and ol its various
manilcstations. !t is obscrvablc in thc widcsprcad practicc ol translating
rclics ranging lrom thc rclics ol patron saints ol citics to palladia ol statcs,
and lrom constructing ncw capital citics to translating thc idca ol a Ncw
Jcrusalcm
+
and a Ncw Constantinoplc,
:
propcr to thc Slavic inhcritors ol
Romaion rthodoxy.


!t is against this historical background that in thc Scrbian socicty ol
thc latc lourtccnth and carly ltccnth ccnturics ncw cults ol royal saints
cmcrgc and bccomc includcd into martyrologics as thc thcn prcvailing lit
crary gcnrc. Tc most intcrcsting issuc hcrc is thc manncr ol crcating thc
holy kings memoria in conlormity with thc notion ol cult propcr to thc
latc mcdicval scnsibility.

xprcssivc ol thc intcrcsts ol thc cnvironmcnt


that is crcating thc cult, thc carclully constructcd memoria rcccts most
ol all a coupling ol thc highcst church hicrarchy and political authority.
!n thc casc ol a particularly popular cult ol a martyr saint, princc Lazar
o
A good cxamplc is thc socallcd Smcdcrcvo occ to thc translation ol thc rclics ol
St Lukc (Ms no +6, Library ol thc Patriarchatc, 8clgradc) rst publishcd by !larion
Ruvarac in +868, thc latcst cdition cditcd by T. SubotinGolubovi, Svcti apostol Luka,
poslcdnji zatitnik srpskc zcmljc in udo u slo.enskim kulturama, cd. . Ajdai (Novi
Sad, :ooo), +6+, with carlicr litcraturc, cl. adcm, Smcdcrcvska sluba prcnosu
motiju svctog apostola Lukc in Srpska knjie.nost u doba Despoto.ine (cspotovac,
+8), ++6. Cl. also thc occ to St Tcophano (publishcd by K. !vanovna in r-
heografski prilo.i +o/++ (+88/)), 8+o6, cl. . Trilunovi, Ogledi i pre.odi XI!X!II
.ek (8clgradc, +), .
+
Claims to thc rolc ol a Ncw Jcrusalcm wcrc laid, apart lrom Moscow, by Tirnovo and
Prcslav or Praguc and Aachcn. n Kicv sccn as thc sccond Jcrusalcm, scc thc intcrcsting
rcccnt study by \. Richka, Kii. Drugi Yerusalim (Kicv, :oo), 6.
:
8. Flusin, Construirc unc nouvcllc Jrusalcm: Constantinoplc ct lcs rcliqucs in
LOrient dans l histoire religieuse de l Europe. Lin.ention des origins, cds. M. Amir Moczzi
and J. Schncid (8russcls, :ooo), +, , , 68.

Tclling arc thc wcllstudicd cxamplcs ol thc translatio Hierosolymi idca rclatcd to Tir
novo and Moscow, two capitals shapcd on thc modcl ol Constantinoplc. Cl. \. Tapko
vaZaimova, Tarnovo mczhdu rusalim, Rim i Tsarigrad (!dcyata na prcstolcn grad),
Tarno.ska kni.ho.na shkola (+8), ::6+, !. 8ozhilov, Sedem etyuda po sredno.eko-
.na istoriya (Soa, +), :o+:o, cl. also abovc n. .

A. \auchcz, Saints admirablcs ct saints imitablcs: lcs lonctions dc lhagiographic ont


cllcs chang aux dcrnirs siclcs du moycn agc: in Les fonctions des saints dans le monde
occidental (III
e
XIII
e
s.), Actcs du colloquc organis par lcolc lranaisc dc Romc avcc
lc concours dc lUnivcrsit dc Romc La Sapicnza (Romc, ++), +6++:.
S. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity
cclcbratcd sucrcr ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo thc memoria draws upon
two crucial points: thc violcnt dcath ol thc hcro murdcrcd altcr thc battlc,
and thc halo ol martyrdom acquircd by a dcath sucrcd in dclcncc ol thc
lathcrland against thc indcl, both clcmcnts dcrivc lrom thc practicc ol
cmulating Christ, so important in lounding a saintly cult. Anothcr signi
cant phasc in thc vcncration ol saints involvcs manilcstations ol miraclc. A
changc, both in structurc and in manncrs ol cxpanding thc arca cnvisagcd
lor miraclcs, is obscrvablc in a changcd modcl ol sanctity. An intcgral and
csscntial componcnt ol thc mcdicval mcntality is thc lundamcntal bclicl in
thc omniprcscncc ol thc supcrnatural and its continual intcrvcntion in thc
world ol thc living.

Tus miraclcs arc thc most important manilcstation


whcrcby a closc conncction bctwccn thc carthly and thc hcavcnly comcs to
bc dcncd.
6
cvotional compositions writtcn lor thc intcndcd lounding
ol his cult associatc his posthumous miracula with instanccs ol hcaling, and
with his rolc as his succcssors intcrccssor bclorc thc hcavcnly asscmbly ol
martyr saints coming to aid and cnsuring victory in thc cld ol battlc.

Tc
princcs hagiographcrs and writcrs ol occs insist on thc martyrs crown
that his dcath, and cspccially his dccapitation, carncd him. His powcrs as a
saint arc cxpcctcd in praycrs.
Sctting up thc ncw saints memoriae also involvcs crcating an appro
priatc sacral spacc csscntial to thc cult. Not only a mattcr ol a spacc in
thc church, it is a thrcclaycr phcnomcnon comprising a particular way ol
marking thc placc ol dcath, a carclully dcsigncd luncrary wholc ccntrcd on
thc original gravc, thc translation and dcposition ol thc body in anothcr
gravc, and, nally, thc composition ol culogics outlining thc main lcaturcs
or typc ol thc sanctity in thc making. Tis drilt away lrom thc prcvious
martyrrulcr pattcrns in Scrbian tradition has its rcasons, and is basically
a rcsult ol thc cstablishmcnt ol a ncw pattcrn. Tc ncw cult docs not lall
within thc lamilial or dynastic typc ol sanctity, bccausc it is not intcndcd as
a sourcc ol a ncw holy dynasty. Vhat Lazar acquircs through his martyr
dom is pcrsonal sanctity. !t is to do with thc lcgitimation ol his succcssors
and thcir consolidation in powcr. Princc Lazars gravc, in his loundation at

P. 8rown, uthority and the Sacred. spects of the Christianisation of the Foman !orld
(Cambridgc, +).
6
A. \auchcz, Structurcs ct cxtcnsion du champ miraculcux in La saintete en Occident
aux derniers sicles du Moyen ge (Romc: colc lranaisc dc Romc, +8+), +.

Rclcvant sourccs lor this issuc havc bccn publishcd in \ol. ol Stara srpska knjie.nost
|ld Scrbian Litcraturc| (Novi Sad8clgradc, +o): Povcsno slovo o knczu Lazaru (p.
++8), Pohvala knczu Lazaru od monahinjc Jcmijc (p. +:6).
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
Ravanica, thus bccomcs a holy placc, a sacral spacc ol thc highcst ordcr
whcrc an unrcpcatablc act ol martyrdom is commcmoratcd.
8

Tc ncw holy rulcr typc takcs on a wclldcncd martyrial charactcr.
!nto that mould, shapcd lor thc cult ol princc Lazar, is ttcd thc ncwly
cstablishcd cult ol Stclan ol cani (Stefan Deanski), initiatcd by thc
monastic community ol cani and its hcgumcn Grcgory Tsamblak.
Tsamblak wrotc thc kings Lilc altcr +o:, thc ycar hc had arrivcd in dcspot
Stclans Scrbia lrom Moldavia and bccomc hcgumcn ol thc monastcry ol
cani (until ++, whcn hc was appointcd mctropolitan ol Kicv).

Givcn
that by thc timc Tsamblak acccsscd to thc hcgumcns thronc thc rclics ol
Stclan ol cani dcpositcd in his loundation had bccomc thc ccntrc ol
a cult lor which thc cxisting dynastic Lilc lrom anilos Collcction was
not lully appropriatc, Grcgory wrotc thc ncccssary liturgical compositions,
abovc all a ncw Lilc and an occ culogizing a martyr rulcr. Studcnts ol
ld Scrbian litcraturc havc long ago obscrvcd thc unity, in tcrms ol
litcrary lashioning and intcrnal cohcsion, ol thc Kosovo writings and thc
contcmporary compositions writtcn lor thc purposc ol two ncw cults, thosc
ol thc holy princc Lazar and thc holy king Stclan ol cani. Tc vicw that
it is thc samc martyriological inspiration ol Scrbian postKosovo litcraturc
rcsulting in thc historical and spiritual motivation lor thc simultancous
cultivation ol both cults
o
should bc ttcd into thc biggcr picturc ol currcnt
historiographic trcnds, into thc timc ol thc rst gcncalogics, prccursors
ol historical gcncalogics,
+
or thc rst Scrbian annals ska.aniyes
distinguishcd by thcir chronographic stylc.
:
!n thc clcvcnth and twcllth ccnturics thc cult ol royal martyrs in
mcdicval Scrbia assumcs lcaturcs lound in thc hagiography ol thc Slavic
world. Vhilc arising undcr thc inucncc ol similar dcvclopmcnts in
8yzantinc hagiography, thcy lorm part ol broadcr proccsscs ol lorming
sacral kingship, which in thc undcrlying rulcr cult rcquircs thc rulcrs
8
n thc princcs tomb at thc monastcry ol Ravanica, scc . Popovi, Srpski .ladarski
grob u srednjem .eku (Tc Royal Tomb in Mcdicval Scrbia) (8clgradc, +:), +:++:.

. 8ogdanovi, Istorija stare srpske knjie.nosti |A History ol ld Scrbian Litcraturc|


(8clgradc, +8o), :o.
o
Ibid., :o.
+
Tc short tcxt ol thc rst Scrbian gcncalogy appcarcd in thc last quartcr ol thc lour
tccnth ccntury, bctwccn + and +. cvotcd to thc anccstral trccs ol thc Scrbian
rulcrs, it sccms to havc bccn writtcn lor thc purposc ol lcgitimizing king Tvrtkos claims
to thc lcgacy ol thc Scrbian kings.
:
arlicst Scrbian annals appcar in thc midlourtccnth ccntury as Scrbian vcrsions ol
thc thcn translatcd 8yzantinc chroniclcs. n thc gcnrc, scc 8ogdanovi, Istorija, :+o
:++.
S. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity
idcntication with Christ on scvcral lcvcls, including thc lcvcl ol martyrdom
and sacricc bringing about collcctivc salvation. uring thc latc mcdicval
pcriod, undcr thc impact ol historical circumstanccs turning Scrbia into a
shicld against thc indcl, this idcal gradually undcrgocs translormation into
an claboratc programmc ol thc saintcd martyr king, whosc most important
lunction othcr than hcaling is to assurc his succcssors victory in battlc. Tc
idcal ol thc martyr rulcr thus conlorms to thc chivalrous inspiration ol idcal
kingship in gcncral, but shows distinguishing lcaturcs conncctcd with thc
cmcrgcncc in Scrbia ol ncw historiographic gcnrcs gcncalogics and annals
as spccic historical chroniclcs ol thc carly modcrn agc.
Department of History
Faculty of Philosophy
Uni.ersity of Belgrade
UDC ,:,.::::.:-,-&J(,,.::)&
8oko 8ojovi
Mont Athos, les princes roumains, )ean Castriot
et la Tour albanaise (Arbanaki pirg) dependance de Chilandar
Aprs quc lc mondc byzantin dcs 8alkans ct t submcrg par lc ras dc
marc ottoman, lcs institutions hritcs dc Romc ct dc 8yzancc nc purcnt
sc maintcnir quc dans un cadrc ccclsiastiquc. n tant quunc dcs plus prcs
tigicuscs communauts du monachismc chrticn, lc MontAthos avait tou
jours bnci dcs largcsscs dcs basilcis, dcs rois ct dcs princcs picux ct
soucicux, tout pouvoir sculicr ayant unc part dquivoquc ct darbitrairc, dc
voir lcur lgitimit cautionnc par lglisc.
La continuit dans la pcrptuation dc la tradition dc ktitor ncst
daillcurs pas sculcmcnt unc qucstion dordrc juridiquc. Cc ncst quc dans
lcsprit dc la pratiquc liturgiquc quc lon pcut considrcr ccttc continuit a
laqucllc lcs moincs athonitcs, ct notammcnt ccux dc Chilandar, lc monastrc
scrbc, attachaicnt unc importancc ct unc dlit toutc rcligicusc.
La logiquc dc continuit qui inspirc lcs rlrcnccs aux ktitors cst
rcspcctc systmatiqucmcnt dans tous lcs actcs princicrs dcs Archivcs dc
Chilandar. Lcs institutions monastiqucs londcs par la dynastic nmanidc
supposcnt unc rlrcncc quasi systmatiquc aux prcmicrs ktitors, lcs moincs
Simon (cx grandjoupan dc Scrbic, StclanNcmanja, ++6++6) ct Sava
(lutur prcmicr archcvcquc dc lglisc dc Scrbic, +::o+:), ct quclquclois
aux dcrnicrs rcprscntants dc la dynastic dcs 8rankovi. ans lcs chartcs
dcs princcs dc \alachic miscs cn lavcur dc Chilandar, lcs rlrcnccs a Mara
ct a sa sur, la Cantacuznc , y ont notammcnt pour lonction dc signicr
la transmission du protcctorat sur lc monastrc.
Ccst parcc quc ccs crmitagcs quc sont la Tour albanaisc ct lglisc dc
Saintlic
+
nont pas t londs par lcs dynastcs quc nous vcnons dc citcr,
+
!l sagit pcutctrc dc lglisc qui aurait appartcnu au mtoquc dc Zygou, ddi a Saint
lic, cn bordurc dc la Mgal 8igla, qui lait la limitc occidcntalc du Mont Athos, pro
prit loncirc appartcnant a Chilandar dcpuis sa londation par Simon ct Sava cn ++8
(conrm par la chrysobullc dAndronic !! Palologuc, cn +:), voir M. ivojinovi, \.
8alcanica XXX\!! 8:
quc lcs rlrcnccs quc nous trouvons dans lcs actcs qui lcur sont ddis, sont
dc portc plus gnralc : lcs bicnhcurcux tsars ct princcs dantan , sans
quc lcs noms dcs londatcurs soicnt mcntionns, a lcxccption dc lactc dc
Ncagoc 8asarab (++:+:+),
:
sc rlrant a \lad lc Moinc (+8+, +8:
+) ct a Radul lc Grand (++o8). Cc qui nc pcut quc conrmcr lc
lait quc lcs rclations dc Chilandar ct dc scs dpcndanccs, la Tour albanaisc
cn loccurrcncc, rcmontcnt a lpoquc dc \lad lc Moinc. Si cn cct 8asarab
lc Jcunc (++8+) avait t lc ktitor dc la Tour albanaisc cn son tcmps, il
aurait t mcntionn nommmcnt cn tant quc tcl, ct non pas sculcmcnt cn
tant quc prc du donatcur.
La dcnsit dc la documcntation dcs Archivcs dc Chilandar, notam
mcnt ccllc qui conccrnc csscnticllcmcnt dcs princcs dc \alachic, soulvc la
qucstion dc la motivation dc ccs princcs par rapport a ccttc pratiquc carita
tivc ct liturgiquc a lchcllc dc prcsquc dcux siclcs. Audcla dc tout critrc
quantitatil, lc contcnu smantiquc dc ccs documcnts nous mct sur la tracc
dc cct attachcmcnt princicr cxcmplairc a la laurc athonitc dc Chilandar. La
lrqucncc dc lvocation dcs saints princcs londatcurs, la volont dc sinscrirc
dans la droitc lignc dc lcur succcssion,

y compris dans lc domainc dc la pra


tiquc liturgiquc,

lc lait quc dcux dcs dpcndanccs bnciant dc lallocation


ont galcmcnt t londcs par lcs princcs, Jcan Castriotc dAlbanic, pour
la Tour albanaisc, ct Sava Ncmanji, pour lcrmitagc dc Karys, plaidcnt
lortcmcnt cn lavcur dunc motivation dun ordrc politicorcligicux. ans
Kravari, Ch. Giros, ctes de Chilandar !. Des origines ::, (Paris, +8), , actc n+
(pp. +6++) , M. ivojinovi, Lc monastrc dc Chilandar ct scs mtoqucs dans la
rgion dc lAthos , Zbornik rado.a !i.antolokog instituta :6 (+8), 6:.
:
Mari a Milicacspina, llc du dcspotc Jcan 8rankovi, Ncagoc 8asarab cut pour
prcmicr saint patron Saint Sava, cc dont tmoignc licnc dc cc saint, ayant lait partic
dobjcts pcrsonncls dc cc princc, trouv dans lc skt dstrovul Kalimancstilor, voir S. S.
Anuiki, Svcti Sava u povcljama rumunskih vojvoda |Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs |Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs
vovodcs roumains| in | in in S.eti Sa.a. Spomenica po.odom osamstogodinjice rodjenja :: osamstogodinjice rodjenja :: njice rodjenja :: njice rodjenja :: rodjenja ::
:, (8clgradc, +), 6+6:, S. 8azilcscu, Rclatiilc lui Ncagoc 8asarab cu lumca
ortodoxa din alara granitclor Tarii Romancsti |Lcs rclations dc Ncagoc 8asarab avcc
lc mondc orthodoxc hors dc la \alachic|, Mitropolia Olteniei XX!!!, n+o (++),
6.

8. Joudiou, La signication dc llcction du princc rgnant dans lcs provinccs rou


maincs dc \alachic ct dc Moldavic (X\
c
X\!!
c
siclcs) in Inchinare lui Petre S. Nasturel
la c de ani (8raila, :oo), :8:8, ct aussi Lc rgnc dticnnc lc Grand ct la succcs
sion : unc pcrspcctivc idologiquc in Stefan cel Mare si Sfant. tlet al Credintei cristine
(Slanta manastirc Putna, :oo), +:8.

8. 8ojovi, Chilandar ct lcs Pays roumains. Continuit liturgiquc ct institutionncllc


dans lcs actcs princicrs (X\
c
X\!!
c
siclcs) in Fecueil de tra.aux en l honneur de Petre
S. Nasturel, +++.
8. 8ojovi, Lcs princcs roumains, Jcan Castriot ct la Tour albanaisc 8
lc contcxtc politiquc, culturcl ct idologiquc dc lpoquc, pouvaitil cn ctrc
autrcmcnt :
Aprs la disparition dcs dcrnicrs tats balkaniqucs ct dc lcur sci
gncuric dcvant la conquctc ottomanc, lcs monastrcs du Mont Athos sc
voicnt privs dc lcurs protcctcurs traditionncls. Cc rlc scra dsormais as
sum par lcs princcs dcs pays valaqucs, la Moldavic ct la \alachic. n tant
quc vassaux dc la Portc ottomanc lcs princcs roumains taicnt lcs sculs a
pouvoir assurcr la tchc dc mute.eli, cn tant quc protcctcurs ct ktitors dcs
grandcs communauts hagioritcs jadis choycs par lcs cmpcrcurs byzantins,
ainsi quc par lcs autrcs souvcrains dcs pays balkaniqucs. autant quc ccs
institutions caritativcs sous lormc dc ktitorats curcnt unc lonction mincm
mcnt politicorcligicusc cn tcrmc dc lgitimation dc pouvoir princicr. n
contrcpartic dc laidc qucllc rcccvait sous lormc loncirc ou nancirc ct dc
la protcction dont cllc bnciait, la communaut monastiquc dcvait assurcr
un scrvicc rcligicux, ad .itam aeternam, dc prircs pour la sant du princc ct
dc sa lamillc, ainsi quc pour lc rcpos dc son mc lorsquil nc scrait plus dc
cc mondc. An quc ccttc contrcpartic liturgiquc pt sc prolongcr par dcla
dcs gnrations, lc princc sc dcvait dassurcr la prcnnit dc scs dons dc la
part dc scs hriticrs ct autrcs succcsscurs sur lc trnc. Ccst ainsi quc prircnt
lormc ccs institutions caritativcs sur la longuc durc. Lcs princcs roumains
assurrcnt cn loccurrcncc lcur protcctorat sur lcs monastrcs du Mont
Athos cntrc lc X\
c
ct lc X\!!
c
siclc, priodc critiquc qui vit la disparition
dcs tats balkaniqucs ct lapparition dc la Russic cn tant quc protcctricc dcs
gliscs ct monastrcs dcs 8alkans.
Fondation dynastiquc scrbc dcpuis la n du X!!
c
siclc, lc monastrc
dc Chilandar dcvait ainsi bncicr dunc aidc ct dunc protcction partic
ulircmcnt attcntivc dcs princcs roumains, notammcnt ccux dc \alachic,
dcpuis la n du X\
c
, jusqua la dcuximc moiti du X\!!
c
siclc. ispcnsc
csscnticllcmcnt sous lormc dallocation nancirc, lc monastrc dc Chi
landar dcvait ainsi avoir lcs lavcurs dcs princcs dc \alachic a raison dunc
allocation annucllc galc ou supricurc a ccllc dcs plus grands monastrcs
du Mont Athos. Ccst du moins cc qui rcssort dc la documcntation dis
poniblc.
Lcs grands monastrcs athonitcs, tcls quc Chilandar (qui jouissait du
troisimc ou quatrimc rang dans la hirarchic athonitc), avaicnt dc nom
brcuscs dpcndanccs sous lormcs dc ccllulcs, skites ct autrcs crmitagcs ar
bitrant dcs communauts monacalcs plus ou moins importantcs. Ccrtaincs
dc ccs communauts acquircnt, cllcs aussi, lc privilgc dunc aidc princirc
dircctc. Parmi ccllcs dpcndant dc Chilandar, cc lut lc cas dc lcrmitagc
dc Saint Sava a Karys, sigc du Protaton, ct donc cn cc scns capitalc dc
la Saintc Montagnc. Mcmc sil nc dcvait pas abritcr un grand nombrc dc
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
moincs, lc prcstigc dc cct crmitagc scrbc dc Karys, lond par Saint Sava,
qui lut princc avant dc sy lairc moinc, dcvait justicr cc privilgc princicr.
Jean Castriot et la Tour albanaise (Arbanaki pirg, tr. Arnvud birg
.
zi)

Lautrc dpcndancc dc Chilandar jouissant unc lavcur similairc tait


lcrmitagc intitul la Tour albanaisc (rbanaki pirg). aprs la documcnta
tion disponiblc, lallocation annucllc dc cc skite cst accordc a partir dc ++:
pour continucr a ctrc vcrsc jusquau moins cn +.
Quant a loriginc du patronagc roumain sur cc licu dc prirc ct dc
rccucillcmcnt, lc prcmicr donatcur valaquc aurait pu ctrc 8asarab Tcpclus
(++8+).
Lc montant dc lallocation lut dc +.ooo asprcs, cn plus dc +oo asprcs
pour lcs lrais dc voyagc dcs moincs qui vinrcnt chcrchcr ccs subsidcs a
Targovitc cn aot ++:. n +: lc montant lut lcv a +.:oo, cn plus dc
+.ooo asprcs cn lavcur dc lhigoumnc Macairc,
6
rcsponsablc dc la ditc com
munaut. Trois ans plus tard, cn +:8, lallocation cst chirc a .ooo, cn
plus dc oo asprcs, par lc princc Radu dc la Alumati (+::+:). Lc mcmc
montant cst conrm par lc princc Radu Paisic aux tcrmcs dc sa chartc d
livrc lc lvricr + toujours a Targovitc.

!l scmblc quc lcs lavcurs dcs princcs dc \alachic sc soicnt appliqucs


plus longtcmps a la Tour albanaisc qua lcrmitagc dc Karys qui rcoit son
allocation cntrc +:8 ct +6 sculcmcnt, pour autant quil soit possiblc dcn
jugcr daprs la documcntation connuc a cc jour. !l cst vrai quc la sommc
vcrsc a lcrmitagc dc Karys cst lgrcmcnt plus lcvc cn +:8, .oo
asprcs cn tout, cc qui nc pcut rcmcttrc cn causc la position privilgic dc
la Tour albanaisc cn comparaison dunc institution aussi prcstigicusc quc
ccllc dc Karys. Parmi lcs dpcndanccs dc Chilandar, scul lc kyr Kosma
(dcmcurant auprs dc lglisc dc Saint lic au Mont Athos), pcrsonnagc il
lustrc trs cn lavcur dcs princcs Radu lc Grand ct \lad lc Jcunc, avait pcru
unc allocation plus importantc, :.ooo asprcs cn +o+ ct pas moins dc .ooo
asprcs cn ++o.
Situc a quclqucs kilomtrcs dc distancc dc Chilandar, cn dircction
du sudoucst, cct crmitagc sc trouvc sur unc hautcur avcc vuc sur lc pc

\. Pctkovi, Arbanaki pirg u Hilandaru , rhi. .a arbanaku starinu, je.ik i etnolo-


giju !/+: (+:), ++ , A. Foti, S.eta Gora i Hilandar u Osmanskom carst.u (X!-
X!II .ek) (8clgradc, :ooo), ::8.
6
Higoumnc dc Chilandar (+:+:6 ct +).

8. 8ojovi, La lgitimation du pouvoir princicr ct lc patronagc roumain sur lc Mont


Athos in rta istorieiIstoria artei. cademicianul Fa..an Teodorescu la & de ani (8u
carcst, :oo), 8, ct aussi Chilandar ct lcs Pays roumains , +6+.
8. 8ojovi, Lcs princcs roumains, Jcan Castriot ct la Tour albanaisc 8
tit port du monastrc. A loriginc du nom donn a cct crmitagc ddi a
Saint Gcorgcs, sc trouvc unc donation dc Jcan Castriot (+o+), dont
lc ls Gcorgcs allait dcvcnir Skcndcrbcg. n +:6, il avait lait don cn lavcur
dc Chilandar dc dcux villagcs, Radostuc (Rostuc) ct Trcbitc (prs dc la
rivirc Radika, au nordcst dc cbar), avcc unc glisc ddic a la saintc
Mrc dc icu, a Rostua. Ccst cn +:8 quc lc scigncur albanais t acquisi
tion dun viagcr sur cc skitc pour 8o orins, y compris quatrc adelphata.
8
Lc
contrat dacquisition lut conclu avcc lhiromoinc Athanasc , qui tait
lhigoumnc dc Chilandar cn cc tcmps.

Cct achat dc droit viagcr cst lait


au nom dc Jcan Castriot ct dc scs quatrc ls : Stania, Rcpo, Constantin
ct Gcorgcs. Un dcuximc actc rclatil au mcmc achat dc viagcr lut dlivr
vcrs +o, avcc lcs noms dcs trois ls dc Jcan Castriot, a lcxclusion dc cclui
dc Stania qui stait convcrti a lislam vcrs +:8.
+o
Lun dc ccs ls, Rcpo,
lain, mort cn ++, lut inhum dans lcxonarthcx dc la grandc glisc dc
Chilandar.
++
!l cst possiblc quil ait t moinc (ou plutt sur lc point dc
prononccr scs vux), a la n dc sa vic. Si Rcpo tcrmina sa vic a Chilandar,
vraiscmblablcmcnt cn tant quc lac, cc quc lc droit viagcr dadelfaton pcr
mcttait, cn cct, son prc Jcan Castriot scmblc bicn avoir achcv sa vic a la
Tour albanaisc ou a Chilandar, cn tant quc moinc.
+:
Ccst, cn cct, dans lexonarthex dc lglisc dc Chilandar, sur lc mur
scptcntrional, quon a pu trouvcr linscription cn vicux scrbc:
, , 6 (Cigit lc scrvitcur dc icu
Rcpo, duc d!llyric, 6 |-++|). c mcmc quc dans un manuscrit, ayant
appartcnu jadis a Chilandar, conscrv au Musc Rumjancovski a Moscou,
on pcut lirc : 2 ,
8
S. Novakovi, Zakonski spomenici (8clgradc, ++:), 668 , 8. Korablcv, Actcs dc
lAthos \. Actcs slavcs dc Chilandar , !i.antiskii !remenik + (++), n8:, !. : , \.
Moin, Akti bratskog sabora iz Hilandara , Godinjak Filosofskog fakulteta u Skoplju
(++), n, pp. , ++. Cc tcrmc (belfton) dsignc unc rcntc viagrc,
pour unc ou plusicurs pcrsonncs, concd notammcnt a ccux qui laisaicnt un don lon
cicr, ou pcuniairc, au monastrc. Conlronts la montc dcs dangcrs lis a la conquctc
ottomanc, bicn dcs lamillcs princircs ct scigncurialcs dcvaicnt ainsi rccourir a lacqui
sition dc cc droit viagcr dcstin a lcur assurcr unc rctraitc scuris a lcart dcs tumultcs
tcmporcls.

\. Moin, M. Purkovi, Hilandarski igumani srednjeg .eka (8clgradc, +), , ++.


+o
M. ivojinovi, Adcllati u \izantiji i srcdnjovckovnoj Srbiji , Adcllati u \izantiji i srcdnjovckovnoj Srbiji , Adcllati u \izantiji i srcdnjovckovnoj Srbiji , , , Zbornik rado.a
!i.antolokog instituta ++ (+68), :8, n. 8.
++
M. Sprcmi, Despot Djuradj Branko.i i njego.o doba (8clgradc, +), :86.
+:
R. Gruji, Svctogorski azili za srpskc vladaocc i vlastclu poslc Kosovskc bitkc ,
Glasnik Skopskog naunog drut.a ++ (+), 8+8:, Pctkovi, Arbanaki pirg u Hi
landaru , +.
8alcanica XXX\!! 86
(Cc : mai passa a trpas Castriot, dans lcs ordrcs, dit Joakimc lc
moinc).
+
Quoi quil cn soit, il apparait quc lc grand scigncur albanais avait
cntrctcnu dcs licns troits avcc lillustrc laurc scrbc du Mont Athos, do lc
nom Tour albanaisc donn dsormais a lcrmitagc quil avait rachct a vic,
cn lavcur dc son ls Rcpo ct probablcmcnt dc luimcmc, an quil pt sy
rctircr, a limagc dcs princcs ct autrcs grands scigncurs qui avaicnt choisi la
rclusion monastiquc dans la Saintc Montagnc. Lc lait cst quc lacquisition
dun viagcr sous ccttc lormc dadclphata comprcnait aussi lc droit a un scr
vicc rcligicux cn lavcur dcs souscriptcurs dc cct cngagcmcnt. Cc qui cx
pliqucrait la mmoirc sculairc dcs scigncurs albanais sous lormc dc nom
donn a lhcrmitagc, la Tour albanaisc.
Aux cots dc cclui dc Saint Gcorgcs, lc vocablc dc Saint Nicolas
+
ap
parait sur lc documcnt dc +:. !l cst possiblc quunc autrc chapcllc y ait t
construitc par lc donatcur princicr valaquc, cc qui cxpliqucrait lc lait quil
sc dsignc dans lactc donatcur cn tant quc nouvcau ktitor, protcctcur ct
rnovatcur dc lcrmitagc.
ans un .aqif name dc +6, cn licu ct placc du pirg on nc trouvc plus
quun vignoblc. Auraitil pu dja sc trouvcr cn ruincs : Quoi quil cn soit, au
X\!!!
c
siclc on rctrouvc lcrmitagc (Arbana{ki pirg) sur unc lithographic
dc Chilandar avcc scs dpcndanccs, cxcut a Moscou cn +. La Tour
albanaisc y cst rcprscntc avcc son glisc, sa tour lortic, scs btimcnts
adjaccnts ct lcnccintc qui lcs cntourait.
+
n +6+ ct +6: un ccrtain popc Pctronijc, hadi ct mcmbrc du con
scil dcs ancicns dc Chilandar, cst moinc rsidant dans la Tour albanaisc, a
laqucllc il t don dun livrc, tout cn payant la rparation dun autrc volumc.
!l avait lait un don cn +6 dja pour la rlcction dc lcrmitagc voisin dc
Saintc Trinit, dc mcmc quil lut a loriginc dc la construction du paraklision
dc Saint Nicolas a Chilandar.
+6
+
Gruji, Svctogorski azili , 8+8:.
+
di a cc saint, SaintNicolas tait aussi un mtoquc dc Chilandar situ dans la
rgion dc Mlai, a proximit du monastrc, appartcnant (dc mcmc quc cclui dc Saint
Gorgcs) a Chilandar dcpuis sa londation par Simon ct Sava cn ++8, cl. ivojinovi,
Lc monastrc dc Chilandar , . Cc qui corrcspond a la zonc o sc situc la Tour
albanaisc.
+
. avidov, Manastir Hilandar na bakrorczima X\!!! vcka , Hilandarski .bornik
: (++), ++8, S. Ncnadovi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc na Spasovoj vodi ,
Hilandarski .bornik : (++), +o.
+6
. Tomi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc na Spasovoj vodi , Hilandarski .bornik
(+), +8:, n. 668.
8. 8ojovi, Lcs princcs roumains, Jcan Castriot ct la Tour albanaisc 8
Lcrmitagc doriginc mdivalc, dsign dans lcs sourccs par Tour al
banaisc cst actucllcmcnt cn tat dc ruincs. llcs ont t idcntis, tudis
ct dcritcs par larchitcctc S. Ncnadovi.
+
Institut des Etudes balkaniques
cademie serbe des Sciences et des rts
Belgrade
+
S. Ncnadovi, Hilandar na grakim prikazima X\!!! i X!X stolca , Zbornik .atite
spomenika kulture X\! (+6), +o+o6, la rcprscntation graphiquc dc lhcrmitagc cst
rcproduitc, cn agrandi, dans Ncnadovi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc , +o, p. tb. .
\oir aussi, M. ivojinovi, S.etogorske kelije i pirgo.i u srednjem .eku (8clgradc, +:),
+o6+o.
UDC ,c.::,,(,,+,,.&:Hilandar):,
Mirjana Tatijuri
La Teotokos LYCNIA dans lart et lhymnologie
ans la ncl ccntralc du narthcx dc lglisc dc \ulcano dans lc Ploponnsc
sc trouvc unc curicusc rcprscntation dc la \icrgc, possdant lpithtc bicn
rarc dc Lycna

(g. +).
+
Ccttc lrcsquc datc dc +6o8 cst luvrc dc
mtrios ct Gcorgcs Moschoi dc Nauplic.
:
llc possdc un uniquc schma
iconographiquc appartcnant au contcxtc thmatiquc plus largc, laisant part
dc la composition Lcs prophtcs tont annoncc (g. :).

Notrc \icrgc cst rcprscntc cn orantc avcc lc Christ orant, insrc


dans la triplc sphrc ct parscmc dc scpt cicrgcs. !ci, au licu du prctrc Za
carias avcc lc candlabrc a scpt branchcs prgurant la \icrgc, on posa sur
la poitrinc dc la \icrgc cllcmcmc un candlabrc portant lc Christ Savcur
qui cst la lumirc dcs lumircs.

llc rcsscmblc a un ambcau incxtingui


blc commc la qualic St Cyrillc dAlcxandric lors dc la clturc du concilc
dphsc : Salut, Maric Mrc du icu, Trsors dc lunivcrs, ambcau
incxtinguiblc, couronnc dc virginit, sccptrc dc lrthodoxic, tcmplc indis
solublc, tabcrnaclc dc cclui quc lc mondc nc pcut contcnir...


Tout autour, dautrcs mdaillons parcils au ntrc illustrcnt avcc lcs
symbolcs prophtiqucs la vcnuc du Logos dans lc mondc, par la \icrgc. Cc
luminismc potiquc cst aussi cn contcxtc dunc gurc ddigitria appar
tcnant a lAcathistc, portant dans la main un cicrgc ct sign fwtodcon
+
S. ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov ent mnografa (ChcnncvircsurMarnc, +o), :
.
:
K. Kalokyris, Byzantina ekklhsai tv #I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav ekklhsai tv #I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav kklhsai tv #I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav (Tcssalo
niquc, +), +:.

Ibid., +6.

Ibid., g. .

. 8. Capcllc, Typologic Marialc chcz lcs prcs ct dans la liturgic , Questions litur-
giques et paroissiales , (maijuin +), +:o, n
o
+.
8alcanica XXX\!! o
lampda.
6
Ccttc composition dnommc &Anwqen o proftai

a \ul
cano cst cncadrc dcs dcux cts par lillustration dc lhymnc Acathistc.
Lc symbolc vtrotcstamcntairc dc la \icrgc Candlabrc a scpt bran
chcs cst cmprunt au mobilicr du tcmplc hbraquc plac dans lc dpartc
mcnt dagia. Lc symbolc ncst pas tudi sparmcnt, commc ccst lc cas avcc
lc sujct du tabcrnaclc,
8
du buisson ardcnt,

du lit dc Salomon, dc la toison


dc Gdon, dc la portc dzchicl ct dc la saintc Montagnc.
+o
autrc part,
dans ltudc dcnscmblc sur lc thmc Lcs prophtcs tont annoncc
++
o
lon numrc lc cyclc complct, on donnc pcu dc placc a la Tcotokos, sym
bolc du candlabrc, dont Jsus luimcmc proclamc : !l lallait quc saccom
plissc tout cc qui cst crit dc moi dans la loi dc Mosc, dans lcs prophtcs ct
dans lcs psaumcs.
+:
Ccst St. Jcan amascnc dans scs homlics sur la Nativit ct la or
mition
+
qui nous numrc lcs symbolcs vtrotcstamcntaircs quc dc bonnc
hcurc lcs prcs dc lglisc ont considr commc gurc prgurant la Tco
6
Kalokyris, Byzantina ekklhsai, pl. +o A.

Ibid., pl. 6, Mhnaa (\cnisc, +8), 6o : &Anwqen corv profhtkv.


8
N. 8cljacv, Lc Tabcrnaclc du tmoignagc dans la pcinturc balkaniquc du X!\
c

siclc , dans Lrt by.antin che. les Sla.es. Les Balkans !/: (Paris, +o), + sq , M.
GligorijcviMaksimovi, Skinija u canima, porcklo i razvoj ikonogralskc tcmc ,
dans Deani et l rt by.antin au milieu du XI!
e
sicle (8clgradc, +8), +6, g. +8.

L. \oronccv, , .... : (+o),


6:88, . Harris, Mary in thc 8urning 8ush , Journal of !arburg Institute ! (London,
+), :8, . \cttcr, Maria in brcnncndcn ornbuch , Das Munster +o (+),
:.
+o
S. cr Ncrscssian, Lc lit dc Salomon , Fecueil des tra.aux de l Institut detudes
by.antines \!!! (8clgradc, +6), 8:, J. Radovanovi, Gcdconovo runo u srpskom
srcdnjovckovnom slikarstvu , dans Ikonografska istrai.anja srpskog slikarst.a XIII i
XI! .eka (8clgradc, +88), 888, G. 8abi, L!magc symboliquc dc la Portc lcrmc a !magc symboliquc dc la Portc lcrmc a
Saint Clmcnt dchrid , Synthronon (Paris, +68), S. Radoji, pizoda o 8ogoro
diciGori u Tcodosijcvom ivotu sv. Savc i njcna vcza sa slikarstvom X!!! i X!\ vcka
, dans Teksto.i i freske (Novi Sad, +6), ++6+:.
++
. Mouriki, A biblika proeikonseiv tv Panagav ev tn trollon tv
Periblptoy to Mystr , $Arcaiologikn Delton :, + (+o, Athncs, ++),
::, g. 8, . Pani ct G. 8abi, Bogorodica Lje.ika (8clgradc, +), , G. 8abi,
!konogralski program ivopisa u pripratama crkava kralja Milutina , dans !i.anti-
jska umetnost poetkom XI! .eka (8clgradc, +8), ++, \. Milanovi, Proroci su tc
nagovcstili u Pci , dans Lrche.que Danilo II et son epoque (8clgradc, ++), ++, S.
dcr Ncrscssian, Program and !conography ol thc Frcscocs ol thc Parccclcsion , dans
Te Kariye Djami, vol. (Princcton, +), +.
+:
Luc :, .
+
St Jcan amascnc, Homlics sur la Nativit, S.Ch. 8o (Paris, +6), +o.
M. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic +
tokos, car cllc cst lc trnc royal prs duqucl sc ticnncnt lcs angcs, contcm
plant lc maitrc ct lc cratcur qui cst Lancicn dcs Jours (an. , ), puis
larchc ta prgurc, cllc qui sauva lc gcrmc dc la sccondc cration, car tu
cnlantas lc Christ, Salut du mondc, qui a submcrg lc pch. avancc, ccst
toi quc lc buisson a dpcintc, quc lcs tablcs dc icu ont dcssinc, quc larchc
dc la loi a racont. Ccst toi, qui cst lurnc dor, lc candlabrc dc la tablc, lc ra
mcau dAron avaicnt curis (Hbr. , ), ils tont manilcstcmcnt prgurc.
c toi cn cct cst n Cclui qui cst la ammc dc la divinit ct la dnition ct
lcxprcssion du Prc. La mannc dlicicusc ct clcstc, lc nom innom qui cst
au dcssus dc tout nom. La lumirc inacccssiblc (+ Tim. +6) ct tcrncllc dont
nul ctrc humain na approch, ni vu, dont la gloirc dc la Royaut cst sans n.
llc cst lc pain dc la vic vcnu du Cicl, lc lruit rcolt sans travail, dc toi qui
cst sortic corporcllcmcnt...
Lannoncc du Mcssic par lcs prophtcs dja paruc dans lcs actcs du
conscil dphsc
+
a lpoquc macdonicnnc dc 8yzancc dcvicnt lc program
mc normal du dcor dcs tambours dcs gliscs.
+
Au tcmps dcs Comnncs sur
lcs icncs portativcs lcs prophtcs sont groups autour du cadrc dc la \icrgc
a lnlant.
+6
Ccttc pratiquc continuc sous lcs Palologucs dans la pcinturc
muralc ct sur lcs icncs.
+
llc cst considrc commc Tcmplc saint dc la
ivinc Lumirc a Pc ct a Ljcvika dc Prizrcn.
+8
Unc parcillc composition
sc trouvc souvcnt dans lc narthcx dunc glisc ddic a la \icrgc, dans lc
mdaillon dc la coupolc, ct aprs, dans lc sanctuairc, sur larc couronnant par
la \icrgc Platytcra la conquc dc lapsidc.
+
+
J. . Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum no.a et amplissima Collectio (ParisLcipzig, +o+),
col. ++6 c.
+
Lj. Popovi dans Cyrillomethodianum \!!!!X (Tcssaloniquc, +8/), +++.
ans lrologc slavc il y a un bcau tcxtc a la n dc lorthros: Plod utrobc tvojc Prcista
proroka i zakona jc ispunjcnjc. Zato tcbc 8ogorodicu u poznanju slavci pobono
vcliamo. Raduj sc jcvo proroka propovcd kojom zasja manuil. asoslo. (Kragujc
vac, +86), :o8.
+6
\oir licnc du Sina, K. ct M. Sotiriou, Eknev tv monv Sin ! (Athncs, +6), g.
, ct dc lrmitagc (n
o
+o+, X!!X!!! s.),
. Cataloguc (SaintPtcrsbourg, +:), 8, pl. !!!. SaintPtcrsbourg, +:), 8, pl. !!!.
+
Milanovi, Proroci su tc nagovcstili , +:, . and T. Talbot Ricc, Icons. Te Natasha
llen Collection (ublin, +68), ++8, Mouriki, A biblika proeikonseiv , ::,
g. +.
+8
Peka Patrijarija (8clgradc, +o), +, g. 8o, 8abi, 8clgradc, +o), +, g. 8o, 8abi, g. 8o, 8abi, Bogorodica Lje.ika, +8+,
ct g. o.
+
P. A. Undcrwood, Te Kariye Djami (Ncw York, +66), vol. !, 6, vol. !!, g. 8+8:,
Mouriki, A biblika proeikonseiv , :+:+, g. :, Milanovi, Proroci su
tc nagovcstili , +.
8alcanica XXX\!! :
A lpoquc postbyzantinc, sous linucncc dc la liturgic, on rcpr
scntc la \icrgc, trnc dc sagcssc, cntourc dcs prophtcs avcc lcs symbolcs
ct lcs tcxtcs prgurant la \icrgc commc instrumcnt dc lincarnation.
:o
Tcl
sont: la bcllc icnc dc lAcadmic dc Florcncc,
:+
la lrcsquc sc trouvant cn
Alagonic dans la conquc dc lautcl, datc dc +o+,
::
unc icnc dc 8istrica
dc la rgion \ilcca cn Roumanic dc ++,
:
puis unc icnc sc trouvant a
Pritina (Kosovo).
:
ans lc musc historiquc dc Crtc on conscrvc unc
icnc du X\!
c
siclc avcc lc motil compos dans larbrc dc Jcss, parscm dc
+: prophtcs autour dc la \icrgc a lnlant.
:
Un parcil schma dmontrc
la lrcsquc athonitc dc +6+ a ionysiou dont lautcur cst Makari lhagio
graphc.
:6
Au X\!!
c
siclc notrc composition cst bicn a la modc, a nc citcr
commc cxcmplcs: la bcllc icnc dc Patmos
:
(g. ) ct licnc du pcintrc
Antoinc, datc dc +6+ dans unc collcction suissc.
:8
Sur dcux pigonatia, lun dat cn +68+ du musc 8cnaki, la gurc dc
la \icrgc cst cntourc dc +: prophtcs ct lc tcxtc dun tropairc quon chantc
cncorc au Mont Athos, a loccasion dcs lctcs dc la \icrgc, mais il ncst pas
prscnt dans lcs livrcs liturgiqucs. Par contrc, dans lcs rccucils musicaux, lcs
pandekta, on lc trouvc dans un manuscrit du X!\
c
siclc sous lc nom dc Jcan
Koukouzclis
:
ct dc Jcan Kladas.
Unc icnc du musc 8cnaki datc du milicu du X\!!
c
siclc, uvrc
dc Luka Mauriki, cst inspirc par lc tropairc &Anwqen o proftai qui cst
chant avant lc liturgic pcndant quc lc prctrc sc prparc a scrvir la saintc
mcssc. La dcrnirc strophc du tropairc cst ddic a la \icrgc commc trnc
:o
L. 8oycr, Le trne de la sagesse, essais sur la signication du culte marial (Paris, +),
+::8.
:+
\. N. Lazarcv, Storia della pittura bi.antina (Turin, +6), g. .
::
Kalokyris, Byzantina ekklhsai, +8:.
:
Ikonen aus Fumanien (usscldorl, ++), n
o
:.
:
8abi, L!magc symboliquc , +o.
:
S. Alcxiou, #Odhgv #Istor.Moyseoy Krthv (Hraklion, +), g.

.
:6
K. Kalokyris, $Aqv. Qmata rcailogav ka tcnhv (Athncs, 1963), 157, g. A.
:
K. Kalokyris, #H Qeotkov ev tv ekongrafan $Anatolv ka Dsewv (Tcssalo
niquc, +:), +, g. ::.
28
Les icnes dans les collections suisses (Gcnvc, 1968), Musc Rath, n
o
67.
:
. \ciChatzidaki, Moyseon Mpenkh. $Ekklhsiastik Kentmata (Athncs,
+), :, :, g.+,+, Mouriki, A biblika proeikonseiv , :+, Milanovi, Pro
roci su tc nagovcstili , +, S. ustratiadis, $Iwnnhv Koykoyxlhv majstwr ka
crnov tv kmv ato , .... + (Athncs, +8), +o sq , sur lcs compositcurs
Kladas ct Koukouzclis, voir A. Jakovljcvi dans Klhronoma X!\/: (Tcssaloniquc,
+8:), , ct lc mcmc autcur dans Hilandarski .bornik (8clgradc, +86), +8+.
M. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic
du basilcus,
o
cc qui a pu inspircr lcs artistcs dc rcprscntcr la \icrgc trnant
prcsquc rgulircmcnt dans la pcinturc postbyzantinc. Lc nombrc dcs pro
phtcs varic, quoi quc lc manucl dc pcinturc cn prcscrit douzc.
+

Parmi lcs monumcnts illustrant notrc sujct qui abondcnt sous la do
mination ottomanc, nous nc citons quc lcs icncs dc St Nicolas dc 8raov,
:

ccllc dc Zanc au Sina,

unc lrcsquc dc Gcorgc Mitrolanovi a Moraa

ct
licnc du X\!!!
c
siclc au Musc Rath.

ans la plus hautc rangc diconostasc avcc lcs gurcs dcs prophtcs,
il y a la Mrc du icu commc laccomplisscmcnt dc lannoncc prophtiquc
quon voit a Krucdol cn Scrbic.
6
La prguration dc la \icrgc commc candlabrc a scpt branchcs cst
a lissuc dunc longuc tradition, quon voit sur lc mur occidcntal a ura,


puis dans lc manuscrit dc Cosmas !ndicoplcusts sur lautcl du tabcrnaclc
qui annoncc lapparition du Logos dans lc tcmps.
8
Cc candlabrc sc trouvc
dans lc prcmicr dpartcmcnt du tcmplc dnomm Saint. La il symbolisc
par lc numro scpt lcs phnomncs tcmporcls sclon lcs commcntaircs dc
Todorc dc Mopsucstia. !l apparait aussi illustrant lcs homlics dc Gr
goirc dc Nazianzc dans lc manuscrit Paris gr. Coislin :, lol. o
r
.

o
A. Xyngopoulos, Moyseon Mpenkh. Katlogov tn eknwn (Athncs, +6), n
o

+, n
o
, p. o lc tropairc: Anwen o proftai s prokathggelan, stmnon, rbdon,
plka, kibwtn, lycnan, trpezan, rov, latmhton, cryson qymiatrion ka
skhnv, plhn dideyton, paltion ka klmaka ka qrnon to basilwv.
+
ionysios dc Fourna,#Ermhnea tv zwgrafikv tcnhv, d. Papadopoulos Kcr
amcus (Pctroupolis, +o), +6.
:
Istoria artelor plastice in Fomania, vol. ! (8ucarcst, +68), .

Sinai Treasures of the Monastery of Saint Catherine, d. Konst. Manas (Athncs, +o),
::, g. .

S. Pctkovi, i, Moraa (8clgradc, +86), g. .

La \icrgc trnant ayant sous scs picds larbrc dc Jcss dont lcs mdaillons avcc
lcs prophtcs : Les icnes dans les collections suisses, n
o
+:, avcc lc tropairc: &Anwen o
proftai...
6
\. J. juri, Ikone i. Jugosla.ije (8clgradc, +6+), ++o, n
o
, Pl. LXX\!.

C. H. Kracling, Tc cxcavations at urauropos , Te Synagogue \!!!, + (Ncw


Havcn, +6), Pl. XX!\, LXX\!LXX\!!!. XX!\, LXX\!LXX\!!!.
8
V. Volska, La Topographic Chrticnnc dc Cosmas !ndicoplcusts , dans Teologie
et Sciences du !I
e
sicle (Paris, +6:), .

Sur la symboliquc du Tabcrnaclc, Studi et Testi ++ (+8), ::, ct + (+),


::. Sur Homlic dc Grgoirc dc Nazianzc, voir : G. Galavaris, Te Illustrations
of the Liturgical Homilies of Gregory Na.ian.enus (Princcton, Ncw York +6), :, Pl.
XXX\!!, :o.
8alcanica XXX\!!
ans lc Psauticr Lcctionnairc du Pantocrator (6+, lol. +6
r
) lc cand
labrc prscnt lAgia auprs du psaumc ++ (8).
o
Un manuscrit dc Cos
mas !ndicoplcusts provcnant dc la Stc Trinit dc Pljcvlja illumin cn +6
par lc zographc Andrcja Raicvi a aussi la rcprscntation du candlabrc a
scpt branchcs (lol. :o+).
+
La \icrgc prgurc cn candlabrc dans Skinia (pitrc dc Paul aux
Hbrcux , :) ct daprs lcxgsc dc Philo dAlcxandric Per ero cst lc
symbolc dc lglisc tcrrcstrc, illuminant lcs tnbrcs par son ls divin.
:
Laspcct christologiquc dc la prguration du tcmplc dominc jus
quau \!!
c
siclc quand la \icrgc a lnlant la substitucnt. Lcxcmplc lc plus
lascinant sc trouvc dans lc Physiologuc dc Smyrnc (lol. +6) rcprscntant lc
Trnc avcc lc \icrgc a lnlant sur lc sommct du candlabrc a scpt branchcs
brillantcs. Linscription qui suit ccttc miniaturc nc laissc aucunc placc au
doutc sur lc scns dc limagc : ptkaylo Lycna (g. ).

Lc candlabrc vtrotcstamcntairc dnomm mcnora cst mcn


tionn dans lxodc (:, +o). !l cst lait tout cn or, il a scpt branchcs
dcorcs dc pommcs, damandcs ct dc curs, ct il cst illumin par scpt bou
gics.
Ccst lApocalypsc qui mct prs du trnc du Scigncur, commc scpt
csprits dc icu.

t au milicu dcs scpt chandclicrs quclquun qui rcs


scmblait a un ls dHommc ... sa tctc ct scs chcvcux taicnt commc la lainc
blanchc, commc la ncigc, scs ycux taicnt commc unc ammc , ccst la
vision dc lAncicn dcs Jours (g. ).

Ccst lc candlabrc cn or qui, daprs lintcrprtation dc St Clmcnt


dAlcxandric, gurc lcs scpt astrcs ct lcs scpt gliscs.
6
Lc londcmcnt bibliquc du candlabrc a scpt branchcs sc trouvc dans
lc tcxtc dc prophtc Zacharic : il y a un chandclicr tout cn or surmont dun
o
S. ulrcnnc, Lillustration des psautiers grecs du Moyen ge, ! : Pantocrator &:, Paris gr.
:c, Brit. Mus. ,c: (Paris, +66), Pl. :6.
+
S. Pctkovi, Manastir S..Trojice kod Plje.alja (8clgradc, +), 8, lol. :o+
v
.
:
Philonis lexandrini opera quae supersunt, \, cd. minor (8crlin, +o6), +. A la \icr A la \icr
gc Pcrivlcptos dchrid, a Graanica, cani, Pc, aux Aptrcs a Tcssaloniquc ct a
Lcsnovo, partout on voit lc tondo avcc la \icrgc appliqu au tabcnaclc. Gligorijcvi
Maksimovi, Skinija u canima , Pl. /:, 8.

Ibid., , J. Strzygowski, cr 8ildcrkrcis dcs gricchischcn Physiologus , By.anti-


nischen rchi. : (Lcipzig, +8), , Pl. XX\!!!/+.

Apoc. , .

Apoc. +, ++. Sur lAncicn dcs Jours: !czckicl, mtropolitc dc Tcssalitos, #Opalaiv O palaiv
tn mern (Athncs, +o), +, J. Radovanovi, !konograja lrcsaka protczisa crkvc
sv. Apostola u Pci , dans Ikonografska istrai.anja, :6.
6
Clcmcns Alcxandrinus, Stromata, lib. \, cap. \!, d. Stahlin (8crlin, +6o), :. \, cap. \!, d. Stahlin (8crlin, +6o), :. \!, d. Stahlin (8crlin, +6o), :.
M. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic
vasc ct portant scpt lampcs avcc scpt conduits pour lcs lampcs qui sont au
sommct du chandclicr...

Plus loin langc cxpliquc a Zacharic quc ccs scpt


sont lcs ycux dc ltcrncl qui parcourcnt toutc la tcrrc .
8
aprs lc Manucl
dc ionysiou on rcprscntc lc prophtc Zacharic indiquant lc candlabrc a
scpt branchcs, portant lc roulcau avcc lc tcxtc : eg lycnan ptfwtn se
edon fv t nohtn struasan ksm.

Lcs lctcs marialcs conccrnant lincarnation du Christ sont commcn


tcs par lcs symbolcs prophtiqucs, proclamant la \icrgc commc tcmplc
saint dc icu.
o
Tcllc cst licnc crtoisc laitc cn +66 (g. 6), conscrvc
dans lcolc dcs 8caux Arts a Athncs.
+
Sur ccttc icnc, lc prophtc Za
charic portc lc candlabrc ct un roulcau sur lcqucl sc trouvcnt lcs parolcs
suivantcs : raka ka do crys lycna ka t lampdion pnw
atv (Zach. , :).
La posic liturgiquc cst prcsquc inpuisablc sur lc sujct dc la Tcoto
kos Lychnia. Par un choix asscz rcstrcint jc vais tchcr dc traccr unc csquissc
dc son portrait vu lcs hymnographcs byzantins, prscnts dans lcs Mnncs,
Triodion, Pcntikostarion, Totokarion ct ktoichos cn autant quc lro
logion.
Ainsi, cllc cst lc candlabrc lumincux dc lillustrc souvcrainc avcc plus
dclat quc lc solcil,
:
tout brillant dor par lc Solcil dc la gloirc

lumincusc,


trs chastc, rcsplcndissantc,

par scpt lumircs


6
dont parlc lc prophtc,

Zach. , :.
8
Ibid., , +o.

#Ermhnea, +6, :8:.


o
. Mcrccnicr, La prire des eglises de rite by.antin !!, + (Chcvctognc, +), +8:. Mcmc
dans la ormition a St Nagoriino (X!\
c
s.), il y a cct acccnt sur lincarnation par la
prscncc dcs prophtcs dans la scnc dc la Mort dc la \icrgc, inspirc par lcs homlics
dc Jcan amascnc sur lAnnonciation ct la ormition. S. Radoji, U.ori i dela starih
srpskih umetnika (8clgradc, +), +86+8, 8. Todi, Staro Nagoriino (8clgradc, +),
+o, g. :6.
+
N. Pansclinou, Krhtik eikna toy 1636 rgo toy Peqmnioy zwgrfoy Gewrgla
Marolh , Eyfrsynon, Afirmata ston Manlh Catzhdkh (Athncs, +:),
8, g. , :8.
:
Mcn. + jan. vcprcs, p.+ b : Lcne pmfte liakn lampnion lamprotra d-
spoina , dc mcmc Triodion de carme ( Jordanvillc, +6), :.

S. ustratiadis, Qeotokrion (ChcnncvircsurMarnc, ++), +8.

Mhnaa to #loy niayto !! (Romc, +88), :.

Penthkostrion (Romc, +88), o.


6
ustratiadis, Qeotokrion, :86.

Ibid., :++ , Ecolgion t mga (\cnisc, +86:), :o. La mcmc cxprcssion chcz lc La mcmc cxprcssion chcz lc
potc Tcophancs ct chcz amaskinos, ::+, ++.
8alcanica XXX\!! 6
candlabrc brillant
8
tout cn or,

cc candlabrc, qui annoncc la triplc lu


mirc,
6o
polylumincusc dcs charismcs dc icu,
6+
dc la lumircs immat
ricllc avcc lallurc mystiquc,
6:
la lumirc dc la nuc qui cngcndrc la gloirc
dc icu.
6
llc la tablc divinc qui clairc tout,
6
lc candlabrc incxtinguiblc
dc la chambrc nuptialc,
6
lc candlabrc dor, la chssc portant lumirc,
66
lc
chariot rcsplcndissant du solcil impcrccptiblc.
6
La plus vnrc par la chastct qui rcsplcndit plus quc solcil, assisc sur
lc trnc solairc distillant,
68
commc la voit lc potc phrcm lc Syricn dans sa
troisimc oraison a la cipara.
6
ans unc autrc oraison ddic a la \icrgc,
cc mcmc potc intcrprtant lc nom 8atc Maric, commc !lluminc car
ccttc lumirc vicnt du Fils dc icu ct clairc lcs croyants jusquau bout dc la
tcrrc par la saintc Trinit .
o
Lc potc Romanos lc Mlodc lappcllc fwtein Mara (Maric Lu
mincusc).
+
Ccst aussi St Jrmc dans son cxgsc dcs noms hbraqucs
(xod. :, +) qui lcxpliquc commc Maria !lluminatrix.
:
Pour lc prtcndu lautcur dc lAcathistc dc la \icrgc, lc patriarchc
Scrgc, cllc cst laubc mystiquc dc la journc, lc candlabrc incxtinguiblc qui
nous avcuglc.

Ccst Andrc dc Crtc qui dans son canon sur la Nativit


8
Mhnaa \ (\cnisc, +8), :o.

Ibid., !X, 8.
6o
Na Sin a Sin :8 (+), :+.
6+
Mhnaa !! (\cnisc, +8), +8 , ustratiadis, Qeotokrion, +o6.
6:
ustratiadis, Qeotokrion, : , PG +o, col. +:o8.
6
asoslo. (8clgradc, +6), :6, Mhnaa !\ (Romc, +888+), : , Paraklhtk
htoi $Okthcov meglh (Romc, +88), +8+.
6
Nikodcmos Naxios, Qeotokrion (\cnisc, +88), 8.
6
Tridion katanyktikn (Romc, +8), :8 , PG +o, col. +68 , A. Mai, Spicilegium
Fomanum !\ (Romc, +8), +.
66
ustratiadis, Qeotokrion, +6.
6
A. Salzcr, Die Sinnbilder und Bei.orte Mariens in der deutchen Literatur und lateini-
schen Hymnepoesie des Mittelalters (armstadt, +6), 6.
68
Ecolgion t mga (\cnisc, +86:), 8 , $Anqolgion ! (Romc, +8), +6 : dcc.
odc .
6
Salzcr, Sinnbilder, 6.
o
phraim, De Laudibus Deiparae, :, +: b , Salzcr, Sinnbilder, .
+
J. 8. Pitra, nalecta Spicilegio Solesmensi parata ! (Paris, +86), ::, +.
:
Salzcr, Die Sinnbilder, : !n Math. :, 6 : Mariam plcriquc acstimant intcrprctari
illuminant mc isti illuminatrix, dc mcmc dans Fragmcnta gracca nom. Hcbr. !\, :, +::
Mariam fwtizomnh fotzoysa qtov.

Pitra, nalecta, :, +o.


M. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic
appcllc Maric la portc dc linacccssiblc lumirc,

allusion a la portc lcrmc


dzchicl.
Gcorgcs lc Taumaturgc dans sa dcuximc homlic sur lAnnoncia
tion la proclamc la sourcc dc la lumirc ct a causc dc son manation on
intcrprtc cc phnomnc commc lc plus brillant dc sa \irginit.

llc cst vraimcnt lc Candlabrc srnissimc, contcnant la lumirc dc


icu,
6
comportant lc lcu divin, lumincux, contcnant lc ambcau divin


avcc la lumirc immatricllc.
8
Ccst lc candlabrc rccptiblc dc la lumirc
dc la divinit

contcnant lc ambcau mystiquc ct divin qui illuminc tout


souc, commc un signal dans la nuit.
8o
llc cst lc candlabrc du Plus Haut,
dallurc lumincusc toutc dorc,
8+
trs brillantc dc la lumirc immatricllc
dans laqucllc cst lc Christ,
8:
avcc lc lcu supcrsubstanticl ct indiciblc.
8
aprs Joscph, lc mtropolitc dc Tcssaloniquc (6:8:) ct lrrc
dc Todorc Studitc, ccst lc lcu dc la divinit qui scst domicili cn cllc,
illuminant avcc son aubc ccux qui dprisscnt dans la nuit.
8
Tout brillant
dor capablc dc jctcr lclat dc la lumirc, bicn sacr dans tout lcspacc.
8

Ccst lc candlabrc a scpt branchcs avcc la lumirc charismatiquc commc
dit lc prophtc dc cc candlabrc vnrablc,
86
brillant dc la lumirc consacr,
amboyant dc lumirc dor dc icu.
8
Car, cc candlabrc brillc dc la triplc

PG , col. +:+.

Salzcr, Die Sinnbilder, .


6
ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, : :+ nov. canon odc tropairc + , :o jan. canon :, odc ,
thcotokion.

ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, .
8
Euchologion, 6, ::.
79
Chant dans likos dc Procortia pour la lctc dAnnonciation.
8o
Canon dc condolancc dc St Anna, odc 8, tropairc :.
8+
Qhkara, :+6, :+.
8:
Lc : avril, canon +, odc dc avid lc moinc dc Laurc, Euchologion, ::8, 6 , us
tratiadis, #H Qeotkov, .
8
Qhkara, +68, o.
8
Triodion, odc 8, jcudi matin.
8
Euchologion, , +8 , ct +8, :6.
86
Qhkarv monacv $Iwnnhv , ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, , , Tcophancs, +o,
6 , amaskinos, Lgov ev Eaggelismn, +oo , Joscph hymnographc, nov. canon ,
odc .
8
Trois autcurs du !X
c
siclc, lc patriarchc Photios, Mitrophanc, mtropolitc dc Smyrnc,
ct Tophanc Graptos, moinc dc la Laurc dc St Sabas dc Jrusalcm, chantcnt sur la
Tcotokos lycna, commc aussi Todorc Studitc (8:6), qui a lait lc canon sur +
imanchc dc lrthodoxic.
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
lumirc
88
dcs trois solcils trs saints, qui a acquis la lumirc avant lcs siclcs
manant du Prc.
8
Ccst bicn la lycna fwteinmorfov
o
portant la lumirc dc toutc
tcrnit,
+
lcu dc lumirc illuminant tout.
:
8rillant dun clair mcrvcillcux
qui lait obscurcir lc mondc.

Ccst lc polycandylc brillant ct illuminant dcs


aigs dans la nuit,

tincclant aux croyants lcs charismcs divins.

Aussi, ccst un candlabrc dc la lumirc raisonnablc,


6
intclligiblc
commc a prdit lc prophtc. llc tcnant la lampc dc icu,

noera ka
ptfwtov commc chantc lc Klimis Mlodos,
8
ou bicn la lumirc tcr
ncllc commc on lit dans luchologion,

qui cst consacr tout cn or ,


+oo

avcc la lumirc incxtinguiblc.
+o+
Portant avcc scs scpt branchcs lc lcu dc la
connaissancc dc icu,
+o:
brillant a ccux qui prisscnt dans lcs tnbrcs
+o

divincmcnt, car cc candlabrc portc lc rcct dc la gloirc dc icu.
+o
88
ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, .
8
Kann flikov d. h $Iwsf, Qeotokon.
o
Parakl., , a.
+
Euchologion, +, 6.
92
!gnatios, 47, 140 , ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, 43.

Parakl., mardi, thcotokion dc Joscph, du mcmc vcndrcdi canon .

ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, .

Ibid., , : Manoyl mgav rtwr.


6
Euchologion, , +6.

ustratiadis, #H Qeotkov, .
8
Ibid., Klmhv meldv, $Iwnnhv Qhkarv, 6, +:.

Euchologion, :, o.
+oo
ustratiadis, H Qeotkov, .
+o+
Euchologion, +o8, :.
+o:
Canon de Basil le Grand, odc , Euchologion , thcotokion dc Josph : canon dc Jac
qucs.
+o
Parakl.,
c
h, lc matin, canon odc dc Joscph.
+o
Ibid., odc 6 thotokion dc Joscph, thotokion dc Tcophanis, samcdi, Parakl., 8,
odc , Euchologion, , +6+.
UDC .c:.c,&.(,,):&c:::.:-::.,
::.:-.-:
M. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic
Fig. + \ulcano, Mcssnic, lrcsquc Tcotokos Lychnia
Fig. : \ulcano, apcru gnralc
8alcanica XXX\!! +oo
Fig. Patmos, Lcs prophtcs
tont annoncc... , icnc
\!!
c
siclc
Fig. Miniaturc dc Cosmas
!ndicoplcusts ct Physiologuc
Tcotokos signc lycna
X!
c
siclc
M. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic +o+
Fig. 6 !cnc crtoisc datc
+66. Athncs, colc dcs
8caux Arts
Lcs lctcs marialcs
conccrnant lincarnation
du Christ symbolc
prophtiquc
Fig. 8altimorc Valtcrs
Cod. lol.:
v
, Valtcrs
Art Gallcry, datc ++
Lcs scpt cicrgcs
Ljubinka Trgovcvi
Te Enlightenment and the Beginnings of
Modern Serbian Culture
Tc agc ol nlightcnmcnt lound Scrbs dividcd bctwccn two vast cmpircs
ttoman and Habsburg. At thc cnd ol thc cightccnth ccntury approxi
matcly thc samc numbcr ol Scrbs, 6oo,ooo, livcd in cach ol thc two statcs.
Namcly, always opting lor thc Christian sidc, scvcral hundrcd thousand
Scrbs had movcd in mass migrations to Austria and Hungary in thc wakc ol
TurkishAustrian wars at thc cnd ol thc scvcntccnth and during thc cigh
tccnth ccntury. Ncithcr thc Scrbs nor othcr Christians in thc Pashalik ol
8clgradc wcrc in a position to dcvclop national culturc. Tcrc wcrc hardly
any litcratc pcrsons, with thc cxccption ol lcw pricsts, thcmsclvcs litcratc at
a prctty basic lcvcl. Mcdicval churchcs wcrc abandoncd or dcrclict, and thc
construction ol ncw oncs was prohibitcd. Tcrc wcrc no schools or cultural
cstablishmcnts, and it was only altcr +8o, lollowing thc First and Scc
ond Scrbian Uprisings, that thc ttoman authoritics allowcd rcstoration
or construction ol churchcs and opcning ol vcrnacular schools. !n bricl,
until thc bcginning ol thc ninctccnth ccntury thc Scrbs in thc Pashalik ol
8clgradc rcmaincd largcly illitcratc and on thc margin ol uropcan cultural
dcvclopmcnt, maintaining oral litcraturc and customs as thcir only cultural
tradition.
8y that timc thc ccntrc ol Scrbian culturc had movcd to Southcrn
Hungary, whcrc Scrbs, as impcrial soldicrs, mainly lronticr guards, livcd
through a dicult pcriod ol adjusting to a dicrcnt culturc and lorcign
civilization. Tcy dicrcd lrom othcr citizcns in bcing rthodox Christian
and in using Cyrillic script. Tc idcas ol thc nlightcnmcnt that sprcad
across thc Habsburg mpirc hclpcd thc Scrbs to obtain somc mcasurc ol
rcligious and school autonomy lrom +. !n thc rcign ol Maria Tcrcsa
and Joscph !! thcy succccdcd in organizing thcir primary cducation and
cstablishcd a high school ol thcir own, at rst in Srcmski Karlovci (Kar
lowitz) in ++, thcn also in Novi Sad in +8+o, as wcll as a tcachcrs training
school in Scrbinhabitcd Szcntcndrc ncar 8uda. !n +o thcy wcrc grantcd
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
a :oycar liccncc lor a Scrbian printing shop. !t opcratcd lrom that ycar in
\icnna, and it was thcrc that thc rst Scrbian papcr bcgan to bc printcd in
+:. Tc Scrbs cnjoycd rcligious autonomy through thc Mctropolitanatc
ol Karlovci. Howcvcr, sincc thcy had no rcligious books ol thcir own, thcy
had to usc Russian oncs. As a rcsult, thc Scrbian cultural clitc adoptcd thc
Russian rcccnsion ol ld Church Slavonic as thcir own.
!t was in such a statc ol cultural backwardncss that Scrbs cntcrcd thc
agc ol nlightcnmcnt. Tcir strugglc lor rcligious and school autonomy
coincidcd with thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc Habsburg nlightcnmcnt, and thcy
bccamc acquaintcd with thc original Frcnch idcas in a roundabout way, as
thcy rcachcd thcm alrcady modicd in Pcst and \icnna. ircct contacts
with Frcnch civilization wcrc scarcc, although thc Frcnch languagc was
sprcading in Scrbian high socicty in thc Habsburg Monarchy. Pcrsonal con
tacts wcrc rarc and mainly limitcd to Frcnch immigrants lrom Lotharingia
and Luxcmbourg who scttlcd in 8aka and thc 8anat (todays \ojvodina,
northcrn Scrbia) bctwccn +6 and ++, and to Frcnch prisoncrs ol war.
uring thc Frcnch Rcvolution, many Scrbs in thc Austrian army scnt to
8clgium to supprcss thc rcvolt cxprcsscd thcir sympathics lor this popular
uprising with thc words that thcy chcrish thc Frcnch principlcs ol libcrty.
+

Closcr contacts with Frcnch culturc wcrc hampcrcd by Austrian ccnsorship
undcr Maria Tcrcsa, prohibiting all antiCatholic books. A Catalog libro-
rum prohibitorum (+6) listcd books by Rousscau and \oltairc, and lrom
+ includcd all books cxprcssing positivc opinions about thc Frcnch Rcv
olution. Tc ordcr ol +8o+ prohibiting thc works dctrimcntal to rcligion,
cthics and statc was also addrcsscd to thc Scrb Mctropolitan ol Karlovci
jordjc Stratimirovi. !n spitc ol thc prohibition, thcsc books by nlight
cnmcnt authors lound thcir way to privatc librarics ol many Scrbian intcl
lcctuals. Vc know that \oltaircs works could bc lound in Zcmun, thc last
Habsburg town on thc bordcr with ttoman Scrbia, and thcy cvcn lcaturc
in thc cataloguc ol thc rst Scrbian bookstorc startcd by manucl Jankovi.
Sava Tckclija, a Scrbian bcnclactor, wcalthy lcudalist and art patron rcsiding
in 8udapcst, had thc complctc works ol Rousscau, \oltairc and thc Frcnch
cncyclopacdists, and such books wcrc not uncommon in thc librarics ol
othcr Scrbs such as thc Russian gcncral ol Scrbian dcsccnt Simcon Zori,
thc bishop ol Tcmcsvar Pctar Pctrovi and so on. Marmontcls Belisaire was
thc rst Frcnch novcl translatcd into Scrbian and publishcd by Pavlc Julinac
in +6/.
:
+
M. Kosti, Nckoliko idcjnih odraza lrancuskc rcvolucijc u nacm drutvu krajcm +8.
i poctkom +. vcka, Zbornik Matice srpske (+), +.
:
For morc, scc N. Gavrilovi, Littraturc pdagogiquc lranaisc chcz lcs Scrbcs a lpo Littraturc pdagogiquc lranaisc chcz lcs Scrbcs a lpo
quc dcs Lumircs in Les relations entre la France et les pays yougosla.es du dix-huitime au
Lj. Trgovcvi, Tc nlightcnmcnt and Modcrn Scrbian Culturc +o
Tc Frcnch philosophcrs wcrc rarcly translatcd, and il thcy wcrc, it
was oltcn lrom Gcrman translations. !n thc carly ninctccnth ccntury thcy
wcrc only known to Scrbian rcadcrs lrom translatcd cxccrpts ol thcir works.
nc ol thc rst translators ol Rousscaus Social Contract was Stcvan ivkovi,
who studicd, among othcr things, Frcnch litcraturc in \icnna, and in +8o
joincd thc Scrbian insurgcnts. nly latcr did somc ol thcir works bccomc
availablc as scparatc cditions. \oltaircs novcl Zadig (+8:6) and his tragcdy
Zaira (+8) wcrc among his rst books that wcrc publishcd.

Rousscaus
mile was intcgrally translatcd lrom thc original in +86, but rcmaincd un
publishcd, thc intcgral tcxt was rst publishcd in Pancvo in +8:, but as a
translation lrom Gcrman, whilc thc Social Contract was translatcd and pub
lishcd intcgrally in +8:.

Although translatcd rclativcly rarcly, thc Frcnch


philosophcrs wcrc oltcn quotcd and considcrably writtcn about. A thought
ol \oltaircs was choscn lor thc motto ol thc rst Frcnch grammar in thc
Scrbian languagc (writtcn and publishcd by Joakim \uji in 8uda in +8o),
whilc 8oidar Pctranovi, an outstanding Scrbian author and journalist ol
thc rst hall ol thc ccntury, wrotc a vcry intcrcsting articlc on Rousscau,
\oltairc and 8cll in Srpske no.ine (Scrbian Ncwspapcr) in +88.
As a rcsult ol thcir nccds as a pcoplc dcprivcd ol thcir rcligious and
national rights and quitc poorly cducatcd, thc Scrbs optcd lor thc idcas ol
thc nlightcnmcnt. Tcy cmbraccd it in its Austrian lorm Joscphinism
as a movcmcnt pronc to cnablc thcir dcvclopmcnt bccausc, bcsidcs schools,
thc Tolcrancc Patcnt ol +8+ proclaimcd all rcligions cqual. Trough Jo
scphinism thcy wcrc also introduccd to othcr idcas ol thc uropcan n
lightcnmcnt. !nitially, thcy acccptcd thcm sclcctivcly, choosing idcas which
supportcd thcir national and cultural dcvclopmcnt. Tcrclorc thcy rst
cmbraccd \oltaircs stands on thc protcction ol pcrsccutcd pcrsons lrom
his Treatise on Tolerance. From Rousscaus Social Contract thcy took scctions
about political institutions. Rcscarch shows that Sava Tckclija was thc rst
Scrb to discuss thc Frcnch philosophcrs, hc had all thcir books in his library
and, in his doctoral thcsis De causa et ne ci.itatis (+8), dcscribcd Rous
.ingtime sicle (Ljubljana, +8), +::, S. Kosti, Kulturoricntirung und \olkschulc
dcr Scrbcn in dcr onaumonarchic zur Zcit dcr Kaiscrin Maria Tcrcsia in Osterreich
im Europa der ufklarung, vol. !! (\icnna, +8), 8866, . Mcdakovi, as his
torischc 8cwusscin bci dcn Scrbcn zur Zcit dcr Kaiscrin Maria Tcrcsia in in in Osterreich
im Europa der ufklarung, vol. !! (\icnna, +8), 8688:, M. Pavlovi, U d.ostrukom
ogledalu. Francusko-srpske kulturne i knjie.ne .e.e (8clgradc, +6), M. Kosti, Pr.e
poja.e francuske kulture u srpskom drut.u (Srcmski Karlovci, +:)

M. Kosti, \oltcr kod Srba, Glas SN CCXL (8clgradc: SAN, dcljcnjc litcraturc
i jczika , +6o), 6.

Scc Lj. Moncv, an-ak Fuso kod Srba (8clgradc, +o).


8alcanica XXX\!! +o6
scau as thc grcatcst philosophcr ol thc timc. Hc cmbraccd thcir vicws ol
natural lilc, criticizcd dcspotism and wondcrcd how a lrcc pcoplc could
possibly submit to thc authority ol onc man Undcr thc inucncc ol thcsc
idcas, thc Scrbs asscmblcd in +o lor an ccclcsiastical and national dict
at Tcmcsvar (prcscntday Timisoara, Romania) dcmandcd thcir privilcgcs
and thc right to havc rcprcscntativcs in thc Hungarian ict, but thcir rc
qucst was dcclincd bccausc thcy do not havc political cxistcncc as a pcoplc
|and| bccausc thcy arc lorcigncrs in Hungary.

At thc samc asscmbly, Jakov


Scanac protcstcd against thc privilcgcs cnjoycd by thc nobility, and at his
proposal a commission was appointcd with thc task ol nding possiblc ways
to livc in libcrty.
6
Tc idcas about libcrty, cxpoundcd in thc Social Contract
and givcn lurthcr impctus by thc Frcnch Rcvolution, wcrc also advocatcd by
thc Scrb !gnjat Martinovi, who bccamc thc lcadcr ol Hungarian Jacobins.
!n his Oratio pro Leopoldo II hc is cxplicit that only thc authority that lollows
lrom a social contract should bc rccognizcd, whilc sccing thc aristocracy as
thc cncmy ol mankind, bccausc thcy prcvcnt pcoplc lrom bccoming cdu
catcd. !n anothcr ol his works, Catechism of People and Citi.ens, hc argucs
that citizcns tcnd to opposc any rcprcssion and that sovcrcignty rcsidcs with
thc pcoplc. Tcsc idcas lcd to his cxccution in +, togcthcr with othcr
o Jacobins. !nclincd to thc samc idcas was also 8oidar Grujovi (Tcodor
Filipovi), doctor ol law and prolcssor at Harkov Univcrsity in Russia, who
camc to Scrbia in +8o, during thc First Scrbian Uprising, and wrotc Slo.o
(Spccch) in thc spirit ol thc Declaration of the Fights of Man and the Citi.en.
His guiding idca was thc rulc ol thc pcoplc, sovcrcignty and individual lib
crtics. His paraphrasc ol Rousscau bcttcr not to livc than to livc in slavcry,
is lollowcd by thc stand that common will rathcr than thc will ol onc man
should bc thc loundation ol law. Hc thought that lrccdom is whcrc laws arc
wcll workcd out and whcrc thosc in powcr abidc by thcm. His stand on law
lulncss is bcst cxprcsscd by a comparison bctwccn statc and individual law
is lor a statc what lood, air and housing is lor a man. Maintaining that cvcry
citizcns pcrsonal happincss and wcllbcing dcpcndcd on laws, hc rcjcctcd
any scllwill and advocatcd a lcgislation that would cnsurc thc natural right
to cquality and lrccdom, which was inspircd by thc Declaration of the Fights
of Man and the Citi.en.

Tc Frcnch philosophcrs tcndcncy to rcly on knowlcdgc and scicncc


lor libcrating thc minds and rcducing thc impact ol thc church was not

Quotcd lrom Kosti, Nckoliko idcjnih odraza, .


6
. J. Popovi, Srbi u !oj.odini (Novi Sad, +66), :.

G. \ukadinovi, Shvatanjc prirodnog prava 8oidara Grujovia |8. Grujovis notion
ol natural law| in Pola .eka nauke i tehnike u obno.ljenoj Srbiji :c,:, (Kragujcvac,
+6), 8.
Lj. Trgovcvi, Tc nlightcnmcnt and Modcrn Scrbian Culturc +o
wclcomcd among all Scrbs. Namcly, at thc timc thc church was thc most
important custodian ol national consciousncss, as cvidcnccd by thc statc
mcnt that thc words church, school and litcraturc stand lor thc salva
tion ol thc soul and pcoplc in this world and thc ncxt.
8
Circlcs closc to thc
church tcndcd to kccp cducation attachcd to it as a guarantcc that rcligion,
languagc and Cyrillic script should bc prcscrvcd. n thc oppositc sidc wcrc
rationalists, who advocatcd modcrn cducation as ncccssary lor thc Scrbs to
bccomc intcgratcd into modcrn social proccsscs. !n thcir vicw, languagc was
a morc important markcr ol national idcntity. Tc cnlightcncd strcam grad
ually prcvailcd ovcr thc conscrvativc, mostly owing to ositcj bradovi.
Vhcn during thc First Scrbian Uprising hc was cntrustcd with thc task to
cngagc in virtually noncxistcnt cducation and schooling in Scrbia, hc dc
mandcd that schools bc opcncd in cvcry municipal community, and whcn
hc was appointcd ministcr ol cducation in +8++, cducation was lormally
scparatcd lrom thc church and bccamc a rcsponsibility ol thc statc.
Jovan Mukatirovi (++8o), thc rst Scrbian lawycr, bcttcr
known as a writcr, not quitc original but important as a promotcr ol an
cducation lor thc pcoplc, had a promincnt placc in thc strugglc against
traditionalism and supcrstition. !n +86 hc publishcd a trcatisc Kratkoe
ra.milenije o pra.dnici (A Short clibcration on Holidays), advocating a
rcduction in thc numbcr ol rcligious holidays, an incrcasc in thc numbcr ol
working days and, hcncc, an improvcmcnt ol thc cconomic powcr ol thc
nation. Namcly, at thc bcginning ol thc cightccnth ccntury thc Scrbs in
Scrbia obscrvcd +o rcligious holidays, whilc thosc living in thc Habsburg
Monarchy had, in addition, to cclcbratc all Catholic and public holidays.
Tis scriously acctcd productivity, particularly in agriculturc. Although
Scrbs tcndcd to pcrccivc somc ol thcsc idcas as an attack on thc rthodox
Church, thc idcas ol nlightcnmcnt madc it casicr lor thc numbcr ol holi
days to bc rcduccd. Hc also wrotc about hcalth hazards ol cxccssivc lasting
(at thc timc, lasting was prcscribcd lor :oo days a ycar) and, inspircd by
thc physiocratic thcorics, about thc nccd to boost agricultural production.
Anothcr signicant Scrbian cducator, Zaharijc rlclin, saw his mission not
only in litcraturc but also in thc promotion ol thc cducation ol thc pcoplc.
!n Iskusni podrumar (xpcricnccd Vinc Produccr) hc wrotc about vinc
growing, and in his papcr Zrcalo nauke (Mirror ol Scicncc) discusscd thc
issuc ol cconomic dcvclopmcnt. nc ol thc grcatcst cducators ol thc pcriod
was Uro Milankovi (+8oo+8), a rationalist and mcrcantilist, who ad
vocatcd a statccontrollcd cconomy as a way ol salcguarding indcpcndcncc.
His principal stand was that thcrc could bc no lrccdom without cconomic
8
Quotcd in S. Gavrilovi, Srbi u Habsburkoj monarhiji od kraja X\!!! do srcdinc
X!X vcka in Istorija srpskog naroda, vol. \: (8clgradc: SKZ, +8+), o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +o8
indcpcndcncc, and in his book Nae .reme (ur Timc, +8) hc advocatcd
agricultural dcvclopmcnt bascd on thc usc ol modcrn tcchnology and thc
impcrativc ol industrial dcvclopmcnt, which rcquircd an cducatcd pcoplc.
Scrbian cducators notion ol cducation was a broad onc, and thcy,
much likc thc cncyclopacdists, wcrc crcativc in scvcral clds ol culturc or
scicncc. Living undcr lorcign rulc, thcy did lag bchind uropc, but within
thcsc lcw dccadcs thcy wrotc somc books ol paramount importancc lor thc
dcvclopmcnt ol national culturc. Jovan Raji authorcd thc rst history ol thc
Scrbian pcoplc Istorija ra.ni slo.enskih narodo. naipae Bolgar, Hor.ato. i
Serbo. (History ol \arious Slavic Pcoplcs, Notably 8ulgarians, Croats and
Scrbs) publishcd in \icnna in +, as wcll as thc rst law tcxtbook lor
thc Lyccum ol 8clgradc Te Teoretical Foundations of Fhetoric: Elementary
Principles, whcrc, quitc in thc spirit ol thc nlightcnmcnt, hc strcsscs that it
is thc duty ol thc statc to rcducc povcrty, to providc cmploymcnt lor cvcry
citizcn, and to prcvcnt thc accumulation ol wcalth in thc hands ol lcw. !t
is intcrcsting that hc proposcs public works construction ol roads, canals,
drainagc ol swamps, ctc. as onc ol thc possiblc ways a statc may undcrtakc
to incrcasc cmploymcnt.

Atanasijc Stojkovi, with Ph.. lrom Gttingcn


Univcrsity, is not only thc author ol thc rst novcl in Scrbian litcraturc, but
also ol Fisika (Physics), thc rst book in Scrbian ocring a systcmatic prc
scntation ol natural scicnccs. Adjusting his stylc to thc lcvcl ol his rcadcrs
cducation, hc makcs usc ol intcrcsting storics to cxplain natural phcnom
cna. Although thc rst Scrbian laws wcrc bascd on Austrian modications
ol Frcnch laws, dircct Frcnch inucnccs may bc dctcctcd as wcll. Tus, thc
rst Scrbian cxpcrt in civil law Jovan Hadi acccptcd Montcsquicus stand
that thc lawmakcr must takc into account thc placc and timc to which a
law applics. Tcrclorc, thc Scrbian Civil Codc (+8) introduccd clcmcnts
ol Scrbian common law rathcr than provisions containcd in similar laws
in uropc. Tc rst tcxtbook on natural law, writtcn by thc prolcssor ol
thc 8clgradc Lyccum Jovan Stcrija Popovi, bcttcr known and still highly
rcspcctcd as a playwright, is also lull ol nlightcnmcnt idcas. His undcr
standing ol thc lrccdom ol thought, his vicw on thc limits ol statc powcr,
thc rcsponsibility ol cmployccs, thc right ol dclcncc, intcrnational rclations,
parcntal powcr, is notablc.
+o
Radicalism towards thc church and tradition among thc carly Scr
bian lollowcrs ol thc nlightcnmcnt subsidcd altcr thc dcath ol Joscph
!! and writcrs rcstrictcd thcmsclvcs to ocring lcssons and moral advicc.

L. Pcji, Jugoslo.enski merkantilisti (8clgradc, +88), ::8.


+o
Quotcd lrom M. Karanovich, Te De.elopment of Education in Serbia and Emergence of
its Intelligentsia (:-:) (8ouldcr, Colorado: ast uropcan Monographs, +),
+::.
Lj. Trgovcvi, Tc nlightcnmcnt and Modcrn Scrbian Culturc +o
Litcrary authors wcrc mostly inucnccd by two Rousscaus works Te Ne.
Heloise and mile, thc lormcr as a story about human rights, passion and
cmotions, and thc lattcr as a modcl lor modcrn cducation. 8oth works had
an cxccptional rcsponsc in uropc, and among thc Scrbs as wcll. !nstcad ol
Julic and SaintPrcux, Atanasijc Stojkovi writcs in +8o+ ristid i Natalija
(Aristidc and Natalic), thc rst original novcl in Scrbian litcraturc, quitc in
thc spirit ol latc cightccnthccntury idcas. !t is a scntimcntal lovc story, but
lull ol moral lcssons, attractivc dcscriptions ol naturc and idyllic picturcs ol
rural lilc. Milovan \idakovi modcllcd his thrccvolumc book Ljubomir u
Jelisijumu (Ljubomir in lysium) altcr mile, but thc cvcnts takc placc in a
mcdicval sctting, with his hcrocs bcing rst cducatcd in Grcccc bclorc com
ing to Scrbia. !n thc sccond and third volumcs ol thc novcl thc author was
inspircd by somc parts ol Rousscaus Social Contract, notably thosc cxplicat
ing thc ncccssity ol laws in socicty. Tis is thc gist ol advicc a studcnt givcs
to thc mcdicval Scrbian cmpcror uan in an imaginary convcrsation, in
which thc principlc ol cquality bclorc thc law is rcqucstcd lor thc nobility
and thc common pcoplc alikc.
++
8oth authors placc thc action ol thcir books
in lysium thc samc sctting as thc onc choscn by Rousscau.
Joakim \uji, loundcr ol thc rst thcatrc in Scrbia, in his plays writ
tcn in thc rst ycars ol thc ninctccnth ccntury, c.g. Fernando and Jarika,
uscs an nlightcnmcnt stcrcotypc contrasting thc purity and naturalncss
ol savagcs with thc corruptncss ol city pcoplc. Although most ol his plays
wcrc a lar cry lrom authcntic crcations, thcy had signicant impact on thc
audicncc in thcir timc.
Sccularization madc itscll lclt in cightccnthccntury art. Portraits ol
saints and rulcrs assumcd ncw, laicizcd lorms. Tc major rolc in this was
playcd by thc Stemmatography (++) ol Hristolor clarovi, whcrc thc mc
dicval Scrbian rulcrs arc dcpictcd as citizcns altcr thc currcnt uropcan
lashion. Tc book cmcrgcd lor political rcasons to dcmonstratc thc an
tiquity ol Scrbian tradition to thc court in \icnna. 8csidcs artistic, its othcr
and vcry important rolc was in awakcning Scrbian national consciousncss.
ositcj bradovi is a paradigm ol thc Scrbian nlightcnmcnt. His
work is a symbiosis ol litcraturc and philosophy, and his goal to tcach thc
Scrbian pcoplc to think lrccly and to adopt thc rcsults ol contcmporary
scicncc. Anticlcricalism and antitraditionalism, cthic and scicntic lcssons
charactcrizc his works. Although borrowcd lrom thc cultural tradition ol
thc nlightcnmcnt, his idcas also containcd Scrbian cultural traditions. His
lilc was similar to thc livcs ol his idcal modcls, Rousscau and \oltairc. Hc
camc thc way lrom a monk to thc rst Scrbian ministcr ol culturc, hc tourcd
almost all ol uropc, lrom thc 8lack Sca and thc island ol Chios to London
++
Moncv, an-ak Fuso kod Srba, 8:.
8alcanica XXX\!! ++o
and Lcipzig, hc livcd poorly but also rcccivcd honours. His utobiography is
a typical pcdagogic novcl ol thc agc ol nlightcnmcnt in that it dcscribcs
thc lutility ol his ycars spcnt in a monastcry and thc bcncts ol his commit
mcnt to scicncc. Although bclow thc Frcnch modcls in quality, it was with
this rst Scrbian cducator that modcrn Scrbian culturc and its intcgration
into thc uropcan cultural spacc bcgan.
Although thc Scrbs did not draw on thc sourccs ol thc nlightcn
mcnt dircctly, thcy did not rcmain altogcthcr outsidc this uropcan movc
mcnt. Somctimcs thcy took lrom it what thcy nccdcd lor thcir spccic na
tional dcvclopmcnt, and somctimcs simply borrowcd topics cpigonically,
lollowing thc nlightcnmcnt modcls and thcir Austrian supportcrs. Tis
is particularly noticcablc in litcraturc, with thcmcs oltcn copicd lrom othcr
litcraturcs, which is typical ol an cmcrging culturc such as Scrbian was at
thc timc. Pcrhaps thc most striking among many cxamplcs was thc acccp
tancc ol Rousscaus vicw ol thc rclationship bctwccn natural and urban man
and his sympathy lor thc lormcr. Howcvcr, this conccpt could hardly bc ol
rclcvancc in Scrbia, whcrc thc urban population accountcd lor only a lcw
pcrccnts until thc midninctccnth ccntury. n thc othcr hand, it should bc
notcd that somc ol thc idcas ol this pcriod hclpcd thc Scrbs to rccognizc
thcir own distinctivc lcaturcs and csscntial valucs as a nation, which in turn
hclpcd thcm to hold down thc lorcign spiritual lcgacy and to lound a mod
crn culturc on thcir own valucs, supprcsscd by thc ccnturics ol lorcign rulc.
!n its carly ycars thc nlightcnmcnt produccd manilold cccts on
thc Scrbs both in thc Habsburg mpirc and in thc Principality ol Scrbia.
First, its cmphasis on thc valuc ol knowlcdgc and scicncc raiscd thc awarc
ncss ol thc importancc ol cducation and contributcd to its dcvclopmcnt.
At thc samc timc, rcligious tolcrancc and anticlcricalism placcd rthodox
Scrbs sidc by sidc with rcprcscntativcs ol othcr nations and rcligions and
hclpcd thcm to libcratc thcmsclvcs lrom thc strong traditionalist impact
ol thcir church. 8oth cducation and a ncw awarcncss ol thcir own rights
strcngthcncd national consciousncss, cvcntually lcading to thc crcation ol a
nation statc and modcrn national culturc. Tc pcriod ol nlightcnmcnt also
hclpcd in moving thc Scrbian cultural ccntrcs lrom thc north, whcrc thcy
had bccn dislocatcd in prcvious ccnturics, back to thc south.
Faculty of Political Sciences
Uni.ersity of Belgrade
UDC ,c.::&.,:J(-:&:.,:):
Miroslav Svircvi
Te Establishment of Serbian Local Government in the Counties of
Ni, Vranje, Toplica and Pirot Subsequent to the Serbo-Turkish Wars
of r8y6r8y8
As a rcsult ol thc wars ol libcration against thc ttoman mpirc in +868
and dccisions ol thc Congrcss ol 8crlin in +88, Scrbia acquircd indcpcn
dcncc, hcr tcrritory considcrably cxpandcd
+
and thc population incrcascd
by :.6o.
:
Tc major towns ol thc ncwlylibcratcd arcas wcrc Ni, Pirot,
\ranjc, Lcskovac, Prokupljc and Kurumlija. Tc socallcd Ne. reas (Novc
oblasti)

wcrc givcn thcir nal lcgal shapc undcr a spccial law, in thc lorm
ol thc countics ol: Ni, \ranjc, Pirot and Toplica.

Tc proccss ol cstab
lishing statc administration and local govcrnmcnt as wcll as incorporating
thc ncwlylibcratcd arcas into thc lcgal systcm ol prcwar Scrbia took vc
ycars (+88:). !t was a complcx proccss, riddcn with many dicultics.
Tc intcntion was to bring stability to a backward lcudal rcgion markcd by a
volatilc political situation, spccic population distribution, high population
dcnsity, intcnsc migratory movcmcnts, cthnic and rcligious tcnsions, and a
vcry low lcvcl ol cconomic dcvclopmcnt. n thc othcr hand, Scrbia had to
lull all thc obligations stipulatcd by thc Trcaty ol 8crlin. Tus, cstablishing
+
8clorc thc wars, thc Principality ol Scrbia cnjoycd autonomy undcr ttoman suzc
rainty and consistcd ol thc Pashalik ol 8clgradc and thc arcas it had acquircd by thc
Sultans dccrcc (hattishcril ) ol +8: Klju, Krajina, Crna Rcka, Gurgusovac, 8anja,
Svrljig, Alcksinac, Raanj, Parain, Krucvac, Jadar, Radjcvina, a smallcr portion ol thc
rcgion known as Stari \lah, and thc Nahiyc ol Novi Pazar.
:
M. j. Milicvi, Kralje.ina Srbija No.i kraje.i, :, |Kingdom ol ScrbiaNcw Ar
cas, +88| (8clgradc, +), xvi.

Tc Ne. reas wcrc incorporatcd into Scrbia altcr thc wars ol libcration against thc
ttoman mpirc and thc Congrcss ol 8crlin, and thc tcrm camc into ocial usagc
immcdiatcly altcr libcration in cccmbcr +8 and January +88. Milicvi, Kralje.ina
Srbija, xv, National Asscmbly Scssional Rccords +88+o.

!n Scrbia, countics (okrug) wcrc thc largcst units ol local scllgovcrnmcnt, lollowcd by
districts (sre.) as mcdiumsizcd and municipalitics (optina) as thc smallcst.
8alcanica XXX\!! ++:
statc administration and local govcrnmcnt in thc ncwlylibcratcd arcas was
a thrcclold proccss which includcd: +) thc lcgal organization ol ncw local
institutions, :) thc rcgulation ol agrarian rclations, and ) thc colonization
ol thc libcratcd arcas.

Tis papcr is dcvotcd to thc rst part.


:. Te legal organi.ation of ne. local institutions
Tc Sccond ScrboTurkish war brokc out on + January +8 and rcsultcd in
signicant succcsscs within scvcral wccks.
6
Tc Scrbian army libcratcd largc
arcas in thc Juna (South) Morava and Niava rivcr vallcys, virtually thc
wholc rcgion ol southcastcrn Scrbia. 8y thc timc a pcacc trcaty bctwccn
Russia and thc ttoman mpirc was signcd at San Stclano, thc provisional
Scrbian authoritics controllcd thc lollowing towns and villagcs: Ni, Proku
pljc, Kurumlija, Lcskovac, \lasotincc, 8cla Palanka, Pirot, Kula, Gramada,
8clogradik, Caribrod (modcrnday imitrovgrad), Ginci, ragoman,
Slivnica, 8rcznik, Trn, Radomir, Klisura, 8osiljgrad, \ranjc, Trgovitc, 8u
janovac, Prccvo, Gnjilanc, Kamcnica, Novo 8rdo, as wcll as thc arcas ol thc
monastcrics ol Graanica (in Kosovo) and Prohor Pinjski (in Pinja). Tc
Scrbian army had also pcnctratcd closc to Pritina, Kumanovo and Kriva
Palanka, and, apparcntly, voluntccr units ghting undcr its command cvcn
cntcrcd Kustcndil (mcdicval \clbuzd).


According to thc dccisions ol thc Grcat Powcrs at thc Congrcss ol
8crlin, a portion ol thc tcrritory thc Scrbian Army had scizcd wcrc assigncd
to thc Principality ol 8ulgaria (Kula, Gramada, 8clogradik, Caribrod,
Ginci, ragoman, Slivnica, 8rcznik, Trn, Radomir and 8osiljgrad with its
cnvirons), and a portion was rcstorcd to thc ttoman mpirc (Pritina,
Kumanovo, Kriva Palanka, Gnjilanc, Lab istrict with Podujcvo, and thc
8ujanovacPrccvo arca with Uppcr Pinja). At thc samc timc, Scrbian rulc

For morc on thc rcscttlcmcnt ol Albanians lrom thcsc arcas to Kosovo and thc inux
ol Kosovo Scrbs into thcsc arcas, scc . T. 8atakovi, Te Koso.o Chronicles (8clgradc:
Plato, +:), csp. +++++:.
6
Russia startcd a war against thc ttoman mpirc in April +8, and cmcrgcd victori
ous in January +88. Tc two sidcs ncgotiatcd, to thc cxclusion ol othcr participants in
thc war, a ncw political situation in thc 8alkans, and on March +88 thc Trcaty ol San
Stclano was signcd. Tc ttomans had to acccpt thc crcation ol an autonomous 8ulgar
ian principality controllcd by Russia, in lact a Grcatcr 8ulgaria as an instrumcnt ol Rus
sias dominancc in thc 8alkans. Tc provisions ol thc Trcaty, howcvcr, wcrc signicantly
modicd by thc Trcaty ol 8crlin ol + July +88, which did rccognizc an autonomous
but much smallcr 8ulgaria within thc ttoman mpirc.

A town in thc southwcst ol modcrn 8ulgaria, \. Stojancvi, Jugoistona Srbija u


vrcmc oslobocnja +88 |Southcast Scrbia at thc Timc ol Libcration|, Lesko.aki
.bornik X\ (+), +.
M. Svircvi, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt ++
bcgan to bc cstablishcd in thc intcrnationally rccognizcd arcas. First ol all,
many cxpcricnccd ocials scrving in prcwar Scrbia wcrc scnt to thc ncw
lylibcratcd arcas with thc powcrs ol county prclccts. Tcy cxcrciscd thcir
authority in thc provisionally constitutcd tcrritorial units. Tcy wcrc lol
lowcd by othcr ocials (magistratcs, notarics, local trcasury occrs ctc.) to
assist in cstablishing thc ncw local govcrnmcnt in accordancc with Scrbias
statc policy.
8
A projcct lor cstablishing local govcrnmcnt in thc arcas to bc libcr
atcd had bccn madc in latc +8, simultancously with Scrbias war plan (but
it could not bc carricd out bccausc Scrbia sucrcd dclcat in hcr rst war
against thc ttoman mpirc in +86). Tis may bc inlcrrcd lrom a military
rcport on Scrbias armamcnt datcd +8,

which also containcd instructions
lor provisional institutions and ocials and xcd thc boundarics bctwccn
thc military powcrs ol thc Supreme dministration, and thc civil powcrs ol
thc uxiliary dministration.
+o

Tc main rolc in cstablishing civil govcrnmcnt was assigncd to Scr
bias Ministcr ol ducation and Rcligious Aairs Alimpijc \asiljcvi.
++
As
thc govcrnmcnts rcprcscntativc in thc Suprcmc Army Command, hc was
authorizcd to issuc a rangc ol lcgislations ncccssary lor cstablishing thc rst
domcstic local institutions in thc libcratcd arcas. \asiljcvi was assistcd by
highcstranking rcprcscntativcs ol thc military powcr, such as thc hcad ol
thc Gcncral Sta and thc commandcr ol thc division rcsponsiblc lor thc
ongoing military opcrations. Scrbia startcd implcmcnting its war plan rc
latcd to civilmilitary scparation as carly as cccmbcr +8. Vith thc war
still undcrway, howcvcr, thc main duty ol civil authoritics was to collcct
clothcs and lood lor thc army.
+:
8
R. Guzina, Optina u Srbiji :,-:,: |Tc Municipality in Scrbia +8++8| (8cl
gradc, +6), :.

\. NikoliStojancvi, Lesko.ac i osloboeni predeli Srbije : |Lcskovac and thc


libcratcd arcas ol Scrbia +88| (Lcskovac, +), :6.
+o
Ibid.
++
Alimpijc \asiljcvi (+8++++), a Scrbian politician, mcmbcr ol thc Libcral Party,
writcr and prolcssor ol philosophy at thc Grcat School in 8clgradc (his most signicant
work was Te History of Education in Serbia), hc scrvcd scvcral tcrms as Ministcr ol du
cation and Rcligious Aairs (including thc pcriod ol thc ScrboTurkish wars +868),
and was appointcd Scrbian diplomatic cnvoy to Russia twicc.
+:
A lcttcr by thc Chicl ol thc Gcncral Sta to thc Ministcr ol thc !ntcrior ol ++ c
ccmbcr +8 shows thc most important rcasons lor civilmilitary scparation, cl. Guzina,
Optina, :, NikoliStojancvi, Lesko.ac, 8.
8alcanica XXX\!! ++
According to thc rcscarch donc by Slobodanka Stojii,
+
thc proccss
ol cstablishing domcstic civil govcrnmcnt in thc Ne. reas and incorpo
rating thcm into thc lcgal systcm ol prcwar Scrbia passcd through two
phascs: +) thc cstablishmcnt ol provisional local institutions, and :) thc
cstablishmcnt ol pcrmancnt local institutions on thc modcl ol thosc that
alrcady cxisting in thc Principality ol Scrbia. Tc rst phasc lastcd onc ycar:
lrom thc arrival ol thc rst ocials in cccmbcr +8 until + cccmbcr
+88, whcn thc La. on the Di.ision of the nnexed rea into Counties and
Districts was passcd, whcrcby thc structurc ol local institutions ol thc ncw
administrativc units was nally cstablishcd. Tc sccond phasc bcgan with
thc cnactmcnt ol this law and lastcd until o March +88+, whcn thc La. on
the Enactment of the Police Profession La. in the Liberated and nnexed reas
was brought into lorcc as thc nal act in thc proccss ol incorporating thc
libcratcd arcas into thc lcgal systcm ol prcwar Scrbia. Tis was a painstak
ing task, bccausc it involvcd rcmoving, or at lcast modilying, thc cccts ol
ttoman rulc such as an outdatcd social systcm, undcrdcvclopcd cconomy,
rudimcntary statc institutions, wcak public nanccs, and lcudal propcrty
rclations.
a) First period: Te pro.isional organi.ation of local go.ernment
Alimpijc \asiljcvi signcd thc rst instructions lor thc provisional organi
zation ol local govcrnmcnt on : cccmbcr +8, titlcd Fules for ll Of-
cials in the Sei.ed Serbian reas.
+
Tc Fules prcdominantly rcgulatcd thc
conduct ol all ocials who had bcgun to work in thc ncw Scrbian arcas.
Tcy rcmindcd thc ocials ol thc signicancc ol thcir rolc in cstablishing
thc principlcs ol law and ordcr. Tc ocials wcrc cxpcctcd to pcrlorm thcir
dutics in such a way that thc pcoplc could lccl all the benets of a brotherly
go.ernment, although thcy wcrc warncd not to turn into leniency.
+
nc ol
thc intcrim instructions lor thc ncwlycstablishcd institutions was to scttlc
all disputcs orally and promptly, and to bc ol assistancc to thc Scrbian army
and thc population in thc Ne. reas.
+6
Tc Fules also rcgulatcd ncw local, district and municipal, govcrn
mcnt bodics in thc libcratcd arcas. Tc ncw districts wcrc administcrcd by
+
S. Stojii, No.i kraje.i Srbije :: |Scrbias Ncw Arcas +888| (Lcskovac,
+).
+
Pra.ila |hcrcaltcr: Rulcs| in Zbornik .akona i uredaba i.danih u Knjaest.u Srbiji
XXX!! |Collcction ol Laws and Rcgulations !ssucd in thc Principality ol Scrbia, hcrc
altcr: Laws| (8clgradc, +88), ::+.
+
Fules, :.
+6
Fules, :.
M. Svircvi, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt ++
a body ol thrcc mcmbcrs: one for the Police, one for the Judiciary and one for
Finances. Tc Chicl ol Policc was in chargc ol maintaining law and ordcr,
thc Chicl ol Judiciary ol judicial procccdings, and thc Chicl ol Financc took
carc ol thc public rcvcnuc lor thc unit undcr his jurisdiction.
+
Tc ocials initially dispatchcd by thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt to ad
ministcr thc ncw districts bccamc thc hcads ol local administration.
+8
Tcy
actcd as a link with thc govcrnmcnts mcmbcr in thc Suprcmc Army Com
mand, and answcrcd to him.
+
According to S. Stojii, thcsc ocials can
ncithcr bc considcrcd rcal district prclccts, nor can thcir local administra
tion bc idcnticd with rcal district prclccturcs, and lor two rcasons: +) thc
tcrritorial cxtcnt ol thc ncw districts corrcspondcd morc to prcwar Scrbias
countics, and :) thc ncwlycstablishcd district administrations dicrcd both
in structurc and in powcrs lrom thc district prclccturcs ol prcwar Scrbia
(collcctivc bodics, Chicl ol Justicc, collcctivc govcrning in thc sphcrc ol
policc, judicial and nancial mattcrs). Tcrclorc, thc district administration
should bc vicwcd as a particular lorm ol civil govcrnmcnt, which was ncccs
sary undcr transitional conditions in thc Ne. reas.
:o
istrict administrations had scvcral conccrns. Tc rst concern was to
makc a rccord ol all municipalitics, to spccily thc districts inncr structurc,
and to cstablish municipal administrations.
:+
As can bc sccn lrom thc Fules, thc organization ol municipal gov
crnmcnt was anothcr task assigncd to thc ccntral govcrnmcnts ocials,
to bc carricd out in thc lollowing way: thc ocials wcrc to consult with
distinguishcd local citizcns on thc appointmcnt ol mcmbcrs to municipal
councils, thc mayors wcrc to bc choscn lrom sclcct pcrsons ol condence
and energy .illing and capable to perform their duties to the satisfaction of all.

Finally, cvcry municipality was to clcct a municipal council ol vc to ltccn
mcmbcrs in accordancc with its sizc, and to hirc scvcral salaricd clcrks.
::
And yct, thc ccntral govcrnmcnts ocials oltcn lclt local institutions
as thcy had bccn undcr ttoman rulc. Tis is obvious lrom a rcport by Al
impijc \asiljcvi, rcvcaling that thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt lound it suitablc to
prcscrvc thc cxisting institutions bccausc thc pcoplc had bccn accustomcd
+
Fules, :o.
+8
Stojii, No.i kraje.i Srbije, +, Fules, :.
+
Fules, :.
:o
Stojii, No.i kraje.i, +.
:+
Fules, :+.
::
Fules, :o:+.
8alcanica XXX\!! ++6
to thcm. !n that way thc local population was likcly to acccpt thcir ncw
administration morc casily.
:

!n thc proccss ol municipal rcorganization, thc most signicant task
ol district administrations was to group villagcs into municipalitics and to
carry out a propcrty cnumcration. Scvcral important lactors playcd a part
in thc proccss, such as thc natural boundarics ol a municipality, communal
oricntation points (schools, churchcs, wclls, watcrmills ctc.) and thc occu
pations ol thc population (larming, cattlcbrccding, cralts). Ncvcrthclcss,
thc proccdurc could not bc unilorm lor all thc libcratcd arcas, as dicrcnt
situations in dicrcnt arcas nccdcd to bc takcn into account. Tcrclorc, thc
ncwlycstablishcd authoritics had to rcly on thc advicc and opinion ol local
houschold hcads.
:
!t was cvcn morc dicult to carry out thc cnumcration
ol propcrty was morc dicult, and it rcquircd military support and assis
tancc. Tc civil authoritics wcrc too wcak to prcvcnt thc widcsprcad looting
ol thc abandoncd Turkish propcrty and lrcqucnt raids ol armcd Muslim
Albanians into thc libcratcd arcas.
Tc implcmcntation ol thc instructions containcd in thc Fules and
thc cxpcricncc gaincd lrom it lcd to thc rst law rcgulating thc lcgal sta
tus ol municipalitics and municipal authoritics, passcd by thc National
Asscmbly on January +88 thc Pro.isional La. on the Liberated reas
Organi.ation.
:
Tis law dcncd thc lcgal status ol countics, districts and
municipalitics in all thc libcratcd tcrritory, as wcll as thc rcsponsibilitics and
proccdurcs lor thcir administrations. Although it madc no changc to thc
cxisting subdivisions, it lclt room lor thc district administrations to institutc
changcs if necessary and in consultation .ith the distinguished household heads,
but only bclorc thc proccss ol rcorganization was nalizcd. Altcr that, any
changc to thc structurc and namc ol a municipality rcquircd approval lrom
thc Ministcr ol thc !ntcrior.
:6
Undcr thc Pro.isional La. tcrritorial subdivisions bccamc typical
policing subdivisions with somc judicial powcrs. To judgc lrom its provi
sions, it in lact was thc La. on County Prefecture System and County Prefect
Oce ol +8 cxtcndcd to thc anncxcd arcas undcr a lex specialis. According
to its Articlc , cvcry county had its organs ol govcrnmcnt,
:
such as thc
county prclcct, thc county trcasury occr and thc county judgc.
:
Guzina, Optina, :.
:
Ibid.
:
Pro.isional La. in La.s, :+:.
:6
Pro.isional La., Art. +, : and , p. :+.
:
Pro.isional La., Art. , p. :6+.
M. Svircvi, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt ++
As thc hcad ol a county, thc county prclcct cxcrciscd policc and somc
judicial powcrs (minor civil and criminal cascs) in thc arca undcr his juris
diction, assistcd by thc ncccssary numbcr ol pcrsonncl. Hc was appointcd
by thc Princc at thc proposal ol thc Ministcr ol thc !ntcrior. Hc attcndcd all
county aairs through district and municipal administrations, which hc had
thc powcr to rcplacc. !n casc a county did not havc its military commandcr,
thc county prclcct lulllcd thosc dutics as wcll.
Tc county trcasury occr was in chargc ol cconomic and nancial
aairs. Hc was appointcd by thc Princc at thc proposal ol thc Ministcr ol
Financc.

Judicial powcr was cmbodicd in thc high judgc appointcd by thc
Princc at thc proposal ol thc Ministcr ol Justicc. Hc cxcrciscd judicial au
thority in accordancc with his lcgal powcrs.
:8
According to Articlc + ol thc Pro.isional La., cvcry county was
subdividcd into districts,
:
and cvcry district had its govcrnmcnt bodics,
hcadcd by thc district prclcct and thc district judgc. Tc district prclcct
cxcrciscd policc and somc judicial powcrs (minor civil and criminal cascs)
in thc arca undcr his jurisdiction. Hc was appointcd by thc Princc at thc
proposal ol thc Ministcr ol thc !ntcrior. Hc attcndcd district aairs through
municipal administrations, which hc had thc powcr to rcplacc, in casc thc
district had no military commandcr, thc district prclcct lulllcd his dutics
as wcll.

vcry district had a district judgc appointcd by thc Princc at thc
proposal ol thc Ministcr ol Justicc, and hc cxcrciscd judicial authority in
accordancc with his lcgal powcrs.
o
Undcr Articlc :: ol thc Pro.isional La., districts wcrc subdividcd
into municipalitics, which in turn wcrc classicd by sizc into thrcc groups:
small municipalitics with up to :oo taxpaycrs, mcdiumsizcd municipalitics
with morc than :oo taxpaycrs, and largc municipalitics with morc than oo
taxpaycrs.
+
vcry municipality had its organs ol govcrnmcnt cmbodicd in
thc mayor occ. At thc sccond scssion ol thc National Asscmbly in +8,
a mcmbcr ol thc Scrbian Parliamcnt (irko Andrcji) dccribcd thc procc
durc lor thc appointmcnt ol municipal mayors in thc Ne. reas: At thc
outbrcak ol thc sccond war |sccond ScrboTurkish war|, ! was authorizcd
by thc commandcr to choosc mcn in my district who would work propcrly.
And ! did, ! chosc scvcral mayors and thcy still arc mayors, and no onc is
unhappy with thcm.
:
:8
Pro.isional La., Art. and 6:, pp. :6+:6.
:
Pro.isional La., Art. +, p. :6+.
o
Pro.isional La., Art. ::, , and 6, pp. ::.
+
Pro.isional La., Art. +8, p. :.
:
Stenografske beleke o sednicama Narodne skuptine .a :,,c |National Asscmbly
Scssional Rccords lor +8o|, +o6+o6.
8alcanica XXX\!! ++8
A municipal mayor was assistcd by onc or two assistants and scvcral
clcrks, as wcll as by thc ncccssary numbcr ol policcmcn. Nonc ol thcsc oc
cs or posts was clcctivc. Tc mayor was appointcd by thc district prclccturc
from among the distinguished household heads in a municipality.

Likc county
and district prclccts in thcir jurisdictions, hc cxcrciscd policing and mi
nor judicial powcrs in his municipality, and lulllcd thc dutics ol a military
commandcr il thcrc was not onc. As thc bcarcr ol administrativc powcrs, thc
municipal mayor was obligcd to deal .ith all aairs of state as required from a
municipality. As a judicial authority, thc municipal mayor judgcd civil cascs
ol no morc than o dinars and minor criminal cascs whcrc thc punishmcnt
was limitcd to days in prison or a odinar nc. Howcvcr, not cvcn thcsc
minor cascs wcrc undcr thc cxclusivc jurisdiction ol municipal courts, thcy
could bc committcd to district courts. Appcals against thc municipal court
dccisions could bc lodgcd with district courts, and thc last lcvcl was thc so
callcd grand judgc whosc dccision was binding.

!t is important to notc that all judgcs (municipal mayors, district


judgcs and grand judgcs) tricd cascs not according to a writtcn law, but in all
conscience, belief and kno.ledge of justice and tradition.

Tcy wcrc adviscd on
thc local lcgal customs by councils consisting ol local community mcmbcrs.
Such a proccdurc was practical, bccausc trials wcrc quick, although it was
morc primitivc than collcgial judging in accordancc with writtcn law.

vcry municipality had a council consisting ol vc, tcn or ltccn


mcmbcrs, in proportion to its sizc. Tis council was an advisory body, con
vcncd and prcsidcd ovcr by thc mayor, it discusscd a rangc ol issucs ol im
portancc lor thc municipality.
6
Tc administrativc lunctioning ol municipal (district and county)
govcrnmcnt was ovcrsccn by thc Ministcr ol thc !ntcrior. As lor dicrcnt
professional responsibilities, thcy wcrc undcr thc control ol thc corrcspond
ing ministcrs. Howcvcr, during thc war all bodics wcrc also subjcct to thc
military authoritics.

Tc rclationship bctwccn thc Pro.isional La. and thc +866 La. on


Municipalities and Municipal Go.ernment (passcd undcr Princc Mihailo),
8

i.c. lterations and mendments madc to this Law in +8, was rcgulatcd un

Pro.isional La., Art. 8, ++, +, and 66, pp. :+:, :8, :6.

Slobodan Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia !! |Tc Rcign ol Milan brcnovi|


(8clgradc, ++), +.

Ibid.
6
Pro.isional La., Art. +8 and +, p. :.

Pro.isional La., Art. + and , p. :6.


8
Princc Mihailo brcnovi (+8:68), son ol Princc Milo brcnovi, rulcd +8o:
and +86o68. His rulc may bc dcscribcd as enlightened autocracy.
M. Svircvi, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt ++
dcr Articlc 8 ol thc Pro.isional La.: il thcrc wcrc no provisions lor a con
crctc casc in thc Pro.isional La., nor a local custom to abidc by, thc +8
Scrbian Law could bc implcmcntcd in ordcr to bridgc such lcgal lacunac.


As can bc sccn, thc Pro.isional La. cnvisagcd thc subsidiary usc ol
a Scrbian positivc law, thcrcby paving thc way lor thc incorporation ol thc
Ne. reas into thc lcgal systcm ol prcwar Scrbia. Tc samc Law also cn
surcd somc csscntial valucs ol civil socicty, such as thc principlc ol cquality
bclorc thc law and rcligious lrccdom. All citizcns ol thc libcratcd arcas wcrc
madc cqual with thc citizcns ol Scrbia not only in rights but also in obliga
tions (c.g. military scrvicc, taxation).
o

!t is intcrcsting to notc that shortly altcr its cnactmcnt thc Pro.i-
sional La. was criticizcd in thc magazinc Straa (Scntry) in thc articlc
authorcd by A Socialist Propagator.
+
Tc anonymous writcr claims that
thc principlc ol local scllgovcrnmcnt and prompt trial is at odds with thc
subordinatc position ol municipal institutions to burcaucracy and policc,
and instcad dcmands political lrccdoms and thc introduction ol a truc prin
ciplc ol local govcrnmcnt.
Countics and districts wcrc cstablishcd undcr thc La. on Pro.isional
dministrati.e Organi.ation of the Liberated reas ol + May +88.
:
All thc
libcratcd tcrritory was dividcd into six countics (Ni, Kurumlija, Lcskovac,
\ranjc, Pirot and Kula) with :+ districts.

ach county and district was al
locatcd thc ncccssary numbcr ol policcmcn, nancial and judicial occrs,
in ordcr to allcviatc thc lack ol skillcd sta in thc lrcshlycstablishcd local
administration.

At thc samc timc, thc administrativc, judicial and nancial


prolcssions wcrc complctcly scparatcd, which was thc last stcp in cstablish

Pro.isional La., Art. 8, p. :68.


o
Pro.isional La., Art. , 8o and 8+, pp. :66:6.
+
Straa was a socialistcolourcd magazinc lor scicncc, litcraturc and social issucs, pub
lishcd in Novi Sad (thcn in AustroHungarian Monarchy, today thc capital ol \ojvodina,
Scrbia) lrom Scptcmbcr +88 to March +8. !ts cditor was Lazar Pau, subscqucntly
a ministcr in scvcral Scrbian cabincts +o+.Tc likcly author ol this articlc was Pcra
Todorovi (a lricnd and coworkcr ol Svctozar Markovis and a lounding mcmbcr ol
thc Pcoplcs Radical Party +88+), bccausc hc was rcsponsiblc lor political articlcs as a
mcmbcr ol thc cditorial board ol thc magazinc. Straa, Novcc. +88, :o.
:
La. on Pro.isional dministrati.e Organi.ation in La.s, o8+.

Undcr Art. : ol thc Law, thc County ol Ni includcd thc districts ol: Ni, Koprivnica
and 8cla Palanka, :. thc County ol Kurumlija: Prokupljc, Kurumlija, !bar and \uitrn,
. thc County ol Lcskovac: \ctcrnik, \lasina and Pusta Rcka, . thc County ol \ranjc:
\lasina, Poljana, Morava and Pinja, . thc County ol Pirot: \isoki, 8rcznica, Niava,
Trn and Lunica, and 6. thc County ol Kula includcd thc districts ol: Kula and Novo
Sclo.

La. on Pro.isional dministrati.e Organi.ation, Art. , pp. +o++.


8alcanica XXX\!! +:o
ing a provisional domcstic govcrnmcnt in a situation whcn thc bordcrs bc
twccn thc ncw 8alkan statcs had not bccn drawn yct. Scrbian govcrnmcnt
cxtcndcd to all thc arcas takcn by thc Scrbian army, ovcrcoming, morc or
lcss succcsslully, many cthnic and rcligious barricrs in thc proccss. For cx
amplc, thcrc wcrc many dicultics in thc bordcrland bctwccn Scrbia and
8ulgaria (cspccially in thc op rcgion),

duc to an unconsolidatcd cthnic


awarcncss ol thc local pcoplc inucnccd both by thc Scrbian and 8ulgarian
national propagandas.
Tc kojabashi (nonMuslim community lcadcr) ol thc ttoman Ka.a
ol Trn, Arandjcl Stanojcvi, had a vcry important rolc in thc cstablishing
ol Scrbian civil govcrnmcnt in thc libcratcd Zncpoljc,
6
whcrc hc was rst
appointcd prcsidcnt ol thc local court, and thcn hcad ol thc district ol Trn.
Undcr thc Pro.isional La. ol January and thc La. on Pro.isional d-
ministrati.e Organi.ation ol + May +88, Trn bccamc thc administrativc
scat ol Zncpoljc, i.c. ol thc istrict ol Trn includcd in thc ncwlylormcd
County ol Pirot.

Prolcssor Panta Srckovi
8
bccamc thc rst prclcct ol
thc County ol Pirot, and Arandjcl Stanojcvi was appointcd prclcct ol thc
istrict ol Trn. Stanojcvi pcrsistcntly campaigncd lor intcrnational rccog
nition ol thc sovcrcignty ol thc Principality ol Scrbia ovcr all arcas takcn

Tc op arca (opluk or opsko) is a mountainous arca on thc modcrnday bordcr


bctwccn Scrbia, 8ulgaria and Maccdonia, thc boundarics ol which arc quitc vaguc. Tc
tcrm op has always dcnotcd thc common pcoplc, highlandcrs. Cl. Skri.ene manjine na
Balkanu (Hidden Minorities in the Balkans), cd. 8iljana Sikimi (8clgradc: !nstitutc lor
8alkan Studics, :oo) and thcrcin thc articlcs by P. Hristov, 68, and S. Zlatanovi,
8.
6
A Scrbian popular lcadcr and rcprcscntativc bclorc thc ttoman authoritics, Arandjcl
Stanojcvi was considcrcd onc ol thc most distinguishcd gurcs lrom Ni to Soa, and
lrom Pirot to Kustcndil. Morcovcr, as a cattlc tradcr, hc was onc ol thc richcst locals. Hc
was originally lrom Klisura, a highland scttlcmcnt on thc boundary bctwccn Zncpoljc
and \idin (today in 8ulgaria). Hc was rcspcctcd by thc Turks as wcll. Stanojcvi spokc
Turkish, Frcnch and Grcck. Altcr thc arrival ol thc Scrbian army hc assumcd an activc
rolc in cstablishing Scrbian rulc in thc sanjaks ol Ni and Soa. Scc \. Stojancvi,
Kodabaa trnskc kazc Arancl Stanojcvi i srpskobugarski spor oko Trna i Zncpolja
+88+8, Istorijski asopis XX\, ++6.

National lcclings ol thc local population ol Zncpoljc wcrc a highly important mattcr
lor thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt and its claims on thc libcratcd arcas. 8ascd on cld rcports,
thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt was quitc condcnt that thc pcoplc ol Trn, Klisura and 8o
othcr villagcs ol Zncpoljc thought ol thcmsclvcs as Scrbs, cl. Stojancvi, Kodabaa,
+:oo.
8
Panta Srckovi (+8+o), prolcssor ol history at thc Grcat School in 8clgradc
and politician. His historical writing on Scrbias past lackcd thc ncccssary criticism.
M. Svircvi, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt +:+
by thc Scrbian army on thc bordcr with 8ulgaria.

Hc also cncrgctically
strugglcd against thc propaganda ol thc 8ulgarian Committcc lrom Soa,
against thc xarchatc bishops cspccially bishop ustathius (appointcd
by thc xarchatc,
o
on thc cvc ol thc war against thc ttoman mpirc, as
hcad ol thc parchy ol Niava), and thc Russian cnvoy to Soa Alabin,
who dcmandcd that thc Scrbian authoritics lcavc thc lormcr sanjaks ol Ni
and Soa in ordcr that thcsc could bc anncxcd to 8ulgaria in compliancc
with thc Trcaty ol San Stclano.
+
8ulgarians wcrc awarc that Stanojcvi
was distinguishcd in thc local community, and that thc anncxation ol thc
Kaza ol Trn and Zncpoljc to 8ulgaria was dicult without Stanojcvi on
thcir sidc. Tus, Stanojcvi was ocrcd to bccomc a dcputy ol thc 8ulgarian
Constitutional Asscmbly which was to cstablish thc rst domcstic govcrn
mcnt
:
altcr thc dcparturc ol Russians lrom 8ulgaria.

Hc dcclincd thc
ocr.

Vhcn thc Congrcss ol thc Grcat Powcrs in 8crlin was ovcr on +

Arandjcl Stanojcvi was thc rcprcscntativc ol thc Kaza ol Trn in a dcputation to St.
Pctcrsburg in April +88 to pctition thc Russian cmpcror lor thc right ol thc pcoplc ol
Pirot, Trn, \ranjc and thc ncighbouring arcas ol Old Serbia to bc Old-Serbs and, consc
qucntly, to rcmain in Scrbia, cl. Stojancvi, Kodabaa, :o, 8. Lili, Istorija Pirota i
okoline (+88++8), vol. !!, :6.
o
From thc abolishmcnt ol thc Patriarchatc ol Pc in +66 and thc Archbishopric ol
hrid in +6, all 8ulgarian and Scrbian bishoprics camc undcr thc jurisdiction ol
thc Patriarchatc ol Constantinoplc, which rcplaccd almost all Slav bishops with cthnic
Grccks. Tis was opposcd by all rthodox Slavs, Scrbian and 8ulgarian, who strovc to
cmancipatc thcir rcspcctivc churchcs lrom thc Grcck Patriarchatc. 8ackcd by Russia,
8ulgarians succccdcd in cstablishing thcir autonomous church organization, and on
:8 Fcbruary +8o, by thc Sultans dccrcc, thc 8ulgarian xarchatc was cstablishcd, its
jurisdiction also cxtcndcd to many Scrbinhabitcd arcas, including thc countics ol Ni,
Pirot and \ranjc. !n thc arcas undcr thc xarchatcs jurisdiction, Grcck bishops and
tcachcrs wcrc rcplaccd with 8ulgarian.
+
Tcrc was a signicant gap bctwccn Pirots urban population and its rural surround
ings. Many mcmbcrs ol thc Pirot clitc, known as orbadije (chorbaji), acccptcd both
thc xarchatc and thc 8ulgarian idca, and wcrc unwilling to brcak up thcir busincss
rclations with thc markcts ol northcrn 8ulgaria, Tracc and Constantinoplc. Tc rural
population ol thc Pirot arca, by contrast, acccptcd hardly any changc in thcir lilc, uphcld
thcir customs and tradition, and supportcd thc unication ol Pirot with Scrbia. Tc
xarchatc sought to cxploit this gap, cspccially undcr thc mutascril ol Pirot Jordana
Pasha 8akalov, cl. Lili, Istorija Pirota, :.
:
Stojancvi, Kodabaa, :o:+o.

Stationcd in 8ulgaria during thc war, Russian army occrs and soldicrs bchavcd as
a domcstic clcmcnt.

Stanojcvi was warncd that hc would bc tricd by thc pcoplcs court il hc did not
dcclarc himscll a 8ulgarian, which rcally mcant that thc 8ulgarian Committcc would
havc him cxccutcd. Scc Stojancvi, Kodabaa, :++.
8alcanica XXX\!! +::
July +88, thc bordcrs bctwccn thc indcpcndcnt Principality ol Scrbia and
thc autonomous Principality ol 8ulgaria wcrc nally dcncd. Tc istrict
ol Trn and Zncpoljc bccamc part ol 8ulgaria, and Stanojcvi movcd to Scr
bia. !n thc Pirot rcgion, hc is still rcmcmbcrcd as a man who madc pcrsonal
sacriccs lor his homcland.

b) Second period: Te permanent organi.ation of local go.ernment


As a rcsult ol thc 8crlin Trcaty, ncw statcs cmcrgcd in thc 8alkans. Scrbia
had to ccdc a largc portion ol thc libcratcd tcrritory to 8ulgaria or to rc
storc it to thc ttoman mpirc. 8oth thc military and civil authoritics ol
thc Principality ol Scrbia withdrcw lrom thc ccdcd and rcstorcd tcrritorics.
Alos, a good part ol thc local population withdrcw with thcm, unwilling to
acknowlcdgc thc ncw bordcrs. Scrbia rctaincd thc largcst part ol thc lormcr
Sanjak ol Ni, whilc thc smallcr part and thc wholc Sanjak ol Soa wcrc
anncxcd to thc autonomous Principality ol 8ulgaria. Tc Sanjak ol Pritina
was rcstorcd to thc ttomans.
From that momcnt, thc proccss ol cstablishing pcrmancnt institu
tions ol local govcrnmcnt in thc Ne. reas bcgan. Tc Scrbian govcrnmcnt
locuscd all its corts on thc constitutional and ovcrall lcgal unication ol
post8crlin Scrbia.
vcn bclorc Scrbias lcgislaturc madc thc ncw arcas administrativcly
and lcgally cqual with prcwar Scrbia, thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt had dccrccd
thcir political unication by cxtcnding voting rights to thc ncw citizcns ol
Scrbia, who votcd in thc parliamcntary clcctions ol :8 ctobcr +88. Tc
govcrnmcnts position was that thc Ne. reas had not bccn conqucrcd but
libcratcd and that, conscqucntly, thcy should cnjoy all constitutional and
political rights as lrom day onc.
6
Tc pposition suspcctcd thc govcrn
mcnt ol having bccn guidcd by party political motivcs. !ndccd, in thc politi
cally uncducatcd Ne. reas, whcrc thc lcar ol authoritics was still strong, a
chancc lor thc govcrnmcnts candidatcs to win clcctions was grcatcr than in
prcwar Scrbia. Tc Primc Ministcr, Jovan Risti,

could rcly on his partys

Ibid., :o:+6.
6
Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia !!, +.

Jovan Risti (+8++8) was onc ol thc most important Scrbian politicians ol thc
ninctccnth ccntury, a historian, diplomat and statcsman, thc unqucstionablc lcadcr
ol thc Libcral Party. Hc was a mcmbcr ol thc Rcgcncy lor undcragc Princc Milan
brcnovi +86:, and undcragc King Alcxandcr brcnovi +88. Hc succcss
lully complctcd long ncgotiations on thc withdrawal ol thc ttoman troops lrom Scr
bia undcr Princc Mihailo brcnovi (+8o:, +86o68, King +88:8) and workcd
on thc +86 Rcgcncy Constitution. Hc was thc Ministcr ol Forcign Aairs at thc timc
M. Svircvi, Tc stablishmcnt ol Scrbian Local Govcrnmcnt +:
candidatcs in thc Ne. reas, who rmly supportcd his govcrnmcnt altcr
thc clcctions.
Political unication was lollowcd by administrativc and judicial uni
cation. n + cccmbcr +88 thc National Asscmbly passcd thc La. on
the Di.ision of the nnexed reas into Counties and Districts.
8
Undcr this
Law, thc anncxcd arcas wcrc dividcd into lour countics (Ni, \ranjc, Pirot
and Toplica) and + districts.

!n addition, scvcral important provisions ol


thc Pro.isional La. ol January +88 wcrc rcvokcd (Articlcs ::, :, + and
:), mostly thosc rcgulating thc grouping ol municipalitics into districts
and districts into countics and thc scats ol districts and countics. Tis qucs
tion was scttlcd by a dccrcc Princc Milan brcnovi issucd on 6 Fcbruary
+8, nally dcning thc boundarics ol districts and countics, and thc scats
ol local administration, listing all thc villagcs includcd in thcir inncr struc
turc (+oo+ villagcs in + districts).
6o
!n that way, thc unication that was dc
lacto carricd out cvcn bclorc thc statc bordcrs in thc 8alkans wcrc nally
drawn, got its lcgal lramcwork rcsulting in thc administrativc unication ol
thc wholc ol thc Principality ol Scrbia.
Undcr thc La. on Legal Proceedings in the nnexed reas ol + c
ccmbcr +88
6+
judicial unication was carricd out. Tc Scrbian laws con
ccrning thc judiciary, civil and criminal law (matcrial and proccdural) wcrc
cxtcndcd to thc Ne. reas.
6:
Tc only cxccptions wcrc thc lcgislation on
immovablc propcrty and thc La. on La.yers. Tc rst cxccption rcsultcd
lrom Scrbias intcrnational obligations as stipulatcd by thc 8crlin Trcaty,
and thc sccond onc had its domcstic rcasons. omcstic lcgislation on thc
immovablc propcrty was not cxtcndcd to thc Ne. reas bccausc thc Grcat
Powcrs at thc Congrcss ol 8crlin had mct somc dcmands ol thc Portc and
thc ttoman landowncrs. Tc limitations imposcd on Scrbia conccrncd thc
ol thc 8crlin Congrcss, and thc intcrnational rccognition ol Scrbia was lor thc most
part his doing. His historical writings includc: Foreign Felations of Serbia :,: and
Serbian Diplomacy the Serbian !ars of Liberation and Independence :.
8
La. on the Di.ision of the nnexed reas into Counties and Districts in La.s XXX!\
(+8), :.

Art. + ol thc La. on the Di.ision of the nnexed reas: +. Ni County with Ni as its
county town includcd lour districts: ol Ni, Zaplanjc, Lcskovac and \lasotincc, :. Pirot
County with Pirot as its county town also had lour districts: ol Niava, \isoki, 8cla Pal
anka and Lunica, . \ranjc County with \ranjc as its county scat had thrcc countics: ol
Pinja, Poljanica and Masurica, and . Toplica County with Prokupljc as its provisional
scat had lour countics: ol obrica, Prokupljc, Kosanica and Jablanica, +6:o.
6o
Ibid., +6+.
6+
Ibid., +.
6:
La. on Legal Proceedings, Art. and , pp. +.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
obligation to award compcnsation to thc holdcrs ol lormcr spahiliks in thc
libcratcd arcas. Tcrclorc, thc issuc was solvcd by a spccial law in compli
ancc with Scrbias intcrnational obligations assumcd by thc ratication ol
thc 8crlin Trcaty. Tc La. on La.yers was not cxtcndcd to thc Ne. reas
bccausc thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt assumcd that thc illinlormcd population
ol thc libcratcd arcas might lall prcy to unscrupulous lawycrs.
6

. Conclusion
Tc incorporation ol thc ncwlyanncxcd arcas into thc lcgal systcm ol post
war Scrbia was carricd out lully in thc administrativc and judicial sphcrcs,
civil (cxccpt thc qucstion ol land owncrship) and criminal law. Tc proccss
was roundcd o with thc passing ol thc La. on the Enactment of the Po-
lice Profession La. in the Liberated and nnexed reas on o March +88+.
6

Undcr this Law thc lcgislations ol thc Principality ol Scrbia conccrning
thc organization ol local govcrnmcnt and its powcrs wcrc cxtcndcd to thc
Ne. reas. Most ol its provisions rcgulatcd thc cxtcnsion to thc libcratcd
arcas ol all lcgislations on municipalitics, districts and countics and thcir
organization and lunctioning.
6
!t is important to notc that thc +8 La.
on Municipalities was cxtcndcd to thc Ne. reas undcr this Law. Tc lcgal
unication ol Scrbia, which had bcgun with thc Sccond ScrboTurkish Var
in +8 and lastcd until thc passing ol this Law undcr thc Progrcssivist
govcrnmcnt in +88+, was thus complctcd.
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts
Belgrade
6
Scrbia cxtcndcd thc La. on La.yers to hcr Ne. reas in +88+, togcthcr with othcr
lcgislations that had not bccn in lorcc in thc libcratcd arcas bclorc that ycar.
6
La.s, :6.
6
Ibid.
UDC ,,:.,J(,,.:::&c):&:
Milan St. Proti
Sources of the Ideology of the Serbian Radical Movement

From a historical pcrspcctivc, cvcry political movcmcnt has two csscntial


aspccts: its thcory and its practicc. Tc thcorctical aspcct includcs idcol
ogy, undcrstood as a sct ol idcas which dcnc thc movcmcnts political and
philosophical stand on various issucs. Practical aspccts rclcr to its cxistcncc
and actions in thc actual historical contcxt, a spccic timc and placc. !t is
this dual naturc ol political movcmcnts that givc thcm thcir complcx his
torical charactcr. Tc two aspccts arc oltcn so intcrtwincd that it is impos
siblc to dividc and analyzc thcm scparatcly. !n othcr instanccs, thcy sccm
so contradictory to cach othcr that it is virtually impossiblc to dctcrminc
thcir common dcnominator and cstablish rclations bctwccn thc thcory and
practicc ol a singlc political movcmcnt.
Tc sourccs ol thc idcology ol Scrbian Radicalism
+
wcrc twolold:
importcd and original. Tc importcd (or lorcign) inucnccs on thc Radical
movcmcnt camc in thrcc major wavcs. Tc rst wavc camc lrom uropcan
(cspccially Russian) socialist, anarchist, and populist traditions, mainly in
ucncing thc group round Svctozar Markovi, and covcring thc pcriod ol
Radicalism in Scrbia known as rudimcntary Radicalism. Tc sccond wavc
rcsultcd lrom thc inucncc ol thc Frcnch Radical movcmcnt, which had
strong impact on Scrbian Radicals rcgarding both thcir political programmc
and thcir organization.
:
Tc third wavc ol inucncc camc lrom thc 8ritish
parliamcntary and constitutional thcory which, by thc latc l88os, had bccn
lully acccptcd by thc Radicals in Scrbia. Tc idcas that thc Radicals drcw
+
For morc dctail, scc Milan St. Proti, Fadikali u Srbiji :::,c (Radicals in Scrbia
+88++o ) (8clgradc: !nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, +o).
:
Cl. also . T. 8atakovi, Francuski uticaji u Srbiji +++. ctiri gcncracijc Pari gcncracijc Pari Pari
zlija, Zbornik .a istoriju Matice srpske 6 (+), , and his Linucncc lranaisc
sur la lormation dc la dmocratic parlcmcntairc cn Scrbic, Fe.ue dEurope centrale
\!!/no. + (+, Strasbourg :ooo), +.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:6
lrom uropcan political cxpcricncc nccdcd to bc translormcd, changcd, and
adaptcd to suit thc spccic Scrbian political cnvironmcnt. Tc intcrnal (or
domcstic) sourccs ol Radicalism wcrc thc spccic political circumstanccs ol
Scrbian socicty. Vithin a gcncral historical lramcwork, political cxprcssions
cmcrging lrom thc rulcr on thc onc hand and lrom political partics on thc
othcr lundamcntally inucnccd and modicd thc Radical idcology. Finally,
it is ncccssary to draw somc gcncral conclusions rcgarding thc sourccs ol
Scrbian Radical idcology, which includcs a classication ol particular inu
cnccs and thc dcgrcc ol thcir impact on Scrbian Radicalism.
Chronologically, thc carlicst was thc inucncc ol uropcan socialist
idcas and thcrclorc it will bc discusscd rst.
+
Tc inucncc ol uropcan socialism rcachcd thc Radical movcmcnt in its
carlicst phasc ol dcvclopmcnt, during a pcriod whcn luturc Radical lound
crs and lcadcrs wcrc associatcd with thc group ol Svctozar Markovi.

ur
ing thc latc l86os thc Swiss city ol Zurich attractcd many young, politically
conscious studcnts lrom all ovcr uropc. Undoubtcdly thc most signicant
ol thcm was Mikhail 8akunin, a Russian migr and thc lcading gurc ol
thc anarchist movcmcnt.

Hc playcd a ccntral rolc among thc studcnt youth


in Zurich, and organizcd many clandcstinc and scmiclandcstinc political
groups and mcctings. His rcputation ol thc lcadcr ol thc most radical wing
ol thc Socialist !ntcrnational sccurcd him thc position ol thc ccntral gurc
in thc lcltist movcmcnt not only in Switzcrland, but in all ol uropc. 8a
kunins tcaching includcd a social rcvolution carricd out by violcnt mcans,
thc dcstruction ol thc statc organization, and thc cstablishmcnt ol lrcc as
sociations ol individuals bascd on thcir lrcc will. His pcrsonal commitmcnt
was bascd on his long ycars in Tsarist Russian prisons, which had a powcrlul
impact on thc young intcllcctuals in Zurich.

!n thc latc +86os a small group ol Scrbian studcnts arrivcd in Zurich


as Scrbian govcrnmcnt grant holdcrs scnt abroad to obtain highcr cduca
tion. !n +868, Svctozar Markovi camc to Zurich lrom St. Pctcrsburg, whcrc
hc had alrcady bcgun his political carccr as a lollowcr ol Russian socialists,

For morc dctail, scc Jovan Skcrli, S.eto.ar Marko.i, njego. i.ot, rad i ideje (8clgradc,
+::), Soja kori, Tc Populism ol Nikola Pai: Tc Zurich Pcriod, East European
Quarterly X!\, no. (Vintcr +8o), 68.

\clizar Nini, Pera Todoro.i (8clgradc, +6), +:.

rag. Cili, Pcra Todorovi, Archivcs ol thc Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts
(hcrcaltcr ASANU) no. +o6, p. , scc also Nini, Pera Todoro.i, :.
M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt +:
such as Chcrnyshcvsky, obrolyubov and Lavrov.
6
Togcthcr with thc othcr
Scrbian studcnts hc organizcd an inlormal, distinctly socialistanarchist po
litical group known as thc Zurich group. All ol its mcmbcrs wcrc luturc
Radicals: Nikola Pai, Pcra \climirovi, Raa Milocvi, Pcra Todorovi
and Jovan ujovi.

8y thc carly +86, thcy had dccidcd to organizc a politi


cal movcmcnt, and to namc it thc Radical Party.
8
!n Fcbruary thc samc ycar
Svctozar Markovi, Nikola Pai, Pcra \climirovi and jura Ljoi agrccd
to claboratc thc political programmc ol thcir political organization in thc
making, but thc attcmpt lailcd duc to thc lact that Svctozar Markovi had
to rcturn to Scrbia. Hc had bccn dcnicd govcrnmcnt grant on account ol his
subvcrsivc political activitics.

Although thcir rst attcmpt to organizc a political party lailcd, thc


young Scrbian studcnts rcturncd to Scrbia lull ol cnthusiasm lor socialist
idcas. Tc works ol Russian populists and Vcstcrn socialists, which thcy
brought to thcir nativc country, bccamc major cxprcssions ol thcir political
bclicls.
Upon thcir rcturn to Scrbia (+8o+), thc mcmbcrs ol Svctozar
Markovis group startcd a numbcr ol socialist ncwspapcrs Fadenik
(Vorkcr), Ja.nost (Tc Public), Oslobodjenje (Libcration), Fad (Vork)
and continucd political activitics along socialist lincs. Until thc dcath
ol its lcadcr Svctozar Markovi in +8, thc movcmcnt gradually movcd
lrom purc socialism to Radical dcmocracy,
+o
bccausc ol thc pcculiaritics ol
Scrbian socicty. Vith thc vast majority ol pcasant population and virtually
no working class, thc idcas ol socialism simply could not bc applicd in thcir
original lorm. Tus, laccd with Scrbian sociopolitical rcalitics, thc socialist
group ol Svctozar Markovi locuscd on dcmocratic political rclorms in
stcad ol social changc.
vcn so, somc purcly socialist clcmcnts can bc lound in thc Radical
movcmcnt cvcn in its much latcr ycars. !n a pcrsonal lcttcr to a lricnd, a
mcmbcr ol thc Radical Party wrotc in +88: !d brcak thc ncck ol anyonc
6
Scc Slobodan Jovanovi, S.eto.ar Marko.i (8clgradc, +:o), 8+:, also, Voodlord
McClcllan, S.eto.ar Marko.ic and the Origins of Balkan Socialism (Princcton, +6),
:+::.

S. Markovi to 8climarkovi, ++ May +86, in Odabrani spisi |Sclcctcd Vritings|


(8clgradcNovi Sad, +6).
8
Ibid.

Svctozar Markovi, Srpskc obmanc, Zasta.a, Novi Sad, +86.


+o
Cili, Pcra Todorovi, , scc also Slobodan Jovanovi, Politike i pra.ne raspra.e, :
vols. (8clgradc, +:), vol. !, ::, and Skcrli, S.eto.ar Marko.i, .
8alcanica XXX\!! +:8
who says !m not a socialist. ! am as proud ol that namc as ! am proud ol thc
namc ol an activc Radical.
++
A rcport lrom Smcdcrcvo datcd thc samc ycar mcntions a group ol
workcrs among local Radicals which has socialist colours and numbcrs
somc o mcmbcrs.
+:
A sccrct rcport to King Milan brcnovi, also ol
+88, mcntions a Toma Milocvi, a mcmbcr ol thc Radical Party lrom
castcrn Scrbia (\raogrnjci), who pursucd his studics in Zurich and now
ovcrtly dcclarcs himscll a nihilist.
+
From 8 July +88, Pcra Todorovi, a lounding mcmbcr ol thc Radical
Party and its major idcologuc in its lormativc pcriod, subscribcd to thc
Frcnch rcvolutionary ncwspapcrs ol socialistradical oricntation La Bataille,
Le Proletaire and LIntrensigeant.
+
Following thc lormation ol thc Radical Party in +88+ and thc publi
cation ol its political programmc, a group ol Svctozar Markovis orthodox
lollowcrs who maintaincd a purc socialist position lormcd a small political
group lcd by Mita Ccni. Tcy conlrontcd thc Radicals, accusing thcm ol
bctraying Markovis original idcas and abandoning thc socialist causc in
gcncral.
+
!n dcning thc position ol thc Radical Party in rclation to social
ism, Lazar Pau publishcd in +88+ in Samoupra.a a scrics ol articlcs undcr
thc titlc Tc Middlc Class Socicty and !ts Political Partics,
+6
in which hc
madc a thrcclold classication ol political movcmcnts:
A group that wants to takc socicty back to lcudalism |rcactionary
or aristocratic partics|. A group callcd moncy aristocracy, which
tcachcs that human socicty rcachcd its apcx at a ccrtain momcnt in
thc past and cannot dcvclop any lurthcr without dcstroying its own
lruits ol culturc and civilization. A third group argucs lor a ncw cco
nomic programmc: thc programmc ol social and cconomic rclorm.
+
Continuing this linc ol thinking, Pau suggcsts that thc socialist
tcaching may takc two possiblc dircctions: towards thcorctical socialism and
towards applicd socialism. 8y applicd socialism Pau mcant thc practical
political organization ol thc working classcs. Hc simply concludcs that thc
++
Archivcs ol Scrbia, 8clgradc (hcrcaltcr AS), Milutin Garaanin Fund, 86, no. o.
+:
AS, no. 66, o August +88, Smcdcrcvo.
+
AS, obra Rui Fund, P:/+8, 6 Junc +88, Poarcvac.
+
Ibid., 8 July +88.
+
For morc dctail, scc Latinka Pcrovi, Srpski socijalisti XIX .eka (8clgradc, +8).
+6
Lazar Pau, Gradjansko drutvo i njcgovc politikc strankc, Samoupra.a, May to
+6 Junc +88+.
+
Ibid.
M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt +:
Radical Party has adoptcd thc conccpt ol applicd socialism.
+8
Tc Radicals
obviously movcd away lrom thc original socialist idcology, but rcmaincd
sympathctic to thc idcas which had inspircd thcm in thcir carly days.
lcmcnts ol socialist inucnccs on thc Scrbian Radical movcmcnt
arc obscrvablc throughout thc pcriod until thc Timok Rcbcllion. Articlcs
dcaling with contcmporary dcvclopmcnts in uropcan socialist circlcs
rcgularly appcarcd in thc ocial Radical ncwspapcr. !n +88+, Samoupra.a
publishcs a scrics ol articlcs on Chcrnyshcvsky.
+
!n +88:, thc Radical papcr
dcvotcs a long column to Louis 8lanc, stating that 8lanc was among thc
most promincnt lcadcrs ol thc +88 Rcvolution in Francc, and dcscribing
his idca to cstablish a ministry ol progrcss as a mastcrpiccc ol his political
carccr. Samoupra.a concludcs that hc will bc rcmcmbcrcd by thc gcncra
tions to comc.
:o
!n +88, thc ncwspapcr notcs thc dcath ol Karl Marx, and
dcdicatcs a praising articlc to thc loundcr ol scicntic socialism:
Tc importancc ol his work is as rclcvant today as cvcr. 8ut thc lu
turc alonc will bc ablc to show thc cnormous impact ol this talcntcd
and cncrgctic man Lct thc mcmory ol this diligcnt man, who lor
morc than lorty ycars workcd tirclcssly lor thc dcvclopmcnt ol social
dutics and thc libcration ol cntirc mankind, rcmain dccp in cvcry
human hcart.
:+
Probably thc most illustrativc cxamplc ol socialist inucnccs on thc
Radical movcmcnt is thc lact that whilc scarching homcs ol local Radi
cals (lcadcrs ol thc Timok Rcbcllion), thc policc lound thc Communist
Manilcsto ol +88 by Marx and ngcls, thc Programmc ol Gcrman Social
cmocracy (+86), works ol 8abocul (+8), and writings ol thc domcstic
rcvolutionary \asa Pclagi.
::
lcmcnts ol socialist idcologics in thc Radi
cal movcmcnt wcrc, howcvcr, morc thcorctical than practical. From thc
vcry bcginning, thc Radicals abandoncd thc cconomic tcaching ol Svctozar
Markovi, basically thc most socialist part ol his doctrinc. Tcy cntcrcd lull
hcartcdly into thc political battlc, conccntrating all thcir lorccs on political
rclorms along thc lincs ol constitutionalism and dcmocracy. Tc clcmcnts
ol socialism shown hcrc suggcst that thc attitudc ol Scrbian Radicalism
towards socialist idcas was mcrcly acadcmic. Tc solc clcmcnt ol socialism
that thc Radicals rctaincd was thcir militancy.
+8
Ibid.
+
Samoupra.a, +: Fcbruary +88+.
:o
Samoupra.a, + cccmcbcr +88:.
:+
Samoupra.a, + and :: March +88.
::
Timoka buna, cd. Milcn Nikoli (8clgradc, +), :8.
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
Tc Radicals oltcn insistcd on thcir laithlulncss to thcir socialist
roots. Tcy likcd to bc rcgardcd as an ospring ol thc grcat uropcan so
cialist lamily. Tcy cxprcsscd strong lcclings about all movcmcnts and idcas
coming lrom thc lclt. 8ut, thc rcalitics ol thc Scrbian rudimcntary, mostly
pcasant, socicty, with othcr social classcs only cmcrging, lorccd thcm to di
rcct thcir actions and thcir idcas towards practical problcms and towards
attacking rcal obstaclcs on Scrbias road to political cmancipation.

Tc inucncc ol thc Frcnch Radical movcmcnt was much morc signicant
than thc impact ol uropcan socialism. Two dicrcnt vicws havc dcvclopcd
in rcccnt Yugoslav historiography rcgarding thc issuc ol thc major lorcign
inucncc on thc Scrbian Radical movcmcnt. nc argucs that thc major
impact camc lrom thc Russian populist tradition.
:
Tis argumcnt is bascd
on two assumptions. First, Russian socicty as it was in thc sccond hall ol
thc ninctccnth ccntury rcscmblcd to a largc cxtcnt thc Scrbian socicty ol
thc samc pcriod. Tc vast majority ol thc population wcrc uncducatcd pcas
ants. Conscqucntly, thc idca ol going to thc pcoplc, thc ultimatc slogan ol
thc Russian populist movcmcnt, hcld much appcal to thc Scrbian Radicals.
Sccond, thc political mcthods uscd by thc Radicals wcrc vcry similar to
thosc uscd by Russian populists: thc cducational mission among thc pcas
antry, accompanicd by thc usc ol simplicity and dcmagogucry.
:
Tc vicw that thc Frcnch Radical tradition had thc most crucial
impact on thc lormation ol Radicalism in Scrbia dcscrvcs grcatcr attcn
tion.
:
!t is virtually impossiblc to cstablish thc cxact ways in which Frcnch
idcas camc to Scrbia. Tc only lact that sccms unqucstionablc is that most
Radical lcadcrs could rcad and spcak Frcnch, and that most ol thcm visitcd
Francc in thc +8os.
:6
Somc, but not many, madc thcir studics in Paris and
latcr camc to bc known as Parisian doctors.
:
According to thc Radical
ncwspapcrs, it appcars that by thc +88os thcy rcccivcd Frcnch political prcss
on a rcgular basis, including Clcmcnccaus La Justice.
:8
!l thc notion ol a prcdominant populist inucncc has somc mcrit
as an instrumcnt ol social dcvclopmcnt and gcncral political inspiration,
thc hypothcsis about Frcnch Radicalism as thc major sourcc ol Scrbian
:
Scc Latinka Pcrovi, Pera Todoro.i (8clgradc, +8).
:
Ibid., +6:+6.
:
Slobodan Jovanovi, Jovan Skcrli, ivan ivanovi.
:6
Scc Nini, Pera Todoro.i, 86:.
:
Slobodan Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, . vols (8clgradc, +), !!!, :8::8.
:8
Cl. Samoupra.a, Junc and July +88.
M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt ++
Radical idcology is morc convincing particularly rcgarding thcir political
programmcs and organization.
Tc rclationship bctwccn Scrbian and Frcnch Radicalisms is ccn
tral to thc analysis ol both movcmcnts. Tc rst writtcn programmc ol thc
Radical Party in Scrbia datcs lrom January +88+. Tc programmc was origi
nally publishcd in thc rst issuc ol Samoupra.a, immcdiatcly lollowing thc
lormation ol thc Radical Party.
:
!n thc introduction, thc Radicals strcsscd
two crucial political objcctivcs:
in domcstic aairs national prospcrity and lrccdom, and in
lorcign aairs Statc indcpcndcncc, libcration and unication ol all
parts ol Scrbdom.
o
Tc programmc was dividcd in cight scctions, cach dcning thc
Partys position on a major issuc. Much likc thc Frcnch Radicals, thcy sug
gcstcd constitutional rclorm in thc lollowing dircctions: thc National As
scmbly as thc suprcmc lcgislativc body was to bc complctcly clcctivc, thc
clcctions wcrc to bc dircctly accompanicd by univcrsal malc suragc. Tc
Grand National Asscmbly was dcsigncd to convcnc pcriodically, and to bc
solcly rcsponsiblc lor constitutional changc, and thc Statc Council was to
bc abolishcd. Scrbian Radicals also proposcd thc administrativc division
ol thc country into rcgions and communcs which wcrc to bc organizcd
on thc basis ol local scllgovcrnmcnt. !n thc judicial systcm, thc Radicals
cstablishcd clcctivc judgcs lor all civil cascs and jurics lor all criminal cascs.
Absolutcly thc samc tcrminology was uscd in discussing thc qucstion ol
Statc nanccs, thc cstablishmcnt ol a dircct, progrcssivc tax systcm bascd
on propcrty and incomc. Tc Scrbian Radicals also suggcstcd a rcorgani
zation ol thc National 8ank along thc lincs ol a ccntral crcdit institution
lor agriculturc, tradc, and industry. xactly likc thc Frcnch, thc Radicals in
Scrbia insistcd on lrcc and compulsory primary cducation, and thc rcplacc
mcnt ol thc standing army with a popular onc. Tcy dcmandcd thc absolutc
lrccdom ol thc prcss, association and public asscmbly, thc application ol
thc principlc ol local scllgovcrnmcnt, and thc guarantcc ol pcrsonal and
matcrial sccurity.
+
Tc Radical group in Scrbia dcvclopcd a political programmc with
csscntially idcntical political dcmands tcn ycars carlicr, in +8+.
:
Tis car
licst Radical political platlorm containcd cightccn important points: thc
:
Na program |ur Programmc|, Samoupra.a +, 8 January +88+.
o
Ibid.
+
Ibid.
:
Programmc ol thc Radical group, : August +8+, AS, obra Rui Fund, \+, P
:/:o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
communal and rcgional autonomy and scllgovcrnmcnt, absolutc lrccdom
ol thc prcss, association, public asscmbly and political action, judicial in
dcpcndcncc, rclorms ol thc Statc administration bascd on thc principlc ol
local scllgovcrnmcnt, thc cstablishmcnt ol rcgional banks lor pcasant and
craltsmcn loans and town banks lor mcrchants and industrialists, thc aboli
tion ol guilds, thc canccllation ol railroad construction, thc lounding ol ag
ricultural and cralt schools, rclorm ol thc cducational systcm, thc abolition
ol gcndarmcric as unncccssary duc to thc introduction ol scllgovcrnmcnt,
thc abolition ol dispository lunds, complctc control ol thc budgct by thc
National Asscmbly, and thc dcmand lor constitutional changc.

Similaritics bctwccn thc Scrbian Radical programmc ol +88+ and thc


clcctoral programmcs ol Gcorgcs Clcmcnccau and Camillc Pcllctan ol that
samc ycar arc quitc obvious. Tc lundamcntal issucs pointcd out in all thrcc
documcnts appcar idcntical, not only in idcas thcy cxprcsscd, but in tcrmi
nology as wcll. Scrbian Radicalism, likc Frcnch, insistcd on constitutional
rclorm, which in both cascs includcd a singlcchambcr National Asscmbly
clcctcd by univcrsal malc suragc. Following thcir Frcnch comradcs, thc
Scrbian Radicals singlcd out thc principlc ol scllgovcrnmcnt as thc ccntral
modc ol tcrritorial organization and instrumcnt ol dcmocratic proccss. Tcy
both insistcd on tax rclorm and on thc introduction ol dircct tax systcm on
capital and incomc. Tc idca ol thc lormation ol a popular army instcad ol
prolcssional military corps charactcrizcd both idcologics. Finally, Scrbian
Radicals, likc thc Frcnch, stubbornly rcpcatcd thcir dcmand lor civil libcr
tics. Tcir idcas ol thc cducational systcm wcrc idcntical: both argucd in
lavour ol lrcc and compulsory primary cducation.
icrcnccs bctwccn thc idcologics ol thc two Radical movcmcnts
camc mainly lrom thcir dicrcnt political and sociocconomic contcxts.
Frcnch Radicals wcrc strongly anticlcrical duc to thc lcading rolc ol thc
Catholic Church in Frcnch politics, social lilc, culturc and cducation. 8y
contrast, thc clcrgy ol thc Scrbian rthodox Church was ncithcr powcrlul
nor cnjoycd a particularly advantagcous position in thc social hicrarchy. Tis
was particularly truc ol thc lowcr clcrgy, which largcly sharcd thc social sta
tus ol thc pcasantry, but actcd as parish intclligcntsia, and bccamc aliatcd
with thc Radical movcmcnt.

Tc highcrranking clcrgy in Scrbia, how


cvcr, situatcd in thc capital and scvcral largcr towns, ncvcr rcally acccptcd
Radicalism. Part ol thc Statc cstablishmcnt, thc lcadcrship ol thc Scrbian
rthodox Church optcd lor thc Libcral Party.

Ibid.

AS, Andra Nikoli Fund, 8+8, no. +o.

Jovan Avakumovi, Mcmoirs, no. :8/!!!, ASANU.


M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt +
As had bccn statcd carlicr, thc Frcnch Radical movcmcnt grcw out ol
thc Rcpublican bloc, and always rcmaincd thc champion ol thc Rcpublican
causc. Tis camc as a rcsult ol spccic historical circumstanccs in Francc,
whcrc thc conict bctwccn thc Monarchy and thc Rcpublic markcd thc cn
tirc ninctccnth ccntury. !n Scrbia, thc Rcpublican issuc was ncvcr scriously
considcrcd. Although thc group around Svctozar Markovi had dcvclopcd
a thcorctical conccpt ol rcpublicanism, thc idca was soon abandoncd by thc
Radicals although thcrc wcrc scvcral staunch rcpublicans in thcir ranks.
6

Scrbias sociopolitical rcalitics, with thc rulcr assuming thc pivotal rolc not
only in politics but, morc importantly, in thc minds ol thc population, thc
Rcpublic could ncvcr bc acccptablc. So instcad, thc Scrbian Radicals bccamc
strongly antidynastic, cndlcssly ghting to undcrcut thc rulcrs powcr. !t
mcans that thc Radical antidynastic oricntation bccamc a substitutc lor
Rcpublicanism. Tc Frcnch rcprcscntativc in 8clgradc noticcd thcir anti
dynastic attitudc and undcrlincd it in scvcral rcports: Lopposition radicalc
cn Scrbic cst loin dctrc unc opposition dynastiquc.

And again in +888:


Sans doutc, parmi lcs cinq ccnts radicaux, quc lcs clcctcurs ont cn
voy sicgcs a la Grandc Skoupchtina, plus dun cst parti dc son vil
lagc avcc dcs dispositions lranchcmcnt antidynastiqucs.
8
Tc Frcnch Radical movcmcnt lavourcd an anticolonial lorcign
policy and thc policy ol pcaccmaking. Following a dcvastating dclcat in
thc FrancoPrussian war (+8o+), and thc unstablc political situation in
thcir country, thc Frcnch Radicals argucd lor intcrnal political rclorms and
opposcd colonialism. Tc Scrbian Radical movcmcnt was ol purcly national
motivation, advocating thc libcration and unication ol all Scrbdom. !t was
thc rcsult ol historical proccsscs ol national cmancipation and statc build
ing. As a ccntripctal lorcc, thc Scrbian statc attractcd all as yct unlibcratcd
parts ol thc nation. Tc Radicals wcrc compcllcd to join in thc grcat na
tional causc.
Scrbian Radicals wcrc only inucnccd by thc political aspcct ol pro
grammcs ol Frcnch Radicalism. Tcy lound Scrbia a lcrtilc soil lor thc im
plcmcntation ol Frcnch Radical idcas. Tc sociocconomic aspcct ol thc
Frcnch Radical programmcs, howcvcr, was incompatiblc with thc Scrbian
sociocconomic spccics and hcncc unacccptablc to Scrbian Radicalism.
!n a dcvclopcd industrial country such as Francc, with a dcvclopcd work
ing class, thc dcmands lor a workinghours limit, workcrs insurancc, and
6
Jovan ujovi and ragia Stanojcvi, latcr also Jaa Prodanovi.

Archivcs du Ministrc dcs aaircs ctrangrcs, Paris, Corrcspondancc politiqucScrbic


(AMA, CP), +88:8, 8 May +88.
8
Ibid., +8888, : cccmbcr +888.
8alcanica XXX\!! +
thc prohibition ol child labour wcrc logical stcps in thc proccss ol improv
ing working conditions. Francc was no cxccption in uropc in this rcspcct.
Almost all industrial uropcan countrics introduccd social lcgislation in thc
closing dccadcs ol thc ninctccnth ccntury. !n a prcdominantly rural Scrbian
socicty, with littlc industry and no organizcd working class, thc sociocco
nomic scgmcnt ol thc Frcnch Radical programmcs was inapplicablc. Tus,
it is quitc clcar that thc idcological impact ol thc Frcnch Radical movcmcnt
on Scrbian Radicalism acquircd thc ccntral placc among thc cxtcrnal (or
lorcign) sourccs ol thc Scrbian Radical doctrinc.

Tc inucncc ol 8ritish constitutional and parliamcntary thcory and prac
ticc was a third major cxtcrnal sourcc ol Scrbian Radicalism. Tis particular
inucncc was thc last to rcach thc Radical movcmcnt in Scrbia, altcr +88.
Tc Radical constitutional proposal ol +88 was still hcavily inucnccd
by Markoviism. !t cspouscd thc systcm ol Convcnt, which mcant thc
suprcmc authority ol thc National Asscmbly, and csscntially cstablishcd a
rcpublic with a monarch as its hcad.

8ritish constitutional pattcrns wcrc


nding thcir way into thc idcas ol thc Radical Party throughout thc +88o.
!t was not until altcr thc nal tcxt ol thc +888 Constitution had bccn com
plctcd that thc Radicals dcnitcly acccptcd thc conccpt ol dcmocratic, par
liamcntary monarchy.
o
A gcncral notion ol thc 8ritish undcrstanding ol govcrnmcntal or
ganization rcachcd Scrbia in thc latc +8os. Young mcmbcrs ol thc Libcral
movcmcnt, who had lor thc most part rcccivcd highcr cducation in uropc,
wcrc thc rst to point out thc importancc ol thc nglish constitutional
tradition: Vc nccd to lcarn lrom ngland mothcr ol lrccdom and ol
thc worlds constitutional tradition, wrotc Stojan 8okovi.
+
!n +86 John
Stuart Mills classical book On Fepresentati.e Go.ernment was translatcd by
\ladimir Jovanovi, a Libcral. Tc Radical intcllcctuals, howcvcr, camc in
contact with thc 8ritish conccpt in a roundabout way. Tc works which had
bccn publishcd on thc Contincnt but lollowcd in thc lootstcps ol thc 8ritish
political doctrinc bccamc thcir rst sourccs. !n +88o, Kosta Tauanovi
translatcd Hovcrs book S.it.erland, Her Constitution, Go.ernment and
Self-Go.ernment.
:
At about thc samc timc, jordjc Simi, a morc mod

Jovanovi, Faspra.e, vol. !, .


o
Milivojc Popovi, Poreklo i postanak usta.a od :. (8clgradc, +), +o.
+
Serbia +8o.
:
Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, :o, scc also Raa Milocvi, Timoka buna
:. godine (8clgradc, +:), :::6.
M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt +
cratc Radical, translatcd 8cnjamin Constants Te Political Principles and
On Ministrial Fesponsibility.

!n +88, Stojan Proti, thc lcading Radical


political writcr at thc timc, translatcd thc most libcral constitutions ol thc
pcriod: Swiss, 8clgian and Amcrican.

Tcy wcrc all publishcd in Odjek. !n


his pcrsonal papcrs dcaling with qucstions ol parliamcntary thcory, Andra
Nikoli, a longtimc mcmbcr ol thc Radical Main Committcc, lrcqucntly
rclcrrcd to thc 8ritish political cxamplc.

A morc cohcrcnt political conccpt was dcvclopcd by a youngcr Radical


intcllcctual Milovan j. Milovanovi. Hc was cducatcd at thc Univcrsity ol
Paris whcrc hc obtaincd thc doctoratc in law. 8y thc agc ol twcntysix hc
had bccomc a prolcssor at thc School ol Law in 8clgradc.
6
His acccptancc spccch at thc Univcrsity cntitlcd On the Parliamentary
Go.ernment

was thc most advanccd trcatmcnt ol thc 8ritish parliamcn


tary conccpt in Scrbia at thc timc. Milovanovi also actcd as a prcparatory
sccrctary to thc Constitutional Committcc in +888.
8
Tc nal vcrsion ol
this documcnt largcly rccctcd his constitutional idcas.
8ritish thcorctical inucnccs camc lrom thc writings ol thc lcading
political writcrs as wcll: Mainc, Frccman, 8outmy, Guicst, and cspccially
8agchot.

Following thcir tcachcrs, thc Scrbian Radicals cspouscd thc con


ccpt ol an idcal political systcm whcrc thc pcoplc would rulc by thcm
sclvcs dircctly. Tc complcxitics ol modcrn socictics, howcvcr, madc such a
simplc political systcm impossiblc to implcmcnt. Tcrclorc, thcy suggcstcd
thc pcoplc should rulc through a collcctivc rcprcscntativc body by translcr
ring thcir sovcrcign rights to thcir clcctcd rcprcscntativcs in thc Parliamcnt.
Tcy concludc that as a rcsult ol thc lact that thc pcoplcs intcrcsts arc varicd
and oltcn opposing, thc Parliamcnt consists ol various political groups. Tc
largcst group rcprcscnts thc majority ol thc pcoplc, and thcrclorc rcccivcs
thc mandatc to lorm thc govcrnmcnt. Tc cabinct, which stands on thc top
ol thc Statc administration, is cntircly dcpcndcnt on thc Asscmbly major
ity:
o
Tc govcrnmcnt is born, livcs and dics togcthcr with thc Asscmbly

Ibid.

Ibid.

AS, Andra Nikoli Fund, no. +o.


6
Forc morc dctail, scc imitrijc jordjcvi, Milo.an Dj. Milo.ano.i (8clgradc,
+6:).

Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, 8+.


8
Ibid.

Milovan j. Milovanovi, parlamcntarnoj vladi, Otadbina X!X (MayJunc,


+888), +66.
o
Ibid., +6.
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
Majority.
+
According to thc 8ritish conccpt, thc Radicals in Scrbia ac
ccptcd thc systcm ol political partics and ol party govcrnmcnt: thc party
which wins thc majority in thc Parliamcnt lorms thc cabinct:
:
Tc csscncc ol a parliamcntary systcm lics in thc cabincts dcpcn
dcncc on and rcsponsibility to thc Asscmbly.

Forcign sourccs ol thc Radical political idcology wcrc indccd thrcc


lold. Tcy originatcd lrom thrcc dicrcnt uropcan political doctrincs, but
cach lclt its mark on thc lormation ol thc Scrbian Radical idcology. Tcir
impacts dicr both in intcnsity and in scopc, thus making thc Radical idcol
ogy csscntially an cclcctic political doctrinc.
:
From an intcrnal pcrspcctivc, thc idcology ol thc Scrbian Radical movc
mcnt was inucnccd by thc spccics ol thc Scrbian political circumstanccs.
As had bccn notcd carlicr, by thc carly +88os thc Scrbian political sccnc
had witncsscd a polarization. n onc sidc was thc Princc (King lrom +88:),
and on thc othcr thrcc major political partics. Tcir compctition lor powcr
inucnccd thcir idcologics, and thcir undcrstanding ol politics inucnccd
thcir political attitudcs.
Tc position ol Scrbian rulcrs bccamc dominant undcr Karadjordjc
Pctrovi, thc lcadcr ol thc First Scrbian !nsurrcction against thc ttomans
in +8o. His succcssor, Milo brcnovi, lcd thc Sccond Scrbian !nsur
rcction (+8+) and bccamc thc hcrcditary princc ol Scrbia (+8o). Milan
brcnovi, proclaimcd king in +88:,

was a strong and authoritarian rulcr


opposcd to any attcmpt ol dcmocratic changc in Scrbia. n thc occasion
ol thc promulgation ol thc libcral +888 Constitution, hc said to an intimatc
lricnd:
vcrybody cricd and shoutcd lor a ncw constitution. So ! acccptcd
it. ! wantcd to makc nonscnsc ol thc issuc and thus provc that this
constitution is not lor Scrbia.

8clorc his arrival in Scrbia in +868, Milan brcnovi livcd abroad,


whcrc hc rcccivcd a sophisticatcd cducation in most promincnt ccntrcs ol
+
Ibid.
:
Stojan Proti, Ustavna vlada i njcna odgovornost, Samoupra.a, January +888.

AS, Andra Nikoli Fund, no. +o.

Scc Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, vol. !, scc also ivan ivanovi, Politika
istorija Srbije, vols. !! and !!! (8clgradc, +::).

Stojan Novakovi, D.adeset godina usta.ne borbe u Srbiji ::,c (8clgradc, ++:), o.
M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt +
uropc.
6
Hc spokc Frcnch and Gcrman bcttcr than his mothcr tonguc.


Young and rcstlcss, with all virtucs and viccs ol a royalty, hc conductcd a
lilcstylc according to uropcan bon vivant standards. Hc was as alicn to
Scrbian socicty as Scrbian socicty was alicn to him. King Milan brcnovis
policy was markcd by two major lcaturcs: hc ran domcstic aairs by himscll,
using political partics and politicians only as his own aids on thc basis ol
thcir loyalty to him pcrsonally, his lorcign policy was hostilc to Russia, duc
to hcr bctrayal ol thc Scrbian national causc whcn in +88 shc signcd thc
pro8ulgarian San Stclano Trcaty with thc ttomans.
8
Tcrclorc Milan
brcnovi turncd to AustriaHungary lor protcction and alliancc, signing a
sccrct convcntion ol mutual lricndship in +88+.

His statcsmanship was ol


tcn dominatcd by his pcrsonal intcrcsts, and his political movcs inucnccd
by his cmotional motivcs. A rcport lrom thc aak arca, ccntral Scrbia, dat
cd +888, bcst illustratcs to what cxtcnt King Milan was alicn to thc Scrbian
population. A ccrtain Toma \ilotijcvi claimcd publicly that thc King is
Gcrman, hc is going to Gcrmanizc all ol us and wcll havc to cat cats.
6o
8y
thc samc tokcn, King Milan did not think highly ol his pcoplc in gcncral.
Shortly bclorc his abdication in +88, hc condcd in a closc lricnd:
Altcr twcnty ycars ol my rulc in Scrbia ! havc comc to bclicvc that
our pcoplc is unablc to grasp thc mcaning ol thc national idca and
lavours partisan intcrcsts ovcr thc intcrcsts ol thc country.
6+
Two mainstays ol thc rulcrs powcr in Scrbia wcrc thc Army and
thc Capital.
6:
King Milan brcnovi institutcd a standing army and a pro
lcssional corc ol occrs.
6
!nsomuch as this innovation lostcrcd thc statc
building proccss, thc cntirc military structurc was complctcly loyal to him
pcrsonally, and rcady to protcct thc Crown and thc cxisting rcgimc. Tc oth
cr stronghold ol thc Kings authority was thc Capital. At thc timc, 8clgradc
was virtually thc only town in Scrbia that borc a rcscmblancc to uropcan
citics.
6
Tc Statc administration, thc military hcadquartcrs, and thc Court
6
Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, vol. !, ::.

Ibid.
8
Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, vol. !!, 6.

Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, vol. !!!, .


6o
AS, Milutin Garaanin Fund, no. +:+, 8clgradc, 6 cccmbcr +888.
6+
AS, \ladan jordjcvi Fund, no. o, \ladan jordjcvi, Uspomcnc \ladana
jordjcvia, !reme, cccmbcr +:.
6:
ragutin !li, Zajearska buna (8clgradc, +o), :.
6
Scc ivanovi, Politika istorija, vol. !!!, +++.
6
Scc imitrijc jordjcvi, Srbija i srpsko drutvo +88oih godina, Istorijski asopis
XX!XXXX (+8:8), +:6.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
wcrc all in 8clgradc, not to mcntion thc bulk ol thc Scrbian intclligcntsia
and a growing middlc class. Tc King thrcw partics, organizcd rcccptions
and balls, and on thc wholc playcd thc rolc ol thc Capitals ccntral gurc.
6
!t
was a social cnvironmcnt in which hc lclt both comlortablc and powcrlul.
From thc vcry bcginnings ol thc Radical movcmcnt, thcrc dcvclopcd
an animosity bctwccn thc Radicals and thc Crown. Rcasons lor this con
lrontation wcrc logical: thc King was an authoritarian pcrson who undcr
stood his royal powcrs as unlimitcd and would not acccpt any challcngcs to
his authority. Tc Radical movcmcnt, cagcr to comc to powcr, propagatcd
constitutionalism, dcmocracy, and scllgovcrnmcnt dcmands aimcd at
limiting thc Kings authority. Andra Nikoli wrotc on thc subjcct:
Tc almighty powcr ol a rulcr always cnds in disastcr, Nicholas !,
Austria +8 and +866, Francc +8o+, King Milan in Scrbia. !t is
not good lor aairs ol Statc whcn thc rulcr is too inucntial. vcn il
not an irrcsponsiblc onc, hc is unablc to control cvcrything by him
scll and thcrclorc thc outcomc is always bad
66
scalating bctwccn +88+ and +88, this conict culminatcd in thc
+88 Timok Rcbcllion. Although thc rcbcls ncvcr admittcd ovcrtly that thc
rcvolt had bccn dircctcd against thc rulcr pcrsonally, thc rcbcllion csscn
tially was an antidynastic rcvolution. Tc driving lorcc bchind thc rcvolt, a
promincnt Radical lcadcr lrom Knjacvac, Aca Stanojcvi, was dcscribcd as
thc Commandcr ol thc Knjacvac Army in Action against thc Abuscr ol
thc Constitution and ol thc Pcoplcs Rights,
6
which is a clcar rclcrcncc to
thc King. n thc cvc ol thc rcvolt, in Scptcmbcr +88, a Radical rcprcscn
tativc in thc National Asscmbly, Ljubinko Milinkovi, rcportcdly said: !t
is casicr lor mc to ovcrthrow thc King than to rcmovc a villagc kmet |local
ocial|.
68
Anothcr rcport ol thc samc ycar statcd that thc Radical Party
organizcd a coup against King Milan.
6
Pcra Todorovi, a coloundcr ol thc
Radical Party who had abandoncd thc movcmcnt in +886 and bccamc thc
portparolc ol thc King, addrcsscd this lcttcr to thc Scrbian monarch:
!n thc hands ol jaja, Kosta |Tauanovi| and Stojan |Proti|, thc
Radical Party is a pcrmancnt thrcat to thc country, and il thcrc is no
othcr way, thc patriotic duty would dictatc to thc rulcr and thc gov
crnmcnt to ght that Party to thc bittcr cnd, to thc nal annihila
6
Scc ivanovi, Politika istorija, vol. !!!, :o+:o.
66
AS, Andra Nikoli Fund, no. +o.
6
!li, Zajearska buna, .
68
AS, obra Rui Fund, P:/+8, +o Scptcmbcr +88.
6
Ibid., : August +88.
M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt +
tion ol onc sidc. At this point thcrc can bc no trucc, thcrc can bc no
cxcusc it is a lilcanddcath ght.
o
Tc King himscll ncvcr lully trustcd thc Radicals, nor did hc cvcr scc
thcm as a gcnuinc idcological movcmcnt. !n his vicw, thcy wcrc a hordc ol
antidynastic clcmcnts rcady to ovcrthrow him. Hc lought thcm oncc in
+88, but his strugglc with thcm continucd until his dcath in +o+:
Tc Radicals in Scrbia arc not a political party rcady to ght lor
ccrtain principlcs applicablc in statc institutions, but rathcr an anti
dynastic party working systcmatically lrom its inccption towards
ovcrthrowing our dynasty.
+
Tcrc wcrc two attcmpts on King Milans lilc during his thirtyycar
prcscncc in Scrbian politics. Tc rst occurrcd in +88: and thc sccond in
+88. Hc utilizcd both attcmpts as a prctcxt to crush down thc lcadcrship
ol thc Radical Party. Tc rst attcmptcd assassination was pcrpctratcd by
Jclcna!lka Markovi, thc sistcrinlaw ol Svctozar Markovi, whosc hus
band, a Radical sympathizcr, had bccn cxccutcd lor allcgcd high trcason.
:

Shc dicd in prison undcr unclaricd circumstanccs. Shc was vcry closc to
most ol thc Radical lcadcrs in 8clgradc, cspccially to Rasa Milocvi,

and
it sccms likcly that at lcast a lcw ol thcm had bccn awarc ol hcr intcntion.
Tc King, howcvcr, was convinccd that thc assassination had bccn lully or
ganizcd by thc Radicals.

Tc sccond attcmpt on cxKing Milans lilc was


madc in +8. Tis cvcnt had a twolold importancc as rcgards thc rclations
bctwccn thc Radicals and King Milan: rst, it provcd thc prolound animos
ity bctwccn thc two, sccond, it indicatcd thc intcntion ol thc cxKing to
dcstroy thc lcadcrship ol thc Radical Party, cvcn altcr ncarly twcnty ycars
ol thcir prcscncc in Scrbian politics. Tis asscrtion is supportcd by a lcttcr
ol cxKing Milan to his son Alcxandcr datcd +88 in which hc adviscd his
son that thc Radicals had bccn thc chicl cncmics ol thc brcnovi dynasty
and that thcy should bc dcstroycd and annihilatcd.

According to thc
samc sourcc, thc cxKing ordcrcd that a sccrct agcncy bc lormcd, hcadcd
by Court Marshal Mihailo Rai, in ordcr to lollow closcly thc actions and
movcs ol thc promincnt Radicals.
6
pcn conlrontation bctwccn thc King
and thc Radicals lundamcntally markcd thc policy ol thc Radicals. Tcir
o
AS, Milutin Garaanin Fund, no. +o6.
+
AS, \ladan jordjcvi Fund, no. :, +8.
:
Scc Jovanovi, !lada Milana Obreno.ia, vol. !, :+o:+.

Milocvi, Timoka buna, +8.

AS, \ladan jordjcvi Fund, no. :.

ASANU, no. ++6/+.


6
Ibid.
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
opposition to thc King inspircd thcir dcmands lor constitutional and dcmo
cratic rclorms thcir undcrstanding ol dcmocracy compcllcd thcm to op
posc thc King.

Rclations among thrcc political partics constitutc thc sccond intcrnal lactor
in thc lormation ol thc Radical political idcology. At this point it should
bc notcd that ncithcr thc Progrcssivist nor thc Libcral partics had dircctcd
thcir political actions towards thc masscs. Tc Progrcssivist Party, which
camc up with a programmc ol modcratc rclorm in thc +8os, sought to
ccct thc changc through thc collaboration with thc King. Tcir undcr
standing ol statchood was bascd on thc prcmisc that it was thc intcllcctuals
hcadcd by thc Crown that should lcad thc Statc and shapc its policics. Tis
aspcct ol thc Progrcssivist idcology had bccn noticcd by thc Frcnch rcprc
scntativc in 8clgradc and dcscribcd in scvcral rcports:
A 8clgradc, lcs progrcssistcs sont dtcsts par la population qui cst
libcralc ou radicalc. n nc lcurs pardonnc pas dc sctrc laits lcs in
strumcnts dc la politiquc Autrichicnnc du Roi Milan.

!n anothcr ol his rcports to Paris, thc Frcnch rcprcscntativc was cvcn


morc outspokcn:
Lc parti progrcssistc qui na jamais cu dc racincs prolondcs dans lc
pays, quc lc Roi a crc cn quclqucs lortcs pour appliqucr sa politiquc
pcrsonncllc, cst cn plcinc dcomposition.
8
!n his rcport datcd March +888, thc Frcnchman gavc his nal asscss
mcnt ol thc Progrcssivist Party in Scrbia:
Ccst toutc unc gnration politiquc qui disparait dc la scnc: g
nration dc pctits bourgcois hnncts, mais troits ct cntcts, quon
pourrait appclcr lcs doctrinaircs dc la Scrbic. ayant cmprunt a
luropc quclqucs idcs constitutioncllcs, conscrvant dc lricnt
lcsprit stationairc

Tc Libcral Party, which grcw out ol thc romantic national lcrmcnt


ol thc +8os, and which saw intcrnal progrcss in tcrms ol national libcration,
was also csscntially an clitist organization. Tc lcadcrs ol this group wcrc in
powcr throughout thc +8os and alrcady had signicant political cxpcri
cncc, tradition and scllcondcncc. Tc Libcrals did not dccm it ncccssary
to gain massivc support lrom thc population. !n thcir vicw, largcly sharcd by

AMA, CPScrbic, +88, :8 May +88.


8
Ibid., : Jan. +88.

Ibid., +8888, +o March +888.


M. St. Proti, Sourccs ol thc !dcology ol thc Scrbian Radical Movcmcnt ++
thc Progrcssivists, thc Scrbian pcasant was uncducatcd and primitivc, and
was not to bc allowcd to act as a politically rclcvant lactor.
8oth political organizations, thcrclorc, rcscmblcd political clubs
rathcr than truc political movcmcnts with mass lollowings. Tcir strcngth
dcrivcd cithcr lrom thc Kings authority or lrom thcir intcllcctual promi
ncncc and political cxpcricncc. 8oth wcrc small in numbcrs and wcrc ncvcr
ablc to win thc majority ol thc clcctoratc, partly bccausc thcy ncvcr took
clcctions as a dccisivc critcrion in compctition lor powcr, and partly bccausc
thcy wcrc not dccply rootcd in thc Scrbian population.
!n contrast, thc Radicals conccntratcd all thcir powcr and ability on
winning ovcr thc pcasantry. Tcir political stratcgy was cntircly bascd on
introducing thc pcoplc to politics and making thcm a signicant political
lactor. From thc vcry bcginning, thc Radicals sought to cnsurc thc broadcst
possiblc support lrom thc countrysidc. Tc powcr ol thcir movcmcnt camc
lrom two sourccs: thc villagc and thc numbcrs. Somc gurcs may scrvc to
support this asscrtion. !n Novcmbcr +88, thc Radicals won 8+ scats in thc
Asscmbly, thc Libcrals 6+, and thc Progrcssivists nonc.
8o
!n March +888, ol
+6 mcmbcrs ol thc National Asscmbly + wcrc Radicals.
8+
!n thc clcc
tions hcld in +88, thc Radicals rcccivcd +8,86 votcs and thc Libcrals
only :+,8:.
8:
!n thc +8o clcctions, thc Radicals won +:, votcs, thc
Libcrals :,8, and thc Progrcssivists only 8,8 votcs,
8
which mcans
that thc Radicals won ovcr 8o pcrccnt ol thc clcctoratc. Tc Radical ocial
ncwspapcrs wcrc distributcd all ovcr thc country. A numbcr ol rcports lrom
thc intcrior ol thc country statcd that no othcr political journals wcrc avail
ablc thcrc.
8
Tc Progrcssivist ocial organ ironically commcntcd on thc
Radical vast mcmbcrship:
Radical Party is still powcrlul, and thc powcr may not bc that ol in
tclligcncc but at lcast it is thc powcr ol numbcrs
8
Tis powcr ol numbcrs obviously was not convincing cnough in
thc Scrbian political circumstanccs lor thc Radicals to comc to powcr. As a
rcsult, thcy rcsortcd to making agrccmcnts with rival political camps. Tcir
compctition with Progrcssivists and Libcrals workcd in both dircctions: it
oricntcd thc Radical movcmcnt towards thc clcctoratc, towards pcasantry,
and towards thc countrysidc, thc drivc to comc to powcr motivatcd thcir
8o
Ibid., ++ Novcmbcr +88.
8+
Ibid., +o March +888.
8:
Slobodan Jovanovi, !lada leksandra Obreno.ia (8clgradc, +), vol. !, ++.
8
Ibid.
8
AS, Milutin Garaanin Fund, no. +, \ranjc, Novcmbcr +88+.
8
Ibid., no. +o8.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
collaboration and coalition tactics. 8oth proccsscs markcd thc Radical idc
ology. nc colourcd it with simplicity and dcmagogucry, but also with a
straightlorwardncss and clarity ol idcas. Tc othcr lcd to its cxibility and
pragmatism.
To sum up, thc idcology ol Scrbian Radicalism was csscntially a com
bination ol various inucnccs. !ts sourccs wcrc manilold and camc both lrom
without and lrom within. !n a purcly political scnsc, Frcnch Radicalism was
thc most signicant singlc impact. A comparison ol thc Frcnch and Scrbian
political programmcs convincingly supports this asscssmcnt. !nspiration lor
thc movcmcnt camc lrom socialists. Tc 8ritish constitutional conccpt also
playcd a signicant rolc. From thc vicwpoint ol intcrnal political rclations,
thc Radical doctrinc was shapcd undcr thc impact ol conlrontation and col
laboration with othcr actors on thc Scrbian political sccnc.
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts
Belgrade
UDC :&.::,.:J(-:&.,:):::,c
uan T. 8atakovi
Nikola Pai, les radicaux et la Main noire
Les ds la dmocratie parlementaire serbe

La democratie serbe : deux interpretations


La qucstion dc savoir si la dmocratic parlcmcntairc a rcllcmcnt lonctionn
cn Scrbic dans la priodc +o++ cst cncorc ct toujours lobjct dc con
trovcrscs car lcs intcrprtations actucllcs navigucnt cntrc dcux points dc vuc
contradictoircs. Lun, part du lait, rclativcmcnt cxact, quil sagit la dc lgc
dor dc lhistoirc scrbc , dunc priodc lors dc laqucllc, cn pcu dc tcmps,
dimportantcs prcuvcs, sur lc plan intricur commc cxtricur, survinrcnt
ct lurcnt, cn gnral, surmontcs dc laon satislaisantc (la gucrrc douanirc
avcc lAutrichcHongric +o6++) ct mcmc triomphantc (lcs dcux gucrrcs
balkaniqucs ++:+). Lrc dc Pricls pour la Scrbic , commc Milan
Grol, ancicn mcmbrc du parti radical indpcndant, a dnomm ccttc pri
odc par contrastc avcc lc dvcloppcmcnt ultricur du pays ct dc la nation, cst
apparuc, aussi bicn aux ycux dc scs contcmporains qua ccux dcs chcrchcurs,
commc un idal ingal, marqu par unc srics dcs succs sur lc champ poli
tiquc ct militairc mais aussi sur lc plan culturcl ct conomiquc.
+
c nombrcuscs raisons justicnt cc scntimcnt. Grcc aux nouvcllcs
libcrts politiqucs ct a lidologic nationalc, la culturc ct la scicncc scrbcs,
librcs dc lcurs chaincs connurcnt un cssor important qui alla audcla dc
toutcs lcs cxpricnccs politiqucs prcdcntcs. La Scrbic, avcc son rgimc
dmocratiquc ct scs aspirations nationalcs claircmcnt cxprimcs, dcvint
rclativcmcnt rapidcmcnt, surtout aprs +o, un vritablc Pimont dcs 8al
kans sur lcqucl comptaicnt aussi bicn commc modlc politiquc quc plc
dun rasscmblcmcnt plus largc non sculcmcnt llitc clairc ct la jcuncssc
dcs Slavcs du Sud dAutrichcHongric, mais aussi lcs ccrclcs libraux bul
+
M. Grol, I. predratne Srbije |c Scrbic davantgucrrc| (8clgradc, +8). Cc tcxtc, plus
court quici lut publi cn scrbc dans lcs actcs du colloquc tcnuc a lAcadmic scrbc dcs
Scicnccs ct dcs Arts : Nikola Pai, i.ot i delo (8clgradc, +8), o:.
8alcanica XXX\!! +
garcs, slovaqucs ct tchqucs gagns par la vaguc du noslavismc, tous trs
cnthousiastcs cn lavcnir. Lcs rsultats dcs gucrrcs balkaniqucs ct dc la Prc
mirc Gucrrc mondialc trs lavorablcs a la Royaumc dc Scrbic cntrinrcnt,
a posteriori, lc lonctionncmcnt dc la dmocratic parlcmcntairc ct dcs institu
tions politiqucs scrbcs.
:
un autrc ct, dautrcs intcrprtations sappuicnt sur lc lait quc,
dans sa priodc dc plcinc dmocratic parlcmcntairc, la Scrbic lut sccouc
par unc sric dc criscs succcssivcs qui mircnt sricuscmcnt cn qucstion sa
capacit a conduirc dc laon souvcrainc, par lc biais dc rcprscntants librc
mcnt lus, lcs aaircs dc ltat. ans la socit marquc par la dmocratic
ruralc avcc prs dc o dc la population dc paysans, labscncc dunc couchc
socialc moycnnc dvcloppc rduisait lc ccrclc dcs pcrsonncs prcnant lcs
dcisions politiqucs lcs plus importantcs a la Cour, aux chcls dcs partis poli
tiqucs (parmi lcsqucls sc dtachait la gurc dc Nikola Pai) ct aux som
mcts dc larmc. Un tcl rapport dcs lorccs laissait lc champ librc a lactivit
dactcurs |politiqucs| non rcsponsablcs ou lactcurs irrcsponsablcs ct
cxtraconstitutionncls qui pouvaicnt, cn dchors dAsscmblc nationalc ct
cn dpit dcs procdurcs institucs par la Constitution, inucr dc laon d
cisivc sur la rsolution dcs qucstions importantcs dc politiquc trangrc il
sagit, csscnticllcmcnt, dcs ocicrs appartcnant au ccrclc dcs conjurs qui
ralisrcnt lc coup dtat dc : mai |lc ++ juin n.s.| +o, cn assassinant lc
dcrnicr roi dc la maison dcs brcnovi, lc roi Alcxandrc ct sa rcinc raga.

ans ccttc pcrspcctivc, lattcntat dc Sarajcvo cn ++ cst intcrprt


commc tant la consqucncc dircctc dc linstabilit politiquc rgnant cn
Scrbic dont tmoignc la dangcrcusc activit dc lorganisation militairc ct
conspiratricc lUnion ou la mort |Ujedinjenje ili Smrt|, aprs +++, plus
connuc sous lc nom populairc dc la Main noirc |Crna ruka|, rcgroupant
lcs ancicnncs conjurs dc +o, cn majorit lcs ocicrs dc larmc scrbc.
Lc lait quc lc chcl dc ccttc organisation, lc licutcnant coloncl ragutin T.
imitrijcvi Apis lun dcs jcuncs conspiratcurs dc +o, galcmcnt chcl
dcs scrviccs sccrcts dc larmc (+++) tait impliqu dans lorganisation
:
Cl. C. Slorza, Pachitch et l union des Yougosla.es (Paris, +8) , M. Popovi, Borba .a
parlamentarni reim u Srbiji |La luttc pour lc rgimc parlcmcntairc cn Scrbic| (8clgra
dc, +8) , . Mitrovi, Srpske politike stranke |Lcs partis politiqucs scrbcs| (8clgradc,
+) , S. Jovanovi, Nicholas Pai. Altcr Tcn Ycars , Sla.onic Fe.ie. X\ (+6),
686, la sculc biographic disponiblc cn anglais : A. N. ragnich, Serbia, Nikola Pai
and Yugosla.ia (Ncw 8runswick, Ncw Jcrscy, +).

Cl. . T. 8atakovi, Yougosla.ie. Nations, religions ideologies (Lausannc, +), + ,


. T. 8atakovic, cd., Histoire du peuple serbe (Lausannc, :oo), +8+.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
dc lattcntat qui scrvit dc prtcxtc a la Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc a rcnlorc
la lgitim dc ccttc intcrprtation.

ntrc ccs dcux points dc vuc, trs loigns lun dc lautrc, il laut chcr
chcr un quilibrc pour sc lorgcr unc justc imagc dc ccttc priodc cn prc
nant cn comptc tous lcs lmcnts dcs ralits complcxcs dc lgc dor dc
lhistoirc scrbc . ans ccttc tcntativc, la qucstion dcs rapports cntrc Nikola
Pai, gurc portcusc dc la dmocratic scrbc dcpuis +88+, ct lorganisation la
Main noirc qui gnra tout un spcctrc dopinions rcjctant la dmocratic
dcpuis dcs idcs militaristcs jusqua lautoritarismc cn matirc dc pouvoir
dtat ct dc politiquc nationalc simposc commc lunc dcs qucstionscls
dc lhistoirc dc la Scrbic avant la Prcmirc Gucrrc.

Cl. la littraturc plus ancicnnc qui insistc sur la rcsponsabilit scrbc dans lclatcmcnt
dc la Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc : M. 8oghitchvitch, Le procs de Salonique, juin :,:
(Paris, +:) , id., Le colonel Dragoutine Dimitrie.itch pis (Paris, +:8) , A. Szanto,
pis, der Fuhrer des Sch.ar.en Hand. Ein Beitrag .um Kriegsschuldproblem (8crlin .J.
+:8) , S. Pribitchvitch, La dictature du roi lexandre (Paris, +) , H. Ucbcrsbcrgcr,
Osterreich ..ichen Fussland und Serbien. Zur Sudsla.ischen Frage und der Entstrhung
des Ersten !eltkrieges (CologncGraz, +8) , J. Rcmak, Saraje.o. Te Story of a Political
Murder (London, +). \oir aussi, unc analysc lranaisc trs quilibr par A. Moussct,
Un drame historique. Lattentat de Saraje.o (Paris, +o), avcc unc vastc documcntation
du prcmicr ordrc. Lc plus rccntc analysc lranaisc dans J.J. 8cckcr, Lnnee :, (Paris,
:oo), o. Nanmoins, il cxistc galcmcnt unc vastc littraturc qui, critc a lpoquc
dc la rcconstitution du procs dc Saloniquc (:+ juin +) sous lc rgimc communistc,
scmployait a disqualicr la dynastic dcs Karadjordjcvi, rccmmcnt rcnvcrsc, ainsi quc
lc rgimc du Royaumc dc Yougoslavic, an dc rcnlorccr lc rgimc communistc auqucl
participaicnt quclqucs pcrsonncs du ccrclc dc lcx Main noirc . Cl. 8. Nckovi, Is-
tina o Solunskom procesu |La vrit sur lc procs dc Saloniquc| (8clgradc, +). Cl. lc
rcchcrchc cxtcnsivc dans . MacKcnzic, Te Black Hand on Trial. Salonika :,:, ast
uropcan Monographs (8ouldcr & Ncw York, +). Lcs travaux du ncvcu dApis, Mi Lcs travaux du ncvcu dApis, Mi
lan . ivanovi qui rasscmbla dc nombrcux matriaux sur la Main noirc , sont, dans
unc ccrtainc mcsurc, par inclination lamilialc, dc la mcmc vcinc : Solunski proces :,:.
godine. Prilog .a proua.anje politike istorije Srbije od :,c. do :,:. godine |Lc procs dc
Saloniquc dc ++. Contribution a ltudc dc lhistoirc politiquc dc la Scrbic dc +o a
++8| (8clgradc, +). Louvragc, sa thsc du doctorat, a t rdit par lautcur sous lc
titrc Puko.nik pis |Lc coloncl Apis| (8clgradc, +). Lcs points dc vuc rvisionnistcs
plus rccnts dont lc but cst dc rcjctcr sur la Scrbic la rcsponsabilit dc la prcmirc gucrrc
mondialc sont bicn illustrs par F. Vurtl, Die Spur furht nach Belgrad (\icnnc, +). Lc Lc
travail lc plus complct sur lc rlc dc larmc dans la vic politiquc dc la Scrbic avant ++
cst cclui dc \. J. \ukovi, Unutranjc krizc Srbijc i Prvi svctski rat |Lcs criscs intcr
ncs dc la Scrbic ct la Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc|, Istorijski asopis X!\X\ (+66),
+::. La biographic la plus rccntc : . MacKcnzic, pis. Te Congenial Conspirator.
Te Life of Colonel Dragutin Dimitrije.ic, ast uropcan Monographs (8ouldcr & Ncw
York, +8). Cl. aussi . T. 8atakovi La Main Noirc (+++++): larmc scrbc cn
trc dmocratic ct autoritarismc , Fe.ue dhistoire diplomatique : (Paris, +8), +.
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
Larmee serbe dans le rle de classe moyenne
Un apparcil tatiquc ct dcs partis politiqucs dvclopps ct modcrncs sc
crrcnt ct sc dvclopprcnt cn Scrbic scnsiblcmcnt avant larmc prolcs
sionncllc. Ccllcci, lormc sculcmcnt cn +88, tait considrablcmcnt plus
jcunc quc la socit scrbc ct donc claircmcnt cn rctard dans la dnition dc
son rlc dans ccttc socit.
cpuis la n du X!X
c
siclc, aprs unc rorganisation londamcntalc
sous lc commandcmcnt dc lancicn roi Milan brcnovi (+8+oo), qui
pc darmcs modcrncs ct bicn rmunrc, larmc dcvint non sculcmcnt lc
gardicn du rgimc ct dc la maison rgnantc, mais galcmcnt unc institution
composc dhommcs instruits par cxccllcncc, qui ouvrait la voic a la promo
tion socialc dcs ls pauvrcs dcs campagncs ct pctits bourgs.

Aussi lopinion

Sclon lcs souvcnirs dun coloncl dc cavalcric, lc nombrc dlvcs boursicrs admis a
lcolc dc lacadmic militairc dc Ni aprs la gucrrc contrc lcs 8ulgarcs (+88) crt
dannc cn annc, dc sortc qucn +8 on accucillait cn prcmirc annc :6 classcs dc plus
dc 8o collgicns. Lcs trois classcs suivantcs taicnt un pcu moins nombrcuscs, quand lc
roi Milan dcvint commandant dc larmc dactivc lc nombrc dc collgicns sc montait
a +oo, il sc montait lcs anncs suivantcs a :oo. Avcc lc dpart du roi Milan, lc nombrc
tomba a +oo, ct lcs anncs suivantcs il tomba mcmc a o. Lors dc larrivc du gouvcrnc
mcnt radical cn +o, lc nombrc dc boursicrs admis tomba a o puis passa cn dcssous
ct ccttc situation dura jusquaux gucrrcs balkaniqucs (++:+). Ainsi quand, a la n
dc lannc +8, lc roi Milan prit la tctc dc larmc, il trouva unc basc pour dvcloppcr
compltcmcnt nos lorccs armcs. !l laut rcconnaitrc quc lc roi Milan t bcaucoup pour
lc dvcloppcmcnt dc notrc armc ct lui donna sa lormc dnitivc, cn mcmc tcmps, il lui
assura lc nombrc nccssairc dc cadrcs duqus. Ccst avcc ccttc armc quc par la suitc
nous sommcs cntrs cn gucrrc contrc lcs Turcs cn ++:. (. Mii, coloncl dc cavalcric
a la rctraitc, Srpski ociri, njihova uloga i znaaj u politikom votu Srbijc do ujcdin
jcnja |Lcs ocicrs scrbcs, lcur rlc ct lcur signication dans la vic politiquc dc la Scrbic
jusqua lunication|, Zagrcb +, rcg. +6, K. :6, l. +, . +o, Arhiv \ojnoistorijskog
instituta |Archivcs dc l!nstitut dhistoirc militairc|), . Un autrc ocicr rcnd hommagc |Archivcs dc l!nstitut dhistoirc militairc|), . Un autrc ocicr rcnd hommagc Archivcs dc l!nstitut dhistoirc militairc|), . Un autrc ocicr rcnd hommagc
au roi Milan pour avoir translorm lcs bataillons rgulicrs cn rgimcnts rgulicrs ct avoir
ainsi quadruplcr lc nombrc dunits, nommant aux postcs dc commandcmcnt dc jcuncs
souslicutcnants lrais moulus dc lacadmic militairc : n mcmc tcmps, il rduisit
lc cursus dc lacadmic militairc ct augmcnta lc nombrc dlvcs boursicrs dc plusicurs
ccntaincs cn quatrc ans (+88+o+), lacadmic militairc lournit prs dc oo ocicrs
(classcs :8:) ct dcux classcs cn sortircnt la mcmc annc (cn +8). n rduisant lc
nombrc dc lyccs par dcux, lc ministrc dc lducation, Andra jordjcvi oricnta dc lait
lcs lvcs lcs plus pauvrcs vcrs lcolc militairc. c ccttc laon, lacadmic militairc
pcndant un ccrtain tcmps absorba toutc la jcuncssc intcllcctucllc dc la Scrbic qui,
a lacadmic, pouvait donncr librc cours a scs idcs dmocratiqucs ct socialistcs ct a
un nationalismc rvolutionnairc |...|. Lcs ditcurs bclgradois, pcndant ccs +o+ ans,
avaicnt commc mcillcurs achctcurs ct plus dlcs clicnts lcs ocicrs, mcmc pour lcs
ouvragcs dc bcllcs lcttrcs, la philosophic ct lcs tcxtcs politicoconomiqucs, ainsi quc
pour dautrcs sujcts scicntiqucs ct sociaux. (. Popovi, La prparation du : mai
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
sclon laqucllc lcntrc a lacadmic militairc dun plus grand nombrc dc
jcuncs issus dc largcs couchcs populaircs introduisit |...| un csprit ncul dans
lc corps dcs ocicrs
6
cst tout a lait londc. cpuis lc coup dtat dc +o,
larmc cn Scrbic jouait un rlc trs important dans la vic politiquc, rcmplis
sant dans un pays csscnticllcmcnt agrairc un vidc important d a unc strat
ication socialc insusantc. n labscncc dunc classc socialc bourgcoisc
dvcloppc lc portcur classiquc dcs valcurs incarncs dans la dmocratic
parlcmcntairc larmc rcmplissait la lonction dc classc moycnnc.
Lc scntimcnt dctrc lcs portcurs dunc mission nationalc scntimcnt
dun dcvoir implicitc qui apparut dans unc bonnc partic dcs sommcts mili
taircs aprs lc rgicidc dc +o contrastait avcc lc climat politiquc gnral
rgnant dans lc pays. Lcs politicicns ct lcs hommcs dtat, parmi lcsqucls
dominait la gurc cmblmatiquc dc Nikola Pai, savaicnt bicn quc la luttc
diplomatiquc ct partisanc souscntcndait paticncc ct compromis, asccnsions
ct chutcs, rcspcct dc lopinion dcs autrcs ct prisc cn comptc dcs ralits
intcrnationalcs. Pai luimcmc tait la victimc dcs dircnts ds poli
tiqucs, oscillant dans sa carrirc politiquc cntrc cxil, prison, oubli ct lc rc
tour triomphal dans lc pouvoir. Lcs hommcs politiqucs scrbcs taicnt aussi
conscicnts dc la vcrsatilit du corps lcctoral ct dcs capriccs du souvcrain,
phnomncs courants sous lcs dcrnicrs brcnovi, Milan ct Alcxandrc, ct
ils taicnt prcts a dircnts compromis pour obtcnir la lavcur dc lopinion
publiquc, la conancc dcs lcctcurs ct ccllc dc la Couronnc qui incarnait la
souvcrainct dc ltat. n politiquc trangrc, llitc politiquc dc la Scrbic,
sclon lcs modcstcs lorccs du pays, scs limitations conomiqucs ct sa posi
tion lragilc cntrc lcs grandcs puissanccs trs prscntcs dans lcs 8alkans,
travaillait, avcc unc prudcncc comprhcnsiblc, a raliscr, cn plusicurs tapcs,
lcs grands objcctils nationaux ct politiqucs xs dans lcs programmcs dcs
partis.
A la dircncc dc la classc politiquc, unc partic dc larmc, sans cx
pricncc pralablc cn politiquc, mais avcc la conancc cn soi dc la jcuncssc,
dcs idcs nouvcllcs ct un pouvoir politiquc qucllc vcnait dc dcouvrir, sc
mit a sc considrcr commc lc scul vritablc intcrprtc dcs intrcts nation
aux dc la Scrbic ct dcs Scrbcs dc laon gnralc. Ctait notammcnt lc cas
dc ccttc partic du corps dcs ocicrs runic autour dcs conjurs dc +o
qui voulaicnt poursuivrc luvrc dindpcndancc nationalc commcncc avcc
lassassinat du roi Alcxandrc brcnovi cn +o. Lcs ocicrs conjurs, ai
nsi quc lcurs partisans, nprouvaicnt pas dc dilcmmcs a dnir lcs priori
+o. La rvolutionarisation dc larmc scrbc sous Milan brcnovi , No.a E.ropa,
vol. \, n+:, ++ juin +:, +++:). \oir galcmcnt . \uksanoviAni, St.aranje mo-
derne srpske .ojske |La cration dc larmc scrbc modcrnc| (8clgradc, +), +++:.
6
Mii, Srpski ociri , .
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
ts nationalcs car ils navaicnt ni prcurscurs ni cxpricncc antricurc cn la
matirc. Lc rlc quc joua larmc, cn particulicr ccttc cliquc docicrs, dans
la priodc +o++, tmoignc dc la lragilit dcs institutions dc la jcunc
dmocratic scrbc.
Quand il sagit dc choisir la lormc quc prcndrait lc rgimc, cn +o,
larmc insista rsolumcnt non sculcmcnt pour quc lt choisi son candidat
au trnc lc princc Picrrc Karadjordjcvi mais aussi pour quon prscrvt
la monarchic contrc laqucllc stait rapidcmcnt mobilisc unc partic dc la
jcuncssc univcrsitairc ainsi quunc partic dcs chcls dcs radicaux indpcn
dants runis autour du journal Dne.ni list (Lc Quotidicn). Lcs conjurs
rpondircnt aux rcvcndications dcs tudiants par un svrc avcrtisscmcnt
lcur dlcndant dsormais dc sc rasscmblcr ct lcs mcnaant dc ragir par dcs
mcsurcs militaircs a toutc tcntativc dagitation cn lavcur dc la rpubliquc.


!l ncn rcstc pas moins quc lc putsch militairc dc +o, a la dircncc dcs
cntrcpriscs similaircs lanccs cn uropc a la mcmc poquc, nc sc tcrmina
pas par unc lormc dc dictaturc militairc mais par lc rctour dcs valcurs qui,
sous lormc dcs intrcts bicn compris dc la nation, sincarncnt dans lc par
lcmcntarismc ct lcs libcrts politiqucs. Rcstc la qucstion, jusqua prscnt
sans rponsc compltc, du dcgr dinucncc cxcrcc par lcs pcrsonnalits
politiqucs civilcs sur la lormation nalc dcs objcctils politiqucs dc la con
juration.
8
Par aillcurs, larmc cllcmcmc tait si divisc sur la qucstion dc son
rlc cn politiquc quc la militarisation dc la socit tait impossiblc. Unc
partic importantc dcs ocicrs, rcstc cn dchors du complot, tait dispo
sc a sc voir, dans lc cadrc svrcmcnt circonscrit par lcs lois, commc unc
lorcc militairc qui rcconnait lcs institutions politiqucs ct cst sous lc contrlc
dcs autorits civilcs, agit cxclusivcmcnt cn conlormit avcc la Constitution.
Lcs divisions quc lcngagcmcnt politiquc dcs conjurs suscita dans larmc
(notammcnt dc la part dcs ocicrs nonconjurs dit lcs contras sta
tionns dans la garnison dc Ni cn +o ct lcs sousocicrs ct rscrvistcs dc
la garnison dc Kragujcvac cn +o6) taicnt prolondcs, mais, du lait du rap
port dc lorccs dans la socit, cllcs lurcnt dpasscs sans quc soicnt adoptcs
dcs solutions qui auraicnt conduit au militarismc. Lcs ambitions politiqucs
du corps dcs ocicrs sc limitrcnt a quclqucs dizaincs docicrs qui avaicnt
particip a lassassinat du roi ct a lcurs quclqucs partisans ct amis.
Lc ccrclc dcs conjurs, sur lcqucl lc roi Picrrc !
cr
Karadjordjcvi
sappuya ds lc dbut dc son rgnc parcc quc ccst lui qui lavait lait montcr
sur lc trnc scrbc, tcnta, cn dpit dc la disposition dcsprit dans laqucllc sc
trouvait lc corps dcs ocicrs dans son cnscmblc, dc pcrturbcr lc rgimc

Antonijc Anti, Notcs |Beleke|, vol. :, p. (manuscrit cn posscssion privc).


8
\oir lanalysc dtaillc dc . \asi, De.etstotrea |Lannc +o| (8clgradc, +:).
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
parlcmcntairc tout justc tabli ct dinucr, par lc biais dc la camarilla dc
la Cour rcnlorcc par lcs ocicrs au scrvicc dc ccllcci, sur dcs dcisions
politiqucs dc la plus grandc importancc pour lc pays.

Picrrc !
cr
nc pouvait
quc sappuycr sur lcs conjurs non sculcmcnt parcc quil tait ocicr dc
lormation ct cn avait ltat dcsprit, mais galcmcnt parcc quil ny avait pas
dans lc pays dautrc lorcc politiquc sur laqucllc, inccrtain dc sa position ct dc
lavcnir dc la dynastic, il aurait pu sc rcposcr cn toutc conancc.
+o
Nikola Pai et les conjures de :,c
Lcs conjurs militaircs dc +o tant issus cn majorit dc lamillcs
doricntation libralc, larmc, aprs linstauration du rgimc parlcmcntairc,
nintcrvinrcnt pas dircctcmcnt dans la vic dcs partis. Attcndant lc dvcl
oppcmcnt dcs vncmcnts, cllc ninua pas sur lorganisation ct lc droulc
mcnt dcs lcctions librcs dc +o, lcctions lors dcsqucllcs lcs vicux radicaux
dc Nikola Pai obtinrcnt unc majorit rclativc ( sigcs sur +6o).
++
Lcs
chcls dc la conjuration lurcnt prolondmcnt dsappoints par lcs rsultats
dcs lcctions dcs prcmircs anncs dc rgimc parlcmcntairc, montrant ainsi
combicn lcurs analyscs politiqucs dc ltat dcsprit du pcuplc taicnt navcs
ct combicn ils avaicnt souscstim la lorcc du scul parti qui possdait un r
scau puissant dc comits locaux parlaitcmcnt organiss. c plus, la capacit
dcs vicux radicaux, cn particulicr dc Stojan Proti, a prparcr la machinc
lcctivc avcc la collaboration ccacc dcs autorits localcs dont la nomina
tion nc dcvait ricn au hasard puisquc lc but tait quc ccs autorits localcs
inucnccnt lc rsultat nal dcs lcctions on comprcnd alors quc lcs con
jurs, noviccs dans lcs manipulations partisancs, aicnt cu lc scntimcnt quc lc
rgimc parlcmcntairc sous la lrulc dcs radicaux ntait quunc illusion dc cc
quc la dmocratic dcvait ctrc sclon cux.

. jordjcvi, Tc Rolc ol thc Military in thc 8alkans in thc Ninctccnth Ccntury ,


in Der Berliner Kongress .on :, cds. R. Mclvillc und HJ. Schrocdcr (Vicsbadcn,
+8:), +.
+o
. R. ivojinovi, Kralj Petar Karadjordje.i. U otadbini :,c:,:,. godine |Lc roi
Picrrc Karadjordjcvi, au pays, dc +o a ++| (8clgradc, +o), vol. :, +:o.
++
Aux lcctions dc +o lcs vicux radicaux dc Nikola Pai obtinrcnt .88 voix ct
lcs radicaux indpcndants 88.6o (soit 66 sigcs). Lcs librauxpopulistcs (lcs ancicns
libraux rcbaptiss populistcs, lcs plus prochcs dcs conjurs), obtinrcnt + sigcs avcc
.:8 voix, lcs progrcssistcs ct lcs socialistcs obtinrcnt chacun un sigc dc dput. La
Constitution dc +o ct la loi sur lcs lcctions lavorisaicnt lc parti lc plus puissant. Lcs
donncs sur lcs rsultats dcs lcctions nc concordcnt pas ct donncnt plus ou moins dc
mandats a lun ou lautrc dcs partis radicaux du lait dcs dputs mobilcs qui passaicnt
lacilcmcnt dun camp radical a lautrc suivant lcs problmcs abords.
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
Lattitudc dc larmc cnvcrs lcs radicaux tait galcmcnt, sclon un
rcxc hrit dc lpoquc dcs dcrnicrs brcnovi, marquc par unc dancc
du lait quc lcs partis cnvisagcaicnt dc rduirc larmc aux compagnics rgu
lircs pcu nombrcuscs ct dc transposcr lc ccntrc dc gravit dc lorganisation
militairc sur larmc dc conscription. Lc gnral Sava Gruji, rcprscntant
dc lailc modrc dcs vicux radicaux ct dont lc ls, ocicr galcmcnt, tait
lun dcs participants a la conjuration, parvint sans doutc pcndant quclquc
tcmps a contcnir lcurs doutcs. Ccpcndant, lcs vicux radicaux, aprs +o,
nc modircnt pas lcur programmc dc +88+ (rcpubli cn +88 ct +8:)
qui proclamait claircmcnt quc larmc rgulirc cst considrc uniquc
mcnt commc unc colc pour larmc dc conscription ct, dc cc lait, on nc
mainticndra larmc rgulirc quc pour instruirc ct organiscr ccaccmcnt
ct corrcctcmcnt larmc du pcuplc .
+:
Ccci cxpliquc lc tmoignagc dun ocicr qui, sclon scs proprcs dircs,
tait rcst cn dchors dcs cotcrics ct, pour qui, lcs radicaux nc purcnt cachcr
lcur vicillc antipathic a lcncontrc dcs ocicrs ct dc larmc, surtout quand
il lut qucstion dcs dpcnscs conccrnant son armcmcnt ct sa prparation.
Ccst pourquoi lcs ocicrs dans larmc scrbc a sympathiscr avcc lcs |vicux|
radicaux taicnt rarcs ct, quand ctait lc cas, ils nc valaicnt cn gnral ricn
commc ocicrs .
+
Aprs lc coup dtat dc +o, Nikola Pai lut pcndant un ccrtain
tcmps loign dc la dircction du parti, csscnticllcmcnt a la dcmandc dcs
radicaux indpcndants avcc lcsqucls lcs vicux radicaux cspraicnt sunicr a
nouvcau dans un parti commun, cc qui russit sur unc courtc priodc.
+
Pai
assura son rctour a la barrc du parti cn mcnant unc habilc agitation dans lcs
comits locaux dcs vicux radicaux o sa lgcndc lonctionnait cncorc par
laitcmcnt. n tant quc chcl dc parti ct prsidcnt du gouvcrncmcnt (+o
+o, +o6+o8, +o+++, ++:++8), Pai avait appris a connaitrc
la mcntalit ct lcs aspirations politiqucs dcs ocicrs conjurs lcs plus gs,
+:
\. Krcsti ct R. Ljui, Programi i statuti srpskih politikih stranaka do :,:. godine |Lcs
programmcs ct lcs statuts dcs partis politiqucs avant ++8| (8clgradc, ++), +o:+o.
+
Mii, Srpski ociri , 8.
+
Lunication dcs dcux lractions radicalcs cn un scul parti lut proclamc solcnncllc
mcnt lc + (:8) octobrc +o, cllc lut couronnc par la cration dun cabinct dc coali
tion sous la prsidcncc du gnral Sava Gruji. Cc qui nbranla pas un ccrtain nombrc
dindpcndants qui rclusaicnt dacccptcr lunion dcs dcux lractions, ccs indpcndants
qui conscrvrcnt lappcllation dindpcndants jusquau +: (:) octobrc +o, datc a la
qucllc laccord dc lannc prcdcntc lut rsili, cc qui signia la division dnitivc cn
dcux partis concurrcnts. Lunc dcs principalcs raisons dc la scission nalc lut lc rctour
triomphal dc Nikola Pai sur la scnc politiquc, dabord commc ministrc dcs aaircs
trangrcs au dbut +o, puis cn novcmbrc dc la mcmc annc par lc lait quil rcut
mandat pour constitucr un cabinct cntircmcnt compos dc vicux radicaux.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc ++
avant quun groupc dc plus jcuncs nc lormt, cn mai +++, lorganisation
sccrtc sous lc nom Lunication ou la mort (ditc la Main noirc ).
Sclon dcs tmoignagcs, ccrtcs sujcts a caution (commc lcs mmoircs
du princc Gcorgcs Karadjordjcvi), Pai ds +o (plus vraiscmblablcmcnt
cn +o) cxigca du souvcrain quc lcs ocicrs qui avaicnt particip au com
plot lusscnt loigns non sculcmcnt dc la Cour mais aussi dc la capitalc
scrbc.
+
Pragmatiquc a un point quc scs opposants intcrprtaicnt commc
unc abscncc dc tout principc moral, Pai, ccpcndant, nc sc gcna pas dc
lairc dcs allianccs momcntancs, collaborcr tcmporaircmcnt avcc lcs ccrclcs
militaircs inucnts commc quand il lallut loigncr dc la Cour la camarilla
proautrichicnnc constituc par lcs sccrtaircs ct lcs parcnts du roi (ivojin
8alugdi, Jaa Ncnadovi). Maitrc s manocuvrcs cn coulisscs, Pai ds
+o, par unc sric dc manocuvrcs synchroniscs, brisa lc lront commun
lorm par la camarilla dc la Cour, larmc ct lopposition a son gouvcrnc
mcnt. !l sc rallia larmc dont lc ministrc, lc gnral Radomir Putnik, tait
prochc dcs conjurs, par unc augmcntation surprisc ct cxccptionncllc du
budgct militairc. Pour cn nir avcc ivojin 8aludgdi, lc sccrtairc du roi,
Pai conclut un accord avcc lcs conjurs (lcs coloncls Alcxandrc Main ct
amjan Popovi, lcx ministrc jordjc Gcni) cn rcconnaissant lc coup
dtat dc +o, allant ainsi a lcncontrc dcs dcmandcs pour quc lcs conjurs
lusscnt traduits dcvant un tribunal pour avoir assassincr lc roi Alcxandrc
brcnovi.
+6
Ayant loign dc la Cour lcs sccrtaircs du roi, Pai dans la phasc
suivantc parvint a dtachcr du souvcrain lcs ocicrs conjurs lcs plus gs cn
agissant sur dcux plans spars mais paralllcs sur lcs points dachoppcmcnt
cntrc lcs priorits intricurcs ct cxtricurcs du pays. ans larnc politiquc
intricurc, Pai utilisa habilcmcnt la campagnc dc lopposition qui, cn par
ticulicr au cours dc lannc +o, accusa lc groupc dcs conjurs cn unilormc
ct cn civil lcs actcurs non rcsponsablcs dc tcntcr dc rcnvcrscr lc gou
vcrncmcnt par unc voic anticonstitutionncllc pour soumcttrc la nation a lcur
volont. Pai, alors, au nom du gouvcrncmcnt, lut a lAsscmblc nationalc
unc dclaration qui proclamait la dmocratic parlcmcntairc commc tant lc
scul principc lgitimc dc conduitc dcs aaircs dc ltat.
Lc problmc dcs conjurs accta constammcnt lc gouvcrncmcnt par
lcmcntairc, dautant quunc partic trs inucntc dc lopposition, incarnc par
lcs jcuncs radicaux indpcndants, tait prctc, dans son conit avcc scs an
cicns camaradcs runis autour dc Pai, a sc scrvir dc linucncc dcs conjurs
a la Cour pour tcntcr ainsi dc supplantcr scs principaux concurrcnts poli
tiqucs. Laccord tcmporairc quc passa Pai avcc lcs conjurs cn +o+o
+
j. Karadjordjcvi, Istina o mome i.otu |La vrit sur ma vic| (8clgradc, +6), +6:o.
+6
Samoupra.a (LAutogcstion), 8clgradc, + (o) janvicr +o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
tait unc trcvc tactiquc nccssairc, dont lc but tait dcmpcchcr la cration
dun lront commun dc lopposition ct dc larmc contrc lcs vicux radicaux.
+

Pai justia son alliancc proclamc ocicllcmcnt avcc lcs conjurs par lc
lait quc traduirc cn justicc lcs conjurs dc +o signicrait condamncr la
Scrbic.
+8
Pour rglcr lcur comptc aux ocicrs conjurs lcs plus gs qui mon
traicnt unc hostilit toujours plus ouvcrtc cnvcrs lcs vicux radicaux, Pai
tcnta dc suscitcr unc scission : il sassura lc souticn dun dcs ocicrs lcs plus
cn vuc dc ccttc cliquc lc coloncl Pctar Mii qui, par la suitc, unc lois a
la rctraitc, adhrcra au parti dcs vicux radicaux. Ccpcndant, lattitudc dc la
majcurc partic du corps dcs ocicrs cnvcrs lcs vicux radicaux tait tout saul
amicalc, sclon unc tradition qui avait dbutc avcc lcs prcmicrs programmcs
du parti qui visaicnt a limitcr lcs moycns allous a larmc.
n politiquc cxtricurc, Pai attcndit lc momcnt lavorablc pour licr
la misc a la rctraitc dcs ocicrs conjurs lcs plus cn vuc cxclusivcmcnt avcc
limportantc qucstion dc la rcprisc dcs rclations avcc la Grandc 8rctagnc
ct non avcc lopinion quil avait dcux sur lc plan politiquc. La qucstion
dcs conjurs rcdcvint aiguc lors dcs vils conits autour du lanccmcnt dun
cmprunt pour larmcmcnt cn +o.
+
Lcs journaux scrbcs rivalisrcnt dc
virulcncc, dnonant lcs manocuvrcs cn coulisscs pour choisir lc typc dc
canons ct lcurs productcurs. Lc journal dopposition tampa (La Prcssc),
subvcntionn par \icnnc, suscita un nouvcl moi dc lopinion publiquc cn
crivant quc lcs ocicrs conjurs sigcaicnt cn pcrmancncc, sc prparant a
dc nouvcllcs actions politiqucs.
Lcs libraux, a lautomnc +o, dcmandrcnt publiqucmcnt la misc
a lcart dnitivc dc la cliquc docicrs non sculcmcnt dc la vic politiquc
mais galcmcnt dc larmc au nom dc la normalisation dcs rclations au scin
dc ccllcci ct la rcprisc dcs rclations diplomatiqucs avcc la Grandc 8rctagnc,
tandis quc lcs progrcssistcs, pour lcs mcmcs raisons, rclamrcnt dcs mcsurcs
+
. jordjcvi, Carinski rat i.medju ustro-Ugarske i Srbije :,c&:,:: |La gucrrc
douanirc cntrc lAutrichcHongric ct la Scrbic, +o6+++| (8clgradc, +6:), +.
+8
Ministrc dcs Aaircs trangrcs (M.A..), Paris, Nouvcllc sric, Scrbic, vol. , n:,
8clgradc, Notc du + lvricr +o.
+
Lachat dcs canons scrvit dc prtcxtc dircct au rglcmcnt dc comptcs avcc la cama
rilla : pour dcs raisons politiqucs, lc roi ct lc gouvcrncmcnt radical avaicnt lintcntion
dc commandcr lcur artillcric lourdc cn Francc, auprs dc la maison SchncidcrCrcusot,
tandis quc 8alugdi ct Jakov Ncnadovi optaicnt pour lachat dc canons Skoda autri
chicns. Unc troisimc compagnic, lallcmand Krupp, tait cn licc, mais sans grand cspoir
dc conqurir lc march scrbc. Pour sassurcr quc la prlrcncc scrait accordc aux canons
lranais, lcs radicaux rcnoncrcnt aux cssais comparatils qui staicnt dcmblc montr
dlavorablcs, sur dcs points tcchniqucs, aux armcs lranaiscs. jordjcvi, Carinski rat,
8.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
plus durcs : lcur condamnation pnalc.
:o
Pour Nikola Pai, prct a dc nom
brcux compromis pour parvcnir a un but quil considrait commc justi,
la misc a la rctraitc dcs conjurs dcvait attcindrc trois objcctils importants
+) rduirc a nant linucncc dcs conjurs sur lc souvcrain, :) satislairc
lcs rcvcndications dc la Grandc 8rctagnc par un compromis qui nc nuirait
pas a limagc dc la Scrbic ct ) pcrmcttrc dindcmniscr lcs ocicrs cn lcs
mcttant a la rctraitc an quils nc dcvinsscnt pas dcs cnncmis durablcs dcs
vicux radicaux. Lors du troisimc annivcrsairc du coup dtat dc +o, cn
+o6, lcs principaux conjurs dc la vicillc gnration lurcnt mis a la rctraitc,
la camarilla militairc loignc dc la Cour ct larmc, cllcmcmc, ramcnc
dnitivcmcnt dans lc cadrc constitutionncl. Pai tcnta mcmc, sans bcau
coup dc succs, dc rconcilicr lcs lcadcrs du ccrclc dcs conjurs avcc lcs ol
cicrs mincnts qui, a linstar du coloncl ivojin Mii (lc lutur gnral ct lc
marchal scrbc durant la Grandc Gucrrc), condamnaicnt lc coup dtat ct
taicnt cn disgrcc auprs dcs sommcts dc larmc qui dirigcaicnt lcs aaircs
militaircs dc la Scrbic.
La misc a la rctraitc dc six dcs principaux conjurs dc +o parmi lcs
ocicrs nc rsolut pas dnitivcmcnt la qucstion dcs rclations avcc larmc.
Lcs rclations pincuscs avcc lcs sommcts militaircs inucnts pcrsistrcnt
ccpcndant ct rcstrcnt un problmc du lait du mcontcntcmcnt a pcinc
rlrn dcs ocicrs conjurs ct dc lcurs partisans a lgard dc Pai ct du
cabinct dcs vicux radicaux. un autrc ct, la qucstion dc linucncc poli
tiquc dc ccrtains ccrclcs militaircs rcsta constammcnt ouvcrtc. La prcssc ct
unc campagnc opinitrc dc lopposition (lcs libraux populistcs ct lcs pro
grcssistcs) considraicnt quc la qucstion dcs conjurs nc pouvait sc clorc par
lcur loigncmcnt dc larmc mais dcvait lctrc par unc condamnation pnalc
pour violation du scrmcnt docicrs au dcrnicr dcs brcnovi.
:o
\ojislav \cljkovi, lun dcs lcadcrs dcs libraux lanait cn octobrc +o lavcrtissc
mcnt suivant : nn Mcssicurs, il y a cncorc la qucstion dc la moralc dans larmc.
Nous avons d la soulcvcr parcc quc nous nc considrons pas lcs phnomncs dindis
ciplinc dans larmc commc dcs phnomncs banals analogucs a ccux quon trouvc dans
dautrcs tats. Chcz nous, ccttc qucstion cst bcaucoup plus sricusc ct complcxc parcc
quc, paralllcmcnt a lindisciplinc, apparaisscnt chcz ccrtaincs pcrsonncs dcs vcllits
politiqucs, ct dcrrirc cllcs sc cachcnt ccrtains spculatcurs politiqucs qui, avcc la plus
grandc malvcillancc ct la plus grandc avidit, obscrvcnt ccs phnomncs, lcs suivcnt ct
tcntcnt dc lcs cxploitcr sclon lcurs tcndanccs ct aspirations politiqucs. Srpska .asta.a
|Lc rapcau scrbc|, +6+ octobrc +o. Lc chcl dcs libraux populistc Stojan Ribarac
lormula galcmcnt sur lc mcmc ton unc intcrpcllation a lAsscmblc lc + octobrc. Lcs
discussions portant sur lcs actcurs non rcsponsablcs ct lc rlc dc larmc sc poursuivi
rcnt, non sans unc ccrtainc virulcncc, lors du prcmicr ct uniquc gouvcrncmcnt compos
uniqucmcnt dc radicaux indpcndants (+o+o6). \oir Stenografske beleke Narodne
Skuptine, sa.i. .a :,c. godinu |Lcs comptcsrcndus stnographiqucs dc lAsscmblc
nationalc, scssion dc +o| (8clgradc, +o6), ++.
8alcanica XXX\!! +
Grcc a un ocicr lanatiquc, lc capitainc Milan Novakovi, qui,
bicn quil cut t condamn pour avoir particip au contrccomplot dc Ni
cn +o, a sa sortic dc prison cn +o, soulcva a nouvcau, ccttc lois avcc
laidc dc civils, la qucstion dc la condamnation pnalc dcs rgicidcs ct cc
par lintcrmdiairc dc La socit pour unc solution lgalc dc la qucstion
dcs conjurs . Novakovi lana la rcvuc Za otadbinu (Pour la patric) dans
laqucllc il condamnait impitoyablcmcnt lcs chcls du complot, lcs rcndant
rcsponsablcs dc la grvc diplomatiquc dcs rcprscntants dcs grandcs
puissanccs dans lcs prcmircs anncs du rgnc du roi Pctar ainsi quc du
long ajourncmcnt dc la rcprisc dc rclations diplomatiqucs compltcs avcc la
Grandc 8rctagnc.
Larmc considra lcs tcxtcs dc la rcvuc dc Novakovi commc lunc
dcs causcs dc la tcntativc dc contrccomplot ralisc par dcs sousocicrs
ct ocicrsrscrvistcs dc la garnison dc Kragujcvac (cn mars +o6), a sa
dcmandc, la rcvuc lut intcrditc.
:+
Commc Novakovi, obstin, continu
ait a crirc dcs pamphlcts soutcnant dsormais lcs ocicrs ct souso
cicrs rscrvistcs condamns ( Laairc dc la rcvuc Pour la patrie ), il lut
dabord arrct, puis rclch il dita a nouvcau sa rcvuc. Quand il sc rcmit,
dc laon cncorc plus virulcntc, non sculcmcnt a attaqucr lcs conjurs ct
lcurs dlcnscurs a ltatmajor gnral mais galcmcnt a lcs accuscr au nom
du gouvcrncmcnt, du mairc dc 8clgradc, du chcl dc la policc, Novakovi
lut a nouvcau incarcr ct, cn scptcmbrc +o, avcc son parcnt Maksim
Novakovi (ocicr dc gcndarmcric), il lut tu dans dcs circonstanccs dou
tcuscs alors quil tcntait dc svadcr dc prison. u lait quc ctait un cabinct
lorm par Pai qui tait au pouvoir ct quc lc ministrc dc lintricur tait
Nastas Pctrovi, lopposition, lors dun dbat anim a lAsscmblc nationalc,
cxigca la dcstitution du ministrc ct la dmission du gouvcrncmcnt tout cn
ticr, mais Pai qui disposait avcc la majorit nccssairc, supporta toutcs lcs
attaqucs, jugcant opportun dc nc pas cn rlrcr ni aux puissants sommcts dc
larmc (lcs gnraux Radomir Putnik, Stcpa Stcpanovi, Mihailo ivkovi,
lc coloncl !lija Gojkovi) ni au roi Picrrc lui mcmc.
::
Lors dcs dbats parlcmcntaircs, lopposition tcnta obstinmcnt dc
protcr dc larmisticc tcmporairc cntrc Pai ct lcs sommcts dc larmc
:+
n novcmbrc +o, lc tribunal militairc condamna quatrc ocicrs ct : ocicrs
rscrvistcs a dcs pcincs allant dc vingt ans dc rclusion (pour lc scrgcntmajor Srctcn
Srcdojcvi, lc mcncur) a quclqucs anncs ou mois dc rclusion pour participation au
contrccomplot dc Kragujcvac. \oir V. S. \ucinich, Serbia bet.een East and !est. Te
E.ents of :,c:,c (Stanlord, +), +o:. La qucstion dc la rcsponsabilit dc las
sassinat dcs dcux Novakovi, ancicns ocicrs, lut soulcvc, a nouvcau sans succs, au
dbut dc lannc ++o : Narodna Skuptina. X!I redo.ni sastanak :,. oktobra :,:c |As
scmblc Nationalc, X\!
c
scssion ordinairc, : octobrc ++o| (8clgradc, ++o), .
::
Ibid.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
pour lanccr dcs attaqucs argumcntcs. Lc rapportcur dc la minorit, . M.
Joksimovi, attaqua ainsi, cn mars +o8, lc gnral Putnik, ministrc dcs ar
mcs qui, bicn qua la rctraitc, dlcndait a lAsscmblc nationalc lc budgct
militairc. Accusant Putnik dc protgcr scs amis, lc rapportcur dc la minorit
souligna quc cc dcrnicr nc pouvait sc trouvcr a lAsscmblc qucn tant
qumissairc dc M. lc Ministrc |...| ct non cn tant quc ministrc dcs armcs.
Pourtant, M. Putnik vcut joucr lc rlc dc ministrc. Jc constatc quc cc ph
nomnc dans notrc vic parlcmcntairc cst caractristiquc du gouvcrncmcnt
dirig par M. Pai . Lopposition rcprochait a Putnik davoir, a loccasion
dun rasscmblcmcnt lors duqucl scxprimrcnt Ljubomir Stojanovi pour
lcs radicaux indpcndants ct \ojislav \cljkovi pour lc libraux, amcn a
8clgradc dcs troupcs militaircs supplmcntaircs pour maintcnir lordrc ct la
paix. Cc lait, intcrprt commc un souticn dc larmc au gouvcrncmcnt Pai,
poussa lopposition a abordcr dc laon critiquc lc dbat sur lapprobation du
budgct dc larmc scrbc.
:
La Main noire et les .ieux radicaux : l aggra.ation du conit
Lanncxion dc la 8osnicHcrzgovinc cn +o8 ouvrit la qucstion scrbc ct
donna licu a unc nouvcllc polarisation dcs ccrclcs militaircs. La majcurc
partic dcs conjurs stait dja rasscmblc autour dun chcl incontcst, lc
commandant ragutin T. imitrijcvi Apis, qui avait unc inucncc consi
drablc a la Cour, a la lois cn tant quc suivant ct ami dcs ls du roi, cn par
ticulicr du princc Gcorgc qui abdiqua rapidcmcnt, puis cnsuitc du nouvcau
hriticr du trnc, lc Princc Alcxandrc.
:
Rasscmblant autour lui la jcunc
gnration dcs conjurs, Apis participa activcmcnt au travail dcs comits
qui prparaicnt ct survcillaicnt laction dc gurilla scrbc (etnika akcija) cn
Macdoinc slavc. Commc la plupart dc scs partisans, Apis acccptait di
cilcmcnt lc lait quc lon gaspilla lncrgic politiquc du pays dans dcs dbats
:
!l lut soulign a lAsscmblc quc : pour la prcmirc lois aprs lc : mai, il sc trouva
un ministrc dcs armcs qui stait mis au scrvicc dc la politiquc du rgimc cn placc, cc
lui dc Nikola Pai. Avant lc : mai, ccla pouvait sc comprcndrc, aprs ccttc datc non.
Monsicur lc ministrc dcs armcs cst, quoiquil cn soit, oblig dc donncr a lAsscmblc
unc cxplication ct lcs raisons pour lcsqucllcs il lut conduit a lairc marchcr larmc sur
8clgradc. Lcs vncmcnts aprs lc mccting ont montr a qucl point lcs cstimations dc
M. lc ministrc taicnt injustics, a qucl point il tait pcu lond dc lairc travcrscr tout
lc pays par larmc pour un scul mccting. (Fad Narodne Skuptine sa..ane u drugi
redo.an sa.i. .a :,c. godinu. Stenografske beleke |Travaux dc lAsscmblc nationalc
convoquc cn dcuximc scssion ordinairc cn +o. Comptcsrcndus stnographiqucs|,
vol. !\, 8clgradc +o8, +o).
:
\oir . MacKcnzic, pis. Te Congenial Conspirator. Te Life of Colonel Dragutin Di-
mitrije.ic, pour la littraturc plus ancicnnc.
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
politiqucs vils suscits par lcs rivalits partisancs, tandis quaux lrontircs
sud dc la Scrbic avait licu unc luttc sans mcrci pour dlcndrc lcs habitants
locaux contrc lcs rcbcllcs albanais, lcs komitadjis bulgarcs ct lcs gcndarmcs
turcs. Ccttc disproportion dans lcs aaircs touchant a lunication nationalc,
particulircmcnt marquc aprs quc 8clgradc ait d cn mars +o rccon
naitrc lanncxion dc la 8osnicHcrzgovinc, agit sur lcs ccrclcs docicrs
dcourags qui suivaicnt avcc unc grandc rsignation lcs luttcs dcs partis
qui, a lcur avis, puisaicnt lcs ncrgics politiqucs du pays sans toutclois tcnir
susammcnt comptc dcs intrcts nationaux globaux.
aprs lcs mmoircs dun conjur dc +o, Antonijc Anti, Apis,
sc mclant dc politiquc intricurc, sc hcurtait dc plus cn plus aux |vicux|
radicaux dans son travail pour la causc nationalc. Ccs conits dc plus cn
plus lrqucnts conduisircnt a unc hainc croyablc cntrc Apis ct lcs radicaux
|...|. Apis tcnta dc rcnvcrscr lcs radicaux au pouvoir. Scs tcntativcs nc lurcnt
pas couronncs dc succs. !l scntit quc scul il tait laiblc ct sc mit a chcr
chcr dcs allis. !l pcnsait pouvoir inucr, par lintcrmdiairc dc Jakov | Jaa|
Ncnadovi ct dautrcs pcrsonncs puissantcs, sur lc roi Picrrc pour cartcr
lcs radicaux du pouvoir. Lc roi Picrrc, parcc quil tait lc souvcrain dunc
monarchic parlcmcntairc ct galcmcnt parcc quil rcdoutait quclquc pcu lcs
radicaux, nc sc montrait pas dispos a donncr lc pouvoir a un autrc parti dc
lopposition ni mcmc dc concr a lopposition lorganisation dlcctions.
Ccla conduisit Apis au dscspoir il considrait quc lc long gouvcrncmcnt
radical tait dommagcablc aux intrcts du pays.
:
Antonijc Anti racontc
cnsuitc lc contcnu dunc convcrsation avcc Apis cn ++o lors dc laqucllc lc
chcl dcs plus jcuncs conjurs lui avait cxpos son intcntion dc provoqucr un
changcmcnt sur lc trnc. \oistu, ditil, lcs radicaux mncront lc pays a
sa pcrtc ct lc roi Picrrc na pas la lorcc dc lcs dcstitucr |...| lc scul salut cst
quc lc roi Picrrc abdiquc cn lavcur dAlcxandrc |...|, a dix ocicrs, nous
cntrcrons au Palais ct nous ly contraindrons. Anti considrait un tcl plan
commc dangcrcux mais il proposa, au cas o on sc lanccrait dans unc tcllc
cntrcprisc, dc chcrchcr laccord ct lappui dun dcs partis dopposition, par
cxcmplc lcs radicaux indpcndants . Apis rcnona a ccttc idc mais, commc
cn tmoignc Anti, aprs quclquc tcmps , il cntra cn troit contact avcc
lcs radicaux indpcndants, avcc Milorad rakovi ct lc libraux populistcs
dc Stojan Ribarac avcc lcsqucls il cut dcs cntrcvucs.
:6
Tandis quc lcs vicux radicaux scoraicnt dadaptcr la politiquc na
tionalc aux ralits dc la politiquc cxtricurc, un groupc dc jcuncs ocicrs
conjurs dc +o, ayant dja unc cxpricncc du travail hors dcs lrontircs cn
Macdoinc, londa, cn mai +++, aid par lcs civils, unc organisation sccrtc
:
Anti, Notcs .
:6
Ibid.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
Lunication ou la mort , connuc du public sous lc nom dc la Main
noirc . us par lcs institutions dmocratiqucs dc la monarchic parlcmcn
tairc dcs institutions quils considraicnt commc mcnaant gravcmcnt la
rsolution dc la qucstion dc lunication scrbc rasscmbls autour dc la rc
vuc Pijemont (Pimont), ils lorgrcnt unc idologic o sc mclaicnt dcs idcs
militaristcs ct unc conccption autoritairc dc nationalismc.
:
Unc analysc dcs tcxtcs dc la rcvuc Pijemont, cn particulicr dc lditorial
ct dcs articlcs dc la unc, rvlc unc hostilit ouvcrtc cnvcrs lcs institutions dc
la dmocratic parlcmcntairc. s lc prcmicr numro du scptcmbrc +++,
tous lcs partis taicnt accuss dimmoralit, dinculturc ct dc manquc dc
patriotismc . Lc scul rcmdc sclon lc Pijemont tait dintroduirc un ccn
tralismc qui tout dabord claircrait lc pcuplc ct lc rcndrait aptc a prcndrc
cn toutc indpcndancc unc dcision politiquc.
:8
Un pcu plus tard, lc Pije-
:
Lun dcs mcmbrcs actils dc la Main noirc , lc coloncl cdomir Popovi, ntablissait
pas dc licn dircct cntrc la lormation dc lorganisation ct lc mcontcntcmcnt cnvcrs la
politiquc intricurc mais unc corrlation dircctc cntrc la cration dc lorganisation ct
lc travail pour la causc nationalc. La n dc la crisc dc lanncxion t quc lc scntimcnt
bclliqucux qui tait apparu dans lcs masscs populaircs disparaissait. Commcna la sta
gnation dc la causc nationalc. Lc gouvcrncmcnt avait ccss toutc action cn Macdoinc,
il avait dclar publiqucmcnt (ccrtcs sous la prcssion dcs circonstanccs) son dsintrct
pour la 8osnic. La lcnsc nationalc |Narodna Odbrana| avait rcnonc a son rlc r
volutionnairc |...|. c partout cn dchors dcs lrontircs dc la Scrbic parvcnaicnt dcs
plaintcs dscsprcs dc nos amis ct dc ccux qui ocuvraicnt pour la causc nationalc, ccttc
inactivit tait latalc, il tait nccssairc dc lairc quclquc chosc car, dans lc cas contrairc,
lc dcouragcmcnt sc scrait cmpar dcs masscs, cc qui aurait cu dcs consqucnccs in
commcnsurablcs |...|. !l susait dc rclanccr la qucstion. Alors cst nc lorganisation
Lunication ou la mort. (. Popovi, Lorganisation Lunication ou la mort (la
Main noirc). Lcs causcs ct la laon dont cllc cst nc, |rganizacija Ujcdinjcnjc ili
smrt (Crna ruka)|, No.a E.ropa, vol. X\, n+:, lc ++ juin +:, o:).
:8
Un crit postricur dc 8oi Simi donnc un bon apcru dcs vucs gnralcs dcs mcm
brcs dc la Main noirc quant a la dmocratic parlcmcntairc : Aprs lc : mai, a
lcxccption du gouvcrncmcnt dc Ljubomir Stojanovi (radicaux indpcndants +o),
issu dcs lcctions, aucun gouvcrncmcnt na mis cn uvrc dc vritablcs lcctions librcs. A
partir dc la, prcsquc tous lcs ministrcs ct lcs hommcs politiqucs sc sont corcs, laisant
passcr ccla avant lcs soucis ct lcs aaircs dc ltat, dc lairc cntrcr lc plus grand nombrc
possiblc dcs lcurs au Conscil dtat, a la Cour dappcl ct a la Cour dc cassation, dc lcur
lournir dcs postcs dc grccrs ct lonctionnaircs, maircs, gcndarmcs ct gardicns dcs bois
ct lorcts, tous postcs dimportancc pour obtcnir unc majorit lcctoralc. Si au moins
dans cc proccssus dc parlcmcntarisation dc ladministration, on avait tcnu plus ou moins
comptc dc la lormation ct dc la probit dc ccs lonctionnaircs partisans, mcmc si cc ph
nomnc ncst gurc sympathiquc, mais cc nc lut pas lc cas... Ainsi, dans notrc pays, plus
cncorc quc dans dautrcs tats dmocratiqucs, larmc, outrc sa tchc principalc qui cst
dc dlcndrc lc pays dun cnncmi cxtricur, a rcu dc la Constitution un autrc dcvoir
qui cst dc protgcr lordrc ct la lgalit dans lc pays |...|. Si lcs lcadcrs dcs partis dcs
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
mont accusa lc gouvcrncmcnt dcs vicux radicaux davoir trahi lcs idaux dcs
conjurs dc +o ct arma quc lc pays dcvait sc rgnrcr avcc unc idolo
gic nouvcllc, indubitablcmcnt autoritairc. Lassassinat dc pcrsonnalits nc
changc pas lc rgimc ct cncorc moins la justicc socialc. La mcillcurc prcuvc
cn cst lc : mai |+o| quand, dans notrc pays, lc souvcrain ct la souvcr
ainc, lcurs ministrcs, ont t tuc, quand dc nombrcux changcmcnts sont
intcrvcnus non sculcmcnt dans lcs pcrsonncs mais aussi dans lcs lois mais
nous constatons quc ccs assassinats nont pas modi notrc vic socialc |...|.
Ccux qui vculcnt amliorcr la vic du pcuplc scrbc ct dc la Scrbic nont a lcur
disposition quun scul moycn, la rgnration dc notrc racc dgnrc ct un
nouvcau modc dducation ct dinstruction dc notrc jcuncssc.
:
Aprs la mort soudainc du prcmicr ministrc Milovan Milovanovi cn
++:, Pai prsida a nouvcau lc gouvcrncmcnt. Lc chcl dcs vicux radicaux
dcvint alors la ciblc principalc dc toutcs lcs attaqucs dcs mcmbrcs dc la
Main noirc . Tous lcs mmoircs disponiblcs crits par dcs mcmbrcs du
ccrclc dc la Main noirc montrcnt unc ncttc hostilit cnvcrs lcs opinions
politiqucs ct lcs mthodcs dc travail dc Nikola Pai qui, avcc Stojan Proti,
dcvint la mtaphorc dc tous lcs lourvoicmcnts dc la dmocratic parlcmcn
tairc, stigmatiss dans lc Pijcmont. Lcart cntrc lcs bcsoins militaircs im
mdiats, lcs idaux nationaux ct lc laiblc quipcmcnt militairc dc larmc
rcnlorait lcs tcnsions suscitcs par lc rclus dcs vicux radicaux daugmcntcr
lc budgct militairc autant quc lcxigcait lc commandcmcnt militairc qui
pcnsait a la mission nationalc dc la Scrbic. Unc sric dc malcntcndus cut
pour consqucncc dulcrcr lcs ccrclcs militaircs, cc qui sc tcrmina par la
dmission dcs ministrcs dcs armcs dcpuis !lija Gojkovi (+++) jusqua
Milo 8oanovi (++:), tous dcux sympathisants dc la Main noirc ct
partagcant scs idcs sur lcs objcctils nationaux ct la placc dc larmc au
scin dc ltat. Ccs dmissions dmonstrativcs conjugucs au scntimcnt
quavait larmc dctrc injustcmcnt oublic (a un momcnt o, a lAsscmblc
nationalc, lcs vicux radicaux taicnt la ciblc dcs attaqucs dcs indpcndants
pour causc dc corruption ct dc bancocratic ) rcnlorcrcnt cncorc lc m
contcntcmcnt dc largcs ccrclcs militaircs cnvcrs la politiquc dc Pai ct dc
vicux radicaux ct dcs radicaux indpcndants avaicnt t, par principc, dcs dmocratcs
ct dcs partisans du parlcmcntarismc, lcs conjurs nauraicnt cu aucunc inucncc. u nc
lauraicnt cuc quau ministrc dcs armcs. (Marco, Larmc scrbc avant ct aprs lc :
mai +o. Linucncc dcs conjurs sur la politiquc dc la Scrbic davantgucrrc , No.a
E.ropa, vol. X!, n+, ++ juillct +:, +o+).
:
ans Pijemont, + octobrc (+: novcmbrc) +++.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +
Proti, lcs rapprochant ainsi dcs positions dc la Main noirc sur la poli
tiquc du gouvcrncmcnt.
o
Avcc quclqucs ccntaincs dc mcmbrcs, cn majorit originaircs dc Scr
bic, ct pour la plupart jcuncs ocicrs, lorganisation Lunication ou la
mort tait unc variantc balkaniquc dcs organisations docicrs conjurs
organiscs sclon lcs principcs dc lonctionncmcnt dcs logcs maonniqucs. La
Main noirc tait trs prochc par scs mthodcs ct scs buts dc lorganisation
dcs Jcuncs Turcs qui, cn +o8, t un putsch dans lmpirc ottoman. Ccst lc
journalistc Ljuba Jovanoviupa, qui mourut daillcurs pcu aprs la londa
tion dc lorganisation lors dc la prcmirc gucrrc balkaniquc, qui labora lc
crmonial dadmission dans lorganisation, ainsi quc scs statuts .
Sclon lc programmc dc lorganisation, la dmocratic parlcmcntairc
tait lunc dcs sourccs du mal qui intoxiquait lc pcuplc scrbc. Lc prcmicr
numro du Pijcmont dclarait : la dircction tatiquc dc la Scrbic ncst pas
bonnc. La popularit dcs principaux rcprscntants dc ltat, dcs souvcrains,
du gouvcrncmcnt, dc lAsscmblc nationalc, a diminu |...|. Pcu dcntrc cux
rcmplisscnt lcurs dcvoirs. !l laut commcnccr par cultivcr un cultc dc ltat.
Sans un tcl cultc, la Scrbic nc pcut avoir lc scntimcnt dctrc un tat... c la
on gnralc, tant quc lc pcuplc nc scra pas instruit, il laudra cn tout prlrcr
lc ccntralismc a la dccntralisation, au nom dc ltat. n mcmc tcmps,
on rappclait quc lc parlcmcntarismc ncst pas lc dcrnicr cri dc la sagcssc
politiquc. !l a t dmontr quc lcs masscs populaircs, mcmc dans un tcl
rgimc, nc sont ni la sourcc ni lc dcstinatairc du pouvoir. La dmagogic a
compromis ct lait un mauvais usagc dcs libcrts politiqucs. Lui pcrmcttrc dc
continucr signic prparcr unc raction politiquc car lc dsordrc, lc rclchc
mcnt ct linscurit nc pcuvcnt ctrc considrs commc dcs signcs dc libcrt
ct dc dmocratic. !l laut dans la qucstion dcs libcrts civilcs trouvcr unc
moycnnc qui rpondra au dcgr attcint par notrc culturc ct civilisation ,
sculcmcnt alors cc scra la n dcs soubrcsauts politiqucs.
+
o
Aprs la Grandc Gucrrc, lc ls du gnral !lija Gojkovi cxposa unc opinion nct
tcmcnt plus radicalc cnvcrs Pai, armant quc dcpuis la rvoltc radicalc dc Timok
|Timoka buna| cn +88, Nikola Pai ct lcs autrcs chcls radicaux staicnt mis a har
larmc car ils savaicnt ct pcrccvaicnt quc larmc rgulirc nc pcrmcttrait pas quon
lassc dc la Scrbic un laboratoirc sociologiquc pour cxprimcntcr lc programmc du parti.
Pai cn particulicr hassait dc laon scctairc larmc pcutctrc dc laon justic sclon
son point dc vuc partisan, pour Pai, lc parti passa toujours ct continua a passcr avant
ltat. (\. !. Gojkovi, Radikali i vojska |Lcs radicaux ct larmc |, No.a E.ropa,
vol. X\!!!, n+o++, Zagrcb +:8, :).
+
Pijemont, 8clgradc, lc :+ aot ( scptcmbrc n.s.) +++. Cit galcmcnt par \. cdijcr,
Saraje.o :,:, (8clgradc, +66), 66. La vcrsion lranaisc, plus courtc, cst disponi
blc sous lc titrc suivant : \. cdijcr, La route de Saraje.o (Paris, +6).
8alcanica XXX\!! +6o
u lait dc lindiscrtion dun lonctionnairc dc ltat, lcxistcncc dc
lorganisation, nc rcsta pas sccrtc ct, sclon ccrtains indiccs, lc gouvcrncmcnt
luimcmc, mais non lc hriticr du trnc Alcxandrc qui avait apport unc
importantc contribution au lanccmcnt dc la rcvuc Pijemont, avait t inlor
m dc la cration dc lorganisation.
:
Lcs nouvcaux mcmbrcs taicnt rccruts
quasipubliqucmcnt au scin dc larmc, ct taicnt admis dans lcurs rangs, a
titrc individucl, ccrtain nombrc dcs Croatcs ct dcs Slovncs doricntation
yougoslavc.

irigc par lc charismatiquc ocicr ragutin T. imitrijcvi


Apis, chcl dcs scrviccs dc rcnscigncmcnts dc ltat major, la Main noirc
introduisit progrcssivcmcnt dcs hommcs a cllc dans nombrc dorganisations
importantcs, y compris dans la lcnsc nationalc .
Linucncc dc la Main noirc crt particulircmcnt aprs lcs
gucrrcs balkaniqucs (++:++) o scs mcmbrcs, stant illustrs par lcurs
hauts laits hroqucs sur lc lront, acquircnt un prcstigc considrablc au scin
du corps dcs ocicrs.

A la vcillc dc la sccondc gucrrc balkaniquc contrc


la 8ulgaric cn ++ pour lcs lrontircs cntrc lcs dcux tats cn Macdoinc
slavc, lc Pijemont mcnaa ouvcrtcmcnt lc gouvcrncmcnt dclarant quc cc
luici dcvrait ctrc jug pour trahison sil cdait unc partic du tcrritoirc con
tcst a la 8ulgaric.
n ++, lc conit cntrc lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc ct lc gou
vcrncmcnt dc Pai autour dc la qucstion dc savoir qui dcs autorits mili
:
Antonijc Anti ( Notcs , +) dc sa part armc quc lcs plus hauts rcsponsablcs poli
tiqucs avaicnt t inlorms dc la lormation dc lorganisation sccrtc, quc lc roi Picrrc,
lhriticr du trnc Alcxandrc, Nikola Pai, St. Proti ainsi quc Milovan Milovanovi
ont t inlorms condcnticllcmcnt dc la londation du Piemont ainsi quc dc ccllc dc
lorganisation . Ccttc donnc ncst pas conrmc dans lcs autrcs sourccs ct tmoignagcs,
a lcxccption dAlcxandrc ct dc Milovan Milovanovi.

Cl. . Tartalja, !elei.dajnik |Traitrc a la patric| (SplitZagrcb, +:8), :.

Lors dc la prcmirc gucrrc balkaniquc, dcs mcmbrcs lcs plus mincnts dc la Main
noirc prircnt, a savoir lcs coloncls dc rgimcnts Alcksandar Glii, !lija Radivojcvi,
Radivojc Andjclkovi, lc commandant Milan \asi, commandant dc bataillon dans lc

mc
rgimcnt ct sccrtairc dc la lcnsc nationalc , tandis quc, prs dc Krivolak (cn
Macdoinc slavc), mourut du cholra lc civil londatcur dc la Main noirc , lc journalis
tc ct dircctcur du Piemont, Ljubomir Jovanoviupa (. Scmiz, Majcvci |Lcs hom
mcs dc mai|, No.a E.ropa, vol. X\!, n, ++ octobrc +:, ::+). aprs lc tmoignagc
dc A. Anti, la conduitc dcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc lors dcs gucrrcs balkaniqucs
dissipa tous lcs doutcs cn larmc, ct lcs logcs nc manqurcnt pas. Ainsi Jovan Skcrli,
lc lamcux critiquc littrairc ct lun dcs dirigcants dcs radicaux indpcndants, llicita
Anti par ccs mots : \ous nous avcz tous lait honncur |...|. Jc craignais quc lun dcntrc
vous nc soit un lchc a la gucrrc mais, grcc a icu, vous avcz tous t dcs hros. c
mcmc, lc gnral Stcpa Stcpanovi llicita Milan Gr. Milovanovi ct Apis nous, nous
sommcs bicn comports pcndant la gucrrc souscntcndu sa gnration mais vous
avcz t mcillcurs ct jc vous tirc mon chapcau (Anti, Notcs , ).
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +6+
taircs ct civilcs cn Macdoinc dcvaicnt avoir la prmincncc, montra quc
lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc , soutcnus tactiqucmcnt par lopposition
(cn particulicr par lcs radicaux indpcndants) nourrissaicnt dcs aspira
tions prtoricnncs , contraircs a lorganisation dmocratiquc du pays. Ccttc
crisc rvla toutc lamplcur du conit qui couvait dcpuis longtcmps cntrc
Pai ct la Main noirc . Cc conit sc tcrmina par unc crisc constitution
ncllc, par la dissolution dc lAsscmblc nationalc suivic dlcctions, a la vcillc
dc lattcntat dc Sarajcvo, ainsi quc, lc : juin ++, par labdication du roi
Picrrc, impuissant a dlcndrc lcs intrcts dc larmc a laqucllc il dcvait son
trnc ct qui, sous la prcssion conjointc dc Pai, dc la diplomatic russc ct
dc lhriticr du trnc, rcmit son mandat dc souvcrain a son plus jcunc ls,
Alcxandrc.

ans ccttc crisc, vraiscmblablcmcnt a linstigation dc Pai, lcnvoy


dc la Russic imprialc Nikola Hartwig qui, dans lcs anncs marqucs par
lcs gucrrcs balkaniqucs, stait impos commc unc sortc dc viccroi , un
arbitrc dans la politiquc intricurc ct cxtricurc dc la Scrbic, joua un rlccl.
Son loyalismc a la partic scrbc lors dcs gucrrcs balkaniqucs lavait pourvu
dunc aurolc dc grand ami dcs Scrbcs. Agissant souvcnt hors dcs instruc
tions dc SaintPtcrsbourg, Hartwig prscntait rcgulircmcnt scs idcs au
gouvcrncmcnt scrbc ct a la Cour commc lopinion ocicllc russc. ans lc
conit autour dc la prmincncc dcs autorits civilcs ou militaircs, il sc ran
gca du ct dc Pai qui, pour SaintPtcrsbourg, tait unc pcrsonnalitcl
dignc dc conancc pour, cnsuitc, rallicr a Pai lc jcunc hriticr du trnc
dsircux dc scmparcr lc plus rapidcmcnt possiblc dc la lonction dc roi.
6

. T. 8atakovi, Sukob vojnih i civilnih vlasti u Srbiji u prolcc ++. godinc |Lc
conit dcs autorits civilcs ct militaircs au printcmps ++|, Istorijski asopis XX!X
XXX (+8:8), :. Sclon lc tmoignagc dc A. Anti, ragutin imitrijcvi
Apis sallia a lopposition contrc Pai parcc quil navait pas russi a lairc marchcr lcs
troupcs dc Skopjc, sous lc commandcmcnt dc ccs amis dc la Main noirc sur 8clgradc
pour rcnvcrscr lc gouvcrncmcnt Pai.
6
Lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc dniaicnt a Pai toutc capacit tatiquc, ramcnant
son travail a dtroitcs manipulations partisancs qui laisaicnt grand tort aux aaircs dc
ltat ct dc la nation. Comparant Hartwig ct Pai ct lcs plaant aux antipodcs, 8oin
Simi crivait quc Nikola Pai ntait pas dc ccs hommcs dtat qui rsolvcnt lcs
qucstions importantcs dc ltat a tcmps il nc courrait jamais au dcvant dcs vnc
mcnts pour lcs dirigcr dans la dircction souhaitc, si ccla tait possiblc, ou pour prcndrc
lc taurcau par lcs corncs, commc lc laisait Hartwig dans son domainc daction. Pai,
aussi bicn cn politiquc intricurc qucxtricurc, illustrait cc qui sappcllc cn lranais lc
laisscrallcr, car il laissait traincr toutcs lcs qucstions dicilcs tant quc lcs vncmcnts
nimposaicnt pas dcuxmcmcs dcs solutions. La grandc capacit dc Pai tait tout a lait
aillcurs. n tant quorganisatcur ct chcl dun parti politiquc, il tait cxtraordinaircmcnt
capablc, a cct gard il na pas dc rival dans notrc pays mcmc si on rcmontc dun siclc
|...| lhistoirc politiquc montrc quc lcs grands hommcs dtat nc valcnt ricn commc
8alcanica XXX\!! +6:
Lors dc ccttc crisc, lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc , grcc a dcs
hommcs dc conancc appartcnant a la lcnsc nationalc ct sc trouvant
dans la rgion autour dUicc (cn Scrbic dc loucst), lc long dc la rivirc
rina, rcnt passcr la lrontirc a plusicurs jcuncs bosniaqucs quils avaicnt
pralablcmcnt munis dc pistolcts ct dc bombcs. Pai lut avcrti quclqucs
jours plus tard par lcs autorits civilcs du passagc illgal dcs jcuncs dont lcs
intcntions rcstaicnt inconnucs (+: juin ++). s lc + juin, il cxigca du
ministrc dcs armcs dcmpcchcr toutc action similairc car ccst trs dan
gcrcux pour nous .

Lors dunc runion du gouvcrncmcnt, a la mijuin


++, Pai t part dc ccttc qucstion aux mcmbrcs dc son cabinct. !l lut
alors dcid dc prvcnir a lavcnir toutc aairc analoguc cn rcnlorant la
survcillancc dcs lrontircs. !l lut aussitt donn ordrc aux autorits civilcs dc
mcncr unc cnquctc sur lc passagc illgal darmcs ct dc pcrsonncs cn 8osnic.
n mcmc tcmps, Pai, sc doutant quc dcrrirc dc tcllcs actions sc tcnaicnt
la Main noirc , ordonna ds lc : juin unc cnquctc sur lcs gardclron
tircs ct lc licutcnantcoloncl ragutin T. imitrijcvi Apis, chcl du scrvicc
dc rcnscigncmcnts dc ltat major.
8
Le conit dans l ombre de la Grande Guerre
Lc dclcnchcmcnt dc la gucrrc cmpccha lc dnoucmcnt nal. Lc conit
cntrc autorits civilcs ct militaircs cn Scrbic, rduit a unc rivalit cntrc lc
gouvcrncmcnt dc Pai ct la Main noirc , couvait cncorc au momcnt o la
grandc gucrrc clata. Au tout dbut dc la gucrrc, a un chcl socialdmocratc
qui protcstait armant quc lc gouvcrncmcnt tolrait dcs organisations sc
crtcs qui avaicnt conduit a la gucrrc , Pai rpondit qucllcs cxistaicnt cn
cct, mais quc, jusqualors, cllcs ntaicnt pas trs dangcrcuscs ct quc quand
cllcs lc dcvicndraicnt rcllcmcnt, lc gouvcrncmcnt prcndrait lcs mcsurcs
nccssaircs.

hommcs dc parti ct quc rciproqucmcnt lcs gniaux hommcs dc parti nc sont pas dc
bons hommcs dtat. Lc cas dc Nikola Pai conrmc cc lait historiquc. Pour mcncr
un travail positil cn politiquc intricurc ct cxtricurc, Pai a toujours cu bcsoin dc gcns
capablcs qui lc conduisaicnt par la main, dans lcs momcnts lcs plus cruciaux, cc lurcnt
pour la politiquc trangrc Nikola Hartwig, ct pour la politiquc intricurc Lazar Pau,
ds quc ccs dcux pcrsonnagcs disparurcnt, Pai tait un hommc mort, avant sa mort,
dans son pays commc a lcxtricur (Marco, Nikola Hartvig ct la Scrbic. A loccasion
dunc discussion sur la gucrrc mondialc , No.a E.ropa, n6, :6 juin +, ::).

j. Stankovi, Nikola Pai, sa.e.nici i st.aranje Jugosla.ije |Nikola Pai, lcs Allis ct
la cration dc la Yougoslavic| (8clgradc, +8), +.
8
cdijcr, Saraje.o :,:,, 66.

. Lapcvi, Nikola Pai , Politika, n 66, ++ dccmbrc +:6.


. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +6
La lormation dun gouvcrncmcnt dc coalition a la n dc lannc ++
rvla lamplcur dc la puissancc dc la Main noirc , lcs chcls dcs radi
caux indpcndants nayant acccpt dc participcr a un tcl cabinct quaprs
avoir consult Apis. A la dcmandc dc lhriticr du trnc Alcxandrc, Apis
lut cart du haut commandcmcnt ct cnvoy dans lcs troupcs dUicc, puis
ccllcs dc Timok (dc Scrbic dc lcst) avcc lcsqucllcs il travcrsa lAlbanic. !l
scmblcrait quc Pai, luimcmc cn disgrcc auprs dc lhriticr du trnc,
ait tcnt daplanir lc conit avcc lcs chcls dc la Main noirc . aprs lc
tmoignagc dc Antonijc Anti, lc prcmicr ministrc Pai, par lintcrmdiairc
dun dcs rarcs vicux radicaux qui avait t mis au lait du complot dc +o,
lc dput dc Smcdcrcvo, ivojin Tajsi, tcnta dc xcr unc cntrcvuc avcc lcs
mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc pour lairc la paix avcc cux. Mais, avant la
rcncontrc, pour dcs raisons tcchniqucs (Apis, Milan Gr. Milovanovi ct A.
Anti taicnt dans dircntcs garnisons lointaincs), la runion ncut pas licu.
Lc rcndczvous, rcport a unc datc plus lavorablc, ncut pas licu du lait dc
locnsivc gcrmanoautrichicnnc a lautomnc ++, suivit par lcs 8ulgarcs
aboutant avcc la dlaitc scrbc ct la rctraitc pniblc a travcrs lAlbanic cn
Corlou ct plus tard vcrs lc Saloniquc.
o
Lc conit avcc la Main noirc rcprit dc lacuit aprs la dlaitc dc la
Scrbic cn ++, quand lcs mcmbrcs dc ccttc organisation, avcc lapprobation
dc larmc, accusrcnt publiqucmcnt Pai ct lhriticr du trnc Alcxandrc
davoir mal gr lcs aaircs civilcs ct militaircs dc ltat ainsi quc davoir
contribu dc laon dcisivc a la droutc rapidc ct totalc du pays. s lc mois
dc dccmbrc ++, au cours mcmc dc la rctraitc militairc, lhriticr du trnc
Alcxandrc t un pas signicatil qui annonait son intcntion dc mcttrc dc
lordrc dans larmc ct dc sc subordonncr scs commandants parmi lcsqucls
linucncc dc la Main noirc tait cxtraordinaircmcnt lortc : il dcstitua
dc lcurs lonctions lc .o.ode (lc marchal) Radomir Putnik, chcl du haut
commandcmcnt ct principal protcctcur dc la Main noirc , ainsi quc lc
coloncl Radivojc 8ojovi, ministrc dcs armcs, pour nommcr a lcur placc
dcs hommcs qui avaicnt sa conancc lc gnral Pctar 8ojovi ct lc coloncl
8oidar Tcrzi. c mcmc, un ccrtain nombrc docicrs, dancicns conjurs
dc +o, qui a la vcillc dc la Grandc Gucrrc pour sopposcr a lcurs cama
radcs dc la Main noirc avaicnt lorm a la Cour, autour dc lhriticr du
trnc Alcxandrc, unc cotcric militairc rivalc dnommc la Main blanchc
lurcnt nomms a dcs postcs importants.
+
o
Anti, Notcs , 8.
+
Sclon lcs mmoircs dc . Mii ( Srpski ociri , 8), Putnik lut transport, gra
vcmcnt maladc, sur lcs bras dcs soldats a travcrs lAlbanic. n ccs tcmps cxtrcmcmcnt
dicilcs, tout bon Scrbc trouvait un rcsponsablc a la catastrophc ct, dc la laon la plus
normalc, lc nommait ct lc maudissait. !l va dc soi quc lcs ocicrs, notammcnt ccux dc la
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
Lantagonismc cntrc, dunc part, lc gouvcrncmcnt ct lhriticr du trnc
Alcxandrc ct, dautrc part, la Main noirc sc rcnlora, lcs uns ct lcs autrcs
laisant prcuvc dc mancc mutucllc ct lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc
prolrant dc plus cn plus haut dcs mcnaccs a lgard dcs prcmicrs. Aprs
quc larmc scrbc ait travcrs lAlbanic, alors quils sc trouvaicnt sur lc lront
dc Saloniquc, ils mcnacrcnt publiqucmcnt dc nc laisscr rcntrcr cn Scrbic
librc, sous unc haic dc sabrcs , uniqucmcnt ccux qui lauraicnt mrit ct
donc ni lhriticr du trnc Alcxandrc ni Pai. Linucncc dcs mcmbrcs dc
la Main noirc dans lcs units dc volontaircs lormcs cn Russic ct dans
lcs autrcs tait tcllc quc, si lcs circonstanccs sy prctaicnt, ccttc organisation
pouvait lairc un coup dtat militairc.
:
Pai, qui pourtant avait dc mauvaiscs rclations avcc lhriticr du
trnc ct ntait pas prct a lairc dcs conccssions a un jcunc souvcrain d
sircux davoir lc dcrnicr mot, jugca rapidcmcnt quil tait tcmps daplanir
scs rclations avcc Alcxandrc, vu lc dangcr qui lcs mcnaait tous dcux. n
scptcmbrc ++6, lc princchriticr Alcxandrc posa un ultimatum au gouvcr
ncmcnt dc Pai cxigcant quc ccluici prpart un projct dc loi sur la cra
tion dc tribunaux cxtraordinaircs pour ocicrs an dc rglcr son comptc a
la Main noirc pour avoir organis un attcntat sur sa pcrsonnc a strovo
(Arnissa).

Lc conit sc tcrmina par un procs labriqu autour dun attcntat pr


sum sur la pcrsonnc dc lhriticr du trnc Alcxandrc.

!l nc lut possiblc dc
Main noirc, rcndaicnt rcsponsablcs dc tout Pai ct lcs radicaux, tandis quc ccs dcrnicrs
rcjctaicnt la lautc sur Putnik ct sa maladic ainsi quc sur lcnscmblc dc ltat major au
scin duqucl, a dc rarcs cxccptions, lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc prdominaicnt. Ainsi,
lcs radicaux utilisrcnt la maladic dc Putnik ct obtinrcnt lc conscntcmcnt dc lhri
ticr du trnc pour rcmplaccr lcnscmblc du haut commandcmcnt ds quils parvinrcnt
a Scutari aprs avoir travcrs lAlbanic. Ccla cut dcux consqucnccs. Prcmircmcnt,
la Main noirc pcrdit son dcrnicr point dappui sricux, ct dcuximcmcnt, la dcstitution
indiqua publiqucmcnt qui tait rcsponsablc dc notrc laillitc.
:
Lhriticr du trnc, Alcxandrc, craignait un coup dtat militairc qui, ralis avcc
laidc dcs troupcs dc Russic, aurait instaur unc sortc dc rpubliquc sudamricainc sous
dictaturc militairc. Cl. . T. 8atakovi, Nouvcllcs sourccs narrativcs sur lc procs dc
Saloniquc in Srbija :,:. godine |La Serbie en :,:|, Rccucil dc travaux dc l!nstitut
dhistoirc, vol. 6 (8clgradc, +88), +6.

Cl. . T. 8atakovi, Tc Salonica Trial ++ : 8lack Hand vs. cmocracy (Tc


Scrbian Army lrom !ntcrnal Strilc to Military Succcs) , in Te Salonica Teatre of Ope-
rations and the Outcome of the Great !ar (Tcssaloniki, :oo), ::.

Sclon lc tmoignagc dAntonijc Anti ( Notcs , ), Apis navait pas lintcntion dc


tcntcr quoi quc cc soit contrc lhriticr du trnc ct Pai avant dc rcntrcr dans lc pays.
Apis commcnta lcs rcriminations du gnral amnjan Popovi qui navait pas obtcnu
lc commandcmcnt dunc armc par lcs mots suivants : Si tu lavais cntcndu. !l voulait
quc nous lassions unc rvolution parcc quil na pas rcu lc commandcmcnt dunc armc.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +6
liquidcr lorganisation quaprs quc lc vicux roi Picrrc ait donn son accord
a cc quc lcs chcls dc la Main noirc lusscnt traduits dcvant un tribunal
a Saloniquc cn ++.

Lc plus lamcux chcl militairc scrbc, lc vovodc Put


nik, considr a raison commc lc principal protcctcur dcs mcmbrcs dc la
Main noirc , partit, aprs avoir t dcstitu, sc soigncr cn Francc o il
mourut rapidcmcnt. Pai qui, avcc lc gouvcrncmcnt, sc trouvait a Corlou,
ntait pas prct a sacricr a lavcnturismc troublc dc ccrtains ocicrs lc par
lcmcntarismc dicilcmcnt instaur cn cxil alors quc lc pays tait occup.
Ccs ocicrs, bicn quils aicnt prouv quils taicnt dcs patriotcs couragcux,
pouvaicnt sricuscmcnt aggravcr la position du gouvcrncmcnt ct dc larmc
cn cxil dja sricuscmcnt branlc sur lc plan intcrnational, cn mcnaant lcs
dirigcants scrbcs ct cn planiant unc sric dattcntats contrc lcs tctcs cou
ronncs dcs tats cnncmis.
6
Craignant dcs troublcs plus sricux dans larmc quattcndait la
lourdc tchc dc librcr lc pays, Pai hsita sur la laon dc punir lcs ocicrs
souponns davoir lintcntion dc raliscr un coup dtat, intcntion incom
patiblc avcc lc rlc dunc armc dans un tat parlcmcntairc ct, dc surcroit,
dans lcs conditions dicilcs dc lcxil. Ccpcndant, lcnquctc nc donna pas dc
prcuvcs tangiblcs dc lattcntat contrc lhriticr du trnc. Lc gouvcrncmcnt
dc Pai lut jusqua la n dc ++ un gouvcrncmcnt dc coalition, dcs min
istrcs radicaux indpcndants qui passaicnt pour ctrc dcs amis dcs chcls dc
la Main noirc avaicnt dcs postcs importants cn son scin. Tout dabord,
Pai, dans un accord avcc Ljubomir Jovanovi, ministrc dc lintricur, pro
posa dvitcr un scandalc dc grandc amplcur ct dc rsoudrc la qucstion par
dcs mcsurcs administrativcs allant dc la misc a la rctraitc a la rvocation
dc larmc. Quand, sous la prcssion dc lhriticr du trnc, il dut acccptcr un
procs, Pai rchit au nombrc dc pcrsonncs quil lallait traduirc dcvant lc
Non mais! coutc, nous nc pouvons ricn lairc pour linstant ct il nc laut pas, corons
nous sculcmcnt dc toutcs nos lorccs dc rcntrcr au plus vitc au pays ct la, nous vcrrons
|...|. Jamais il na lait la moindrc allusion a un quclconquc rcnvcrscmcnt dc lhriticr du
trnc.

Au cours du procs, lc vicux roi cxprima la craintc quc lc gouvcrncmcnt nhsitc ct


nc rcnoncc aux mcsurcs lgislativcs priscs ct condamna par dcs mots cinglants toutc
vcntucllc laiblcssc . A la dcmandc dApis dc mcttrc un tcrmc a ccttc aairc , il
nc rpondit pas, ct qucstionn sur lcs dcmandcs dc grcc dcs condamns, il rpondit
brivcmcnt : Tuczlcs! . . R. ivojinovi, Kralj Petar Karadjordje.i. Fat i poslednje
godine :,:,-:,::, vol. !!! |Lc roi Picrrc ! Karadjordjcvi. La gucrrc ct lcs dcrnircs
anncs +++:+| (8clgradc, +), ::.
6
Lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc , toujours loyaux to Apis, avaicnt lintcntion dc
commcttrc un attcntat sur la pcrsonnc du roi dc Grcc Constantin, du roi dc 8ulgaric
Fcrdinand ct du kaiscr allcmand Guillaumc !!. Cl. Nckovi, Istina o Solunskom procesu,
.
8alcanica XXX\!! +66
tribunal, acccptant, nalcmcnt, quc sculs lcs mcncurs dc la dansc lusscnt
impliqus, arguant quc, a son avis, il y avait un ccrtain nombrc docicrs
loyaux a la dynastic dans lcs rangs dcs partisans ct dcs mcmbrcs dc la Main
noirc .

Un procs monte pour sau.er le regime


Pai nc sopposa pas a cc quc lcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc lusscnt
jugs dans un procs mont dc toutcs piccs a Saloniquc, craignant quc,
dans dcs conditions dinstabilit, la Main noirc nc sc translormt cn
unc juntc militairc, ct supposant galcmcnt quc cc groupc tait impliqu
dans lorganisation dc lattcntat dc Sarajcvo.
8
c cc lait, lalliancc tactiquc
initialc cntrc Pai ct lhriticr du trnc contrc lcs putschistcs potcnticls qui
mcnaaicnt lc rgimc parlcmcntairc sc rcnlora. n liquidant par un procs
lorganisation Lunication ou la mort , Pai nc consolida pas sculcmcnt
sa proprc position. Aprs quc lcs ministrcs radicaux indpcndants Ljubomir
avidovi ct Milorad rakovi (puis lc rcprscntant dcs progrcssistcs,
par aillcurs oppos aux conjurs dans lc gouvcrncmcnt dc coalition) curcnt
dmissionn cn signc dc protcstation contrc lassassinat judiciairc dcs
conjurs, Nikola Pai rcut cn juin ++ mandat pour lormcr un cabinct
uniqucmcnt compos dc vicux radicaux.

Paralllcmcnt, il dlcndit lc prin


cipc sclon lcqucl lcs aaircs dc ltat, dans unc monarchic parlcmcntairc, nc

ivojinovi, Kralj Petar Karadjordje.i, vol. !!!, :.


8
aprs Anti ( Notcs , 8o), Apis, lors dunc convcrsation pcu aprs lattcntat contrc
larchiduc FranoisFcrdinand, lui cxpliqua sa participation a ccluici dc la laon sui
vantc : Jc craignais quc lcs Autrichicns, a loccasion dc manocuvrcs cn 8osnic, nc nous
attaqucnt ct nc nous crascnt. Commc tu lc sais, nos troupcs sont cn Macdoinc ct avcc
dcux corps darmc lcs Autrichicns auraicnt pu lacilcmcnt nous crascr. Quand ccs
jcuncs gcns (lcs jcuncs 8osniaqucs) sont apparus ccstadirc quand Radc Malobabi
ma inlorm quil y avait dcs hommcs prcts a tucr FranoisFcrdinand jai pcns quils
cssaicnt! !ls nc russiront ccrtaincmcnt pas, mais au moins ils lui lcront pcur! !l sc
ticndra sans doutc lc raisonncmcnt suivant : si dcs Scrbcs tircnt sur moi cn 8osnic,
quc lcraicntils si jallais cn Scrbic: Mais voistu, jc mc suis tromp ils lont tu, par
icu. aprs lc tmoignagc dAnti sur lc projct dattaquc dc la Scrbic par lcs armcs
austrohongroiscs, Apis inlorm par son missairc cn 8osnic, Radc Malobabi (qui,
toujours sclon Anti, avait t rccommand lui aussi par Srdjan 8udisavljcvi, lc chcl
dc la coalition croatoscrbc a Zagrcb), communiqua la nouvcllc a Putnik, mais ccluici
nc rctransmit pas linlormation a Pai. A ccttc occasion, Apis accabla Pai dpithtcs
injuricux. Pai luimcmc, si on lit attcntivcmcnt scs notcs condcnticllcs ct mcmc scs
dclarations publiqucs sur lc procs dc Saloniquc, cstimait quc Malobabi tait un agcnt
doublc, un cspion dc lAutrichcHongric, inltr cn Scrbic. \oir Nckovi, Istina o So-
lunskom procesu, : (communication ocicllc du gouvcrncmcnt dc Pai).

ivanovi, Solunski proces, ::.


. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +6
pouvaicnt ctrc conduitcs quc par dcs actcurs dont lcs pouvoirs sont dlimi
ts par la Constitution.
Cc point dc vuc Pai dlcndit dans unc convcrsation privc avcc
un ocicr qui appartcnait a lorganisation conjurc. !l souligna quc
lorganisation tatiquc dc la Scrbic ntait pas conciliablc avcc la volont dcs
ocicrs dinucr sur lc cours dc la politiquc dc ltat. Sclon la mcmc sourcc
Pai t valoir quc : Nous sommcs un pays parlcmcntairc. n sait com
mcnt la politiquc sc mnc. Lc pays cst dirig par lc roi, lc gouvcrncmcnt ct
lAsscmblc. Quiconquc vcut inucr sur lc cours dc la politiquc dc ltat
doit ctrc un citoycn, doit lrqucntcr dcs mcctings, crirc dans lcs journaux,
cntrcr a lAsscmblc nationalc ct dans lcs autrcs organcs rcprscntatils, il
aura dautant plus dinucncc quil aura dcs capacits ct du savoir. n nc
pcut pcrmcttrc quc lcs ocicrs cn capotc cxcrccnt lcur cmprisc sur la poli
tiquc. Ccla ncst pcrmis nullc part au mondc. Larmc rcposc sur lobissancc.
Lc plus jcunc doit obir au plus g, un point ccst tout. !ls voulaicnt lairc
prcssion sur la politiquc. |...| Quand ils nont pas pu parvcnir a cc quils
voulaicnt, alors ils ont dit : Allcz! liminons ccux sur lcsqucls nous nc pou
vons pas inucr, ct rcmplaonslcs par dautrcs sur lcsqucls nous pourrions
cxcrccr notrc inucncc an quc la politiquc soit ccllc quc nous voulons.
o
8icn quc la procdurc judiciairc qui tablit la culpabilit dcs mcmbrcs
dc la Main noirc dans lc prtcndu attcntat contrc Alcxandrc, lcs dposi
tions pcu ablcs dcs tmoins, lcs abus du tribunal ct lcs prcssions aicnt t
a dc nombrcuscs rcpriscs stigmatiss commc rvlatcur du bas nivcau dc
loyaut dc Pai cnvcrs lcs institutions dc ltat parlcmcntairc ct ltat dc
droit, si lon ticnt comptc dc toutcs lcs circonstanccs cntourant lc procs,
lcs positions dc Pai dcvicnncnt plus comprhcnsiblcs. n cct, dans ccs
conditions, il sagissait dunc dmarchc nccssairc pour dlcndrc non sculc
mcnt lcs intrcts du parlcmcntarismc mais galcmcnt lcs intrcts lcs plus
lcvs dc ltat ct dc la nation. ans unc circulairc condcnticllc adrcssc,
au cours du procs, aux cnvoys a ltrangcr, Pai lormula lcs principcs sur
lcsqucls il laisait rcposcr la rcsponsabilit dcs mcmbrcs dc la Main noirc
ct, donc, la dissolution systmatiquc dc lorganisation : cs mcsurcs judi
ciaircs sont priscs a lcncontrc dc ccux pour lcsqucls linstruction a trouv
dcs prcuvcs dc cc quils ont, par dcs moycns condamnablcs, travaill non
au programmc dunication nationalc auqucl ils ont prct scrmcnt lors dc
lcur admission dans lorganisation mais a un autrc : la prparation dun coup
dtat. Latmosphrc politiquc scra assainic ct lordrc public assur contrc
lcs surpriscs, prcmircmcnt, quand un vcrdict aura t prononc a lcncontrc
dcs putschistcs, puis, dcuximcmcnt, quand lorganisation sccrtc aura t
o
ivanovi, Solunski proces, 6o:6o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +68
dmantclc ct rclcvs dc lcur scrmcnt dallgcancc cnvcrs cllc ccux qui cn
taicnt mcmbrcs mais nont pas particip aux actions putschistcs .
+
Pour justicr la dcision du tribunal militairc dc Saloniquc auprs dcs
Allis, Pai lia dlibrmcnt dans unc dclaration ocicllc lc procs dc la
Main noirc ct lcs rumcurs insistantcs sclon lcsqucllcs ils taicnt prcts a
conclurc unc paix sparc avcc lAutrichcHongric rumcurs qui, dans ccs
circonstanccs, taicnt lcs bicnvcnucs ct il souligna : icu, a ccttc occa
sion, a sauv la Scrbic. !l cst vidcnt, mcmc pour lcs csprits lcs plus laiblcs,
quc si lcs conjurs avaicnt russi a tucr lcs dtcntcurs du pouvoir tatiquc
ct lcs actcurs dunc politiquc qui sappuic sur lcs puissanccs coaliscs, a
aurait t la ruinc dc la Scrbic. ans cc cas, lcs conjurs nauraicnt pas cu
dautrc choix quc dc sc battrc contrc lcs armcs allics sur notrc lront ou dc
sc rcndrc a lcnncmi. !l ny avait pas dautrc issuc ct il nc pouvait y cn avoir
dautrc.
:
Un rapport sccrct adrcss aux cnvoys diplomatiqucs a ltrangcr
concluait dc la mcmc laon : |...| on voit claircmcnt quc lc mal cst cntr
si prolondmcnt avcc lorganisation sccrtc quil cst plus quc tcmps dc sc
mcttrc cn travcrs dc son chcmin , justiant la dcision du tribunal par lc
lait quc lcs conjurs ont attcnt a la vic dc lhriticr du trnc ct ont russi
a mcttrc cn qucstion lcxistcncc mcmc dc la Scrbic ct dcs Scrbcs. icu, lui
mcmc, a sauv la Scrbic du dangcr n cn son scin.

Sans tcnir comptc du lait quil tait lacilc dtablir quil ny avait pas
cu rcllcmcnt dattcntat, lc jugcmcnt dc Pai attcstc dc la gravit du dangcr
quc pouvait prscntcr, dans ccrtaincs conditions, lc travail dc lorganisation
dcs conjurs. Son rclus daccordcr la grcc aux trois hommcs dircctcmcnt
impliqus dans la prparation dc lattcntat dc Sarajcvo (lc coloncl ragu
tin T. imitrijcvi Apis, lc commandant Ljubomir \ulovi, agcnt Radc
Malobabi) tmoignc dc sa volont dc barrcr, unc lois pour toutc, la routc au
dangcr dunc activit antidmocratiquc dcs ccrclcs conjurs. Lcur participa
tion a lattcntat dc Sarajcvo, attcntat commis au momcnt lc moins lavorablc
pour la Scrbic, qui nc stait pas cncorc rtablic dcs gucrrcs balkaniqucs,
montrait quon pouvait attcndrc dcux dautrcs cntrcpriscs du mcmc gcnrc,
aux consqucnccs galcmcnt imprvisiblcs.
Si, dc surcroit, on ticnt comptc du lait quc, quasimcnt au mcmc mo
mcnt, il y cut dcs procs dans lcs hauts ccrclcs militaircs ct lcs noyaux con
spiratcurs au scin dautrcs armcs curopcnncs, lranaisc, russc, ctc., alors on
saisit unc nouvcllc dimcnsion dc lcnscmblc complcxc dcs rclations cntrc lc
gouvcrncmcnt ct larmc cn Scrbic : laggravation dun conit cntrc autori
+
\oir Nckovi, Istina o Solunskom procesu, ::8.
:
Ibid., :8.

Ibid., :+.
. T. 8atakovi, Nikola Pai, lcs radicaux ct la Main noirc +6
ts civilcs ct militaircs lors dunc gucrrc longuc, puisantc ct vritablcmcnt
grandc par scs nombrcuscs consqucnccs.
Institut des Etudes balkaniques
cademie serbe des Sciences et des rts
Belgrade
UDC ,,:::.:J(,,.::):,c:,:
:,.:(-:&.,:):,:, Pai Nikola
\ojislav Pavlovi
La France et le programme yougoslave du gouvernement serbe
n novcmbrc ++, Augustc 8oppc, cnvoy lranais cn Scrbic, prcnd con
naissancc du programmc yougoslavc du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc, plus prcis
mcnt dc son volct tcrritorial (qui prvoit lincorporation dcs rgions oc
cidcntalcs ct scptcntrionalcs dc lcspacc yougoslavc allant du 8anat a lst
jusqua la Carinthic a lucst dans lc lutur tat dcs Slavcs du Sud). !l jugc
lcs rcvcndications tcrritorialcs scrbcs surprcnantcs vu quc, a lpoquc, ltat
scrbc cst cn train dc luttcr pour sa survic. !l rcstc nanmoins pcrsuad qucn
cas dunc vcntucllc victoirc dc lntcntc, lcs Scrbcs nhsitcraicnt pas a
prscntcr sous ccttc lormc lcurs cxigcnccs tcrritorialcs lors du lutur congrs
dc la paix.
+
La cration possiblc dun tat dcs Slavcs dc Sud dcvicnt ainsi
llmcnt cl dcs rclations lrancoscrbcs lors dc toutc la durc dc la gucrrc.
n consqucncc il cst dunc importancc primordialc dc connaitrc ct prciscr
lattitudc lranaisc cnvcrs lc projct yougoslavc du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc : au
trcmcnt dit, pcuton voir cn la Francc la vritablc cratricc ct protcctricc dc
ltat yougoslavc.
Nombrcux sont lcs partisans dc ccttc thsc : la Francc dticnt la rc
sponsabilit cxclusivc non sculcmcnt pour la cration, mais aussi pour la
dlimitation dc scs lrontircs ct lorganisation intcrnc du Royaumc SHS.
:

n !talic la diplomatic, mais aussi lopinion publiquc cn gnral, voicnt cn
la Francc la lorcc obscurc qui a pcrmis, pour ainsi dirc, la mutilation dc la
victoirc italicnnc cn crant la Yougoslavic sur lcs rivcs oricntalcs du mare
nostrum italicn. c lautrc ct dc lAdriatiquc, lhistoriographic rccntc cs
+
8oppc a clcassc, Nich, ::.++.++, AMA, Gucrrc, Autrichc, vol. +.
:
ans lhistoriographic rccntc, larticlc dc Jacqucs 8arity, La Francc ct la naissancc
du Royaumc dcs Scrbcs, Croatcs ct Slovncs ++++ , Fe.ue dEurope Centrale
!!/+ (Strasbourg +), cst unc cxccption, car il dmontrc quc lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais
accordait un intrct asscz limit a la naissancc du Royaumc dcs Scrbcs, Croatcs ct Slo
vncs, laqucllc daillcurs ccst laitc sans laidc lranaisc.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
timc quc lhgmonic scrbc cn Yougoslavic nc pouvait ctrc misc cn placc,
sans laidc dcisivc (tant diplomatiquc quc militairc) dc la Francc.


Qucn cstil cxactcmcnt : Quc pouvaicnt ctrc lcs raisons dun int
rct suppos aussi vil ct un cngagcmcnt aussi important dc la Francc dans
unc partic dc luropc si loignc dc scs zoncs dintrcts traditionncllcs.
Nous nous proposons dtudicr lcngagcmcnt lranais dans lcs aaircs you
goslavcs cn cssayant dapportcr dcs rponscs a trois importantcs qucstions.
Tout dabord : quand ct commcnt la Francc scstcllc dcidc a soutcnir
lc programmc yougoslavc ct cn consqucncc dc lavoriscr la dissolution dc
lAutrichcHongric : nsuitc, la Francc considraitcllc opportun dc choi
sir cntrc lalliancc avcc l!talic ou lc souticn aux Scrbcs ct Yougoslavcs : n
n, la naissancc du Royaumc dcs Scrbcs Croatcs ct Slovncs, taitcllc un
projct lranais :
:. utriche-Hongrie ou la Yougosla.ie
La Francc scst intrcssc davantagc a la Scrbic a causc dc son alliancc avcc
la Russic. !l doit ctrc prcis quc son inucncc politiquc dans lc pays tait
duc dabord a ccttc alliancc. Quant a limportancc du march scrbc pour
lconomic lranaisc, cllc tait quasimcnt incxistantc. A titrc dcxcmplc : cn
+++ lc commcrcc global (cxportation ct importation) cntrc la Francc ct la
Scrbic slcvait a , millions, tandis quc lc commcrcc avcc lcs voisins dc
ccttc dcrnirc tait bicn plus important. Lcs chircs rcspcctils tant : pour
la 8ulgaric, :,6, la Grcc ,6, la Turquic +8 ct la Roumanic +8, mil
lions dc lrancs.

La prscncc dc capitaux lranais tait ccrtcs plus signica


tivc, mais ils taicnt placs a dans lcs londs dtat scrbc.

Ainsi sc rvlc
lc caractrc politiquc dcs cmprunts quc lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc a lait sur lc
march parisicn avcc lc souticn dcs gouvcrncmcnts lranais ct russc, ct dont
lcs londs taicnt principalcmcnt dcstins a lachat darmcmcnts cn Francc.
Pourquoi donc, ct surtout a qucl momcnt, pcndant lc conit mondial,
lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais scstil dcid a soutcnir lc programmc yougo
slavc (qui impliquait la dissolution dc lAutrichcHongric) : Commcnt la
Francc scstcllc dcidc a privilgicr la cration dun tat nouvcau a la placc

Lc livrc dc Jasna Adlcr, Lunion forcee. La Croatie et la creation de l Etat yougosla.e


(Chcnc ct 8ourg : Gcorg, +), cst lc dcrnicr cxcmplc cn datc dc cc courant historio
graphiquc qui voit dans lc souticn quc la Francc a accord a la Scrbic loriginc pour la
cration dun tat dont la caractristiquc principalc tait la prtcnduc hgmonic scrbc
sur toutcs lcs autrcs nations yougoslavcs.

Mauricc 8ompard a Ribot, Paris, :+..++, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,


Yougoslavic, vol. +:+.

Ibid.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +
dc la oublc Monarchic : Ccttc doublc monarchic tait cn cct, dcpuis
lc changcmcnt dcs allianccs au X\!!!
mc
siclc, un lmcnt important dc
la pcnsc gostratgiquc lranaisc. Sur lc plan conomiquc, il nc laut pas
oublicr quc lcs invcstisscmcnts lranais ny taicnt inlricurs quaux cngagc
mcnts lranais cn Russic.
6
Ccst prcismcnt a causc dc lalli russc quc la diplomatic lranaisc,
pour la prcmirc lois, sc voit amcnc a conccvoir un possiblc dmantlcmcnt
dc lAutrichcHongric. Lc 6 janvicr ++, Tophilc clcass, Ministrc dcs
Aaircs trangrcs, cnvoic a lambassadcur lranais a Pctrograd, Mauricc
Palologuc, lcs instructions suivantcs: Jc vous rccommandc instammcnt dc
nc pas prononccr un mot qui puissc lairc supposcr au Gouvcrncmcnt russc
quc lc Gouvcrncmcnt dc la Rpubliquc pourrait pcscr sur la Russic pour
modrcr scs prtcntions sur lAutrichc .

A loriginc dc ccttc tonnantc


dclaration sc trouvaicnt : la dclaration dcs buts dc gucrrc du Ministrc
russc dcs Aaircs trangrcs Sazonov, scs + points dc scptcmbrc ++, ct
plus prcismcnt cncorc la convcrsation cntrc lc Tzar Nicolas !! ct Palo
loguc du :+ novcmbrc ++.
8
ans scs + points, Sazonov nc prvoyait
pas la dissolution dc la oublc Monarchic, mais sculcmcnt sa rduction,
aprs quc dcs conccssions tcrritorialcs auraicnt t accordcs a la Scrbic, a la
Roumanic ct a la Russic cllcmcmc. La oublc Monarchic sc vcrrait alors
translormc cn unc Monarchic tripartitc, constituc dcs royaumcs dc Hon
gric, dc 8ohmc ct dAutrichc (posscssions hrditaircs dcs Habsbourg).


Mais lors dc son cntrcticn avcc lc tzar, Palologuc comprcnd quc la Russic
souhaitc aussi lindpcndancc dc la 8ohmc, dc la Moravic ct dc la Carin
6
Kalcrvo Hovi, Cordon sanitaire or barrire l est ? Te Emergence of the Ne. French
Eastern European lliance Policy :,::,:, (Turku, +), o.

Contcnu dans la lcttrc dc Mauricc Palologuc a Raymond Poincar, Pctrograd,


+6..++, 8ibliothquc dc l!nstitut dc Francc, Papicrs Stcphcn Pichon, MS, vol. .
8
Villiam Rcnzi, Vho composcd Sazonovs thirtccn points: A Rcxamination ol Vho composcd Sazonovs thirtccn points: A Rcxamination ol Vho composcd Sazonovs thirtccn points: A Rcxamination ol A Rcxamination ol
Russias Var Aims : , merican Historical Fe.ie. CXXX!!!/: (+8), :, sou
ticnt quc lc programmc dc Sazonov ntait quunc invcntion dc Palologuc. !l croit aussi
quc Sazonov avait, par la suitc, dsavou son souvcrain. Sclon Rcnzi, lc Ministrc dcs Al
laircs trangrcs britanniquc dward Grcy, a qui clcass avait communiqu lc contc
nu dc convcrsation cntrc Nicholas !! a Palologuc, proposait lc : novcmbrc ++ a
Sazonov quc lcs allis sc limitcnt aux dclarations du scptcmbrc ++ (rclus dc la paix
sparc), tout cn chcrchant a prscrvcr lcur alliancc pour laprsgucrrc. n acccptant
la proposition britanniquc, sclon Rcnzi, Sazonov a compltcmcnt invalid lcs proposi
tions dc son tzar. r, Rcnzi ncxpliquc pas lc tlgrammc dc clcass a Palologuc du 6
janvicr ++, mcmc sil citc la corrcspondancc PoincarPalologuc. Nous nous croyons
donc cn mcsurc dc conclurc quc, mcmc si loriginc dcs buts dc gucrrc russcs pcut ctrc
doutcux, la raction lranaisc nc lcst pas, ct ccst cllc qui nous intrcssc ici.

Lco \aliani, Te End of ustria-Hungary (London, +), 8.


8alcanica XXX\!! +
thic, donc la dissolution dc lAutrichcHongric ct la cration dunc sric
dtats slavcs sous domination russc.
+o
n labscncc dinstructions prciscs
dc Paris, ct prcss dc donncr unc rponsc aux dclarations russc, Palologuc
croit, cn janvicr ++ lors dc sa rponsc a Sazonov, utilc dc rptcr un axi
omc dc la politiquc trangrc dc la Francc: Tant quil cxistcrait unc !talic,
nous scrions intrcsscs au mainticn dc lAutrichc .
++
Ccttc rponsc lui vaut
la rprimandc citc, car la Francc, a cc momcnt, cstimc quc lc mainticn dc
lalliancc russc cst dunc importancc crucialc, ct cst prctc a concdcr lcs
conccssions dcmandcs. Commc il savrcra par la suitc, lc vritablc objcctil
russc ncst cn lait pas la dissolution dc la oublc Monarchic mais la main
misc sur Constantinoplc ct lcs dtroits : ccst pourquoi, ds mars ++ lc
gouvcrncmcnt lranais y acquicscc.
+:
!l sagissait dunc conccssion particulirc, ct non dincorporation dc
la dissolution dc lAutrichcHongric dans lcs buts dc gucrrc lranais. Ccla
cst dmontr par la dclaration du gouvcrncmcnt \iviani du :: dccmbrc
++. A la Chambrc, lc prsidcnt du Conscil dclarc quc lcs buts dc gucrrc
dc la Francc sc limitcnt a la rcstitution dcs provinccs qui lui lurcnt ravics, la
rcstauration dc la 8clgiquc, ct a lcxigcncc quc lc militarismc prussicn soit
bris.
+
La dissolution dc lAutrichcHongric ntait donc pas un objcctil du
gouvcrncmcnt lranais. Mais son tcrritoirc scrvait commc unc sortc dc gagc
pour consolidcr lcs allianccs cxistantcs, commc on a pu lc constatcr dans lc
cas dc la Russic, ou pour sattircr lcs bonncs grccs dc nouvcaux allis. Ainsi,
lors du trait dc Londrcs cn avril ++, lcs Allis promcttcnt a l!talic (cn
plus du Trcntin ct du Sud Tyrol) : Tricstc, Gorizia, l!stric, la almatic avcc
lcs ilcs, cntrc Zadar ct lc Cap Planka au sud dc ibcnik ct lc port dc \alonna
sur la ctc albanaisc.
+
Prcsquc paralllcmcnt ont licu dcs pourparlcrs avcc
lc gouvcrncmcnt bulgarc, auqucl dcs avantagcs tcrritoriaux dcvraicnt ctrc
procurs par la ccssion dc la partic oricntalc dc la Macdoinc dcvcnuc scrbc
aprs la dcuximc gucrrc balkaniquc.
+

+o
Lcttrc dc Mauricc Palologuc a Raymond Poincar, Pctrograd, +6..++, 8iblioth
quc dc l!nstitut dc Francc, Papicrs Stcphcn Pichon, MS, vol. .
++
Ibid.
+:
avid Stcvcnson, French !ar ims against Germany :,:,:,:, (xlord Univcrsity
Prcss, +8:), :6, :.
+
Jcan8aptistc uroscllc, La Grande Guerre des Franais :,:,:,: (Pcrrin, +8
:
),
:.
+
avid Stcvcnson, Te First !orld !ar and International Politics (xlord Univcrsity
Prcss, +88), +.
+
Lucca Riccardi, leati non amici. Le rela.ioni politiche tra Italia et l Intesa durante la
prima guerra mondiale (Morcclliana, +:), ++o.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +
Au vu dcs sacriccs dcmands aux Scrbcs, dircctcmcnt ct indircctc
mcnt, an dattircr l!talic ct la 8ulgaric dans lc camp alli, il lcur tait pro
mis un grand ddommagcmcnt tcrritorial aux dpcns dc la oublc Mon
archic. Lcs trois puissanccs dc lntcntc proposcnt au gouvcrncmcnt scrbc
(notc lormcllc du + aot ++) au titrc dc compcnsation pour la pcrtc dc
la Macdoinc, lcs tcrritoircs suivants: la 8osnic ct Hcrzgovinc, lc Srcm
jusqua la lignc ravaanubc y compris la villc dc Zcmun ct la rgion dc
8aka, la ctc dalmatc a partir du Cap Planka (n dc la zonc promisc aux
!talicns) jusqua la lrontirc montngrinc avcc toutcs lcs ilcs voisincs. Au
cas o, a la n dc la gucrrc, lavcnir dc la Slavonic dpcndrait dcs allis, ils la
promcttcnt galcmcnt a la Scrbic.
+6
Si lon ticnt comptc dcs promcsscs laitcs
a la Roumanic lannc suivantc au trait dc 8ucarcst (+ octobrc ++6), dont
notammcnt lc 8anat ct la Transylvanic, ct lcs viscs russcs sur la Galicic, on
cst oblig dc conclurc quc lc dpouillcmcnt prvu dc la oublc Monarchic
tait considrablc.
+
Mais pour autant sa dissolution ntait pas souhaitc,
commc cn tmoignc la dclaration dcs buts dc gucrrc lranais du gouvcrnc
mcnt 8riand tcls qunoncs lc novcmbrc ++, sc tcrminant par ccs mots
asscz vagucs: Quant a nous, nous sommcs dcids dallcr jusquau but, nos
cnncmis nont pas a cscomptcr dc notrc part ni lassitudc, ni dlaillancc...
Nous avons la volont dc vaincrc ct nous vaincrons .
+8

Aprs quc lc prsidcnt Vilson cut, lc +8 dccmbrc ++6, dcmand
quc lcs bclligrants dclarcnt lcurs buts dc gucrrc, lc gouvcrncmcnt 8riand,
dc mcmc quc tous lcs gouvcrncmcnts allis, sont obligs dc prciscr lanalysc mcmc quc tous lcs gouvcrncmcnts allis, sont obligs dc prciscr lanalysc
dcs lcurs objcctils. Nanmoins, la rponsc allic du +: janvicr ++ rcstc
tout aussi vaguc, car cllc stipulc dabord lvacuation dcs tcrritoircs occups,
y compris donc la Scrbic ct lc Montngro, cn ajoutant quc la libration dcs
minorits nationalcs lait partic dcs buts dc gucrrc allis. Aucunc obligation
cxplicitc cnvcrs lcs nationalits dc lAutrichcHongric ncst prcisc.
+
Lcs buts dc gucrrc lranais paraisscnt non sculcmcnt asscz vagucs,
mais parlois, ils scmblcnt mcmc contradictoircs. Ccst ainsi quc dans la
dclaration prcitc dc janvicr ++, lcs allis sc prononccnt pour cration
dun tat polonais. r, lc mois suivant Gaston oumcrguc (ancicn prsi
dcnt du Conscil ct a lpoquc Ministrc dcs Colonics lors dc lultimc tcntativc
lranaisc dc sauvcr lalliancc russc), promct, au nom du gouvcrncmcnt 8ri
and, dc laisscr la Russic rglcr commc cllc lcntcnd lcs qucstions rclativcs a
+6
Notc rcmisc par lcs rcprscntants lranais, anglais ct russcs au gouvcrncmcnt scrbc lc
+.8.++, AMA, Papicrs dagcnts, Archivcs privcs, Fontcnay, , vol. +o.
+
Stcvcnson, First !orld !ar, 6.
+8
Gcorgc 8onnclous, Histoire politique de la Troisime Fepublique, tomc !! : La Grande
Guerre (PUF, +6
:
), .
+
uroscllc, La Grande Guerre, :8:.
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
sa lrontirc occidcntalc, cc qui signiait dc laisscr lcs Polonais sous lcmprisc
russc.
:o
Labdication du tzar quclqucs jours plus tard rcndait ccttc promcssc
caduquc. Toutcs ccs tractations dmontrcnt quc lc marchandagc a propos
dcs tcrritoircs dc la oublc Monarchic suit lcs impratils dc la gucrrc, mais
quc laxiomc dc la pcnsc gostratgiquc lranaisc, ccstadirc lcxistcncc dc
la oublc Monarchic cn tant quc tcllc, ncst pas rcmis cn qucstion.
La situation militairc pcndant lannc ++ amnc lc gouvcrncmcnt
lranais a rviscr scs objcctils a la baissc : lchcc dc locnsivc Nivcllc ct la
latiguc dcs troupcs lranaiscs, la catastrophc italicnnc a Caporctto, mais
surtout lcs rvolutions cn Russic pousscnt la Francc a la modration ct a
accordcr unc ccrtainc importancc aux initiativcs pacistcs du nouvcl cm
pcrcur autrichicn Charlcs !. Lors dcs pourparlcrs cntrc Charlcs ct son bcau
lrrc Sixtc dc 8ourbon, lc gouvcrncmcnt 8riand insistc, parmi lcs condi
tions pour unc paix sparc avcc lAutrichcHongric, sur la rcstauration dc
la Scrbic ct sur son accs a la mcr.
:+
ans cc momcnt dlicat, lc programmc
yougoslavc ntait mcmc pas a lordrc du jour : on cssaic plutt daaiblir
lAllcmagnc par unc paix sparc. Toutcs ccs ngociations (ArmandRc
vctcra, 8riandLackcn, SmutsMcndsdorl ) choucnt car alors quc lcs allis
vculcnt unc paix sparc avcc la oublc Monarchic, la diplomatic autrichi
cnnc rcchcrchc unc paix gnralc.
Lc changcmcnt dc la politiquc lranaisc ct allic cnvcrs la oublc
Monarchic intcrvicnt sculcmcnt cn avril ++8, ct ccla pour divcrscs raisons.
abord, commc on la vu, il scst avr impossiblc dc dtachcr la oublc
Monarchic dc son alliancc avcc lAllcmagnc par unc paix sparc. n plus,
la oublc Monarchic avait sign dcs traits dc paix avcc la Russic ct la Rou
manic, ct cn cscomptait lcs bnccs qui cn dcoulaicnt. Mais surtout pour
la prcmirc lois, dcs troupcs autrichicnncs lont lcur apparition sur lc lront
lranais lors dcs ocnsivcs Luddcndorl a partir dc mars ++8. Pour toutcs
ccs raisons la politiquc visant a aaiblir lAllcmagnc cn dtachant dcllc la
oublc Monarchic sc voit modicr, ct on cnvisagc pour la prcmirc lois
la dissolution dc lAutrichcHongric. n Francc la dmonstration dc ccttc
nouvcllc politiquc sc voit illustrc par la lamcusc polmiquc cntrc lc comtc
Czcrnin ct Clcmcnccau. Lc Ministrc dc Aaircs trangrcs dc la oublc
Monarchic accusait imprudcmmcnt Clcmcnccau davoir chcrch a conclurc
unc paix sparc. n guisc dc rponsc lc prsidcnt du Conscil public tout
dabord la lcttrc dun agcnt austrohongrois sollicitant lcs propositions
lranaiscs cn vuc dunc paix sparc. nsuitc, il rcnd publiquc la lcttrc dc
:o
Ibid., :8.
:+
Volldictcr 8ihl, La Mission dc mdiation dcs princcs Sixtc ct Xavicr dc 8our
bonParmc cn lavcur dc la paix , Guerres mondiales et conits contemporains XL!!!/+o
(+), , .
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +
lcmpcrcur Charlcs a son bcaulrrc Sixtc dc 8ourbonParmc dc mai ++.
Lc dcrnicr Habsbourg, dans sa missivc, tcntait dinstaurcr un climat lavor
ablc dans lcs pourparlcrs cn soutcnant lcs prtcntions lranaiscs sur lAlsacc
ct la Lorrainc.
::
c ccttc laon la rupturc cntrc lcs Allis ct la oublc Mon
archic tait consommc, tandis quc lcmpcrcur, lort compromis aux ycux dc
son alli allcmand, dcvait acccptcr toutc unc sric daccords liant dnitivc
mcnt lc dcstin dc son mpirc a cclui dc lAllcmagnc. Clcmcnccau, quant
a lui, dclarc lc :o avril a 8cnc quc pour lui laairc tchcoslovaquc tait
rglc ct quil cst prct a rcconnaitrc lc Conscil national Tchquc commc or
ganismc dc gouvcrncmcnt, ct dc lui accordcr lcs prrogativcs gouvcrncmcn
talcs.
:
but Mai ++8 Clcmcnccau ct Pichon inlormcnt la commission
parlcmcntairc sur laairc Czcrnin quc la Francc doit maintcnant inluc
tablcmcnt soutcnir lcs dcmandcs dautodtcrmination dcs nationalits dc
lAutrichcHongric.
:
Lc sort dc la oublc Monarchic sc voyait tranch ds lors quil dc
vcnait clair qucllc rcstait lic a lAllcmagnc : la dcision dc soutcnir lcs
nationalits qui y vivaicnt tait prisc, non sculcmcnt parcc quc lcur causc
tait jugc justc, mais parcc quc dans un momcnt crucial dc la gucrrc on
chcrchait par tous lcs moycns dc trouvcr dc nouvcllcs troupcs. Lc rlc dc la
Lgion tchquc cn Russic aprs larmisticc dc 8rcstLitowsk dmontrc bicn
limportancc quc lcnrlcmcnt dcs bataillons dc prisonnicrs tchqucs, po
lonais ou yougoslavcs pourraicnt avoir pour lcs Allis.
:
n mcmc tcmps, lcs
Allis csprcnt quc la nouvcllc politiquc cnvcrs lcs nationalits opprimcs
pourrait dmoraliscr lcs units tchqucs, slovaqucs, ct yougoslavcs combat
tant cncorc sous lc drapcau dcs Habsbourgs. Forcc cst dc constatcr quc lc
programmc yougoslavc dc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc na nullcmcnt inucnc la
dcision allic dapportcr son souticn aux nationalits vivant dans la Mon
archic dcs Habsbourgs.
:. La question de la Yougosla.ie dans l ombre italienne
cpuis la conclusion du trait dc Londrcs, la qucstion yougoslavc tait con
ditionnc non sculcmcnt par la survic dc la oublcMonarchic, mais aussi
par lcs aspirations italicnncs cn Adriatiquc ct dans lcs 8alkans. Lc Ministrc
dcs Aaircs trangrcs italicns, Sydncy Sonnino, dlcndait lcs clauscs du
trait dc Londrcs commc raison principalc dc lcntrc cn gucrrc dc l!talic.
::
J.8. uroscllc, Clemenceau (Fayard, +88), oo.
:
Ibid., 8+.
:
Stcvcnson, First !orld !ar, :+.
:
Stcvcnson, French !ar ims, +o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
ans ccttc pcrspcctivc son attitudc cnvcrs lc problmc yougoslavc rcvct unc
importancc primordialc. Sonnino tait partisan dunc cxpansion italicnnc
sur lcs rivcs oricntalcs dc lAdriatiquc. Mais pour autant il ntait pas lavor
ablc a la dissolution dc la oublc Monarchic. !l croyait quil aurait t bicn
plus avantagcux pour l!talic davoir commc voisin unc AutrichcHongric
aaiblic, quunc Yougoslavic jcunc ct vigourcusc, capablc dc lui disputcr la
primaut dans lAdriatiquc. Lobjcctil vritablc dc sa politiquc tait dc rcm
placcr linucncc politiquc ct conomiquc autrichicnnc dans lcs 8alkans
par linucncc italicnnc.
:6
Malgr scs viscs cxpansionnistcs, Sonnino tait
pcru commc lc mcillcur garant dc lalliancc dc l!talic avcc lntcntc. Ccla
donnait a sa politiquc ct scs aspirations unc importancc largcmcnt plus sig
nicativc au programmc yougoslavc du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc.
autrc part, avcc la cration du Comit Yougoslavc cn mai ++ par
lcs hommcs politiqucs originaircs dcs provinccs yougoslavcs dc lAutrichc
Hongric, la diplomatic lranaisc sc rcnd comptc dcs divcrgcnccs au scin
mcmc du camp yougoslavc au scns largc du mot. ntrc lc gouvcrncmcnt
scrbc dc Nikola Pai ct lc Conscil Yougoslavc dc Antc Trumbi, cxistcnt
dcs disscnsions sur lc caractrc ct lorganisation du lutur tat commun. Pai,
suivant lcs conccpts qui sc sont avrs valablcs dans lhistoirc scrbc prco
nisc la cration dun tat uniquc sous la couronnc dc Karadjordjcvi.
:
c
son ct Trumbi, par sa longuc cxpricncc dans lcs tractations cntrc lcs di
vcrscs nations au scin dc la Monarchic dcs Habsbourgs, pcnchait pour unc
ldration. Mais lcs dcux partics sc mcttcnt daccord, lors dc la Conlrcncc
dc Corlou cn ++, dc luttcr pour la cration dun tat dcs Slavcs du Sud,
sous lgidc dcs Karadjordjcvi, dont lorganisation intcrnc scrait dcidc
aprs la gucrrc. !l laut souligncr qua lpoquc lcs dcux hommcs dtat sont
daccord pour dirc quil ncxistc quun scul pcuplc yougoslavc avcc trois noms
dsignant trois tribus, Scrbcs, Croatcs, ct Slovncs. Ni lcs dircntcs cxpri
cnccs historiqucs, ni lcs dircnccs dc rcligion ou dc languc nc lcs amnc a
conclurc quil pourrait sagir dc nations dircntcs.
:8
Ccpcndant lcur cntcntc nc rsistc pas a lprcuvc du tcmps. Aprs lcs
victoircs allics cn t ++8, Trumbi souhaitc quc lc Comit Yougoslavc
soit rcconnu, a linstar du Conscil national Tchcoslovaquc, commc ayant lc
statut dc gouvcrncmcnt, ct la nation yougoslavc (rcconnuc dans la oublc
Monarchic) commc unc nation allic ct bclligrantc. Ccrtcs, lc gouvcrnc
mcnt Pai sopposc a cc quon rcconnaissc lcs Yougoslavcs, mais ccst lc vcto
italicn qui savrcra dcisil.
:6
Jamcs H. 8urgwyn, Sonnino at thc Paris Pcacc Conlcrcncc , Sonnino at thc Paris Pcacc Conlcrcncc , Sonnino at thc Paris Pcacc Conlcrcncc , ,, Storia delle rela.ioni
interna.ionali \!!/: (++), ::.
:
jordjc Stankovi, Nikola Pai i jugoslo.ensko pitanje ! (8clgradc, +8), :o::.
:8
\aliani, End of ustria-Hungary, +6.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +
Mcmc si la diplomatic lranaisc dplorc la mscntcntc cntrc lcs par
tics cngagcs, cllc nc pcut simmisccr car sa position ocicllc rcstc inchan
gc. La lignc dircctricc rcstc lc rcspcct du trait dc Londrcs tant quc l!talic
cllcmcmc nc dcmandc pas sa modication. autrc part, malgr lcs sympa
thics maintcs lois manilcstcs pour lcs Yougoslavcs, lintcrlocutcur privil
gi pour lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais rcstc Pai, dans sa capacit dc prsidcnt
du Conscil du gouvcrncmcnt alli, dont la loyaut a la causc allic a lait
scs prcuvcs lors dc quatrc anncs dunc gucrrc particulircmcnt prouvantc
pour lcs Scrbcs.
Pourtant lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais nc souticnt pas inconditionncllc
mcnt la vision scrbc dc la luturc Yougoslavic. Ccrtcs cn lvricr ++8 lc
gouvcrncmcnt lranais, par la voix dc son Ministrc dcs Aaircs trangrcs
Stphanc Pichon, cst prct a cmpcchcr la runion dunc asscmblc dcs You
goslavcs cn provcnancc dc la oublc Monarchic sur lc sol lranais. r, il
lc lait car : unc tcllc agitation nuirait a la lois a nos rclations avcc l!talic
ct a la causc scrbc .
:
cs dcux raisons voqucs, vidcmcnt ccst lalliancc
avcc !talic qui cst la principalc, mcmc si cn mars ++8 il scmblcrait quc
lcs rclations cntrc lcs !talicns ct lcs Yougoslavcs puisscnt samliorcr. Lcs
rcprscntants du ministrc dc propagandc italicn ct lcs mcmbrcs du Comit
Yougoslavc arrivcnt lc mars ++8 a Londrcs a un accord. Lcs dcux partics
acccptcnt quc la almatic soit partagc sclon lc principc dcs nationalits.
Lcs !talicns acccptcnt lunit ct lindpcndancc dc la Yougoslavic, tandis quc
lcs Yougoslavcs conscntcnt a lunion dc l!talic avcc lcs provinccs italicnncs
dc la oublc Monarchic.
o
Lc Congrs dcs nationalits opprimcs, cn avril
++8 a Romc souvrc donc sous lcs mcillcurs auspiccs.
La diplomatic lranaisc sc llicitc dc latmosphrc gnralc dcntcntc
qui rgnc, pcndant lc congrs, cntrc toutcs lcs partics intrcsscs. Lc changc
mcnt dc la politiquc italicnnc scxpliquc par la condition dicilc dc son ar
mc aprs la dlaitc dc Caporctto, qui la poussc a modrcr scs aspirations
tcrritorialcs ct a amliorcr scs rclations avcc lcs Yougoslavcs. Nanmoins,
baron Sonnino rcstc intransigcant ct rclusc dc pcrmcttrc quc lc Congrs
sc prononcc pour lindpcndancc dcs nations opprimcs dc lAutrichc
Hongric. !l dclarc a Ambassadcur lranais a Romc, Camillc 8arrrc, quc
ccla signicrait labandon du trait dc Londrcs.
+
Ainsi lc dcalagc cntrc
la politiquc ocicusc, mcnc par lc Ministrc dc la propagandc italicn, ct
:
Pichon a Fontcnay, Paris, :o.:.+8, AMA, Gucrrc ++++8, 8alkans, Scrbic, vol.
88.
o
Kcnncth Cladcr, Britain and the Origins of the Ne. Europe (Cambridgc Univcrsity
Prcss, +6), +8o.
+
8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, +..++8, n8+8, AMA, Gucrrc ++++8, Autrichc,
vol. +6+.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8o
ccllc ocicllc du baron Sonnino, apparait au grand jour. Lc vrai objcctil
du congrs dc Romc, pour lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn, ncst pas laccord avcc
lcs nationalits dc la oublc Monarchic, mais la volont dc donncr unc
imprcssion dcntcntc avcc cllcs visant a diminucr la volont dc combattrc dc
lcur conationaux sur lc lront italicn.
Sur lc plan intricur yougoslavc, la diplomatic lranaisc suivait avcc
inquitudc lc conit opposant lc gouvcrncmcnt Pai dun cot, ct Trumbi
ct lcs Yougoslavcs dc lautrc, sans pour autant prcndrc parti. Trumbi soup autrc, sans pour autant prcndrc parti. Trumbi soup autrc, sans pour autant prcndrc parti. Trumbi soup
onnait Pai dctrc dabord intrcss par lunion dcs Scrbcs.
:
c son ct
Pai rcdoutait quc lcs aspirations tcrritorialcs dc Trumbi ct dcs Yougo
slavcs sur Tricstc ct l!stric, rcndraicnt impossiblc un accord avcc lcs !tal
icns.

Lc sort dc lAdriatiquc du Nord tait au cocur dcs accusations portcs


contrc Pai. Lcs amis dc Trumbi lc souponnaicnt davoir conclu un ac
cord avcc lc baron Sonnino lors dc lcurs cntrcticns cn ++, cn sacriant lcs
intrcts yougoslavcs au prot dc ccux strictcmcnt scrbcs. n cct, lors dc
lcur rcncontrc du +o scptcmbrc ++ a Romc, Pai proposc a Sonnino dc
cdcr a l!talic la villc dc Tricstc, la partic occidcntalc dc l!stric avcc Pola, lcs
ilcs dc Mali Loinj ct \is, ct lc port dc \allonna cn Albanic. Unc solution
prcsquc idcntiquc scra proposc par lc prsidcnt amricain lors du Congrs
dc la paix. r, Sonnino considrc quc lcs conccssions proposcs sont loin
dctrc susantcs, car avcc lintgration du Montngro, lc contrlc sur lc
mont Lovcn ct lcs 8ouchcs dc Kotor, lcs Yougoslavcs prscntcnt, a son avis,
unc mcnacc pour la scurit dc l!talic. autrc part, il considrc impossiblc
lc marchandagc sur lc sort dc l!stric, rgion sclon lui italicnnc cn tout cas.
c manirc gnralc, lc Ministrc italicn croyait quaprs la claration dc
Corlou, prvoyant la cration dun tat commun dcs Slavcs du Sud, aucun
accord ntait plus possiblc. Sclon cc dcrnicr il lallait quc, au pralablc, lcs
Scrbcs rcconnaisscnt la validit du pactc dc Londrcs, rcvcnant ainsi aux cn
gagcmcnts pris a Corlou.

!gnorant lissuc dcs pourparlcrs PaiSonnino,


Trumbi ct lcs Yougoslavcs avcrtisscnt a plusicurs rcpriscs lc Quai drsay
dc lcxistcncc possiblc dun accord cntrc l!talic ct la Scrbic, cc quc a dcux
rcpriscs cn novcmbrc ++8 8arrrc dmcnt lormcllcmcnt.

:
8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, +o..++8, Anncxc, notc dc Charlcs Loiscau, AMA, Gucr
rc ++++8, 8alkans, Scrbic, vol. 8.

Fontcnay a Pichon, Corlou, ..++8, n8+, AMA, Gucrrc, ++++8, 8alkans,


Scrbic, vol. 8.

Pictro Pastorclli, Sonnino, Diario !!! (Latcrza, +:), +o+.

8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, +.++.++8, n::, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct dc Mont
ngro, +.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +8+
ans cc dbat cntrc Scrbcs ct Yougoslavcs, lcnvoy lranais auprs
du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc, lc \icomtc dc Fontcnay, tcnait dcs propos un pcu
particulicrs par rapport a la position ocicllc dc son gouvcrncmcnt. Avant
tout, il voyait dans lunion dcs Scrbcs ct dcs Yougoslavcs un moycn dc lairc
barragc a linucncc allcmandc dans lcs 8alkans. Ctait lc critrc, pour
lui, dc jugcr lcs avantagcs pour la Francc dcs dircnts modcs dunion dcs
Yougoslavcs. Ccst ainsi quil sopposc ouvcrtcmcnt a toutc solution triali
stc au scin dc la oublc Monarchic, car sclon lui cllc soumcttrait aussi lcs
Scrbcs a linucncc du gcrmanismc au licu dcn pargncr lcs Yougoslavcs.
Par contrc, il cst convaincu quunc Yougoslavic indpcndantc ct lortc nc
pourrait ctrc quunc : diguc puissantc ct rsistantc contrc toutc poussc
gcrmaniquc vcrs lst ct vcrs lAdriatiquc .
6
La thsc dc Fontcnay, a part
son caractrc antiallcmand, dcvait lournir largumcntation nccssairc pour
convaincrc l!talic dc modicr son attitudc antiyougoslavc. nsuitc, lc cas
chant, cllc dcvait valoriscr limportancc dc cc lutur tat par rapport a
lalliancc italicnnc. Ccpcndant, la diplomatic lranaisc ntait pas prctc a
acccptcr unc modication dans scs allianccs, dabord a causc dcs obligations
priscs cnvcrs son allic, mais surtout vu quc limportancc dc lcort militairc
italicn scrait largcmcnt supricur a cclui dc la Scrbic.
Lc problmc majcur pour lcs Scrbcs ct lcs Yougoslavcs rcstait donc,
cncorc ct toujours, lopposition italicnnc. Lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn tait a
loriginc dc la vaguc dclaration du Conscil suprcmc dcs Allis du juin
++8. A ccttc occasion lcs Allis avaicnt cxprim sculcmcnt lcur sympathic
pour la volont dcs Yougoslavcs ct Tchcoslovaqucs dc raliscr lcurs aspira
tions nationalcs. tant donn quc lcs lormulcs adoptcs taicnt incompltcs
a causc dc la position italicnnc, lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais avait lintcntion
dacccntucr lcs dmonstrations qui lui paraisscnt indispcnsablcs pour cn
couragcr lcs Tchqucs ct lcs Yougoslavcs a prcndrc a lintricur dc la Mon
archic austrohongroisc unc attitudc pcrmancntc dc rvoltc .

Cc sont lcs
Tchcoslovaqucs qui protaicnt surtout dc ccttc rsolution lranaisc, car
lc : juin ++8, dans unc lcttrc dc Pichon a 8cns, lc gouvcrncmcnt dc
la Rpubliquc avait rcconnu lc Conscil National Tchcoslovaquc commc
rcprscntant ocicl dc ccttc nation ct commc basc dc son lutur gouvcrnc
mcnt.
8

La rcconnaissancc ocicllc ct publiquc dc la nation Tchcoslovaquc
cn sa qualit dalli intcrvicnt pcndant lt ++8, provoquant ainsi lcs dc
6
Fontcnay a Picon, Corlou, +6..++8, n8, AMA, Gucrrc, ++++8, 8alkans,
Scrbic, vol. 8.

Pichon a 8arrrc, Paris, 6.6.++8, n+:, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,


Autrichc, vol. .
8
Hovi, Cordon sanitaire, +o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8:
mandcs dcs Yougoslavcs ct Scrbcs pour unc mcmc dmarchc cn lcur la
vcur. La manirc dans laqucllc lcurs dcmandcs sont prscntcs tait cn soi
lobstaclc majcur. Lc Comit yougoslavc ct lc gouvcrncmcnt Pai ont, aprs
lcs victoircs allics sur lc lront occidcntal, chacun dc son ct soumis lcur
dcmandc, chcrchant dc sc prscntcr indpcndammcnt lcs uns dcs autrcs,
commc tant lcs sculs rcprscntants dcs Yougoslavcs vivant dans la oublc
Monarchic.
Lc prsidcnt du Conscil Scrbc dclara a Fontcnay quil avait lintcntion
dc chargcr scs Ministrcs a Paris ct a Londrcs dc dcmandcr aux gouvcrnc
mcnts allis dc lairc unc dclaration cn lavcur dc la Yougoslavic, analoguc
a ccllc quils avaicnt laitc pour rcconnaitrc la nation Tchcoslovaquc. Pai
surtout insistait quc lcs allis rcconnaisscnt la Scrbic commc lc rcprscntant
ocicl dc la Yougoslavic, car sclon lui, la Scrbic dcvrait ctrc lc pivot autour
duqucl sc groupcront lcs lmcnts yougoslavcs. Pour soutcnir sa dcmandc,
Pai lournit a Fontcnay toutc unc argumcntation dont lobjcctil tait dc
dmontrcr quc la Yougoslavic lormc autour dc la Scrbic rcstcrait dlc a
lntcntc autant quc ltait la Scrbic pcndant la gucrrc. Par contrc si lcs Al
lis rcconnaisscnt lc Comit Yougoslavc commc rcprscntant dc la nation
Yougoslavc soumisc aux Habsbourgs, ils risqucnt dc voir naitrc dcux tats
dcs Slavcs dc Sud, dont loccidcntal rcstcrait surcmcnt sous linucncc dcs
Habsbourg ct du gcrmanismc.

Mcmc sil dcmandc la rcconnaissancc dc


la Scrbic commc pivot du lutur tat, Pai prvoyait dc consultcr lcs prin
cipaux intrcsss, a savoir lcs Scrbcs, lcs Croatcs ct lcs Slovncs, lorsquils
scraicnt librs, an quils puisscnt cxprimcr lcur volont dc sunir ou non
avcc la Scrbic. !l aurait t nccssairc aussi dc connaitrc lissuc du conit tcr
ritorial avcc l!talic.
o
n rcvanchc, Trumbi souhaitait unc rcconnaissancc
immdiatc du Comit dc Londrcs commc scul rcprscntant dcs Yougo
slavcs vivant cncorc dans la oublc Monarchic.
+
Ccttc cacophonic yougoslavc incitc la diplomatic lranaisc a dc
mandcr lavis du Forcign cc avant dc donncr unc rponsc a Pai.
:

Lambassadcur lranais a Londrcs, Paul Cambon, scntrcticnt a sc sujct
avcc Lord Robcrt Cccil, Sccrtairc Adjoint du Forcign cc, qui cstimait
dabord quaucunc dcision a propos dc la Yougoslavic nc pouvait ctrc prisc

Fontcnay a Pichon, vian, :6.8.++8 ct :.8.++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8


+o, Autrichc, vol. o.
o
Fontcnay a Pichon, vian, ..++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc,
vol. o.
+
Notc dc commissairc divisionnairc dAnncmassc sur lc sjour dc Pai a vian, Annc
massc, ..++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc, vol. o.
:
Pichon a Paul Cambon, Paris, ..++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autri
chc, vol. o.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +8
sans un accord pralablc avcc l!talic. c plus, il soulignait lcs dircnccs
cntrc lc Comit Yougoslavc ct lc Comit Tchquc, car lc souticn pour lc
Comit yougoslavc ntait pas unanimc, ct scs troupcs taicnt quasimcnt
incxistantcs. n consqucncc Cccil conscillait unc cxtrcmc prudcncc avant
dc donncr dcs cspoirs a Trumbi pour la rcconnaissancc dc son Comit.

Lavis du gouvcrncmcnt britanniquc tait conlormc aux vucs du Quai


drsay. ans sa rponsc a Pai, Pichon insistait sur lc lait quc tant quil
ncxistait pas un accord cntrc lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc ct lc Comit yougo
slavc, toutc dclaration allic lcs obligcrait nccssaircmcnt dc lairc un choix
cntrc lcs dcux partics intrcsscs ct ainsi dc suscitcr lcs divisions avcc dcs
consqucnccs nlastcs. Pichon assura Pai quc la Francc naccordcrait pas
la rcconnaissancc du Comit yougoslavc, an dvitcr dc provoqucr lc m
contcntcmcnt dc la Scrbic. n rcvanchc, il cstimait quc la Francc nc pouvait
pas non plus accordcr son souticn ocicl a unc Yougoslavic lormc autour
dc la Scrbic, car ccla donncrait loccasion aux Autrichicns dc lairc unc pro
pagandc cn lavcur dc la ldralisation dc lcmpirc, ct dc cc lait dcmpcchcr la
naissancc dc la Yougoslavic. n consqucncc, la Francc sc rclusait dc choisir
cntrc lcs dcux groupcs dcs Yougoslavcs, pour nc pas salincr lun ou lautrc.
n mcmc tcmps lc gouvcrncmcnt dc la Rpubliquc nc pouvait pas non
plus ngligcr lopposition italicnnc ct provoqucr lopinion publiquc cn !talic
par unc dclaration cn lavcur dcs Yougoslavcs. La condition pour unc tcllc
dclaration rcstait, pour Pichon, surtout lunit dc vucs cntrc lcs Yougo
slavcs cuxmcmcs ct lcntcntc cntrc cux ct lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn. Pichon
considrait lc gouvcrncmcnt amricain commc trs bicn plac pour joucr
lc rlc darbitrc dans lc contcnticux italoyougoslavc. n mcmc tcmps il
soulignait quc ccttc attitudc du gouvcrncmcnt lranais nc mcttait pas cn
doutc scs sympathics cnvcrs lcs Yougoslavcs ni son souhait dc voir unc You
goslavic unic constituant unc barrirc aux avanccs du gcrmanismc, mais
la prudcncc tait nccssairc pour nc pas provoqucr dcs disscnsions au scin
dcs Allis. n mcmc tcmps Pai tait inlorm quc lors dc la Conlrcncc
dcs Allis a Londrcs il avait t convcnu quil ny aurait pas dc discussions
politiqucs sur lcs lrontircs cntrc l!talic ct la Yougoslavic, ct quc linitiativc
dcs allis cnvcrs la Yougoslavic appartcnait a l!talic.

Lhypothquc italicnnc pcsait dc tout son poids sur la qucstion you


goslavc, malgr la dclaration italicnnc du + scptcmbrc ++8, par laqucllc
lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn acccptait cn principc lcxistcncc dun tat yougo
slavc sous condition quil nc contrcvicnnc pas aux articlcs du trait dc Lon

Cambon a Pichon, Londrcs, ..++8, n6:8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,


vol. o.

Pichon a dc Fontcnay, Paris, +o..++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, You


goslavic, vol. +.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
drcs.

ans ccttc pcrspcctivc la visitc dc Pai a Paris du :o scptcmbrc ++8


nc donna pas lcs rsultats cscompts. Lors dc son cntrcvuc avcc Pai, Pi
chon rclusa mcmc dc commcntcr scs dcmandcs pour la rcconnaissancc dcs
Yougoslavcs.
6
Lc Prsidcnt dc la Rpubliquc, Raymond Poincar conscillc
dabord a Fontcnay lors dunc audicncc privc, puis a Pai, quon prcnnc
dabord dcs mcsurcs provisoircs ncngagcant pas lavcnir dc lutur tat You
goslavc, car il croyait quavant lunion dnitivc il scrait nccssairc dc con
sultcr lcs populations cn organisant un plbiscitc. Lc prsidcnt du Conscil,
Gcorgc Clcmcnccau, quant a lui, pcnsait quc lunion yougoslavc sc lcrait
sculcmcnt avcc lc tcmps.


Fontcnay sc voyait lorc dc conclurc quc lcs dirigcants lranais
navaicnt pas dc solution pour lc dilcmmc , unc Scrbic agrandic ou un tat
yougoslavc.
8
Limportancc quc lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn accordait au trait
dc Londrcs ct lcs disscnsions au scin dcs Yougoslavcs lcs cmpcchaicnt dc
lairc unc dmarchc diplomatiquc cn lavcur dcs Yougoslavcs.

Pour lcs hom


mcs dtat lranais lunion dcs Scrbcs ct Yougoslavcs rcstait unc lointainc
possibilit, ct cntrctcmps ils voulaicnt surtout sassurcr du souticn scrbc a
la prochainc ocnsivc allic sur lc lront dc Saloniquc.
o
. La France et la naissance du Foyaume des Serbes, Croates et Slo.nes
Lcs ocnsivcs allics sur lc lront occidcntal ct sur cclui dc Saloniquc dc
scptcmbrc ++8 obligcnt lcs pouvoirs Ccntraux a dcmandcr la ccssation dcs
hostilits. Limmincntc dlaitc dc la oublc Monarchic pcrmct larticulation
dc la volont politiquc dcs Scrbcs, Croatcs ct Slovncs dc sc sparcr dc la
oublc Monarchic. n octobrc ++8, ils crcnt unc rcprscntation poli
tiquc, Narodno vcc SHS, qui dcmandc lunion dc tous lcs Yougoslavcs
partout o ils vivcnt. Lcur position scst radicalisc lorsquils apprcnncnt
quc lc prsidcnt Vilson cstimc quc lc choix dc lcur dcstin lcur apparticnt
dsormais. Ainsi, lc : octobrc ++8, lc Narodno vcc SHS rompt oci

Notc dc MA, Paris, +..++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Travaux prpara
toircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct dc Montngro, :.
6
Comptc rcnduc dc Fontcnay dc la convcrsation cntrc Pai ct Pichon, AMA, Papicr
dAgcnts, Archivc Privcs, Fontcnay, , vol. +o.

Fontcnay comptc rcndu dcs convcrsations dc Pai avcc Poincar ct Clcmcnccau,


Paris, :+..++8, AMA, Papicr dAgcnts, Archivc Privcs, Fontcnay, , vol. +o.
8
Ibid., rcmarquc dc Fontcnay.

Pichon a 8arrrc, Paris, o..++8, n:6, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,


Autrichc, vol. +.
o
Notc dc Pichon sur lcntrcticn avcc Milcnko \csni, lcnvoy scrbc a Paris, AMA,
Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc, vol. o.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +8
cllcmcnt tous lcs licns avcc la oublc Monarchic. Lc Narodno vcc SHS
sautoproclamc cn tat SHS dans lcs limitcs dcs lrontircs dcs provinccs
yougoslavcs dc la oublc Monarchic lc + octobrc ++8, ct lc mcmc jour il
prcnd lc contrlc dc la marinc autrichicnnc.
+
Lcs dvcloppcmcnts politiquc a lintricur dc la oublc Monarchic
ct lavancc dc lArmc Scrbc cn Macdoinc ct cn Scrbic ont considrablc
mcnt inucnc lcs positions dcs dcux courants qui sc disputaicnt lc droit
dunir lcs Slavcs dc Sud. La cration dunc rcprscntation dcs Slavcs du Sud
cn AutrichcHongric obligc Pai a modicr sa position ct a accordcr unc
placc galc a lcurs rcprscntants dans la cration dc ltat commun. Lcs
ractions dcs hommcs dtat lranais ct britanniqucs lors dc sa visitc a Lon
drcs dbut octobrc, ont convaincu Pai quc sa conccption dc la Yougoslavic
londc sur lc soclc scrbc ncst pas acccptc dans lcs capitalcs allics. sor
mais il souticnt quc lc mcillcur londcmcnt pour un tat dcs Slavcs dc Sud
cst la dclaration dc Corlou. La position privilgic du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc
commc actcur rcconnu dc la vic intcrnationalc ct bclligrant dc la prcmirc
hcurc, scstompait ainsi au prot dc lunion londc sur laccord dcs dcux par
tics galcs, lc Comit Yougoslavc ct lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc. A la dcmandc
dc Pai, lcs ministrcs scrbcs dcmandcnt quc lcs allis lasscnt unc dclara
tion rcconnaissant lcs Scrbcs ct lcs Yougoslavcs commc nations allics, ct
lavorisant lcur union dans un tat librc ct dmocratiquc.
:
Pichon ntait
pas prct a allcr audcla dcs dclarations prcdcntcs, car il craignait quunc
dclaration lavorisant lunion dcs Yougoslavcs dAutrichc avcc la Scrbic ris
qucrait dc crcr un malcntcndu dc naturc a indisposcr unc grandc partic
dcs Yougoslavcs qui craigncnt, dc la part du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc, unc tcnta
tivc pour sanncxcr lcs autrcs populations slavcs du Sud, sans sc proccupcr
dc dircnccs dc rcligion ct dc culturc .

Lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn tait


vidcmcnt daccord avcc Pichon quil nc lallait lairc aucunc dclaration cn
lavcur dcs Yougoslavcs.

Lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn scra dsormais un advcrsairc bicn plus rcd


outablc pour Trumbi (mcmc si sa position sc voyait considrablcmcnt rcn
lorcc grcc au souticn dc scs collgucs a Zagrcb), quc ntaicnt jadis Pai ct
lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc. Locnsivc dc larmc italicnnc sur lc lront autrich
+
8ogdan Krizman, Faspad ustro-Ugarske i st.aranje jugosla.enske dra.e (Zagrcb
+), 6+:+.
:
Pichon a 8arrrc, Paris, +.+o.++8, n:o, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,
Autrichc, vol. +, Stankovi, Nikola Pai, :66.

Pichon a 8arrrc, Paris, +.+o.++8, n:o, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,


Autrichc, vol. +.

8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, +.+o.++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc,


vol. +.
8alcanica XXX\!! +86
icn tait conuc commc la ralisation dcs aspirations tcrritorialcs italicnncs,
ct ainsi la coursc pour lcs tcrritoircs sur la rivc gauchc dc lAdriatiquc tait
ouvcrtc. Lobjcctil principal dc Trumbi dornavant scra dc dlcndrc lcs in
trcts du nouvcl tat dcs Scrbcs, Croatcs ct Slovncs (dans lc cadrc dc la
oublc Monarchic) lacc aux prtcntions italicnncs, lors dcs pourparlcrs sur
larmisticc avcc lAutrichcHongric. Pour quil soit cn mcsurc dc lc lairc,
il dcmandc quc lcs allis rcconnaisscnt lcs Slavcs du Sud dc la Monarchic
dcs Habsbourg commc nation allic, ct lc Comit yougoslavc commc son
rcprscntant cn pays allis.

Pai, quant a lui, scst dcid a allcr plus loin cn chcrchant a donncr
a sa dmarchc un aspcct plus yougoslavc ct moins cxclusivcmcnt scrbc. Lors
du rcmanicmcnt du cabinct scrbc, ct a linitiativc dc lopposition scrbc, il a
acccpt dc prcndrc trois rcprscntants dcs Yougoslavcs dc la oublc Monar
chic, un Slovnc, un Croatc ct un Scrbc, dans lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc.
6
Son
objcctil tait dc ncutraliscr laction dcs Yougoslavcs ct notammcnt Trumbi,
puisquil a cxprim lc souhait quc lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais conscillc a cc
dcrnicr dacccptcr linvitation dc participcr au gouvcrncmcnt dc conccntra
tion nationalc.

Lcroulcmcnt vidcnt dc la oublc Monarchic ct la cration im


mincntc du nouvcl tat rcgroupant tout ou partic dcs Slavcs dc Sud, in
citcnt la diplomatic ct lcs hommcs dtat lranais a imagincr sa placc dans
luropc ct son importancc pour la Francc. Ccs considrations gostrat
giqucs nc sc traduiscnt pas dans unc politiquc ocicllc lranaisc, qui rcstait
toujours prudcntc tout cn rcspcctant lcs obligations priscs cnvcrs l!talic.
Ainsi lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais nc voulait pas simmisccr dans la politiquc
intcrnc yougoslavc, ct cn consqucncc il sc rclusait a donncr dcs conscils a
Trumbi pour quil cntrc dans lc nouvcau gouvcrncmcnt Scrbc.
8
Lc gou
vcrncmcnt lranais ntait pas prct non plus a acccptcr lcs dcmandcs rit
rcs dc Trumbi lors dc scs rcncontrcs avcc Julcs Larochc (souschcl dc la
ircction dc luropc au Quai drsay) lc o octobrc, ct lc + octobrc avcc
Philipc 8crthclot (adjoint du ircctcur dc la ircction politiquc ct Com
mcrcialc). Trumbi dcmandait quc la diplomatic lranaisc choisissc cntrc
lcs obligations priscs cnvcrs l!talic, qui prvoyaicnt loccupation italicnnc dc
tous lcs tcrritoircs prvus par lc trait dc Londrcs, ct la rcconnaissancc du
nouvcl tat SHS compos dcs ancicnncs provinccs yougoslavcs dc la oublc

Trumbi a Pichon, Londrcs, :8.+o.++8, AMA, Sric APaix, Travaux prparatoircs


a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol. :, .
6
Stankovi, Nikola Pai, :6.

Fontcnay a Pichon, Paris, :+.+o. ++8 ct ::.+o.++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8
+o, Yougoslavic, vol. +.
8
8crthclot a Fontcnay, Paris, :8.+o.++8, AMA, Sric Z, Yougoslavic, vol. +.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +8
Monarchic. Pour Larochc ct 8crthclot lc dilcmmc ncxistait pas. La Francc
sc dcvait dc rcspcctcr sa parolc, ct lcs ngociations sur larmisticc, com
mcnccs lc : octobrc, sc droulcnt sans la participation dcs Yougoslavcs.
c plus, lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais considrait quunc cntcntc cntrc Scrbcs
ct Yougoslavcs tait nccssairc avant quunc dclaration cn lcur lavcur puissc
ctrc cnvisagc.

Ni Larochc ni 8crthclot nignoraicnt lcxistcncc du contcn


ticux divisant lcs Yougoslavcs, mais ils nc souhaitcnt pas avoir a joucr lc rlc
darbitrcs. !ls avaicnt bcaucoup dcstimc pour Pai vu sa dlit a la causc
allic, mais pour autant ils ncnvisagcaicnt point dc soutcnir sa conccption
dc lunion Yougoslavc. 8crthclot scmprcssc dassurcr Trumbi quc lc gou
vcrncmcnt lranais, dc la manirc la plus lormcllc, avait lintcntion dc laisscr
toutc latitudc aux pcuplcs yougoslavcs pour organiscr lcur indpcndancc. Lc
gouvcrncmcnt lranais nc voulait absolumcnt pas sc prctcr aux vucs par
ticulircs dc la Scrbic, ct lc momcnt vcnu, il tait dcid dassurcr la libcrt
nccssairc aux Yougoslavcs pour quils puisscnt sc prononccr sur lcur sort. A
propos du contcnticux tcrritorial avcc l!talic, 8crthclot conscillc claircmcnt
a Trumbi dc sollicitcr laidc du gouvcrncmcnt amricain, qui lui navait pris
aucun cngagcmcnt cnvcrs l!talic.
6o
Pour la diplomatic lranaisc il tait vidcnt quc lc vcto italicn tait
la raison principalc qui lcmpcchait dc rcconnaitrc ocicllcmcnt lc nouvcl
tat. Limportancc accordc a lalliancc avcc l!talic tait conrmc lors du
Conscil Alli (: octobrc novcmbrc ++8) sur lcs conditions darmisticc.
Clcmcnccau tait daccord quc larmisticc avcc lAutrichcHongric pr
voyait loccupation italicnnc dc tous lcs tcrritoircs qui lui avaicnt t accor
ds par lc trait dc Londrcs.
6+
Lors dcs discussions sur lc sort dc la marinc
autrichicnnc, lc Prsidcnt du Conscil va mcmc plus loin. !l promct lormcl
lcmcnt a rlando quc lc gouvcrncmcnt dc la Rpubliquc nc rcconnaitra
aucun Comit Yougoslavc (cn consqucncc pas lc nouvcl tat SHS) avant
lcxcution dcs conditions dc larmisticc. n contrcpartic lc prcmicr ministrc
italicn promct dcnvoycr la ottc autrichicnnc sous drapcau blanc a Corlou
pour y ctrc misc a quai.
6:

Notc dc MA sur lcs convcrsations dc Larochc avcc Trumbi, Paris, :8.+o.++8,


AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc, vol. +.
6o
Notc sur lcs convcrsations cntrc 8crthclot ct Trumbi, Paris, +.+o.++8, AMA,
Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc, vol. +.
6+
Convcrsations cntrc Clcmcnccau, Lloyd Gcorgc, rlando ct Marchal Foch au do
micilc parisicn du Coloncl Housc, Paris, +.+o.++8, AMA, Sric Y, !ntcrnationalc
++8+o, vol. +.
6:
Clcmcnccau a rlando, Paris, 6.++.++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Travaux
prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol.
:6, .
8alcanica XXX\!! +88
Ccst la misc cn application dc larmisticc avcc lAutrichcHongric,
ct non la qucstion yougoslavc, qui cst a loriginc du dircnd lrancoitalicn
apparu cn novcmbrc ++8. La marinc italicnnc scmparc dc la ottc au
trichicnnc, laqucllc tait dcpuis lc + octobrc aux mains dcs rcprscntants
dc Narodno vcc SHS, ct rclusc dhonorcr laccord Clcmcnccaurlando
dc lcnvoycr a Corlou. Unc lois arrivc a Pola ct dans lcs autrcs ports au
trichicns, la marinc italicnnc prcnd lc contrlc dc la ottc autrichicnnc, cn
cxpliquant quc laccord cst valablc sculcmcnt pour la priodc avant la misc
cn application dc larmisticc.
6
Qui plus cst, lcs amiraux italicns chcrchcnt
a cxclurc lcs navircs lranais du nord dc lAdriatiquc, prs dc la basc navalc
autrichicnnc dc Pola.
6
Lattitudc dc la marinc italicnnc obligc lc prsidcnt
du Conscil italicn a lairc dcs cxcuscs lormcllcs au gouvcrncmcnt lranais,
mais pour autant la qucstion dc la ottc autrichicnnc ntait pas rglc.
6

ans lc dircnd qui opposc par la suitc lcs dcux gouvcrncmcnts, il na ja
mais t qucstion quc la Francc rcnoncc aux obligations priscs ct cllc sc scrt
dc la rcconnaissancc dcs Yougoslavcs commc unc mcnacc (cc quc rlando
rcdoutait) pour lairc plicr lc gouvcrncmcnt italicn. Unc dcs raisons tait
lcs aspirations tcrritorialcs dcs yougoslavcs sur Tricstc ct l!stric, car sclon
lavis dc lambassadcur 8arrrc, si la Francc lcs soutcnait, cllc risquait dc sc
brouillcr dnitivcmcnt avcc l!talic.
66
Lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais sc bornc
a souligncr quc laccord cntrc lcs dcux prsidcnts du conscil cst intcrvcnu
aprs quc lcs tcrmcs dc larmisticc avcc lAutrichcHongric avaicnt t tab
lis, ct quc dc cc lait il dcvrait avoir la prsancc.
6
La solution dc la qucstion
pincusc tait nalcmcnt rcmisc a unc commission damiraux allis sigcant
a \cnisc.
68
6
Sonnino a rlando, Romc, 8.++.++8, Documenti Diplomatici italiani (!), sric \!,
++8+::, vol. !, doc. +, pp. :, :6.
6
Pichon a 8arrrc, Paris, ++.++.++8, n6, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montn
gro, vol. :6, ++.
6
rlando a 8onin Longarc, Romc, +.++.++8, !, sric \!, ++8+::, vol. !, doc.
+, 6.
66
8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, .++.++8, n:68, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montn
gro, vol. :6, +o8.
6
Lc comptc rcndu dc lcntrcticn cntrc Pichon ct 8onin Longarc, dans : 8onin Longarc
a Sonnino, Paris, ++.++.++8, !, sric \!, ++8+::, vol. !, doc. +o+, p. , .
68
8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, +:.++.++8, n:+, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montn
gro, vol. :6, +.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +8
Un autrc aspcct dc la misc cn application dc larmisticc avcc lAutrichc
Hongric tait la raison dc lcngagcmcnt lranais dans lcs rapports cntrc lcs
!talicns ct lc Narodno vcc dc Zagrcb ct lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc. ans lcs
clauscs militaircs dc larmisticc il tait stipul quc lcs allis pcuvcnt occupcr
tous lcs tcrritoircs jusqua la lignc dlimitant lcs tcrritoircs accords a l!talic
par lc trait dc Londrcs, mais aussi tous lcs autrcs tcrritoircs si nccssairc
au mainticn dc lordrc.
6
Protant dc ccttc possibilit, lcs troupcs italicnncs
avanccnt largcmcnt audcla dc la lignc tablic par larmisticc, ct dcvant la
villc dc Ljubljana cllcs sc trouvcnt lacc aux volontaircs ct prisonnicrs scrbcs
mobiliss par lc Narodno vcc pour lcur barrcr la routc.
o
n plus, lc princc
Alcxandrc cn sa capacit dc commandant suprcmc dc larmc scrbc dc
mandc lintcrvcntion du Marchal Foch pour arrctcr lavancc dc larmc it
alicnnc, ct il lait mcmc savoir au gouvcrncmcnt lranais quil cst prct a aidcr
militaircmcnt lc Narodno vcc si unc tcllc dcmandc lui cst soumisc.
+
Lc
risquc dc conit arm cntrc lcs troupcs scrbcs ct larmc italicnnc incitc lc
gouvcrncmcnt lranais a proposcr unc solution pour ccttc situation lchc
usc, consqucncc, sclon lc Quai drsay, dcs ambitions dmcsurcs dcs !tal
icns. !ls scmbl|c|nt traitcr lcs Yougoslavcs cn pays conquis ct cnncmi .
:

Ainsi lc +6 novcmbrc Pichon proposc quc lcs troupcs allics doccupation
dans lcs ancicnncs provinccs yougoslavcs dc la oublc Monarchic soicnt cn
principc mixtcs (lranais, anglais, scrbc, italicn ct amricain). !l tait stipul
quc sculcmcnt dans lcs tcrritoircs prvus par lc trait dc Londrcs, lc com
mandcmcnt scrait italicn ct quil ny aurait pas dc troupcs scrbcs. ans tous
lcs autrcs tcrritoircs, lcs troupcs doccupation dcs tcrritoircs yougoslavcs sc
ront lormcs dc contingcnts allis sous lc commandcmcnt dc gnral Fran
chct dspcrcy.

La propositions lranaisc cst acccptc par lc prsidcnt du


Conscil italicn, sous condition quc lcs troupcs allics soit prlcvcs parmi
ccllcs qui sont dja sur placc (larmc d!talic ou larmc dricnt, cartant
ainsi larrivc dcs troupcs amricaincs), ct quc lc commandcmcnt italicn ait
6
Conditions dun armisticc avcc lAutrichcHongric, \crsaillcs, +.+o.++8, AMA,
Sric Y, !ntcrnationalc ++8+o, vol. +, .
o
Franchct dspcrcy a Marchal Foch, Saloniquc, +.++.++8, no: ct o, AMA,
Sric APaix +++:o, Travaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc
la Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol. :6, +o.
+
Franchct dspcrcy a Marchal Foch, Saloniquc, +.++.++8, no, AMA, Sric
APaix +++:o, Travaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la
Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol. :6, +.
:
Pichon a 8arrrc, Paris, +6.++.++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Travaux pr
paratoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol.
:6, ++.

Ibid.
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
la dircction dc scs occupations mixtcs.

Larmc italicnnc acccptc dicilc


mcnt la solution proposc par lc Quai drsay. Par cxcmplc, il laut lui lairc
comprcndrc quc lcs lorccs doccupation allics au Montngro doivcnt ctrc
mixtcs, ct quc larmc scrbc pcut cn lairc partic. Mcmc ccttc solution cst
dicilc a appliqucr car, par cxcmplc, lcs troupcs italicnncs scmparcnt dc la
villc dc Fiumc, mcmc si cc ntait pas prvu par lc trait dc Londrcs. nn,
lc baron Sonnino acccptc quc dans lcs tcrritoircs prvus par lc trait dc
Londrcs lc commandcmcnt dcs troupcs doccupation scra italicn, ct qucn
dchors dc cc cas lcs troupcs scront sous lc commandcmcnt dc Franchct
dsprcy commc commandant dcs troupcs allics dricnt.

Cc dircnd sur lcs zoncs doccupation provoquc unc ccrtainc tcn


sion cntrc Romc ct Paris. Mais dans lcs dcux cas conccrns, la ottc autrich
icnnc ct la dlimitation dcs zoncs doccupation, laction du gouvcrncmcnt
lranais ncst jamais dictc par lc souhait dc lacilitcr lunion yougoslavc. Lc
sort dc la ottc autrichicnnc intrcssait vivcmcnt la marinc lranaisc, ct
lc contcnticux italoyougoslavc risquait dc dgnrcr cn conit arm cntrc
dcux nations allics, cc quc lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais voulait vitcr a tout
prix. Mcmc si la prcssc italicnnc voyait cn Francc lobstaclc majcur a la
ralisation dc la victoirc italicnnc, la diplomatic lranaisc navait nullcmcnt
intcntion dc rcnicr lcs obligations priscs cnvcrs l!talic. Lc rcspcct du trait
dc Londrcs rcstait tout au long laxiomc dc la politiquc lranaisc, mcmc si
lcs aspirations tcrritorialcs italicnncs sont considrcs commc cxagrcs ct
sans londcmcnt car cllcs cnglobcnt la almatic o lcs !talicns nc sont quc
+o dc la population.
6
La sculc issuc possiblc a ccttc situation dicilc, la
diplomatic lranaisc lc voyait dans la mdiation du gouvcrncmcnt amri
cain qui navait pas dobligations cnvcrs l!talic.

autrc part la qucstion


posc par lc spcialistc pour lcs qucstions yougoslavcs, Charlcs Loiscau a
savoir : stcc quc la Francc rcstcrait abscntc dcs ancicns tcrritoircs dc

8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, +8.++.++8, n:8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montn
gro, vol. :6, +8.

8arrrc a Pichon, Romc, :o.++.++8, n:8o, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montn
gro, vol. :6, +6.
6
Notc sur la qucstion yougoslavc, Paris, +.++.++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o,
Travaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Mont
ngro, vol. :6, 6:6.

Notc sur lc la qucstion yougoslavc, Paris, .++.++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8
+o, Autrichc, vol. +.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc ++
la Monarchic dcs Habsbourg, tandis quc l!talic tait cn train dc sc poscr
commc gcndarmc dans la rgion rcstait sans rponsc.
8
cicllcmcnt la Francc, lic par lc trait dc Londrcs, vcillait sculc
mcnt a la bonnc application dcs tcrmcs dc larmisticc. cicuscmcnt, lcs
diplomatcs lranais rchissaicnt sur lc rlc du lutur tat yougoslavc cn
uropc. ja cn scptcmbrc ++8 Pichon lc conccvait commc unc barri
rc a lavancc du gcrmanismc.

Paul Cambon cstimc lc +o octobrc quc


la Francc a intrct a voir naitrc un tat aussi lort quc possiblc a lst dc
lAdriatiquc pour lairc lc contrcpoids a unc !talic agrandic. !l considrc aussi
quc lunion dc la Scrbic, la Croatic, la Slavonic ct la 8osnic ct Hcrzgovinc
scra prlrablc a lcur cxistcncc indpcndantc car lcurs possiblcs dircnds
risqucraicnt dc plongcr luropc dans dc nouvcaux conits.
8o
Fontcnay, a
la n doctobrc, considrc quc sculc unc Yougoslavic londc sur lc pactc
dc Corlou scra susammcnt lortc pour avoir un rlc pacicatcur dans lcs
8alkans, ct cn mcmc tcmps ctrc un maillon csscnticl dc ccttc chainc dtats
dc la 8altiquc a lAdriatiquc qui lormcnt unc barrirc dc rcvcrs contrc Al
lcmagnc.
8+
La position lranaisc, rsumc par Robcrt dc Caix, publicistc
lranais rattach au Quai drsay, prconisc quc la diplomatic lranaisc
rcstc a lcart du conit italoyougoslavc dans lAdriatiquc, car cllc cst dans
limpossibilit dagir vu lcs clauscs du trait dc Londrcs. Sclon lui, toutc vic
toirc italicnnc dans cc conit nc pcut ctrc quc dc courtc durc car l!talic na
pas lcs moycns d intgrcr lcs rgions slavcs. Qui plus cst, dc ccttc laon, cllc
nc pourrait quc provoqucr un contcnticux lourd ct durablc avcc scs voisins
oricntaux.
8:

n consqucncc lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais laissc toutc libcrt aux
Scrbcs ct Yougoslavcs dccctucr lcur union commc ils lc souhaitaicnt, cc
quils cssaicnt dc lairc lors dc la Conlrcncc dc Gcnvc (du 6 au novcm
brc) a laqucllc participcnt Pai ct lopposition scrbc dun ct, Trumbi
ct Antun Korocc cn sa capacit dc prsidcnt dc Narodno vcc SHS dc
8
Loiscau a Jacqui dc Margric, Romc, +o.++.++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o,
Travaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Mont
ngro, vol. :6, ++o, +++.

Pichon a Fontcnay, Paris, +o..++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Yougos


lavic, vol. +.
8o
Cambon a Pichon, Londrcs, +o.+o.++8, n, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o,
Autrichc, vol. +.
8+
Fontcnay a Pichon, Paris, :.+o.++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Autrichc,
vol. +.
8:
Notc dc Robcrt dc Caix, Paris, .++.++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Travaux
prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol.
:6, 6.
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
lautrc. La coalition ad hoc composc dc lopposition scrbc, dc Trumbi ct
dc Korocc appuic lidc dc Conlrcncc pour unc Yougoslavic conldralc.
8

n consqucncc lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc rcconnait lc Narodno vcc commc
gouvcrncmcnt lgal dans lcs provinccs yougoslavcs dc la oublc Monarchic,
vu quil cst ccns dcvcnir son partcnairc dans la luturc conldration yougo
slavc. Par la mcmc occasion Pai rcconnait lc Comit dc Londrcs commc
rcprscntant lgitimc dc Narodno vcc a ltrangcr cn dcmandant aux Allis
dc lc lairc a lcur tour.
8
c ccttc laon lc gouvcrncnt scrbc scngagc lormcl
lcmcnt a dlcndrc toutcs lcs aspirations tcrritorialcs dcs Yougoslavcs lacc a
l!talic. Quant au gouvcrncmcnt lranais, il cst dmcnt inlorm dc la tcncur
dcs ngociations dc Gcnvc ainsi quc dc lcur issuc, sans quil lassc dc com
mcntaircs. La qucstion qui sc posc alors cst dc savoir qui cst cn mcsurc dc
dlcndrc lc micux lcs aspirations tcrritorialcs dcs Yougoslavcs, qui daillcurs
incluaicnt Tricstc ct la vallc d!sonzo : lc dircctoirc ainsi cr dun tat non
rcconnu, ou lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc. n plus il lallait tcnir comptc dc la
raction du princc scrbc ct dc son armc. Lc princc Alcxandrc sopposc
lcrmcmcnt aux dcisions priscs a Gcnvc, car il ny tait pas qucstion dc la
Monarchic yougoslavc.
8
Par aillcurs, ds lc novcmbrc lcs troupcs scrbcs
commcnccnt a lranchir lcs lrontircs autrichicnncs sous lordrc dc gnral
Franchct dspcrcy sclon lcs tcrmcs dc larmisticc dcidc lors dcs ngocia
tions allics a Paris.
A causc du vcto italicn lc Narodno vcc SHS na jamais cu un statut
ocicl, ct il dcvcnait dc plus cn plus clair quc lc scul moycn pour lcs Yougo
slavcs dc lAutrichcHongric dc lairc valoir lcurs droits tait par lcntrcmisc
du gouvcrncmcnt scrbc. Lunion sc lait donc sur lc tcrrain dans dcs ngocia
tions cntrc rcprscntants dc Narodno vcc ct lc princc Alcxandrc luimcmc.
Lunion cst proclamc lc + dccmbrc sans quc lcs qucstions dorganisation
intcrnc du lutur tat soicnt abordcs. n mcmc tcmps, lc tout nouvcau
Royaumc SHS rcprcnd toutcs lcs rcvcndications tcrritorialcs dc Narodno
vcc. Commc lc nouvcau Royaumc ncst pas rcconnu, ccst toujours lc gou
vcrncmcnt scrbc qui tcntc dc maitriscr lcxpansionnismc italicn.
c ccttc manirc lunion dcs Yougoslavcs soprc sans aucunc aidc
dc la part du gouvcrncmcnt lranais. Lcs conditions dc lunion ont t d
8
utasta a Pichon, 8crnc, .++.++8, n+86, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Tra
vaux prparatoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montn
gro, vol. :6, +o6.
8
\csni a Pichon, Paris, .++.++8, AMA, Sric APaix +++:o, Travaux prpa
ratoircs a la Conlrcncc dc la paix, Politiquc dc la Yougoslavic ct Montngro, vol. :6,
+o.
8
Fontcnay a Pichon, Paris, +.++.++8, AMA, Sric Z, uropc ++8+o, Yougos
lavic, vol. +.
\. Pavlovi, La Francc ct lc programmc yougoslavc +
tcrmincs par lc conit tcrritorial avcc l!talic. Ccst la pcur lacc a lavancc
italicnnc qui poussc lcs rcprscntants dc Narodno vcc a acccptcr unc union
inconditionncllc avcc la Scrbic, au licu dinsistcr sur unc lormulc conl
dralc du gcnrc dc ccllc proposc a Gcnvc. autrc part, lc gouvcrncmcnt
lranais a scrupulcuscmcnt, mcmc a contrc cur, rcspcct scs obligations
cnvcrs l!talic. !l a d sopposcr a son alli, pour lairc rcspcctcr lcs tcrmcs
dc larmisticc autrichicn. Lcs rclations avcc l!talic ont quand mcmc pti
dc ccttc raction lranaisc, car la lccturc du trait dc Londrcs tait londa
mcntalcmcnt dircntc dcs dcux cts dcs Alpcs. Pas dans lcs tcrmcs, mais
dans lcsprit du trait dc Londrcs, lcs !talicns y voyaicnt unc garantic pour
lcur prdominancc sur lAdriatiquc ct dans lcs 8alkans. r, il scst avr
quc linucncc lranaisc y tait toujours prscntc, a causc dc la prscncc dc
larmc dricnt.
La disparition dc lAutrichcHongric a ouvcrt tous lcs apptits. un
ct pour la ralisation dc lobjcctil maximal dcs Yougoslavcs, un tat dc
\ardar a !sonzo, ccntralis ou ldral sclon lcs gots. c lautrc pour la
domination italicnnc sur lcs 8alkans, basc sur lcs tcrritoircs accords par lc
trait dc Londrcs ct sur unc sric dtats sous son inucncc par cxcmplc, la
Croatic ct lc Montngro. La Francc commc prcmirc puissancc contincn
talc dcvait apportcr son souticn a chacun dc ccs projcts pour quils puisscnt
sc raliscr, cc qucllc a rclus dc lairc. Par cc lait cllc cst dcvcnuc la ciblc
dc critiqucs virulcntcs vcnant dcs dcux cts dc lAdriatiquc. La Francc sc
trouvait victimc dc son succs, car limprcssion gnralc tait quaprs la vic
toirc dc scs armcs, cllc avait dcs moycns dc raliscr lcs aspirations dcs dcux
nationalismcs, italicn ct yougoslavc. Sa volont dc lcs modrcr lui a valu quc
lcs Yougoslavcs sc sont tourns vcrs lcs tatsUnis du prsidcnt Vilson,
ct quc lopinion publiquc italicnnc ait dsign lc Francc commc principal
rcsponsablc dc la mutilation dc sa victoirc.
Institut des Etudes balkaniques
cademie serbe des Sciences et des rts
Belgrade
UDC :.:(,,):,,(,,.::):,:,:,:
::.c:(,,.::+,,.::+,,.:):,:
Ana S. Trbovich
Nation-building under the Austro-Hungarian Sceptre
Croato-Serb Antagonism and Cooperation
!n thc ninctccnth ccntury many uropcan nations bccamc politically con
scious ol thcir nationhood, which bccamc onc ol thc lactors in thc crum
bling ol thc two grcat cmpircs in Ccntralast uropc thc Habsburg and
thc ttoman mpirc at thc bcginning ol thc ncxt ccntury. Historians
havc tcrmcd this issuc thc astcrn Qucstion, a qucstion ol lling up thc
vacuum crcatcd by thc gradual crosion ol ttoman rulc in astcrn uropc.
+

Tc astcrn Qucstion involvcd not only a rcpositioning ol thc 8alkan statcs
(cspccially Grcccc, Scrbia, 8ulgaria and Romania) but also ol Russia and
thc Habsburg mpirc, lcading to Grcat Powcr rivalrics and rcsulting in thc
First Vorld Var.
Tc pcoplcs ol luturc Yugoslavia, most notably Croats and Scrbs, ma
turcd as nations during this pcriod. Tcy strivcd lor grcatcr indcpcndcncc
not only by rcsisting lorcign rulc but also by mcans ol diplomacy and coop
cration with nations who sharcd thcir aspirations cithcr out ol idcalism or
out ol intcrcst. Tc Grcat Powcrs, howcvcr, chicy dccidcd thcir latc. Tc
ycar +88 providcs thc most vivid cxamplc, whcn thc bordcrs ol thc South
Slav pcoplcs shiltcd drastically two timcs in lour months as a conscqucncc
ol divcrging intcrcsts ol thc Grcat Powcrs.
:

+
Scc John Marriott, Te Eastern Question (xlord: Clarcndon Prcss, ++), M. S. An
dcrson, Te Eastern Question, :,:,: (Ncw York: Macmillan, +66).
:
!n March +88, Russia, having dclcatcd thc ttomans, attcmptcd to rcsolvc thc ast
crn Qucstion to hcr advantagc by thc tcrms ol thc Trcaty ol San Stclano ( March +88).
Tc agrccmcnt with thc ttomans providcd Russia with ovcrwhclming inucncc in thc
8alkans, including thc muchdcsircd outlct to thc warm scas via a Grcatcr 8ulgaria, dc
lacto a Russian protcctoratc that includcd thc rcgions ol Maccdonia, Vcstcrn Tracc,
a portion ol Albania, and a district ol Scrbia. Russia also awardcd lull rccognition to
Scrbia, crstwhilc an autonomous principality within thc ttoman mpirc (rcduccd in
thc ast by thc Trcaty ol San Stclano to thc advantagc ol 8ulgaria) and Montcncgro
(almost triplcd in sizc). !n July +88, thc Congrcss ol 8crlin, attcndcd by Gcrmany,
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
De.elopment of Serb national mo.ement until :,:,
Modcrn Scrbian history

datcs back to +8o, whcn thc First Scrbian !nsur


rcction against thc ttomans bcgan, born out ol thc dcsirc lor national
cmancipation.

Tis was thc rst national uprising against thc ttomans


among thc pcoplcs ol Southcast uropc, lollowcd by thc Grcck Rcvolution
ol +8:+. Morcovcr, amongst thc conqucrcd Slavs ol luturc Yugoslavia, only
Scrbs succccdcd in crcating an indcpcndcnt statc in +88.

Montcncgro,
which had ncvcr bccn complctcly subjugatcd by thc ttomans, was also
rccognizcd thcn.
6
At thc samc timc, thcsc two statcs did not cncompass all
AustriaHungary, Russia, 8ritain, Francc, !taly and Turkcy, rcviscd thc Trcaty ol San
Stclano, cxploiting thc lact that Russia, although victorious against thc ttomans, was
cxhaustcd by thc war and at thc vcrgc ol bankruptcy. 8ulgaria, which to this day ccl
cbratcs thc day thc Trcaty ol San Stclano was signcd as its national day, was rcduccd,
most ol its cxtcndcd tcrritory having bccn rcstorcd to thc ttomans. Tc Congrcss ol
8crlin did rccognizc an indcpcndcnt Scrbia and an indcpcndcnt Montcncgro, within
bordcrs that suitcd thc Grcat Powcrs, which wcrc thcn impcrsonatcd by thc Conccrt ol
uropc. !t also grantcd AustriaHungary thc right to occupy 8osniaHcrzcgovina and
to control thc allcgcdly indcpcndcnt Montcncgrin port ol 8ar |Trcaty bctwccn Grcat
8ritain, AustriaHungary, Francc, Gcrmany, !taly, Russia and Turkcy, + July +88, +
CTS ++++|.

Tc history ol Scrb statchood is vcry rich, with thc rst Scrbian dynasty cstablishcd in
thc cighth ccntury. !t is not rccountcd hcrc lor thc rcason ol brcvity. For morc inlorma
tion, scc Histoire du Peuple Serbe, cd. uan T. 8atakovi (Lausannc: LAgc dHommc,
:oo).

Tc First Scrbian Uprising has also bccn callcd a Scrbian national rcvolution. 8ru
tally crushcd by thc ttomans in +8+, it sparkcd thc Sccond Scrbian Uprising in +8+,
which lcd to Scrbias scmiindcpcndcncc lrom thc ttomans in +8+, lormalizcd in
+8: by thc Pcacc ol Adrianoplc and hattishcrils in +8:, +8o and +8. Prcssurcd by
Russia, thc Sultan thcn grantcd Scrbia thc right to intcrnal autonomy and its govcrnor a
hcrcditary titlc ol a princc, but continucd to obligc Scrbia to plcdgc a xcd ycarly tributc
to thc Portc. Prior to thc uprisings, thc rights ol thc vassal Scrbia wcrc rcgulatcd by vari
ous dccrccs. Scc Vaync \ucinich, cd., Te First Serbian Uprising :c,-:: (8ouldcr,
Ncw York: Columbia Univcrsity Prcss, +8:), Lcopold von Rankc, History of Ser.ia and
the Ser.ian Fe.olution (London: 8cnn, +88). Plcasc also notc that thc Scrbian clitc
raiscd thc issuc ol national rights and tcrritorial autonomy as carly as +o, at thc cc
clcsiasticalnational dict hcld in Tcmcsvar (prcscntday Romania) and attcndcd by
rcprcscntativcs ol thc aristocracy, high clcrgy and occr corps. uan T. 8atakovi, A
8alkanStylc Frcnch Rcvolution: Tc +8o Scrbian Uprising in uropcan Pcrspcctivc,
Balcanica XXX\! (8clgradc: !nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, :oo6), +++:.

Trcaty ol 8crlin, + July +88, + CTS ++++ (Articlc XXX!\).
6
Ibid. (Articlc XX\!).
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc +
thc tcrritorics whcrc Scrbs livcd. Until ++:, morc than a hall ol thc Scrb
population livcd undcr ttoman and AustroHungarian rulc.

cspitc thc currcnt rcvisionist claims by thosc lavouring a non


Scrb Montcncgrin idcntity, it is a historical lact that thc aspirations ol thc
Montcncgrins in thc latc ninctccnth ccntury mirrorcd thosc ol Scrbs as a
wholc unication and indcpcndcncc ol Scrbinhabitcd lands. Tc grcat
cst Montcncgrin poct Princcbishop Pctar Pctrovi Njcgo was a lcading
Scrb national gurc in thc ninctccnth ccntury, instrumcntal in codilying
thc Kosovo myth as thc ccntral thcmc ol thc Scrbian national movcmcnt.
8

Tc Pctrovi Njcgo dynasty, which rulcd Montcncgro, cvcn madc a bricl
attcmpt to assumc thc rolc ol thc Scrb lcadcr and unicr, but Montcncgros
small sizc and wcak cconomy cvcntually lcd to thc rccognition ol thc pri
macy ol thc Karadjordjcvi dynasty ruling out ol 8clgradc. Montcncgrins
had Scrbian idcntity but thcy at oncc wcrc proud ol thcir statc, cspccially
in thc arca around Cctinjc, thc capital ol thc Kingdom ol Montcncgro. A
scnsc ol distinct statchood was strong cnough to brccd strong autonomist
scntimcnts in a portion ol Montcncgros population lollowing thc ++8
unication with Scrbia and thc immincnt disappcarancc ol a Montcncgrin
statc.

!n thc ninctccnth ccntury, thc Scrbian national idcntity had lully dc


vclopcd. Tc Scrbs wcrc awarc ol thcir long history and tradition, grcat
mcdicval civilization and cultural unity, rcgardlcss ol thc lact that thcy livcd
undcr dicrcnt impcrial administrations. Trcc clcmcnts, intcrwovcn with
thc lcgacy ol thc mcdicval Scrb Ncmanji dynasty, wcrc impcrativc in thc
lorging ol Scrb national idcntity and its prcscrvation during long pcriods

Slavcnko Tcrzi, Tc Right to Scllctcrmination and thc Scrbian Qucstion in


Te Serbian Question in the Balkans: Geographical and Historical spects, cd. 8ratislav
Atanackovi (8clgradc: Faculty ol Gcography, Univcrsity ol 8clgradc, +), o. Scc Scc
also imitrijc jordjcvi, ,, Les re.olutions nationals des peuples balkaniques (8clgradc: !ns
titut dHistoirc, +6).
8
Scc bclow.

Scc John . Trcadway, Te Falcon and the Eagle, Montenegro and ustria-Hungary,
:,c:,:, (Vcst Lalaycttc: Purduc Univcrsity Prcss, +8), +6+8, :o+, :+o. Tc ++
cdition ol ncyclopacdia 8ritannica dcscribcs Montcncgrins as bclonging to thc Scrb
racc. Sir onald Mackcnzic Vallacc, Princc Kropotkin, C. Mijatovich and J. . 8our
chicr, Short History of Fussia and the Balkan States, rcproduccd lrom thc ++th cdition
ol thc ncyclopacdia 8ritannica (London: Tc ncyclopacdia 8ritannica Company,
++), +:+, +:6. According to Stcvan K. Pawlovitch, History of the Balkans :c,:,,
(London and Ncw York: Longman, +), +o8, Montcncgrin rulcrs considcrcd thcm
sclvcs Scrb, wcrc gcncrally supportivc ol a Scrb causc and willing to coopcratc with
Scrbia, but ncvcrthclcss gavc priority to thcir own tcrritorial objcctivcs.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
ol lorcign domination thc Scrbian rthodox Church, thc symbolism ol
Kosovo, and thc Scrbian languagc.
Tc idcntication ol thc Scrbian rthodox Church with thc Scrbian
nation is dccply rootcd in national consciousncss. Tc mcdicval rulcrs ol
thc Scrbs wcrc closcly idcnticd with thc Scrbian Church and its strugglc
lor autonomy. Following thc 8yzantinc tradition, mcmbcrs ol thc Scrb
Ncmanji dynasty loundcd monastcrics, somc bccamc monks and achicvcd
sainthood, and in +:+ thc pious St. Sava, son ol Stclan Ncmanja, bccamc
thc rst archbishop ol an autoccphalous Scrbian church, lrccd lrom thc
jurisdiction ol thc Grccklcd Archbishopric ol hrid. Tc Churchs indc
pcndcncc was cxtinguishcd soon altcr +, whcn thc ttomans conqucrcd
Scrbia. Tc Scrbian (Christian rthodox) Church, undcr thc namc ol thc
Patriarchatc ol Pc, rccmcrgcd a ccntury latcr (+), altcr an intcrvcntion
by thc inucntial ttoman vizicr ol Scrbian origin Sokollu Mchmcd Pasha
(Sokolovi) who cxtcndcd its jurisdiction, bringing almost thc cntirc Scr
bian nation undcr its wing.
+o
Tc church was csscntial to Scrbian idcntity
as thc only surviving Scrbian institution during thc long pcriod ol lorcign
rulc and thus a lorm ol a surrogatc Scrb statc. Christian rthodoxy has
bccn onc ol thc main Scrbian traits, though thcrc has bccn an important
Catholic Scrb minority, mainly in almatia.
++
!n addition, many Christian
Scrbs convcrtcd to !slam undcr thc ttomans, particularly in 8osnia and
Hcrzcgovina.
ral lolk traditions constitutcd anothcr clcmcnt nurturing Scrbian
national culturc and a rcassurancc that thc nation would risc against its
opprcssors. A national hcro ol cpic songs, lcgcndary Marko Kraljcvi, is
an cmbodimcnt ol all that thc Scrbs wantcd to bclicvc ol thcmsclvcs his
hcroism, his gcntlcncss, his rcspcct lor thc rcligious and social customs ol
his pcoplc, his machismo, cvcn his cruclty, but abovc all his crcc opposi
tion to thc Turks and his intcnsc national pridc.
+:
Tc rcal Marko Kraljcvi
dicd ghting as an ttoman vassal.
Vhilc Scrb cpic poctry also appcalcd to othcr Slav pcoplcs ol thc
8alkans, thc Kosovo lcgcnds kcpt thc spark ol Scrbian national conscious
+o
Naturally, Sokolovi was Muslim, but thrcc ol thc rst lour patriarchs ol thc rccstab
lishcd Scrbian rthodox Church Patriarchatc ol Pc, in Kosovo and Mctohia, camc
lrom his lamily (thc rst patriarch was his brothcr, thc Scrb rthodox monk Maka
rijc Sokolovi). Scc Frcd Singlcton, Short History of the Yugosla. Peoples (Cambridgc:
Cambridgc Univcrsity Prcss, +8), , joko Slijcpcvi, Istorija srpske pra.osla.ne
crk.e |History ol thc Scrbian rthodox Church| (8clgradc: 8!GZ, ++), vol. +, o6,
+8+.
++
Scc bclow.
+:
Singlcton, Short History of the Yugosla. Peoples, .
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc +
ncss alivc lor ccnturics, which burst into amc with Karadjordjcs
+
rcvolt
against thc ttoman Turks in +8o. Lcgcnds ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo +8o. Lcgcnds ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo . Lcgcnds ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo
(+/:8 Junc +8) dominatcd Scrbian litcraturc and art bclorc thc twcnti +/:8 Junc +8) dominatcd Scrbian litcraturc and art bclorc thc twcnti Junc +8) dominatcd Scrbian litcraturc and art bclorc thc twcnti +8) dominatcd Scrbian litcraturc and art bclorc thc twcnti ) dominatcd Scrbian litcraturc and art bclorc thc twcnti
cth ccntury. Historians obscrvc that ncithcr Scrbs nor Turks won thc bat
tlc, whilc both thc Scrbian rulcr and thc ttoman Sultan wcrc killcd in its
coursc. Howcvcr, thc ttoman conqucst ol Scrbia lollowcd,
+
indicating
that this battlc rcprcscntcd a longtcrm loss lor thc Scrbs. Tc Scrbs havc
noncthclcss cclcbratcd thc 8attlc ol Kosovo as a symbol ol thcir rcsistancc
to lorcign occupation, ol national unity and ultimatc sacricc lor homcland
(Scrbdom) and Hcavcnly Kingdom.
+
Prior to ttoman occupation, thc
Scrbs had rcachcd thcir zcnith undcr uan thc Grcat (++), who was ++), who was ), who was
crowncd mpcror ol thc Scrbs, Grccks and 8ulgars.
+6
Tc most ardcnt collcctor ol Scrb oral tradition was \uk Karadi
(+8+86), rcccting thc idcas ol uropcan carly Romanticism. Nota
bly, hc was also thc rclormcr and loundcr ol thc modcrn Scrbian languagc,
building on thc work ol othcr Scrb linguists and philosophcrs, Sava Mrkalj
(+8+8), Luka Milovanov (+8+8:8) and ositcj bradovi (+:
+8++), thc lattcr bcing a rcprcscntativc ol uropcan rationalism. Karadi
+
jordjc Pctrovi known as Karadjordjc was thc lcadcr ol thc First Scrbian !nsurrcc
tion and thc loundcr ol thc Scrb Karadjordjcvi dynasty. For morc, scc Zcljan . Sustcr,
Historical Dictionary of the Federal Fepublic of Yugosla.ia, uropcan Historical iction
arics No. : (Lanham, M/London: Scarccrow Prcss, +), +.
+
Scrbia lost indcpcndcncc only in +, but thc 8attlc ol Kosovo was pcrccivcd as
crucial to thc cstablishmcnt ol thc oo ycars ol ttoman domination ovcr Scrbia. !t
should bc strcsscd that, in thc thirtccnth and lourtccnth ccnturics, thc capital city ol
thc Scrbian Kingdom and thc scat ol thc Scrbian rthodox Patriarch wcrc, rcspcctivcly,
Prizrcn and Pc, two citics in thc modcrnday tcrritory ol Kosovo and Mctohia.
+
Tc 8attlc ol Kosovo took placc on St. \itus ay (!ido.dan). Tc day ol thc Kosovo
annivcrsary was choscn by thc hcir apparcnt to thc Habsburg thronc lor a statc visit to
thc occupicd Sarajcvo in ++, whcn hc was assassinatcd by a local Scrb activist, Gavrilo
Princip, marking thc bcginning ol thc First Vorld Var. Junc :8th was also choscn by
thc rulcr ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs as thc day on which to prom
ulgatc thc \idovdan Constitution in +:+. Awarc ol this symbolism, Stalin chosc this
datc to announcc thc cxpulsion ol thc Yugoslav Communist Party lrom thc Cominlorn
in +8. Tc annivcrsary ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo has bccn honourcd by othcr nations as
wcll. !n Junc ++8, vc months bclorc thc cnd ol thc First Vorld Var, thc Unitcd Statcs
rccognizcd it as a day ol spccial commcmoration in honour ol Scrbia and all othcr op
prcsscd pcoplcs ghting in thc Grcat Var. Prior to that, in ++6, a nationwidc tributc to
Scrbia was arrangcd in 8ritain to cclcbratc thc annivcrsary ol Kosovo. For morc inlor
mation on thcsc cclcbrations, scc Tomas A. mmcrt, Tc Kosovo Lcgacy in Koso.o,
cd. 8asil V.R. Jcnkins (Alhambra, CA: Tc Kosovo Charity Fund, +:), .
+6
Quotcd in Frits V. Hondius, Te Yugosla. Community of Nations (Haguc: Mouton,
+68), :o.
8alcanica XXX\!! :oo
solidicd Scrbian culturc, sprcading and popularizing national awakcning.
Hc also cxtcndcd thc dcnition ol Scrbdom to cmbracc all who spokc this
languagc, which, according to him, was a Scrbian national hcritagc.
+
Tis
idca rcappcarcd in thc lormation ol thc rst Yugoslavia, but lailcd in prac
ticc bccausc a common languagc was not sucicnt to unitc Scrbs, Croats
and Muslims in onc nation. Morcovcr, thc majority ol Croats had strongly
rcjcctcd Karadis linguistic thcory ol national idcntity, pcrcciving Karadi
as a Scrb nationalist.
!n +8, an unocial plan ol Scrbian lorcign policy was lorgcd, in
spircd by a lcading Polish migr in Francc Count Adam Jcrzi Czartoryski
and his 8alkan agcnt Frantisck Zach who wrotc thc rst dralt ol this docu
mcnt. !lija Garaanin (+8+:), Scrbian statcsman and politician thcn
scrving as Ministcr ol thc !ntcrior, pcrsonally cndorscd Zachs somcwhat
rcviscd plan in a thcn sccrct
+8
documcnt known as Naertanije (ralt).
Likc many ol his contcmporarics, Garaanin acccptcd that Scrbias national
mission was to complctc thc task ol national and social libcration initiatcd
by thc Scrbian insurrcctions ol +8o and +8+. Tc lronticrs ol thc statc
nccdcd to bc cxtcndcd to cncompass all arcas whcrc Scrbs livcd according
to thc most lamous paragraph ol Naertanije:
Tc signicancc and thc loundation ol Scrbian politics is that it not
bc limitcd to its prcscnt bordcrs, but that it sccks to cmbracc all Scrb
pcoplcs surrounding it.
+
Following Karadis lcad, Garaanin dcncd thc Scrb national boundarics
as linguistic and cultural rathcr than cxclusivcly cthnic or rcligious. How
cvcr, thc Naertanije also advocatcd historical bordcrs, cspccially towards
thc South.
Naertanije was a national programmc crcatcd altcr thc lamous na
tional programmcs in uropc dcmanding national libcration and union in
nationstatcs, pursuant to similar proccsscs in Gcrmany or !taly. !n lact, that
+
Mihailo Crnobrnja, Te Yugosla. Drama (Montrcal: McGillQuccns Univcrsity Prcss,
+:), .
+8
Tc Scrbian public was not awarc ol thc cxistcncc ol thc documcnt until +888 and
ol its contcnts until thc bcginning ol thc twcnticth ccntury. Scc Rado Ljui, !lija
Gapaanin o srpskoj dravnosti |!lija Garaanin on Scrb Statchood| in Garaanin: susreti
i .idjenja :cc: |Garaanin: mcctings and pcrccptions :oo+|, cds. Zoran Konstantinovi
and Slobodan Pavicvi (Kragujcvac: Jcmija, :oo:), .
+
Nacrtanijc !lijc Garaanina, rcprintcd in 8clgradc ++, + (translation minc).
nglish copy produccd in Paul N. Hchn, Tc rigins ol Modcrn PanScrbism thc
+8 Naccrtanijc ol !lija Garasanin: An Analysis and Translation, East European Quar-
terly !X, No. : (Summcr +).
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :o+
samc ycar thc projcct ol a Grcatcr Grcccc Megali Idea was publishcd.
:o

8oth thc Scrbian and Grcck national programmcs wcrc bascd on thc prin
ciplc ol inalicnablc historic right, in agrccmcnt with thc national idcologics
in uropc at thc timc. Scrbian political partics lollowcd this idcology within
and without thc princcdoms, kingdoms ol Scrbia and Montcncgro, which
is comparablc to thc implcmcntation ol intcrnal and cxtcrnal right to
sclldctcrmination. Tc most inucntial Scrbian party, thc National Radi
cal Party, in its +88+ programmc thus dcclarcd thc lollowing two goals lor
luturc statc organization: intcrnally pcoplcs prospcrity and lrccdom, and
cxtcrnally statc indcpcndcncc and lrccdom and unication ol thc rcmain
ing parts ol Scrbdom.
:+
Latcr historiography, mainly ol Croat origin, has wrongly accuscd
Garaanin ol cxtrcmc Scrb nationalism.
::
And yct, thc rcading ol thc origi
nal tcxt suggcsts a dicrcnt conclusion. Tc scction titlcd Tc Policy ol
Scrvia towards 8osnia, Hcrzcgovina, Montcncgro, and Northcrn Albania
statcs that onc ol thc main points which should bc sct lorth is thc principlc
ol lull lrccdom ol rcligion cstablishcd by law, and that cvcry cort should
bc madc to protcct thc 8osnians and othcr Slavs and to rcndcr thcm cvcry
mcans ol assistancc. Naertanije lurthcr dcclarcs:
!t would bc advisablc to print a short and gcncral history ol 8osnia,
in which thc namcs ol scvcral mcn ol thc Mohammcdan laith and
thcir rcnowncd dccds would bc includcd. !t is rccommcndcd that
this history bc writtcn in thc spirit ol thc Slavic pcoplc.
Garaanin was a pragmatic statcsman who rcalizcd that only through al
liancc with othcr ncighbouring pcoplcs can shc |Scrbia| solvc hcr luturc
problcms.
:
Vhilc Garanin ccrtainly cnvisioncd a Scrblcd kingdom, at
thc samc timc this was to bc a dcmocratic SouthSlav union. According to
Slobodan Jovanovi, Garaanin was onc ol thc rst statcsmcn to conccptu
alizc thc idca 8alkans to thc 8alkan pcoplcs.
:
!n practicc, union ol lrcc Scrbs with thc Scrbs undcr lorcign rulc
rcmaincd thc Scrbs ultimatc goal. Vhcthcr this union would bc achicvcd
indcpcndcntly or in union with othcr Slav pcoplcs was yct to bc dctcrmincd.
Garaanin was awarc that thc implcmcntation ol his political programmc
:o
Milan St. Proti, Uspon i pad srpske ideje |Tc Risc and Fall ol thc Scrbian !dca| (8cl
gradc: !nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, +), 68.
:+
Samoupra.a (Scllgovcrnmcnt), no. +, 8 January +88+ |translation minc|.
::
Scc, lor instancc, Mirko \alcnti, Konccpcija Garaaninovog Nacrtanija (+8),
Historijski pregled \!! (Zagrcb, +6+).
:
Naertanije, Appcndix.
:
Slobodan Jovanovi, Politike i pra.ne raspra.e !!!! |Political and lcgal trcatiscs| (+st
cd. +o8, 8clgradc: 8!GZ, +o), :.
8alcanica XXX\!! :o:
would not bcgin immcdiatcly but that it providcd an important stratcgic
vision.
Four ycars altcr thc Naertanije was writtcn, thc Slavs (mainly Scrbs)
living in thc Habsburg provincc ol South Hungary (\oivodina)
:
allicd
thcmsclvcs with \icnna not simply to countcract thc Hungarian rcvolu
tionarics, but primarily to protcct thcir rights lrom thc Hungarian dcnial
ol Scrb idcntity. Tcir strugglc was aidcd by thc Kingdom ol Scrbia in an
action organizcd by Garaanin, as wcll as by Scrbs lrom othcr parts ol thc
Habsburg mpirc. Howcvcr, thc \oivodina Scrbs, to thcir disappointmcnt,
wcrc not grantcd tcrritorial autonomy by \icnna in rcturn, but just anothcr
impcrial patcnt rcconrming thcir prcvious privilcgcs.
:6

Tc uchy ol Scrbia and Tcmcs 8anat cstablishcd on +8 Novcmbcr
+8 was not a scparatc lcdcral unit as such but a scparatc administrativc
district with church and school autonomy. Undcr Hungarian prcssurc cvcn
this status was abolishcd on : cccmbcr +86o, with \oivodina bccom
ing lully incorporatcd into Hungary. !n +868, thc Hungarian authoritics
rcncwcd thc church and school autonomy lor \oivodina Scrbs, but limitcd
in scopc, only to abolish it oncc again in ++:. Tc cxtcnsivc limitation ol
privilcgcs, bcginning with thc act ol +86o, stimulatcd political organization
ol thc \oivodina Scrbs, who gradually bccamc thc lcadcrs ol Scrb political
action in thc Habsburg mpirc.
:
\oivodina (\oyvodina, \ojvodina) is thc Scrbian word lor duchy. Tc provinccs origi
nal historic namc is thc uchy ol Scrbia, shortcncd to Scrbian \oivodina and thcn
just \oivodina upon its incorporation into Scrbia whcn thc attributc Scrbian was no
longcr ncccssary.
:6
Tc Scrbs movcd lrom southcrn Scrbia (mainly Kosovo) to \oivodina in grcat num
bcrs in +6o to cscapc ttoman rctaliation, whosc army thcy had lought togcthcr with
thc Austrians. Tc migration to \oivodina was initiatcd by an !nvitational manilcst
(socallcd Leterae in.itatorie) issucd by thc Habsburg mpcror Lcopold ! to all 8alkan
Christians on 6 April +6o. Spccial privilcgcs wcrc grantcd to Scrbs in \oivodina by
Lcopold ! on :+ August +6o, ++ cccmbcr +6o, :o August +6+ and March +6,
and rcconrmcd by thc dccrccs ol +68 and +6, as wcll as with cach changc ol thc
rulcr ( Joscph ! on August +o6, Charlcs \! on +o April ++ and Maria Tcrcsa on
: April +). Tcsc privilcgcs, allowing lor church and school autonomy (including
lrcc clcction ol church patriarch and military rulcr dukc), cxcmption lrom +o tax
imposcd by thc Catholic Church, and guarantccs ol pcrsonal and propcrty rights, wcrc
limitcd in timcs ol pcacc (undcr prcssurc lrom thc Catholic Church and Hungarian
authoritics) and cxtcndcd in timcs ol crisis sincc thc \oivodina Scrbs rcndcrcd military
scrviccs to thc Austrian rulcrs. For morc inlormation, scc \asilijc j. Krcsti, Gradja o
Srbima u Hr.atskoj i Sla.oniji (:,:,:,) |ocumcnts on Scrbs in Croatia and Sla
vonia (+88++)| (8clgradc: 8!GZ, +), 88++:.
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :o
Scrbia libcratcd its Southcrn tcrritory (ld Scrbia and Slavic Macc
donia)
:
lrom thc ttoman Turks in thc First 8alkan Var (++:+), but
thcn lought a sccond 8alkan war to dctcrminc hcr bordcrs in rclation to
othcr 8alkan statcs, primarily 8ulgaria, which rcsultcd in thc Trcaty ol 8u
charcst ol +o August ++.
:8
uring that pcriod thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt
madc no ovcrt attcmpts to undcrminc AustroHungarian rulc, awarc that
Scrbia was not strong cnough to ght thc mpirc on hcr own. Howcvcr,
thc rclations with AustriaHungary bccamc incrcasingly straincd, cspccially
altcr +o8 whcn thc ual Monarchy anncxcd 8osniaHcrzcgovina, whosc
rclativc majority population at that timc was Scrb.
:
Pcrcciving thc Scrbs as
thc grcatcst thrcat to thc mpircs intcgrity
o
and an obstaclc to its cxpan
sion to thc ast (Drang nach Osten), thc Habsburgs uscd thc assassination
ol thc archdukc Franz Fcrdinand in Sarajcvo as a prctcxt lor thc punitivc
war against Scrbia.
According to Jovanovi, in Scrbia at thc turn ol thc twcnticth ccntury
thc strongcst idcalorcc was nationalism, which hc idcntics as a positivc
lorcc contributing to Scrbias statc building:
Tc pcoplc nccdcd an indcpcndcnt statc in ordcr to libcratc thcm
sclvcs lrom thc Turks, thc dynasty nccdcd a strong statc powcr lor
its sccurity, thc partics nccdcd a constitutional and parliamcntary
statc systcm in ordcr to govcrn. Fccding itscll on thc componcnts ol
nationalism, dynastism, partyism, thc statc idca grcw strongcr.
+
:
ld Scrbia is a gcographic rcgion that was thc corc ol mcdicval Scrbia, including
Raka, Kosovo and Mctohia, as wcll as thc northwcst ol todays Slavic Maccdonia,
including thc towns ol Skopljc, \clcs and Tctovo.
:8
Trcaty ol 8ucharcst, +o August ++, :+8 CTS ::.
:
Scc imitrijc jordjcvic, Tc Scrbs as an !ntcgrating and isintcgrating Factor,
ustrian History Yearbook , No. : (+6), 88:, :.
o
Samucl R. Villiamson, Jr, ustria-Hungary and the Origins of the First !orld !ar
(London: Macmillan, ++), +o.
+
Jovanovi, !lada leksandra Obreno.ia, . Notc: Tc brcnovi dynasty rulcd in
+8+: and +88+o, and thc Karadjordjcvi dynasty in +8:8 and +o. Tc
two rival dynastics wcrc both nativc, Scrb. Princc Milo brcnovi organizcd thc +8+
assassination ol Karadjordjc. An arbitrary rulcr, Milo was lorccd to abdicatc in +8.
Hc was succccdcd by two ol his sons, Milan (who rulcd only a lcw wccks) and Michacl,
who rulcd lor thrcc ycars. !n +8: Karadjordjcs son Alcxandcr (+8o68) acccdcd to
thc thronc, but was dcposcd in +88, whcn thc brcnovi dynasty was rcinstallcd and
Princc Milo camc to thc thronc lor thc sccond timc. Princc Michacl brcnovi (+8:
68), thc youngcst son ol Milo, cnginccrcd thc total ttoman withdrawal lrom Scrbia
in +86. Howcvcr, altcr his assassination in +868, his rst cousin Milan (+8+o+)
was clcctcd Princc ol Scrbia (King lrom +88:) and rulcd until +88 whcn hc abdicatcd
in lavour ol his son Alcxandcr, thc last rulcr ol thc brcnovi dynasty (+88++o).
8alcanica XXX\!! :o
As a rcsult, thc carly twcnticth ccntury saw Scrbia as a rclativcly modcrn
and lunctional parliamcntary monarchy. Tc +o Constitution (thc rcviscd
+888 onc) rcinauguratcd a dcmocratic rcgimc, with strong guarantccs lor
political and human rights, building upon thc +88 Constitution, which cn
lorccd a scparation ol cxccutivc and judicial powcrs, thc +86 Constitution,
which strcngthcncd thc rolc ol thc National Asscmbly, and thc +888 Con
stitution, which grantcd thc National Asscmbly complctc control ovcr thc
budgct, cstablishing a parliamcntary rcgimc.
:
Public administration rclorm
and a prolcssional civil scrvicc wcrc important building blocks ol a modcrn
Scrb statc, with many civil scrvants coming lrom thc ranks ol AustroHun
garian Scrbs. 8y thc First Vorld Var, almost univcrsal malc suragc had
cxistcd lor at lcast a gcncration in Scrbia (lrom thc +888 Constitution) and
social rights cquallcd il not cxcccdcd thosc ol Vcsturopcan statcs, work
ing timc was limitcd and workcrs cnjoycd thc right to strikc.
As obscrvcd by John Allcock, mcasurcd by thc standard ol thc cx
istcncc ol rcprcscntativc institutions alonc, Scrbia should bc considcrcd
thc most advanccd ol all thc South Slav lands.

Tis is not to say that


Scrbia lackcd nondcmocratic clcmcnts. Notably, in +o a sccrct socicty
largcly composcd ol military occrs murdcrcd thc autocratic King Alcxan
dcr brcnovi and Quccn raga, considcring thc couplc to bc a political
cmbarrassmcnt to Scrbia and an obstaclc to hcr dcmocratization. Still, thc
subscqucnt Scrb rulcr, King Pctcr ! Karadjordjcvi, was a truc constitutional
monarch, who had in his youth translatcd John Stuart Mills cssay On Lib-
erty into Scrbian.

!n thc ninctccnth ccntury Scrbia crcatcd a modcrn army


and a civilian burcaucracy, making a uniquc achicvcmcnt in what was to
bccomc Yugoslavia, that ol building thc lramcwork lor a modcrn statc.

De.elopment of Croat national mo.ement and


Croato-Serb relations until :,:,
As in thc casc ol thc Scrbs, languagc and litcraturc bccamc thc building
blocks ol Croat national consciousncss in thc ninctccnth ccntury. Ljudcvit
:
Scc Jovanovi, Politike i pra.ne raspra.e, :o.

John 8. Allcock, Explaining Yugosla.ia (Ncw York: Columbia Univcrsity Prcss, :ooo),
:6.

Grandson ol Karadjordjc Pctrovi, thc lcadcr ol thc First Scrbian !nsurrcction against
thc ttomans, King Pctcr ! was a modcst pcrson and a patriot, Scrb and uropcan,
having lought in thc Frcnch army against thc Gcrmans and woundcd in +8o, as wcll as
taking part in thc +86 Scrb uprising against thc ttomans in 8osniaHcrzcgovina.

Scc John R. Lampc, Yugosla.ia as History. T.ice there .as a country (Cambridgc, Ncw
York: Cambridgc Univcrsity Prcss, +6), 6.
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :o
Gaj (+8o:) lcd this languagc rclorm, modilying thc Latin alphabct to
partially conlorm to thc rulc onc soundonc lcttcr, cstablishcd lor thc
Cyrillic alphabct by \uk Karadi. Gaj also adoptcd thc shtokavian dialcct
ol thc Scrbian languagc as thc Croat litcrary dialcct.
6
His rclorm was an cs
scntial part ol thc socallcd !llyrian movcmcnt, rcsisting thc attcmpts lrom
8udapcst to Magyarizc thc Croats and cntcrtaining thc idca ol a common
!llyrian (that is, South Slav) statc. Scrbs, including Garaanin, mistrust
cd Ljudcvit Gaj and thcrclorc qucstioncd thc authcnticity ol thc !llyrian
movcmcnt, having discovcrcd that Gaj also actcd as a spy lor thc \icnncsc
authoritics.

!n contrast to Slovcnc and Scrb nationalism, which mainly rclatc to


pcoplc, Croat nationalism principally rclatcs to tcrritory, a policy which has
ovcr timc bccomc thc root ol compcting claims bctwccn thc two nations
that inhabit prcscntday Croatia thc Croats and thc Scrbs:
Vhilc Scrbian nationalism was lashioncd so as to appcal to thc
minds and hcarts ol all Scrbian pcoplc, rcgardlcss ol whcrc thcy
livcd, Croatian nationalism, largcly lcgalistic, was prcdicatcd on
tcrritorial claims, without taking account ol who livcd in thcsc tcr
ritorics.
8
Historically, Croatia has bccn an amorphous gcographic conccpt, signi
cantly changing in sizc and owncrship ol sovcrcignty. !t cxistcd as a small
indcpcndcnt statc in thc Middlc Agcs,

but it was absorbcd by thc Hun


garian Kingdom lollowing thc dcath ol thc last Croatian king in a battlc
against Hungarians in +o. Croatia bccamc onc ol many provinccs, ad
ministrativcly linkcd with thc provincc ol Slavonia, most ol which lorms
part ol prcscntday Croatia. A third lormcrly Habsburg provincc which also
lorms part ol prcscntday Croatia, but which, historically, has bccn morc
autonomous than thc original provincc ol Croatia or thc provincc ol Sla
vonia, is almatia. Austrians rulcd almatia, whilc Hungary administcrcd
Croatia and Slavonia in thc mpirc. Finally, thc lourth rcgion incorporatcd
6
For morc, scc Sustcr, Historical Dictionary of the Federal Fepublic of Yugosla.ia, ++8
++.

Scc \asilijc j. Krcsti, Znameniti Srbi o Hr.atima |mincnt Scrbs on Croats| (Novi
Sad: Promctcj, +), +8+.
8
arko 8ilbija, Tc Scrbs and Yugoslavia in Te Serbs and their National Interest, cds.
Norma von RagcnlcldFcldman and usan T. 8atakovic (San Francisco: Scrbian Unity
Congrcss, +), 6. Notc: 8osnia and Hcrzcgovina is anothcr tcrritory ol compct
ing claims bctwccn Croats and Scrbs but this important issuc will not bc discusscd hcrc
duc to thc limitcd spacc.

Mcdicval Croatia rcachcd its pcak in thc rcign ol Tomislav (+o:8), who pro
claimcd himscll king in :.
8alcanica XXX\!! :o6
into todays Croatia is Krajina or thc Military Fronticr, rulcd by thc Austri
ans until +88+ whcn it was placcd undcr Hungarian auspiccs.
o
Dalmatia ccrtainly cnjoycd thc largcst dcgrcc ol autonomy in thc
AustroHungarian Monarchy. !t cntcrcd thc Habsburg monarchy much
latcr than thc othcr SouthSlav provinccs, as a rcsult ol thc Congrcss ol
\icnna in +8+, whcn it was takcn lrom Napolconic Francc. !ndccd, al
matia rctaincd a distinctivc charactcr during most ol its history, not unicd
with thc othcr AustroHungarian provinccs inhabitcd by SouthSlavs until
thc lormation ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs morc than a
hundrcd ycars altcr thc Habsburg conqucst (++8). According to Allcock:
Although Croats had tcndcd to includc almatia within thcir undcrstand
ing ol thc historical Croat lands, thcsc had long bccn \cnctian posscs
sions. Morcovcr, thc Ragusan Rcpublic (ubrovnik) had rctaincd rclativc
indcpcndcncc until +8o8. 8y thc Trcaty ol Campo Formio (+), \cnicc
ccdcd almatia to Austria and, lollowing thc intcrvcning Napolconic pc
riod, Austrian control was rcasscrtcd in +8+.
+
!n +8 almatias population was mostly madc up ol Croats and
Scrbs, with a small !talian minority, which ncvcrthclcss had signicant cul
tural inucncc.
:
Tc cxact proportions ol Scrbs and Croats cannot bc prc
ciscly dctcrmincd. Historians at thc timc madc cstimatcs bascd on languagc
and rcligion, and whilc languagc was considcrcd to bc onc and thc samc,
Scrb Catholics wcrc also a largc group in almatia.

Scrbs livcd mostly


in thc south ol almatia, in thc 8ay ol Kotor (Cattaro) and in ubrovnik.
Tcy wcrc also to bc lound in thc towns ol Zadar and ibcnik and in thc
o
Tc pcninsula ol !stria is somctimcs studicd as a scparatc, lth rcgion although most
historians tcnd to group !stria with almatia.
+
Allcock, Explaining Yugosla.ia, :.
:
According to onc historian, Radc Pctrovi, Nacionalno pitanje u Dalmaciji u XIX
stoljeu |National qucstion in almatia in thc +th Ccntury| (Sarajcvo: Svjctlost, and
Zagrcb: Prosvjcta, +8:), ++8, 8 pcrccnt ol thc population ol almatia spokc only
ScrboCroatian in +8, about 8 pcrccnt spokc both ScrboCroatian and !talian, pcr
ccnt spokc only !talian, quotcd in Nicholas J. Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State (Pitts
burgh: Univcrsity ol Pittsburgh Prcss, +), :. For morc, scc \asilijc Krcsti, History
of the Serbs in Croatia and Sla.onia :,:,:,, transl. Margot and 8oko Milosavljcvi
(8clgradc: 8!GZ, +).

For morc inlormation on Roman Catholic Scrbs, scc Lazo M. Kosti, Katoliki Srbi
|Catholic Scrbs| (Toronto: St. Sava Scrb Cultural Club, +6) and !van Stojanovi,
Po.jest Dubro.ake Fepublike |Tc History ol thc Rcpublic ol ubrovnik|, orig. writtcn
in Gcrman by !van Hristijan v. ngcl (ubrovnik: Srpskc ubrovakc tamparijc A.
Pasaria, +o).
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :o
hintcrland ol northcrn almatia.

Tc Scrb prcscncc in almatia and its


hintcrland is ccnturics old. !n addition to somc oldcr historical documcnts,
living witncsscs to Scrb prcscncc arc thc Scrbian rthodox monastcrics ol
Krupa and Krka (both datcd to thc lourtccnth ccntury). A bricl account
ol cconomic, cultural, scicntic and political inucncc ol thc ubrovnik
Scrbs is an illustrativc cxamplc ol thc signicant Scrb prcscncc in southcrn
almatia:
For many ccnturics ubrovnik tradcd with its rthodox hintcrland
and rcccivcd immigrants thcrclrom. Tc most rcnowncd inhabit
ants ol ubrovnik, !van Gunduli, poct (+8+68) and Rudjcr
8okovi, scicntist and philosophcr (+++8), lamous in uro
pcan circlcs, wcrc ol Scrbian origin ... !n +8o, thc Scrbian Party
won thc municipal clcction in ubrovnik. Tcy got votcs ol thc
rthodox Scrbs and ol thc Catholic Scrbs as wcll. !n Ston, on thc
Pcljcac pcninsula, St. Sava loundcd an cparchy in +:+.

Trcc nations thcrclorc claimcd this rcgion Scrbs, Croats and !talians. Yct
it should bc notcd that prior to and undcr Habsburg rulc, many alma
tians idcnticd thcmsclvcs simply as almatians or Slavs, rathcr than Scrbs,
Croats or !talians.
6

Krajina

is thc rcgion cstablishcd by \icnna in thc +:os as a mili


tary lronticr zonc bctwccn thc Habsburg and ttoman cmpircs, on cmpty
land bordcring thc provinccs ol almatia, Croatia and Slavonia to thc wcst
and 8osniaHcrzcgovina to thc cast. Tc pcoplc who camc to inhabit this
rcgion, prcdominantly Scrb,
8
lought lor thc Habsburgs against thc t
tomans. !n rcturn, thcy cnjoycd a largc dcgrcc ol autonomy that includcd
indcpcndcnt schooling and an autonomous church. SlavoScrbian (thc lan

Scrbs bcgan to scttlc in thc coastal city ol Rijcka only altcr thc Sccond Vorld Var,
lollowing thc cxpulsion ol most ol its !talian inhabitants by thc Yugoslav Communist
authoritics.

Jovan !li, Tc Scrbs in thc Formcr SR Croatia in Te Serbian Question in the Bal-
kans, +.
6
As latc as +86o, a almatian politician rcportcd no morc than scvcn proSlavic poli
ticians in almatia, lurthcr noting that scvcral ol thcsc dcclarcd thcmsclvcs as Slavo
almatians, also considcring almatians to bc a scparatc cthnic group. For morc, scc
Josip \randci, Nacionalnc idcologijc u almaciji u +. stoljcu |National idcologics
in almatia in thc +th ccntury| in Dijalog po.jesniara-istoriara |ialoguc ol histori
ans |, cds. uan Gamscr, !gor Graovac and livcra Milosavljcvi (Zagrcb: Fricdrich
Naumann Stiltung, :oo+).

Military 8ordcr or Fronticr in nglish, Militargrcnzc in Gcrman.


8
For onc ol thc carlicst autochthonous dcmographic accounts ol Krajina, scc Spiridon
Jovi, Etnografska slika Sla.onske .ojne granice |thnographic Picturc ol thc Military
8ordcr in Slavonia| (+st cd. +8, 8clgradc: igoja tampa, :oo), csp. 8.
8alcanica XXX\!! :o8
guagc that prcdatcs thc currcnt vcrsion ol thc Scrbian languagc) was uscd
as a languagc ol instruction, and Scrb rthodox clcrgy ovcrsaw schools
in Krajina. !t was thc Statuta !alachorum,

a dccrcc issucd by mpcror


Fcrdinand !! in +6o, that placcd Krajina undcr thc dircct rulc ol \icnna,
rcmoving thc jurisdiction ol thc Croatian ict and ccctivcly crcating a
scparatc rcgion at thc cxpcnsc ol thc CroatiaSlavonia provincc. !ntcrnal
organization ol thc Krajina was bascd on local autonomy, with courts lor
cach ol thrcc captaincics, clcctcd lor ycarlong tcrms by thc cldcrs ol cach
district. Tis civil govcrnmcnt and courts wcrc in chargc ol all civil pcnal
tics, with military courts limitcd to corporal punishmcnt, and that only lor
thc military. Tc Statutc also claboratcd military rcquircmcnts: a minimum
ol six thousand soldicrs was to gathcr within thrcc hours ol any alarm. Tc
Krajina inhabitants wcrc cxcmpt lrom various land and protcction taxcs
imposcd on othcrs.
o

Upon thc crcation ol Krajina, Croatian noblcmcn dcmandcd that
thcir lcvy powcr bc cxtcndcd to this arca. !n thc cightccnth ccntury, thc
Croatian rcprcscntativcs in thc Hungarian ict cvcn dcmandcd thc cn
actmcnt ol laws and rcgulations which would makc lilc impossiblc lor thc
Scrbian pcoplc and lor thc rthodox Church
+
such as thosc prcvcnting
thc organization ol Scrbian high schools, thc building ol Scrb rthodox
churchcs, and so on. Howcvcr, \icnna rcjcctcd thcsc dcmands, nccding thc
Krajina manpowcr to ght thc ttoman onslaught. !n turn, thc inhabitants
ol Krajina wcrc cxtrcmcly loyal to thc Habsburgs, rcgarding thcm as thc
guarantors ol thcir privilcgcd status. According to Gunthcr Rothcnbcrg:
At thc timc whcn scrldom and subscrvicncc to lcudal lords wcrc still
thc gcncral rulc, |thcy| rcgardcd thcmsclvcs as lrcc tcnants ol thc
cmpcror who wcrc lar supcrior to ordinary pcasants.
:

Tc lcgislation had thc samc namc and purposc as thc socallcd \lach law ol +68,
undcr which thc ttomans grantcd privilcgcs to Scrbs in vassal Scrbia. Howcvcr thc
AustroHungarian law grantcd morc cxtcnsivc rights, at oncc crcating an autonomous
rcgion and an ccctivc military systcm dclcnding thcir mpirc. Tc intcgral tcxt ol thc
Statuta !alachorum, proclaimcd on ctobcr +6o, is rcproduccd in Latin, Scrbian and
nglish in inko avidov, Srpske pri.iliegije |Scrbian Privilcgcs|, (Novi Sad, 8clgradc:
Matica srpska, !nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, Svctovi, +), ++.
o
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, +o++.
+
dmond Paris, Genocide in Satellite Croatia. Fecord of Facial and Feligious Prosecu-
tions and Massacres (Chicago: Amcrican !nstitutc lor 8alkan Aairs, +6+), ++.
:
Gunthcr . Rothcnbcrg, Te Military Border in Croatia, :,c:: (Chicago: Uni
vcrsity ol Chicago Prcss, +66), .
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :o
Howcvcr, thc Austrians tcndcd to ovcrlook local dcrogations to privilcgcs
at a timc ol a low war dangcr. Tc Catholic Church uscd this to lorcclully
convcrt thc rcsidcnts ol thc Military Fronticr:
As long as thc scrvicc ol thc rthodox Grcnzcr wcrc nccdcd, thcir
rcligion was rcspcctcd, but whcn thc nccd had passcd thc thronc
did nothing to rcstrain thc corts ol thc Catholic hicrarchy, which,
with thc zcalous collaboration ol thc military, attcmptcd lorcibly to
convcrt thc rthodox or at lcast to cocrcc thcm to acccpt thc Uniatc
ritcs.

cspitc thc lorccd convcrsions, and thc taxing dcmands ol thc Croat noblc
mcn, thc Scrbs and thc Croats gcncrally livcd pcacclully in Krajina, whcrc
Scrbs wcrc a majority.

Tc Krajina Scrbs also had good rclations with othcr


Habsburg provinccs whcrc Croats lormcd thc majority Croatia, Slavonia
and almatia. Scrious scholars havc thcrclorc rclutcd thc postulatcd agc
old antagonisms bctwccn Scrbs and Croats.

Tc Croats ol Croatia-Sla.onia cnjoycd a limitcd political autonomy


lrom thc Habsburgs lrom thcir ocial incorporation into thc AustroHun
garian Monarchy in ++o:. Howcvcr, many prcscntday Croat historians
nd thc position ol Croatias subscrvicncc to Hungary in thc Habsburg
mpirc (latcr AustriaHungary) impossiblc to acccpt, bccausc it tcstics to
thc loss ol Croatian statchood in thc Middlc Agcs. Contrary to thc cstab
lishcd scholarly cvidcncc, thcy tcnd to dcscribc thc Croat position within
thc ual Monarchy as a voluntary sharing ol powcr and a pcrsonal union
bctwccn Croatia and Hungary: !n thc carly MiddlcAgcs Croatia cntcrcd
into somcthing ol a commonwcalth with Hungary.
6
Somc Croat historians go bcyond this cxplanation and dcpict Croatia
as onc ol thc thrcc statcs constituting thc Habsburg mpirc which, accord

Ibid., :. Plcasc notc that Grcnzcr is thc Gcrman tcrm lor thc Krajina inhabitants.

Scc rago Roksandi, Srbi u Hr.atskoj |Scrbs in Croatia| (Zagrcb: \jcsnik, ++),
o.

Scc, c.g., Lampc, Yugosla.ia as History, o.


6
Stcphcn Gazi, History of Croatia (Ncw York: 8arncs & Noblc 8ooks, +), ix.
A documcnt titlcd Pacta Con.enta, not prcscrvcd but supposcdly signcd in ++o:, was
claimcd by lcading Croatian historians to bc a contract stipulating pcrsonal union ol
Hungary and Croatia. Howcvcr, cvcn il its authcnticity wcrc acccptcd, it still would not
rcprcscnt anything morc than a contract bctwccn thc lcudal rulcr ol Croatia, Hungarian
King Koloman, and his Croatian vassals, i.c. it would not bc pcrccivcd as an intcrstatc
agrccmcnt in thc domain ol intcrnational law. Marko Kostrcni, s. v. Pacta convcnta,
Enciklopedija Jugosla.ije (Zagrcb, +), o, Nada Kali, Pacta convcnta ili tobonji
ugovor izmcu plcmstva dvanacstoro plcmcna i kralja Kolomana ++o:. godinc |Pacta
con.enta or thc allcgcd contract bctwccn twclvc tribcs and king Koloman ol ++o:|,
Historijski pregled : (+6o).
8alcanica XXX\!! :+o
ing to thcm, was only nominally a ual monarchy.

Historical lcgalism
bascd on thc continuity ol thc Croat statc
8
is charactcristic ol Croatian
historiography,

and it lollows in many aspccts, and is a rcaction to, similar


Hungarian dcsigns. Croatian historical lcgalism was rcjcctcd by thc Hun
garian and othcr historians such as Hondius who vicwcd it as a complcx
and national malaisc |ol thc Croats|.
6o
Ncvcrthclcss it is important to cm
phasizc thc rm bclicl ol most Croats in its lactuality sincc nationhood
tcnds to bc bascd on bclicl rathcr than rcality.
6+
Tc bclicl in thc idca that
Croatian statchood had ncvcr bccn cxtinguishcd contributcd to thc cmcr
gcncc ol modcrn Croat national consciousncss in thc ninctccnth ccntury,
with a goal ol rcunication ol thc allcgcd Triunc Kingdom ol thc Middlc
Agcs (Croatia, almatia and Slavonia).
An undisputablc lact is that Habsburg rulc was lcss opprcssivc than
ttoman, sharing Roman Catholic rcligion and cultural vicws with thc
Croats who rctaincd thc institutions ol a parliamcnt and a govcrnor (ban),
who was ncvcrthclcss choscn by \icnna or 8udapcst, which also had lull
control ol thc provinccs nanccs.
6:
Noncthclcss, according to Singlcton,
dominant Croat lamilics did not display any strong national lcclings, Croat
or Hungarian:
Tcy wcrc morc conccrncd with thc consolidation ol thcir cstatcs
and with thc cxpansion ol thcir pcrsonal powcr. Two ol thc lcading
lamilics, thc Zrinski and thc Frankopan, hcld land in both Croatia tia

Scc, c.g., Milan \ladisavljcvi, Hr.atska autonomija pod ustro-Ugarskom |Croatian


autonomy undcr AustriaHungary| (8clgradc: Politika A, +).
8
Scc also milio Pallua, A Survcy ol thc Constitutional History ol thc Kingdom ol
almatia, Croatia, and Slavonia, Canadian-merican Sla.ic Studies : (+o), +:
+.

CroatoAmcrican historians Charlcs and 8arbara Jclavich sharc thc Croat vicwpoint
that Croatia and Hungary rcmaincd as scparatc kingdoms unitcd through thc crown.
Rathcr than having bccn conqucrcd, Croats had, in this vicw, clcctcd thc rulcr ol Hun
gary as thcir monarch in ++o:, and, by thc samc rcasoning, in +: altcr thc dclcat ol
Hungary by thc Turks, Croatia clcctcd thc Habsburg cmpcror as hcr king. Scc Charlcs
and 8arbara Jclavich, Te Establishment of the Balkan National States, :c,:,:c (+st
cdition +86, Scattlc, London: Univcrsity ol Vashington Prcss, +), :.
6o
Hondius, Yugosla. Community of Nations, :o
6+
Scc 8cncdict R. G. Andcrson, Imagined Communities: Feections on the Origin and
Spread of Nationalism (London: \crso, +8), Maria N. Todorova, Imagining the Balkans
(xlord, Ncw York: xlord Univcrsity Prcss, +).
6:
Charlcs Jclavich, Tc Croatian Problcm in thc Habsburg mpirc in thc Ninctccnth
Ccntury, ustrian History Yearbook , No. : (+6), +oo.
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :++
Slavonia rcgion and Hungary and movcd lrccly bctwccn thcir
lands.
6

Howcvcr, an cra ol ccntralization and Magyarization cnsuing in thc latc
ninctccnth ccntury placcd CroatiaSlavonia undcr thc dircct rulc ol 8uda
pcst:
Tc railways wcrc bcing constructcd as an intcgral part ol thc Hun
garian railway systcm. Also, Hungarian ags, cmblcms, coats ol
arms, and inscriptions wcrc bcing crcctcd cvcrywhcrc.
6
Croat nationalists lrom Croatia and Slavonia dcvclopcd an incrcasing an
imosity towards thc Hungarians, whom thcy thcn vicwcd as opprcssors,
whilc othcrs rcmaincd loyal to 8udapcst.
!t was not until thc ninctccnth ccntury that thc provinccs ol Croatia
and Slavonia had a rst govcrnor ol Croatian origin, Josip Jclai, prcvi
ously a midranking Austrian military occr. Jclai cntcrtaincd a good rc
lationship with thc Habsburg Scrbs. Hc rclcrrcd to thc Croat and Scrbian
Pcoplc in his proclamations, and dcclarcd on Scptcmbcr +88: Rcligious
dicrcnccs makc no barricrs bctwccn brothcrs in social or public lilc. Vc
proclaim lull cquality |bctwccn Croats and Scrbs|.
6

Vhcn thc Hungarians bcgan to dcmand grcatcr rights lrom thc Aus
trian Habsburgs, thc Croats and thc Scrbs in thc mpirc, lcd by 8an Jclai,
lought lcrvcntly on thc Austrian sidc. Croats, who wcrc undcr Hungar
ian rulc in thc mpirc, rcsistcd Magyarization and hopcd to obtain grcatcr
rights lrom thc Austrian cmpcror. Tc Krajina Scrbs supportcd thc Croats
not only bccausc ol Jclais lair trcatmcnt ol Scrbs and Croats, but also
bccausc thc Hungarians had bcgun cncroaching on thc Austrian rulc in
Krajina. Finally, thc Hungarians had dircctcd thcir Magyarization policy
not just against Croats but also against Scrbs and othcr cthnic groups in thc
provinccs undcr thcir rulc. A kcy lactor in lorging a CroatoScrb military
coalition against thc Hungarians was thc uprising ol thc \oivodina Scrbs
(thcn a part ol Southcrn Hungary) against thc Hungarian authoritics during
thc +88 rcvolution.
66
Tc Krajina Scrbs dcmandcd that Jclai providc
military aid lor thcir brcthrcn.

Tc Scrb Patriarch Josil Rajai, who had
consccratcd Jclai as a ban, sccondcd this dcmand.
6
Although thc Croat
6
Singlcton, Short History of the Yugosla. Peoples, 6.
6
Alcksa jilas, Te Contested Country: Yugosla. Unity and Communist Fe.olution,
:,:,:, (Cambridgc: Harvard Univcrsity Prcss, ++), +.
6
8ranko \incic, History ol Scrbs in Croatia, Krajina: Tragedy of a People (Hamilton,
N: CanadianScrbian Council, +8), +.
66
Scc abovc.
6
Rothcnbcrg, Military Border, ++.
8alcanica XXX\!! :+:
Scrb army thcn dclivcrcd a scrious blow to thc Hungarian lorccs, thcy lost
thc battlc. Tc Hungarian rcvolution was qucllcd by Russian troops who
aidcd thc Austrian crown, bound by thc Holy Alliancc.
68
Tc good rclations bctwccn thc Scrbs and thc Croats in thc Habsburg
mpirc wcrc lurthcr strcngthcncd in +86, whcn thc Croatian ict dcclarcd
that thc Scrbian and Croatian nations and thcir languagcs wcrc cqual.
6

Howcvcr, this dccision was not always rcspcctcd. Notably thc rst Croat
tcachcrs gcncral asscmbly in +8+ concludcd that tcaching was to bc in
Croatian only.
o
Pcrhaps this changc in attitudc camc as a rcsult ol thc +868
CroatoHungarian agrccmcnt (Nagodba).
+
Tc agrccmcnt dcaling with
CroatoHungarian rclations was a conscqucncc ol thc AustroHungarian
Compromisc ol +86, which had turncd thc Habsburg Monarchy into a
ual Monarchy, now placing thc provincc ol CroatiaSlavonia complctcly
in thc sphcrc ol Hungary.
Tc CroatoHungarian agrccmcnt dclincatcd Croatian autonomy
within Hungary with Croatian as thc ocial languagc. Yct it strcsscd in
thc rst articlc that Hungary and thc provinccs ol Croatia, Slavonia and
almatia lormcd onc and thc samc political community,
:
with 8udapcst
rctaining control ovcr thc choicc ol govcrnor, nanccs and thc most impor
tant port, Fiumc (Rijcka). Vhilc Croats placcd thcir hopcs in this agrcc
mcnt, pcrcciving it as a documcnt apt to strcngthcn thcir rights within thc
mpirc, Hungarians considcrcd it a rst stcp in Croatias translormation
68
Articlc !! ol thc Holy Alliancc Trcaty, signcd on :6 Scptcmbcr +8+ by thc sovcrcigns
ol Austria, Prussia and Russia, stipulatcd that thc solc principlc ol lorcc, whcthcr bc
twccn thc said Govcrnmcnts or bctwccn thcir Subjccts, shall bc that ol doing cach othcr
rcciprocal scrvicc, and ol tcstilying by unaltcrablc good will thc mutual acction with
which thcy ought to bc animatcd, to considcr thcmsclvcs all as mcmbcrs ol onc and thc
samc Christian nation. dward Cccil Hcrtslct, Te Map of Europe by Treaty (London,
+8) (acccsscd +o Fcbruary :oo), availablc lrom http://www.napolconscrics.org/rcl
crcncc/diplomatic/alliancc.clm
6
Saborski spisi sabora kralje.inah Dalmacije, Hr.atske i Sla.onije od godine :&:&
|Parliamcntary Acts ol thc Parliamcnt ol thc Kingdoms ol almatia, Croatia and Sla
vonia +86+8| (Zagrcb, +oo), o8.
o
ccision quotcd in \asilijc j. Krcsti, I. istorije Srba i srpsko-hr.atskih odnosa |From
thc History ol Scrbs and ScrbCroat Rclations| (8clgradc: 8!GZ, +), :+o:++.
+
!ntcgral tcxt ol thc political compromisc bctwccn Croatia and Hungary ol +8 No
vcmbcr +868 rcproduccd in Franois Rodolphc, Les Constitutions ModernesFecueil des
constitutions en .igeur dans les di.ers Etats dEurope, dmerique et du monde ci.ilise (Paris:
Challamcl, ++o), \ol. !, o, and in Snczana Trilunovska, !, o, and in Snczana Trilunovska, Yugosla.ia through Documents
from its Creation to its Dissolution (ordrccht: Martinus Nijho, +), o8.
:
Ibid. (translation minc). riginal tcxt: La Hongric ct la Croatic, Slavonic ct alma
tic lormcnt unc sculc ct mcmc communaut politiquc
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :+
into an intcgral part ol Hungary. Hungarian and othcr lorcign historians,
including thosc writing in that pcriod,

constantly cmphasizcd thc limits


to Croatias autonomy within Hungary, whilc Croatian historians tcndcd to
cxaggcratc its scopc.

Notably, just as Hungarians wantcd to rcndcr Croats


a Hungarian political nation, Croats prclcrrcd to vicw thc Scrbs as politi
cal Croats, a vicw that Scrbs crccly rcjcctcd.

Tis issuc lormcd thc corc ol


CroatoScrb antagonism, which dcvclopcd as Croatian nationalism ripcncd
in thc sccond hall ol thc ninctccnth ccntury.
Conscqucntly, Croatias lrustrations rcgarding its position in thc
AustroHungarian Monarchy wcrc not soothcd with thc Nagodba. Tirtccn
ycars latcr (+88+), thc Habsburgs dissolvcd thc Krajina provincc undcr grcat
prcssurc lrom Hungary, incorporating it into CroatiaSlavonia. From that
point, altcr thc occupation ol 8osniaHcrzcgovina in +88 diminishcd thc
importancc ol Krajinas rolc in thc dclcncc ol thc mpircs castcrn bordcrs,
thc Scrbs bccomc an important lactor in thc CroatoHungarian conict:
Vith thc ncw lands, Croatia addcd 6+ pcrccnt morc tcrritory and
66,ooo morc pcoplc, ol which pcrccnt wcrc Scrbs.

Tis simplc
translcr ol land and pcoplc lrom onc jurisdiction to anothcr upsct
thc cquilibrium ol Croatian politics by inscrting a nonCroatian
clcmcnt into what had bccn a largcly Croatian land. 8y ++o, r
thodox Scrbs madc up approximatcly : pcrccnt ol Croatia |Slavo
nia|s population.
6
Vhilc thc majority ol thc Scrbs living in thc AustroHungarian mpirc
wcrc pcasants, somc wcrc also bankcrs and wcalthy landowncrs. !n +8,
Scrbian larmcrs collcctivcs bcgan to bc lormcd in thc AustroHungarian
mpirc, providing smallscalc aid in thc lorm ol sccds, lccd, cducational
matcrials, and classcs to Scrbian pcasants. Linking all thc collcctivcs was
thc Scrbian 8ank and thc inucntial Scrbian conomic Socicty with its
ncwspapcr, Pri.rednik (Tc Tradcsman), scatcd in Zagrcb. Startcd in +888,

Scc, c.g., Hungary of Today, cd. Pcrcy Aldcn (London: Fawsidc Housc, +o), .

Scc, c.g., Gazi, History of Croatia, ix.

Scc Tihomir Cipck, blikovanjc hrvatskoga nacionalnog idcntitcta. Primordijalni


idcntitctski kod u ranoj hrvatskoj politikoj misli |Shaping ol Croatian national idcnti
ty. Primordial idcntity codc in carly Croatian political thought| in Dijalog po.jesniara-
istoriara, Mirjana Gross and Agncza Szabo, Prema hr.atskome gradjanskom drut.u.
Drut.eni ra..oj u ci.ilnoj Hr.atskoj i Sla.oniji e.desetih i sedamdesetih godina :,.
stoljea (Zagrcb, +:), +:+.
6
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, +8. !mportantly, Scrbs constitutcd absolutc majority
in morc than a dozcn towns and a rclativc majority in many morc. Scc Popis itclja od
+. prosinca ++o. u Kraljcvinama Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji |Ccnsus ol + cccmbcr ++o
in thc Kingdoms ol Croatia and Slavonia| in Publikacije Kr. .emaljskog statistikog ureda
u Zagrebu LX!!! (Zagrcb, ++), o+.
8alcanica XXX\!! :+
it was dcvotcd to cconomic cducation and gcncral advanccmcnt ol Scrbs
who dominatcd Croatias cconomy until ++.


Tc Matica Srpska, Scrbian scholarly and cultural organization, was
loundcd in 8udapcst in +8:6, but subscqucntly translcrrcd to Novi Sad
(\oivodina), thc hub ol Scrb publishing activitics. Howcvcr, whilc promot
ing Scrb intcrcsts, thc Scrb banks, cultural institutions and party organiza
tions, according to Millcr, also scrvcd to scgrcgatc Scrbs lrom thcir ncigh
bours and inculcatc an insular scnsc ol community.
8
Anxious about thc tcrmination ol Krajina in +88+, thc Scrbs rcccivcd
rcassuranccs lrom mpcror Francis Joscph that all mcasurcs havc bccn
takcn to placc |thc inhabitants ol Krajina| on cqual status with all othcr
inhabitants ol |Habsburg| lands ol thc Hungarian crown.

!n rcturn lor
thc prcscrvation ol thcir prcvious privilcgcs, thc Scrbs optcd lor loyalty to
thc Hungarian govcrnor ol CroatiaSlavonia, Count Charlcs KhucnH
drvary (+88:+o). KhucnHdrvary bcgan a dividcandrulc policy in
thc rcgion by granting grcatcr privilcgcs to thc Scrbs. !n dircctly placing
thc Hungarian govcrnmcnt rathcr than thc Croatian ict in thc scrvicc ol
Scrbian intcrcsts, KhucnHdrvary drcw Scrbs into thc Hungarian, rathcr
than Croatian, administrativc contcxt. !n +88 and +888, thc Parliamcnt
passcd two laws, onc lcgalizing thc usc ol thc Scrbian languagc and Cyrillic
alphabct, and thc othcr assuring thc cxistcncc ol Scrbian rthodox schools
in thc districts whcrc Scrbs wcrc a majority.
8o
Many Scrbs wcrc dissatiscd
with thc scopc ol thcsc laws, which thcy bclicvcd to bc lcss gcncrous than
thc privilcgcs grantcd to Scrbs in +868, cmphasizing rcligious and cultural
rathcr than national rights.
8+
Tc +88/8 lcgislation was imprccisc and it
did not apply to thc cntirc tcrritory ol thc Scrbinhabitcd provinccs. For in
stancc, thc +88 Law rcgulating thc activitics ol thc astcrn Grcck Church
and thc usc ol Cyrillic stipulatcd that thc Cyrillic alphabct could bc uscd in
court procccdings thcrc whcrc Scrbs livc in grcatcr numbcrs.
8:
Count KhucnHdrvarys actions gcncratcd a strong Croatian op
position. Hc was portraycd as a tyrant in Croatian historiography, although

All thcsc organizations wcrc loundcd by mcmbcrs ol thc Scrbian !ndcpcndcnt Party.
8
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, :.

ocumcnt quotcd in Rothcnbcrg, Military Border, +:.


8o
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, .
8+
Scc arko Miladinovi, Tuma po.lastica, .akona, uredaba i drugih naredjenja srpske
narodne crk.ene a.tonomije u Ugarskoj, Hr.atskoj i Sla.oniji |!ntcrprctation ol privilcg
cs, laws, dccrccs and othcr ordcrs ol thc Scrb national church autonomy in Hungary,
Croatia and Slavonia| (Novi Sad, +8), +oo+o+.
8:
Articlc , Law rcgulating thc activitics ol thc astcrn Grcck Church and thc usc ol
Cyrillic, passcd on + May +88, produccd in Krcsti, Gradja, 8.
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :+
during thc cntirc twcnty ycars ol his rulc cxactly onc man was shot.
8
Tc
Croatian nationalism that dcvclopcd vcry timidly in rcsistancc to Hungar
ian rulc, aiming at thc unication ol Croatia, Slavonia, thc Military Fronticr
(Krajina), almatia and 8osnia and Hcrzcgovina into a singlc statc accord
ing to a national programmc draltcd by Janko rakovi in +8:,
8
was
rapidly cnhanccd by KhucnHcdcrvarys actions and dircctcd against thc
Scrbs who agrccd to thc bans conccssions hopclul to prcscrvc thcir own
culturc rcprcscntcd by thc Christian rthodox laith and Cyrillic alphabct.
According to Millcr:
Scrbs bchaviour in Croatia was rootcd in thcir lcar ol losing thcir
collcctivc idcntity. Tcy wcrc conscious ol thcir history and proud
that thcy had maintaincd thcir idcntity through ccnturics ol tto
man and Habsburg administration. ... |Tcy| could do nothing but
acccpt KhucnHcdcrvarys patronagc, givcn thc attitudc ol thc most
popular Croatian political partics and thcir lcadcrs.
8
Croatian politics bccamc onc ol rcsisting thc granting ol any rccognition to
Scrbian institutions and cultural pcculiarity without prcvious acccptancc by
Scrbs ol thc conccpt that thc only political nation in Croatia was thc Cro
atian.
86
Tis politics was cmanatcd by thc cxtrcmc nationalist Antc Starcvi
(+8:6) and thc Croatian Party ol Rights.
Starcvi, likc many othcr Croat intcllcctuals, bclicvcd that Croatian
statchood had ncvcr bccn cxtinguishcd, that thc Croatian statc had mcrcly
bccn rulcd by lorcigncrs. According to him, this statc cncompasscd all thc
!llyrian provinccs ol thc Roman mpirc, and was inhabitcd cxclusivcly by
Croats. Starcvi not only dcnicd any claim to Scrbian nationhood, but cvcn
argucd that mcmbcrs ol thc mcdicval Scrbian Ncmanji dynasty had bccn
thc purcstbloodcd Croats.
8

Starcvi turncd crccly antiScrb altcr lailing to obtain prolcssor
ship at thc Univcrsity ol 8clgradc and lrom thcn on rcgardcd Scrbs as a
political prclcrcncc, an inlcrior racc amidst thc Croats that cithcr was to
abandon its national consciousncss and bccomc Croat or to bc cxtcrminat
cd. Not only did Starcvi launch thc slogan Tc Scrbs arc a brccd t only
lor thc slaughtcr housc,
88
but hc also claimcd Slovcncs as cthnic Croats.
Hc aspircd towards a Grcatcr Croatia that would cncompass Slovcnia, thc
8
Hondius, Yugosla. Community of Nations, +.
8
Scc Gazi, History of Croatia, +.
8
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, :.
86
Ibid.
8
cnnison Rusinow, Te Yugosla. Experiment :,,:,, (London: C. Hurst and
Company, +), +.
88
Paris, Genocide, ++.
8alcanica XXX\!! :+6
provinccs ol Croatia, Slavonia, almatia and Krajina, as wcll as 8osnia and
Hcrzcgovina. !n bricl, Starcvi was thc progcnitor ol cxtrcmc Croatian
nationalism, which sought to supprcss and pcrhaps cvcn to cxtcrminatc all
thosc who had a dicrcnt national consciousncss.
8
cspitc ovcrwhclming
historical cvidcncc to thc contrary, howcvcr, modcrn Croat historians havc
idcnticd Starcvi as onc ol Croatian most cmincnt libcrals, cnlightcncd
by thc idcals ol thc Frcnch Rcvolution and committcd to dcmocracy and
thc rulc ol law.
o
Anothcr idcology that cmanatcd lrom Croatian rcsistancc to
Magyarization was thc Croat vcrsion ol Yugoslavism, which lorcsaw union was thc Croat vcrsion ol Yugoslavism, which lorcsaw union
ol South Slavs into onc, highly lcdcralizcd, rcgion bascd on thc allcgcd
historical rights. Tc goal was not indcpcndcncc but autonomy in thc lorm
ol a scparatc lcdcral unit dominatcd by Croats. Tc champion ol this idcol
ogy was 8ishop Josip Juraj Strossmaycr, who had also bricy contcmplatcd
unication ol thc SouthSlav lands ol thc ual Monarchy with Scrbia in
thc mid+86os.
Scrb politics in thc AustroHungarian mpirc at thc bcginning ol
thc twcnticth ccntury was dividcd bctwccn thosc supporting coopcration
with thc Croats (thc !ndcpcndcnts), and thosc who supportcd somc coop
cration but insistcd on lorming an cntity scparatc lrom thc Croats in thc
luturc and joining with thc Kingdom ol Scrbia (thc Radicals).
Tc !ndcpcndcnt Scrbian Party (latcr thc Scrbian National !ndcpcn
dcnt Party) was loundcd in August +88+ as thc rst Scrbian opposition
party in Croatia, dcmanding Scrbian church and school autonomy, budgct
ary support lor Scrbian institutions in Croatia, cquality ol thc Cyrillic with
thc Latin alphabct, thc right to y thc Scrbian ag, and a rcvision ol thc
agrccmcnt with Hungary.
+
Tc partys lcadcr, Svctozar Pribicvi, was thc
most activc and inucntial Scrb politician in Croatia lrom latc +o:. 8orn
in Kostajnica in Krajina, hc was brought up in such a way as to havc dccp
dcvotion toward thc Scrbian national idca and lully uncritical lovc towards
Scrbia, Montcncgro and Russia.
:
His party advocatcd a broadcr vcrsion ol
Scrbdom sccing Scrbs as part ol a largcr, ScrboCroatian nation.
A morc vocal party, thc Serbian National Fadical Party, camc into
lorcc in +88. !t was not activc in thc cntirc provincc ol CroatiaSlavonia,
which thcn includcd Krajina, but bascd its political activity on thc privilcgcs
8
jilas, Contested Country, +o6+o.
o
Scc Pavo 8arii, Antc Starcvi (+8:+86) in Liberalna misao u Hr.atskoj |Libcr
al !dca in Croatia|, cds. Andrca Fcldman, \ladimir Stipcti and Franjo Zcnko (Zagrcb:
Fricdrich Naumann Stiltung, :ooo), +o+:o.
+
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, 8.
:
Ibid., .
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :+
grantcd to Scrbs by thc carlicr Habsburg monarchs. Tc party goal was
to cxtcnd thc Scrbian church and school autonomy to thc political rcalm,
building a basis lor Scrb tcrritorial autonomy. According to thc Radicals
Autonomy Programmc ol +8, Scrbs should scck thc right ol autonomy
not only in thc church/school and propcrty/nancial |clds| but also in thc
political arcna.

Tc Radicals bascd thcir claims on thc sct ol privilcgcs


grantcd by Habsburg mpcror Lcopold ! in +6o, rclusing thc changcs
introduccd by thc subscqucnt CroatoHungarian agrccmcnt. According to
Millcr, thc Serbian Fadical Party, lcd by Jaa Tomi, rcprcscntcd a tricd and
truc vcrsion ol Scrbianncss: that thc Scrbian community was |Christian|
rthodox, isolatcd, thrcatcncd with assimilation, and nccdlul ol vigilancc.


Tis vigilancc dcvclopcd in rcsponsc to Magyarization and thc Croats in
crcasing dcnial ol Scrbian idcntity
!n Scptcmbcr +o:, Srbobran (Scrbclcndcr), ncwspapcr publishcd
by thc Independent Serbian Party, rcprintcd an articlc titlcd Scrbs and Cro
ats lrom Srpski knjie.ni glasnik (Scrbian Litcrary Hcrald), thc lcading lit
crary journal in thc Kingdom ol Scrbia. Tis articlc by a young Scrb studcnt
lrom 8osnia argucd that thc Scrbs, having a strongcr culturc, would cvcntu
ally culturally absorb thc Croats. !t causcd a grcat uproar among thc Croats,
who protcstcd in Zagrcb, looting and dcstroying many Scrbian banks and
busincsscs.

Tc cxtcnt ol thc violcncc shockcd thc Scrbs across thc m


pirc.
6
Trcc ycars altcr this incidcnt, howcvcr, a small group ol cnlight
cncd Scrbs and Croats lormcd an ocial political coalition, rcalizing that
Magyarization thrcatcncd thcm both and that thc \icnncsc authoritics did
not support a lurthcr lcdcralization ol thc mpirc. Tus, at thc turn ol thc
ccntury, a policy ol CroatoScrb coopcration prcvailcd, born out ol thc +8
unication ol thc Croat and Scrb youth organizations into thc Unitcd Cro
atian and Scrbian Youth. Tc youth lcadcrs latcr lormcd partics that cntcrcd
into a ScrboCroatian govcrnmcnt coalition, rcccting Pribicvis bclicl
that thc ScrboCroatian conict cannot bc considcrcd a national qucstion,
bccausc Scrbs and Croats arc not two dicrcnt nations but parts ol onc and
thc samc nation.

Quotcd in Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, o.

Ibid., +.

Ibid., :.
6
Scc corrcspondcncc ol Scrb notablcs dcscribing thc +o: riots, rcproduccd in Krcsti,
Gradja, .

Svctozar Pribicvi, Misao vodilja Srba i Hrvata |Guiding !dca ol Scrbs and Croats|
in Jovan 8anjanin ct al., Narodna misao (Zagrcb: ionika tiskara, +8), o.
8alcanica XXX\!! :+8
nc ol thc goals ol thc CroatoScrb coalition was unication ol
almatia with CroatiaSlavonia, with thc purposc ol strcngthcning thc
strugglc against thc AustroHungarian dominancc. Conccrncd about thc
prcvious nationalist Croatian policy, thc Scrbs joincd thc Coalition undcr
onc important condition, containcd in thc Zadar Rcsolution:
Conccrning thc dcmands ol our Croat brothcrs lor thc rcincorpora
tion ol almatia into Croatia and Slavonia thc Scrbian partics
arc prcparcd to |support this| il thc Croatian sidc bindingly rcc
ognizcs thc cquality ol thc Scrbian nation with thc Croatian.
8
n + Novcmbcr +o, thc parliamcntary club ol thc Croatian Party and
thc club ol thc Scrbian National Party signcd a dcclaration in thc alma
tian parliamcnt to that ccct, stating that thc Croats and Scrbs arc onc
pcoplc, cqual to onc anothcr. Tc two parliamcntary clubs lurthcr agrccd
to intcrchangcably usc Scrbian and Croatian languagc and ags, to allow
lor Scrbian culturc and history to bc aptly rcprcscntcd in cducation and
lor judicial usc ol Cyrillic script whcn cascs arc lcd in that script.

Tis
agrccmcnt was a corncrstonc ol a coalition that was announccd a month
latcr, bccoming a signicant lactor in CroatiaSlavonia altcr thc clcctions
ol May +o6.
!n +o 8an Rauch ol CroatiaSlavonia attcmptcd to dismantlc thc
CroatoScrbian political coalition by trying ltythrcc Scrbs (mostly sup
portcrs ol thc Scrbian !ndcpcndcnt Party) lor high trcason, lor cncouraging
Scrbian nationalism aiming to dcstroy thc mpirc. !t was cvidcnt that this
trial was purcly political, and Rauch lailcd to dismantlc thc Coalition. At
thc samc timc thc trial dcmonstratcd thc cxistcncc ol a strong Scrbian na
tional consciousncss in thc AustroHungarian mpirc, cvcn il it could not
provc its subvcrsivc naturc.
Alcksa jilas cxplains how thc CroatianScrbian Coalition succcss
lully joincd thc Croatian and thc Scrbian intcrcsts:
Tc Yugoslavism ol thc CroatianScrbian Coalition was madc pos
siblc by its cmphasis on libcraldcmocratic political institutions
and on thc univcrsal right ol nations to sclldctcrmination. Argu
mcnts lor political lcgitimacy had movcd away lrom thc irrcconcil
ablc Croatian and Scrbian national idcologics bascd on historical
8
Stenogracki .apisnici sabora Kralje.ine Hr.atske, Sla.onije i Dalmacije (:,c::,c&)
|Minutcs ol thc Parliamcnt ol thc Kingdom ol Croatia, Slavonia and almatia| (Za
grcb: Tisak kraljcvskc zcmaljskc tiskarc, +o), v. , pt. :, 66, quotcd in Millcr, Bet.een
Nation and State, 8.

Minutcs ol thc mccting in Zadar hcld on + Novcmbcr +o, printcd as a documcnt


Sporazum sa Hrvatima |Agrccmcnt with thc Croats| by thc Scrb ubrovnik printing
housc, kcpt in thc Archivcs ol thc Scrbian Acadcmy ol Arts and Scicnccs, r F. Niki
Fund, no. +.:8, rcproduccd in Krcsti, Gradja, :::.
A. S. Trbovich, Nationbuilding undcr thc AustroHungarian Sccptrc :+
mcmorics. Tc Coalition opposcd thc participation ol clcrgy in . Tc Coalition opposcd thc participation ol clcrgy in
political aairs and hcld that rcligious bclicls and valucs wcrc thc
privatc conccrn ol thc individual. Tis scparation ol thc churchcs
lrom politics hclpcd to rcmovc an important obstaclc to Croatian
and Scrbian coopcration and unity.
+oo
Ncvcrthclcss, thc Scrbian Radicals rapidly abandoncd thc Coalition, claim
ing that Scrbian intcrcsts could not bc lorwardcd in conjunction with thc
intcrcsts ol thc Croats in thc AustroHungarian mpirc, and that Scrbs
should strivc lor autonomy lrom both thc Habsburgs and thc Croats.
vcn thc Scrbian !ndcpcndcnts had important disagrccmcnts with
thc Croatian political partics. nc ol thcsc involvcd a strong opposition to
thc anncxation ol 8osnia. Although thc !ndcpcndcnts considcrcd that 8os
nia should bccomc part ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbia, thcy wcrc only ablc to
protcst against thc AustroHungarian anncxation indircctly, objccting that
it was carricd out against thc prcccdcnt ol thc 8crlin agrccmcnt ... |and
that| thc pcoplc ol 8osnia and Hcrzcgovina wcrc not consultcd.
+o+
Although party politics and parliamcntary action signicantly ma
turcd in thc ninctccnthccntury provinccs ol CroatiaSlavonia and al
matia, Allcock concludcs that, as in Slovcnia, thc political class was cx
trcmcly small. Tc dicrcncc was that somc Croat nobility survivcd, and
that Croats had not bccn marginalizcd within thc urban middlc strata to
thc samc cxtcnt as had thc Slovcncs.
+o:
Yct, thc clcctoratc amountcd to lcss
than two pcrccnt ol thc population, o6o ol which wcrc statc ocials.
Tc ncw clcctoral law ol ++o incrcascd thc numbcr ol cligiblc votcrs to
only cight pcrccnt.
+o
SctonVatson also obscrvcd a lack ol dcmocracy in
Croatia ol that pcriod (CroatiaSlavonia provincc): Public voting and tax
qualication which was cxtrcmcly high lor so poor a country, madc lrcc
dom ol clcction in Croatia a mcrc larcc.
+o
Tc AustroHungarian Croats and Scrbs cntcrcd thc twcnticth ccn
tury with thcir rcspcctivc national consciousncss lully awakcncd, but with
dicrcnt and cvcrmorc opposing national goals. A comprchcnsivc but high
ly uncritical Croatian History, originally publishcd in vc volumcs bctwccn
+8 and +++, thus spcaks about thc Croatian strugglc lor nationhood and
rcunication ol Croatian lands, ignoring Scrbian intcrcsts and cvcn thcir
+oo
jilas, Contested Country, .
+o+
Millcr, Bet.een Nation and State, +:.
+o:
Allcock, Explaining Yugosla.ia, :.
+o
Charlcs Jclavich, Tc Croatian Problcm in thc Habsburg mpirc in thc Ninctccnth
Ccntury, ustrian History Yearbook , No. : (+6), .
+o
R. V. SctonVatson, Te Southern Sla. Question (London, +++), +o+o.
8alcanica XXX\!! ::o
prcscncc,
+o
whilc Scrbs lail to undcrstand thc Croat attachmcnt to what
thcy pcrccivc to bc thcir historical statc rights. Tc cnsuing world wars
and civil wars brought thc CroatoScrb conict to thc lorc, with both thc
rst and thc sccond Yugoslavia lailing to accommodatc thc two nations op
posing aspirations.
+o6
Faculty of Economics, Finance
and dministration
Uni.ersity of Singidunum
Belgrade
+o
\jckoslav Klai, Po.ijest Hr.ata |Croatian History| !\, :nd cd. (Zagrcb: Nakladni
zavod Maticc Hrvatskc, +).
+o6
For morc, scc Ana S. Trbovich, Legal Geography of Yugosla.ias Disintegration (x
lord, Ncw York: xlord Univcrsity Prcss, lorthcoming).
UDC ,,:(-:&.,:. ,:)
:&.,::.:J(-:&.,:. ,:)
Alcxis Troudc
Les relations franco-serbes au sein de lArme dOrient
rqrrqr8
La Scrbic cn ++ : un alli rccnt mais solidc dc la Francc
:. La Serbie dans le jeu des puissances
:.:. Liens politiques, culturels et militaires FranceSerbie (:,cc:,:,)
Lcs licns cntrc la Francc ct la Scrbic taicnt a la lois trs solidcs ct tnus
dcpuis lc rctour dc la dynastic dcs Karadjordjcvi cn Scrbic cn +o,
+
mais
ils dnotaicnt cn mcmc tcmps unc prolondc mconnaissancc dcs Scrbcs ct
dc la Scrbic par lcs Franais avant la Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc.
Lc publicistc Picrrc dc Lanux a bicn dcrit cn ++6 la totalc m
connaissancc dcs caractrcs cthniqucs dc chaquc pcuplc balkaniquc par lcs
Franais lorsquc lc conit mondial commcna. Ainsi, lcs Scrbcs taicnt pris
pour dcs montagnards ct dcs oricntaux au caractrc indolcnt ct luy
ant , lcnvoy lranais cn postc a 8clgradc cntrc +o ct ++ voqucra
mcmc lcur somnolcncc coutumirc .
:
Par aillcurs, la prcssc lranaisc avait
lhabitudc dc parlcr dcs Scrbcs, mais sculcmcnt cn lcs prscntant sous unc
sculc laccttc ct dc manirc parlois ddaigncusc. Sclon dcs journaux commc
lc Temps ou lIllustration, ctaicnt dcs lcvcurs dc porcs aux murs ori
cntalcs ct violcntcs. n lcs conlondait souvcnt avcc lcs 8ulgarcs ct lc coup
dtat sanglant dc +o, o lc dcrnicr dcsccndant dc la dynastic brcnovi
lut assassin, tait rcst dans lcs mmoircs.
ans ccs journaux a grand tiragc, on cstimait pcu la stratgic ct
lorganisation militairc dcs Scrbcs, mais on sintrcssait surtout a lcur got
pour lc chant ct lcs pomcs piqucs. Lcs Franais, a la vcillc du conit,
avaicnt cn lait pcur dcs vcllits combativcs dcs Scrbcs : lorsqu Hcnri 8arby,
+
Gcorgcs Castcllan, Histoire des Balkans (Paris : Fayard, ++), :6+.
:
Scrvicc Historiquc dc la Marinc, Chtcau dc \inccnncs SHM, SS Z , dossicr H
Aaircs scrbcs.
8alcanica XXX\!! :::
journalistc a lurore, raconta lcs victoircs scrbcs contrc lcs ttomans cn
++, lcs lcctcurs ragircnt cn pcnsant quc ccla risquait dcntraincr la Francc
dans unc nouvcllc gucrrc.

Lcs dirigcants cux, par contrc, taicnt trs bicn


inlorms dcs ralits localcs. Lcnvoy lranais a 8clgradc, dja dscquilibr
ct maladc, Robcrt cscos, avait dja dit dans sa notc du +o scptcmbrc ++:,
adrcssc a son Ministrc, quc la dancc du 8ulgarc dominc toujours cn
Scrbic , lc lvricr ++, il opposait ainsi lc Scrbc, innimcnt plus cul
tiv, mais plus mou quc son voisin dc lst au 8ulgarc prc ct violcnt,
arbitrairc ct dominatcur . ja, lcnvoy lranais a 8clgradc rcmarquait lcs
prtcntions tcrritorialcs dcs 8ulgarcs sur Kumanovo ct Skopljc, ct la volont
dcs Scrbcs davoir un dbouch sur la mcr gc dcpuis quc la 8osnic
Hcrzgovinc anncxc par lAutrichc cn +o8 lcur avait barr la routc dc
lAdriatiquc.

ans cc contcxtc, la Francc ocicllc sc rapprocha dc la Scrbic, Pi


mont dcs Slavcs dc Sud. Lc roi Picrrc ! Karadjordjcvi, arriv sur lc trnc
cn +o, avait mcn unc politiquc ouvcrtcmcnt lavorablc a la Francc, cc qui
changca compltcmcnt la politiquc lranaisc dans lcs anncs cntrc +oo
ct ++o. Ayant lrqucnt lcolc militairc dc SaintCyr a la n dcs anncs
+86o, puis particip a la gucrrc contrc la Prussc aux cts dc la Francc, Picrrc
! dc Scrbic tait un monarquc sur lcqucl la Francc pouvait sappuycr.


8icn avant cc rapprochcmcnt diplomatiquc lrancoscrbc, la culturc
lranaisc stait implantc dans la principaut dc Scrbic au X!X siclc. ja
cn +88, lcs Franais avaicnt aid lc princc Milo brcnovi a tablir unc
Constitution ct la languc lranaisc tait cnscignc dans lc Lycc ds +88
ct a lUnivcrsit dc 8clgradc dcpuis sa cration commc la Grandc colc
cn +86. Mais lc contact lc plus important avcc lc milicu culturcl lranais
lut lcnvoi dc jcuncs boursicrs scrbcs cn Francc a partir du milicu du X!X
siclc. Ccla avait lc doublc avantagc dc lcs arrachcr a linucncc gcrma
niquc dc \uk Karadi a Nikola Pai, lcs gurcs mincntcs dc la Scrbic
avaicnt lait lcurs tudcs dans lc mondc almanophonc (lAutrichcHongric, AutrichcHongric, AutrichcHongric,
lAllcmagnc, ct la Suissc), ct dc constitucr un corps dc diplomatcs ct dc
lonctionnaircs dlcs a la Francc. Cc quon a appcl lcs Parisicns curcnt
pour nom Jovan Marinovi, Filip Hristi, ou Milan Jankovi. n +88, sur
boursicrs cnvoys a ltrangcr, + lc lurcnt a Paris. A partir du milicu
du X!X siclc, ils lormaicnt unc litc intcllcctucllc lrancophilc qui allait
inucr sur lc rapprochcmcnt cntrc la Scrbic ct la Francc. La consqucncc cn
lut la prscncc dhommcs dtat prochcs dc la Francc : cn postc durant la

Hcnry 8arby, Les .ictoires serbes (Paris : 8cllond, ++).

Tlgrammcs dc la Lgation lranaisc dc 8clgradc, in Mihailo Pavlovi, Temoignages


franais sur les Serbes et la Serbie (8clgradc : Narodna knjiga, +88) 68.

uan T. 8atakovi, Histoire du peuple serbe (Paris : LAgc dHommc, :oo), +8+88.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt ::
Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc, lc Ministrc dcs Financcs Momilo Nini ct lcs
ambassadcurs a Londrcs ct a Paris avaicnt lait lcurs tudcs a Paris.
6
La colonic lranaisc a 8clgradc ntait pas nombrcusc au X!X siclc,
mais ccrtains dc scs mcmbrcs avaicnt laiss dcs traccs dans la vic publiquc
dc la Scrbic , lc capitainc Magnant avait cssay dc rtablir, aprs la paix
dc Paris, lc transport uvial sur la Savc ct lc anubc ct, cn lc rcliant a la
lignc MarscillcGalatz, dc lairc sortir lc commcrcc scrbc dc sa dpcndancc
visavis dc lAutrichc. Mais ccst surtout lc capitainc dc gnic Hippolytc
Mondain qui rcticndra notrc attcntion. !l lut cnvoy dans unc prcmirc
mission a 8clgradc pcndant la gucrrc dc Crimc (+86) puis, cn +86+, il
tait nomm Ministrc dc la Gucrrc par lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc.

n lcspacc
dc quclqucs anncs, il drcssa un plan dcnscmblc dcs routcs ct dlcnscs dc la
Scrbic, rct lc programmc dc lcolc dartillcric ct lorma un ccrtain nombrc
dc cadrcs militaircs. Surtout, Mondain cra unc milicc nationalc scrbc. n
bon connaisscur dcs 8alkans, il avait constat dans lcs anncs +88o quc
lcs manuvrcs scxcutcnt avcc un cntrain ct un cnscmblc quon scrait loin
dcsprcr dc troupcs irrgulircs , lc pcuplc scrbc possdc un got inn
pour lcs armcs ct dcs qualits nccssaircs pour lairc un pcuplc gucrricr .
8
:.:. La Serbie comme cle strategique des Balkans
La Scrbic rcprscntait cn ++ un alli important du dispositil diploma
tiquc lranais. Commc lc dit cn ++6 lhistoricn \ictor 8rard, la Scrbic
constituait, dans lcs 8alkans, l lmcnt principal dc notrc politiquc lacc a
lcxpansionnismc gcrmaniquc . r ccttc position cl dans lc dispositil alli
provoqua dcs apprhcnsions au scin du commandcmcnt lranais notam
mcnt, par lcs ocicrs du burcau : ainsi lc octobrc ++ tait soulign cc
qui lut appcl lc plan allcmand , ccstadirc raliscr au travcrs du tcr
ritoirc scrbc la continuit dcs changcs ct dcs tcrritoircs autrichicn, bulgarc
ct turc .

n cct, lcs Allcmands contrlaicnt cn ++, la Scrbic misc a part,


a la lois laxc \icnncSoa!stanbul par lricntxprcss ct la routc dc
6
\ojislav Pavlovi, Linucncc culturcllc dc la Francc cn Scrbic a lpoquc dcs Consti
tutionnalistcs in Fapports franco-yougosla.es (8clgradc : !nstitut dHistoirc, +o),
+o+++.

Scrvicc Historiquc dc lArmc dc Tcrrc, Chtcau dc \inccnncs SHAT, N +,


ossicr Attachs militaircsMissions cn Scrbic .
8
raga \uksanoviAni, Lcs missions militaircs lranaiscs cn Scrbic dc +8 a
+886 ct la qucstion dc la milicc nationalc in Fapports franco-yougosla.es (8clgradc :
!nstitut dHistoirc, +o), +:o+o.

SHAT, +6 N o6, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++6), picc n:, octobrc
++.
8alcanica XXX\!! ::
lricnt par lc 8crlin8agdad8ahn. cs rapports du : burcau sur lcs 8al
kans rcssortait cn ++ lc souci principal dc la Francc : cmpcchcr lcs Allc
mands dallcr plus cn avant dans lcur contrlc dcs richcsscs du Moycnri
cnt, tcrrc dc convoitiscs conomiqucs ct dc rcvcs dinucncc mondialc
pour lAllcmagnc.
+o
Ptrolc dc mcr Caspicnnc, mincs dc lcr ct dc charbon
d!rak ainsi quc richcsscs agricolcs dc Turquic taicnt pointcs du doigt par
lc : burcau.
++
r lcs dcux axcs 8udapcstSaloniquc ct \icnnc!stanbul
travcrsaicnt la Scrbic. cpuis la crisc dc lanncxion dc la 8osnicHcrz
govinc par lcs Autrichicns cn +o8, la Francc craignait un contourncmcnt
dc la Scrbic par loucst ct lc sud (allis albanais), cc qui aurait amcn un al
laiblisscmcnt dc scs positions dans la rgion.
cuximc souci dc la diplomatic lranaisc cn ++, commc lc dit
unc notc du : burcau du octobrc ++, la Quadruplc ntcntc sait cn
cct a pcu prs maintcnant qucls sont scs advcrsaircs dans lcs 8alkans, mais
cllc nc sait pas qucls sont scs amis . La Roumanic tait dirigc par un
Hohcnzollcrn qui a sign dcs traits avcc tout lc mondc , car son but
tait dc nc marchcr quau dcrnicr momcnt ct avcc lc vainqucur . r au
momcnt dc la dbclc scrbc doctobrc ++, il lut lait mcntion a plusicurs
rcpriscs dc lintrct crucial dc la Roumanic pour la russitc du lront dc Sa
loniquc : par cc pays sc lcrait la jonction cntrc lc lront dc Saloniquc ct la
Galicic o lalli russc tait cn train dc sc battrc ardcmmcnt. n Grcc, lc
roi Constantin tait proallcmand, ct lc Prcmicr ministrc \cnizclos pouvait
tout justc accordcr quclqucs gardcs pour lc camp lorti qui sc construisait
a Saloniquc a partir dc novcmbrc ++. Lc burcau rcmarqua quc lcs sol
dats grccs mainticndraicnt longtcmps visavis dcs Franais unc attitudc
doutcusc
+:
ct alla mcmc jusqua craindrc quc lhostilit dc la Grcc, qui
a dja hypothqu toutcs nos oprations dans lcs 8alkans, nc lcs lassc pas
dnitivcmcnt choucr .
+
crnicr lactcur gopolitiquc tait lc rlc dcs autrcs grandcs puis
sanccs. Lcs rcsponsablcs politiqucs britanniqucs, rclays par lcs ocicrs
dc larmc royalc, lrcinaicnt lcs initiativcs dc la Francc. Lord Kitchcncr,
Ministrc dc la Gucrrc, avait voqu cn novcmbrc ++ lvcntualit dc lairc
rctircr lcs troupcs britanniqucs , lorsquc lc gnral Sarrail prit lc comman
+o
SHAT, +6 N o8, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (++6+), picc n, 6 novcmbrc
++6.
++
SHAT, +6 N o6, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++6), notc n+o, : octobrc
++.
+:
SHAT, +6 N o6o, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++8), dossicr n:, picc
n6, ++ novcmbrc ++.
+
SHAT, +6 N o8, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (++6+), picc n, 6 novcm
brc ++6.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt ::
dcmcnt cn chcl dc lArmc dricnt cn novcmbrc ++6, lcs 8ritanniqucs
maintinrcnt lcur autonomic ct, cn plcinc bataillc dc Monastir, rclusrcnt
dc rcnvoycr dcs rcnlorts. n lait, lArmc dricnt abandonna a partir dc
++ la zonc dinucncc du \ardar ct dc Saloniquc aux !talicns. Ccuxci
rcnlorcrcnt galcmcnt lcur prscncc chcz lcur protg albanais : larmc
italicnnc pntra ainsi cn ++ a l8asan sans lcs Franais ct sans ssad
Pacha .
+
Sclon lcs accords dc Londrcs daot ++, l!talic dcvait rcuprcr
la almatic ct l!stric dans lAdriatiquc (lobjcctil tant dc lairc barragc aux
prtcntions scrbcs sur lAdriatiquc).
+
nn, il nous laut mcntionncr unc implantation conomiquc lran
aisc cn Scrbic dbutc au tournant du siclc ct qui sacclra a lapprochc
du conit mondial. La Un groupc dcs banqucs lranaiscs mcns par la
8anquc ttomanc, avait invcsti 6o millions dc lrancs ds +o: cn Scrbic ct
cncorc millions quatrc anncs plus tard dans lquipcmcnt militairc scr
bc.
+6
La Francc avait dcs participations dans lcs mincs dc charbon dc 8or
ct Ncgotin, cn Scrbic oricntalc, mais aussi dans lcs mincs dc lcr dc Trcpa ct
dc cuivrc dc Lcskovac cn \icillcScrbic, Manulrancc avait lourni dans lcs
anncs ++o larmc scrbc cn lusilsmitraillcurs ct cn canons dc .
+
nn,
lc rscau lcrr scrbc tait largcmcnt la ralisation dc constructcurs lranais :
laxc 8clgradcSaloniquc par Skopljc |Uskub| cn Macdoinc vcnait justc
dctrc tcrmin lorsquc la gucrrc dbuta, ct on travaillait sur lc projct 8cl
gradcSarajcvo.
+8
:. Larmee franaise en :,: : soutien et rapprochement a.ec la Serbie
n ++, la vaillancc dcs Scrbcs contrc lcs Puissanccs ccntralcs commcnait
a ctrc connuc cn Francc ct provoqua dcs vocations. Lcs corrcspondants du
Pctit Journal , dc l !llustration ct du Parisicn rapportaicnt quoti
dicnncmcnt lcs laits ct gcstcs dc lpopc scrbc. Lcs Scrbcs avaicnt rcpouss
lcs AustroHongrois sur la Kolubara cn aot ++, lacc a un cnncmi six lois
supricur cn nombrc, ct rcpris 8clgradc. r quclqucs volontaircs lranais
staicnt dja lait rcmarqucr pour la dlcnsc dc 8clgradc.
+
SHAT, +6 N o8, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (++6+), picc n:+.
+
Frdric Lc Moal, Lc poids dcs ambitions adriatiqucs dc l!talic sur lcs oprations
militaircs dans lcs 8alkans +++8 , Cahiers du CEHD :: (:oo), 6.
+6
Grgoirc Jaki, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs aux X!XXX siclcs, in ctes du Col-
loque des Langues Orientales (Avril +8o).
+
Antoinc Lambour, Politiquc dcs lourniturcs darmcs dc la Francc cn uropc ccn
tralc cn +oo++ (Paris, ++).
+8
ntrcticn avcc Ljiljana Mirkovi, ircctricc dcs Archivcs dc Scrbic, 8clgradc, avril
+o. Sur les infrastructures et les interts franais dans les mines.
8alcanica XXX\!! ::6
:.:. Jan.ierno.embre :,: : missions medicale et aerienne franaises
Pcndant lcs combats quc lcs Scrbcs mcnrcnt sculs contrc lcs Allcmands ct
lcs AustroHongrois, dcux missions militaircs lranaiscs allaicnt cn ++
vcnir aidcr larmc scrbc. ja 8clgradc tait dlcnduc par trois canons dc
+o ct quclqucs dizaincs dc militaircs lranais la mission , ct la lrgatc
du licutcnant Picot dlcndait lcmbouchurc dc la Savc ct du anubc.
+
Pas
moins dc +:oo tiraillcurs marins, aviatcurs, artillcurs ou tlgraphistcs al
laicnt ainsi, avant la lormation dc lArmc dricnt, rcntrcr cn contact avcc
la population ct larmc scrbc.
:o
avril a aot ++, unc mission lormc dc plus dc +oo mdccins ol
cia a 8clgradc, avcc commc tchc principalc dc luttcr contrc lcs pidmics
qui commcnaicnt a sc propagcr. Lpidmic dc typhus laisait ragc ct cn
mars ++, dja +: mdccins scrbcs sur oo taicnt dcds. tablic dans
lcs hpitaux dc Ni ct dc 8clgradc, ct assistc dinrmircs britanniqucs, la
mission lranaisc russira cn quclqucs mois a lairc passcr dc a lc taux
dc mortalit typhiquc. cs tourncs dc vaccination, dcs comits dhyginc
avcc cration dc dispcnsaircs, mais aussi un cort dinlormation, avcc cau
scrics, soupcs populaircs ct actions cxplicativcs dans lcs colcs dc villagc,
amcnrcnt cc rsultat lormidablc.
:+
n janvicr ++, arriva a Ni unc mission militairc lormc dc 8o
soldats, 8 ocicrs aviatcurs ct 8 avions, sous lc commandcmcnt du ma
jor \itraud. Scs objcctils consistaicnt a bombardcr lcs positions cnncmics,
dlcndrc lc tcrritoirc scrbc ct cnn survcillcr lcs mouvcmcnts allcmands
ct austrohongrois, notammcnt cn Syrmic ct au 8anat. Lcs avions dc typc
Farman avaicnt bcaucoup soutcnu larmc scrbc mcmc si lcs Allcmands cn
abattircnt dcux. Lcscadrillc lranaisc lut dabord dplacc dans lc villagc dc
Ralja, dans lcs cnvirons dc 8clgradc, puis a Kraljcvo. Lcs six dcrnicrs avions
+
SHM, SS Z , dossicr HAaircs scrbcs, Notc du licutcnant Picot (attach mi
litairc), + lvricr ++6 , SHM, SS Z , dossicr HAaircs scrbcs, Notc dAugustc
8oppc (Ambassadcur dc Francc), : lvricr ++6.
:o
\ladimir Stojancvi, Lcs Franais cn Scrbic cn ++ in Fapports franco-yougosla-
.es (8clgradc : !nstitut dHistoirc, +o), ++8+.
:+
Mission militairc mdicalc lranaisc cn Scrbic , Fe.ue franco-macedonienne : (Mai
++6). Ccttc rcvuc avait t public davril ++ a dccmbrc ++ a Saloniquc, non loin
dcs zoncs occupcs par lArmc dricnt. Rcgroupant dcs articlcs docicrs ct dc sous
ocicrs dc lArmc dricnt, la Fe.ue franco-macedonienne chcrchait a illustrcr lc travail
humanitairc ct lcs uvrcs socialcs dc ccttc armc (colcs, hpitaux, ctc.), mais aussi a
accoutumcr lcs soldats dc lArmc dricnt a ccttc tcrrc dc Macdoinc cn vuc dunc
installation a plus long tcrmc.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt ::
lranais ramcnrcnt cn novcmbrc ++ dcs cnlants ct dcs lcmmcs scrbcs
cn Francc.
::

Lcs 8clgradois sc scntircnt vritablcmcnt protgs par ccttc aidc
maritimc, tcrrcstrc ct aricnnc lranaisc ct dja cn ++ naquit unc amiti
cntrc soldats lranais ct civils scrbcs. Lcnvoy dc Francc a 8clgradc, Augustc
8oppc, constatait lc : lvricr ++ : la mission a t trs apprcic cn
Scrbic
:
ct lcxccllcntc organisation dcs missions lranaiscs produit unc
imprcssion prolondc , lc contrastc avcc lcs missions dartillcric russc ct bri
tanniquc cst scnsiblc . Lc major commandant la mission mdicalc lranaisc
soulignait aussi lcs licns qui sc nourcnt cntrc Franais ct Scrbcs au tout
dbut du conit. Accucilli cordialcmcnt dans tous lcs milicux scrbcs, ccst
surtout au contact du paysan, vritablc lorcc dc la Scrbic, quc lc mdccin
scrbc put pntrcr ct comprcndrc lcs qualits loncircs dc la racc. Altruismc,
amour du sol natal, cultc lcrvcnt dc la patric, souci dc lhonncur, tcllcs sont
lcs vcrtus capitalcs du Scrbc , ct ccci sut pour cxpliqucr lattirancc laitc
danits lcctivcs qucxcrcc sur nous ccttc racc quunc lratcrnit dc cur
ct non un vil calcul dintrct poussc vcrs la Francc ct quc nous dcvons, dans
ccs crucllcs prcuvcs, aimcr ct assistcr lratcrncllcmcnt.
:
:.:. Octobredecembre :,: : le sau.etage Dura..o et la retraite de Corfou
Aprs lchcc dcs ardancllcs a lt ++, unc partic du corps cxpdition
nairc lrancobritanniquc lut ramcnc dans lc port grcc dc Saloniquc. Lc
haut commandcmcnt lranais comptait sur la combativit dcs Scrbcs pour
quils rcticnncnt asscz longtcmps lcs Austroallcmands lc tcmps dc pr
parcr lc contact avcc larmc russc cn Galicic. Mais lc octobrc ++, soit
lc jour mcmc du dbarqucmcnt dc la +6division dinlantcric a Saloniquc,
lcs 8ulgarcs ajoutaicnt dcux armcs a la !X armc allcmandc ct a la !!!
armc austrohongroisc , lc octobrc, lcs AustroHongrois prcnaicnt 8cl
gradc ct avant mcmc quc la mission 8ailloud nait lranchi la vallc du \ar
dar, lcs 8ulgarcs occupaicnt Skopljc. ans sa notc du ++ novcmbrc ++,
lc burcau constata : larmc scrbc na pas prscnt la lorcc dc rsistancc
dont nous la croyions capablc .
:
Mais cn aucun cas il nc laut abandonncr
::
Alphonsc Muzct, Le monde balkanique (Paris : Flammarion, ++), chapitrc La d
lcnsc dc 8clgradc .
:
SHM, SS Z , dossicr HAaircs scrbcs, Notc dAugustc 8oppc (Ambassadcur dc
Francc), : lvricr ++6.
:
Mdccinmajor JC, La mission mdicalc lranaisc cn Scrbic , Fe.ue franco-ma-
cedonienne : (Mai ++6).
:
SHAT, +6 N o6, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++6), notc n+, ++ no
vcmbrc ++.
8alcanica XXX\!! ::8
larmc scrbc ,
:6
nc scraitcc quc pour dcs raisons moralcs , mais aussi an
dvitcr quc lAllcmagnc nc mcttc la main sur Saloniquc .
:
Lc : novcmbrc ++ lut donn lordrc historiquc dc rctraitc dc
larmc scrbc par lc roi Picrrc !, qui rclusait la capitulation. Commcna
alors un pisodc tragiquc qui sc tcrmincra sculcmcnt lc + janvicr ++6 :
la travcrsc dc larmc ct dc la cour royalc scrbcs a travcrs lcs montagncs
dAlbanic. Assaillic par lc lroid ct lcs maladics, un ticrs dc larmc scrbc
prira. Alors quc la mission navalc lranaisc armait ds lc : octobrc qu
il cst indispcnsablc pour larmc scrbc qucllc puissc continucr a subsis
tcr ,
:8
lcs !talicns sc plaignaicnt ds lc + dccmbrc dctrc lcs sculs a prcndrc
dcs risqucs. Lc :o dccmbrc, alors quc lcs prcmicrs soldats scrbcs cn hail
lons rcjoignaicnt lcs ports dc \alona ct urazzo, lc licutcnant Gauchct sc
plaignit du lrcin a laidc mis par lcs !talicns ct prvint : Lcs Scrbcs vont
mourir dc laim .
:
Lc licutcnantcoloncl 8roussaud signalait lpuiscmcnt
physiquc ct moral complct ct dcs coups dc lusils dcs comitadjis alba
nais , il voqua aussi la mort dc jcuncs rccrucs par ccntaincs lc long dcs
routcs.
o
r cc lut larmc lranaisc qui, sur +:o ooo soldats scrbcs arrivs
a picd sur la ctc albanaisc, cn rcupra o ooo pour lcs translrcr sur lilc
grccquc dc Corlou.
ntrc lc + janvicr ct lc :o lvricr ++6 lurcnt ainsi vacus a Corlou
plus dc + ooo soldats scrbcs. Lorsquils dbarqurcnt sur lilc grccquc,
on pouvait lirc dans lc carnct dc routc du 6 chasscurs alpins quc ltat
dpuiscmcnt dcs malhcurcux soldats scrbcs cst cxtrcmc : il cn mourait o
par jour .
+
A Corlou, lcs mdccins allaicnt cntircmcnt rtablir ccttc ar
mc cn gucnillcs ct lcs instructcurs la rcmcttrc sur picds : dcux hpitaux
militaircs lurcnt ds lors installs ct n mars plus aucunc pidmic ntait a
luvrc. Lcs Scrbcs taicnt pour la prcmirc lois cn contact avcc dcs units
constitucs dc Franais ordinaircs pas dcs aviatcurs commc cn ++ ct
qui navaicnt pas t prpars a ccttc avcnturc. Svctozar Alcksi, paysan du
:6
SHAT, +6 N o6, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++6), notc n:o, ++ no
vcmbrc ++.
:
SHAT, +6 N o6, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++6), notc n, +: octobrc
++.
:8
SHM, SS Z , dossicr HAaircs scrbcs, Tlgrammc du Commandant Laurcns,
: octobrc ++.
:
SHM, SS Z , dossicr HAaircs scrbcs, Notc du Licutcnant Gauchct , :o d
ccmbrc ++.
o
SHM, SS Z , dossicr HAaircs scrbcs, Notc du Licutcnantcoloncl 8roussaud,
:: dccmbrc ++6.
+
SHAT, +6 N o, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (++6+), notc n+, lvricr
++6.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt ::
ccntrc dc Scrbic, lut rjoui davoir t, durant lc transport dc Corlou, ras,
lav ct habill commc dc ncul. Quils |lcs Franais| bnisscnt lcur mrc
patric, la Francc. !ls nous ont alors sauv la vic.
:
La mcmc rcconnaissancc
sc rctrouvc dans la lcttrc du Ministrc scrbc dc la gucrrc au gnral Mon
dsir, rcsponsablc dc lvacuation dc Corlou. Lc : avril ++6, il armait
quc lcs chasscurs, pcndant lcur sjour a Corlou, ont gagn lcs curs dcs
soldats ct dc lcurs chcls par lcur dvoucmcnt inlassablc cnvcrs lcurs cama
radcs scrbcs .

Cc dvoucmcnt cxpliquc quc lcs Franais portaicnt a lcurs


camaradcs scrbcs lcurs quipcmcnts ct lcur donnaicnt la plus grandc partic
dc lcur pain .

c plus, lcs Franais si prochcs ct attcntionns avaicnt cr


dcs licns indlcctiblcs. Lc princc Alcxandrc dit cn avril ++6 a Augustc
8oppc : Lcs Scrbcs savcnt aujourdhui cc qucst la Francc. Jusquici, ils nc
connaissaicnt quc la Russic. r nul part ils nont vu lcs Russcs, partout ils
ont trouv dcs Franais : a Saloniquc pour lcur tcndrc la main, cn Albanic
pour lcs accucillir, a Corlou pour lcs sauvcr.

LArmc dricnt ++6++ : changcs ct conits


:. Les enjeux militaires du Front de Salonique
:.:. Un camp retranche loin du front de l Ouest
Lc octobrc ++, la +6! britanniquc, dircctcmcnt arrivc dcs arda
ncllcs, dbarquait dans lc port dc Saloniquc. A la n du mois arrivrcnt du
lront occidcntal pour lcs paulcr la ! ct la +::! lranaiscs. Partics
vcrs lc nord a \clcs rcjoindrc larmc scrbc, cllcs lurcnt stoppcs par lcs
troupcs bulgarcs cntrcs cn gucrrc lc octobrc. n rponsc, unc aidc mili
tairc lranaisc asscz importantc lut achcminc dans la rgion : a urazzo,
+oo wagons dc larinc dc bl, a Corlou, ooo lusils ct +8 battcrics dc ,
cnn a Saloniquc, : canons dc + ct battcrics dc 6.
6
Mais trs vitc lcs
Franais durcnt sc rcplicr sur Saloniquc ct y construirc un lort rctranch,
cntour par dcs massils avoisinant lcs :oo mtrcs daltitudc. Avcc lcs 8ri
tanniqucs, lArmc Franaisc dricnt allait traccr unc lignc dc lortication
:
Tmoignagc dc Svctozar Alcksi, in . Pauni ct M. jordjcvi, Tri sile pritisle Srbi-
jicu |Trois puissanccs ont cnccrcl la pctitc Scrbic| (8clgradc, +88), 8+:.

Milan ivanovi, Sur lvacuation dc larmc scrbc dc lAlbanic ct sa rorganisation


a Corlou (++++6) daprs lcs documcnts lranais , Fe.ue historique X!\X\ (8cl
gradc : !nstitut dHistoirc, +66), :.

Ibid.

Ibid., .
6
SHM, SS Z , ossicr H : ravitaillcmcnt armc scrbc .
8alcanica XXX\!! :o
allant du villagc dc Scrrcs au nordcst dc Saloniquc jusquau lac dc Prcspa
sur la lrontirc albanaisc.
A partir davril ++6, lArmc Franaisc dricnt lormc dcs 8ritan
niqucs ct dcs Franais accucillit larmc scrbc, placc au cocur du dispositil.
Lc lront rcstait rclativcmcnt stablc, hormis dcs pcrccs commc ccllc dc Mo
nastir cn novcmbrc ++6 ct dc Pogradcc n ++. Pourtant, quatrc nouvcllcs
divisions lurcnt cnvoycs cn dccmbrc ++6, mais dcs dsaccords cntrc lc
gnral Sarrail, commandant dc cc qui dcvicnt lArmc dricnt n ++6,
ct lc gnral Milnc, commandant lcs troupcs britanniqucs, cmpcchrcnt dc
rclaycr lcs ordrcs ct cxpliqurcnt lcs chccs, notammcnt dans lc scctcur dc
Florina. Alors quc larmc scrbc tait placc sous lc commandcmcnt dircct
dc Sarrail, lcs 8ritanniqucs sabstcnaicnt a partir dc lhivcr ++6 dc parti
cipcr aux oprations : lattaquc dclcnchc cn mai ++ dans lc scctcur dc
oran lut un chcc, par mauvaisc synchronisation dcs attaqucs ct dispcr
sion dcs moycns.


Lautrc raison dcs chccs rsidc dans la conccption mcmc du lront
dc Saloniquc. Jusqucn ++8, cc lront tait considr commc un appui aux
Russcs qui combattaicnt cn Galicic. Lc gouvcrncmcnt lranais attcndait
lcntrc cn gucrrc dc la Roumanic, a laqucllc cllc proposa mcmc dcs tcrri
toircs dc Transylvanic ct du 8anat. Mais lcntrc dans lntcntc dc la Rou
manic cn aot ++6 nc t quloigncr tout cspoir dunc prochainc jonction
dcs lronts dc Saloniquc ct dc Galicic. n cct, ds scptcmbrc ++6, lcs
Roumains taicnt dlaits ct occups par lcs AustroAllcmands.
8
:.:. Mesententes et incomprehensions entre Serbes et Franais
Au dbut dc lannc ++, la dmoralisation gagna lcs troupcs ct lcs prc
mircs divisions sc rcnt jour au scin dc lArmc dricnt. Tout dabord,
lcs ocicrs scrbcs, dus par lcs atcrmoicmcnts du Haut commandcmcnt a
lautomnc ct lhivcr ++6, scmblaicnt rcmcttrc cn causc la stratgic militairc
dcs gnraux lranais. ans son rapport dc lvricr ++8, locicr dc liaison
Strauss rcmarquait unc subordination mal dnic dcs ocicrs scrbcs
lacc au Haut commandcmcnt. Strauss critiquait aussi lcsprit mcrcantilc dcs
Scrbcs, qui nc pcnsaicnt qua lairc du commcrcc ct traitcr .

n lait, cc
qui gcnait lc commandcmcnt lranais, ctait la laiblcssc momcntanc dcs

Licutcnantcoloncl Grard Fassy, Lc commandcmcnt uniquc aux armcs allics


dricnt , Fe.ue historique des armees n::6 (:oo:), 8.
8
Charlcs Pingaud, Histoire diplomatique de la France pendant la Grande Guerre, vol. +
(Paris, +:+).

SHAT, +6 N o6o, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++8), dossicr :, notc n,


: lvricr ++8.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt :+
troupcs scrbcs, alors quau dbut du conit la Francc londait toutc son ac
tion dans lcs 8alkans sur ccttc armc. ans un rapport du scptcmbrc
++, lc : burcau armait quc larmc scrbc nc prscntc plus quunc val
cur dlcnsivc rcstrcintc ct quc son concours aux oprations dc lArmc
dricnt cst dcvcnu laiblc au dbut dc lannc ++ .
o
!l laut savoir quc la
Scrbic stait battuc pcndant un an contrc un cnncmi lAutrichcHongric
8 lois supricur cn nombrc , cn sccond licu, commc il tait dit dans lc rap
port du scptcmbrc ++, ccttc armc lournit un cort considrablc a
lautomnc ++6, cc qui avait port un coup sricux a sa valcur militairc .
+

nn, dcs divisions importantcs cntrc lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc ct ccrtains
cxils politiqucs commcnaicnt a apparaitrc sur laprsgucrrc.
Au scin mcmc dc larmc lranaisc cxistait un bataillon bosniaquc ,
qui trs vitc poscra problmc a la hirarchic militairc. Constitu cn mai ++6,
cc bataillon comptait dcs Montngrins ct dcs Scrbcs dHcrzgovinc, qui
staicnt battus jusquc la avcc larmc scrbc ou bicn staicnt cngags dans
larmc du roi Nicolas du Montngro. Ccs dcux armcs ayant t vaincucs
cn ++, +oo hommcs scront incorpors pcndant six mois dans lArmc
Franaisc dricnt.
:
Trs vitc dcs cas dindisciplinc ou dinsubordination
apparurcnt, conduisant a la dissolution du bataillon par Sarrail cn ++6.


:. Decou.ertes reciproques
:.:. Fraternite darmes et reconnaissance des Serbes
Au dbut du lront dc Saloniquc, soldats scrbcs ct lranais sc jaugcaicnt car
la vision dc lautrc tait dicilc : lcs tatsmajors navaicnt pas prpar lcurs
soldats a unc cohabitation ct aucunc cxplication dcs culturcs autochtoncs
navait t laitc auprs dcs poilus dricnt. Radcnko !vi, arrivant a Salo
niquc cn avril ++6, cxpliquait ainsi sa pcur dcs Franais. Nous avons t
mis cn gardc a vuc ct lc batcau qui nous accucillait tait cmpli dhommcs
cn armcs qui nous dguraicnt , lc batcau tait inond dc lumirc vcnant
dc grands projcctcurs . Mihajlo Milojcvi sc souvicnt aussi qucl accucil il
a rcu a 8izcrtc au printcmps ++6 : Lcs Franais nous attcndaicnt sur
o
SHAT, +6 N o6o, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++8), dossicr +, notc n,
6 scptcmbrc ++.
+
Ibid.
:
Licutcnant Michacl 8ourlct, Lcs Slavcs du Sud dans larmc lranaisc pcndant la
Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc , Fe.ue historique des armees n::6 (La Francc ct lcs 8alk
ans, :oo:), o.

SHAT, 6 N :6, notc n:: dc la ++ brigadc, o novcmbrc ++6.


8alcanica XXX\!! ::
dcs chcvaux, lc rcvolvcr au ccinturon, la carabinc au anc ct lc sabrc a la
main .


r lcs Franais cxpliquaicnt lcur attitudc suspicicusc, voirc craintivc :
Nous avions cntcndu parlcr dc vous |lcs Scrbcs| commc dc sauvagcs qui
vculcnt luir. Mais quand vous avcz montr quc pcrsonnc ncssayait dc luir,
notrc pcur a disparu.

Ccttc incrdulit ct ccttc pcur du ct lranais


provcnaicnt dunc mconnaissancc totalc dcs pcuplcs balkaniqucs par lc
poilu dricnt a son arrivc cn Macdoinc. Lc licutcnant Mauricc Tctcnoir,
dans son journal dc gucrrc, cxpliquait bicn lc long tcmps dacclimatation
pour ccs soldats brutalcmcnt jcts dans unc gucrrc qui sc droulait loin dc
lcur patric. Arriv lc :6 scptcmbrc ++ sur lc lront dc Saloniquc ct plac
dans lc scctcur dc Kcrcvcs, Tctcnoir rcconnt dabord avoir pcu dc contacts
avcc la population localc. Ainsi lc 8 octobrc ++ : Nous partons au camp
install a km. La pluic tombc a torrcnts, nous travcrsons la villc armc sur
lpaulc. La population nous rcgardc , lcs soldats ct lcs ocicrs grccs nous
dvisagcnt. Lc licutcnant savait quc larmc lranaisc allait dcvoir sc bat
trc aux cts dc larmc scrbc, mais il nc la connaissait pas cncorc. Ainsi
toujours lc 8 octobrc, Tctcnoir crivait : La +6 tait partic a ++ hcurcs
pour cmbarqucr a dcstination dc la Scrbic. Arrivs a la garc, contrcordrc ,
il nc pcut partir pour raison diplomatiquc. Lc train vcnu dc Scrbic rcpart
vidc Qucllc cst notrc situation ici : Sa mission tait donc pcu clairc :
aidcr dcs Scrbcs quil navait pas cncorc vus. r mcmc lorsquil dut lcs ac
cucillir, Tctcnoir avait pcur dc nc pas lcs rcconnaitrc. Lc + octobrc, parti
avcc un pcloton occupcr lc villagc dc Gradcc inccndi par lcs 8ulgarcs, lc
licutcnant dira : cvant nous dcs Scrbcs qui paraitil vont sc rcplicr ccttc
nuit. Commcnt lcs rcconnaitronsnous : Malhcurcuscmcnt, lc licutcnant
Tctcnoir mourait trois jours aprs dans unc cmbuscadc, sans avoir connu lcs
soldats scrbcs.
6
Mais la proximit dcs garnisons lcs Scrbcs lurcnt placs au ccn
trc du dispositil dc lArmc dricnt ct surtout la lratcrnit darmcs a
partir dc la pcrcc du Kamaktchalan |Kajmakalan| cn scptcmbrc ++6
allaicnt vitc aidcr a sc connaitrc ct sapprcicr. Un rapport tabli par locicr
dc liaison a Corlou cn mars ++ scmblc indiqucr quc lcs soldats lranais
scntcndaicnt bicn avcc ccux dcs autrcs nationalits. Notammcnt, lcs licns

Tmoignagc dc Mihajlo Milojcvi, in Pauni, jordjcvi, Tri sile, 88:.

SHAT, +6 N o6o, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++8), dossicr +, notc n6,
scptcmbrc ++.
6
Rccucil dc lcttrcs du licutcnant Mauricc Tctcnoir, dc la +6 !C, publi par lc
Courricr du Prsidcnt n dc l Association dcs Poilus dricnt ct Ancicns com
battants , Paris, scptcmbrc :oo+.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt :
cntrctcnus avcc lcs Scrbcs taicnt trs cordiaux ct suivis .

Un an plus
tard, locicr dc liaison Strauss auprs dc larmc scrbc, conrmait lc scnti
mcnt dun lort rapprochcmcnt dcs poilus dricnt avcc lcurs homologucs
scrbcs. !l dit ainsi : Parlaitcmcnt accucillis cn Francc ct a 8izcrtc, lors dcs
sjours dc convalcsccncc quils y ont lait, lcs soldats scrbcs ont pour la Francc
un scntimcnt marqu dc rcconnaissancc.
8
Cc scntimcnt dcs ocicrs dc
liaison lranais cst corrobor par lcs rcmarqucs ct crits daprsgucrrc dcs
intrcsss, lcs soldats scrbcs. Ranko Alcksandrovi racontc son voyagc dc
\alona a Corlou : Lcs Franais nous ont accucillis commc dcs lrrcs , cc
sont dcs mrcs pour nous, jc nc sais commcnt dcrirc combicn ils nous ont
sauv a Corlou.

Radojica Pctrovi accomplit un parcours imprcssionnant


pour rcjoindrc lc lront. !l cst parti dc Londrcs, puis a cmbarqu a Toulon
pour 8izcrtc cn juin ++ avant sc rctrouvcr sur lc lront dc Saloniquc a lt
++. Lc plus important pour lui tait quc lcs Franais aicnt montr tout
dc suitc un lort scntimcnt dc solidarit : Jc rcmcrcic lcs Franais dc nous
avoir lourni dcs boucs pour lc sauvctagc a 8izcrtc, avant mcmc dc nous
donncr dcs vctcmcnts.
o
Mais ccst anilo Kuzmi qui lc micux parvicn
dra a dcrirc lc scntimcnt damiti qui naquit a Saloniquc cntrc Scrbcs ct
Franais. A son arrivc a Saloniquc, il nota quc lcs Franais taicnt joycux
dc nous voir ct nous joycux dctrc rcvcnus .
+
Soutien des intellectuels la cause serbe
n lait, lcs slavisants dc rcnom multiplircnt lcs conlrcnccs ct ainsi lairc
connaitrc lcs pcuplcs balkaniqucs. Lhistoricn rncst cnis publia son livrc
clbrc sur la Scrbic cn ++ ct \ictor 8rard cn ++6. uxmcmcs pcu au
lait dcs particularits balkaniqucs au dbut dc lcur carrirc, ccs dcux histo
ricns ragircnt a lanncxion dc la 8osnicHcrzgovinc par lcs Autrichicns
cn +o8 ct commcncrcnt a partir dc ccttc annc unc rcxion sur lc rlc dc
la Scrbic. t puis lcs journalistcs spcialiss allaicnt micux lairc connaitrc lcs
ralits scrbcs. Hcnri 8arby, corrcspondant dc gucrrc au Journal, crivit cn
++ unc sric darticlcs sur lcs bataillcs mcncs a Kumanovo ct a 8rcgal
nitza pcndant lcs gucrrcs balkaniqucs. Charlcs ichl, dans son ouvragc dc

SHAT, + N :, dossicr n:, doc. n++o.


8
SHAT, +6 N o6o, GQG Armcs dc lst, burcau (+++8), dossicr n:, picc
n, : lvricr ++8.

Tmoignagc dc Ranko Alcksandrovi, in Pauni, jordjcvi, Tri sile, :.


o
Tmoignagc dc Radojica Pctrovi, ibid., 8.
+
Tmoignagc dc anilo Kuzmi, ibid., 66.
8alcanica XXX\!! :
vulgarisation LHroquc Scrbic qui parut cn lvricr ++, rclatait lcs
victoircs scrbcs a Tscr ct Kolubara.
:
Augustc Albcrt tait mitraillcur sur lc lront dc Saloniquc. !l rcvicndra
cn Yougoslavic aprs la gucrrc o il sc maria , il sinstalla cnsuitc a Skopljc
o il cra unc usinc dhuilc avcc son bcauprc. Augustc Albcrt tait tonn
par lamour du Scrbc pour sa tcrrc. Lorsquil sc battait contrc lcs 8ulgarcs, lc
Scrbc criait : Ccst ma tcrrc, nc loublic pas. Puis Augustc Albcrt ajouta
it : ans locnsivc attcnduc dcpuis longtcmps |la pcrcc du lront| jai t
lrapp par dcs choscs tonnantcs. Jai rcmarqu commcnt lc soldat scrbc
sagcnouillc sur son sol natal ct lcmbrassc. Scs ycux sont plcins dc larmcs ct
jc lcntcnds dirc : ma tcrrc.

!l laut savoir quc lcs 8ulgarcs avaicnt occup


dc ++ a ++8 tout lc sudcst dc la Scrbic : lcurs rcvcndications portaicnt
sur la Macdoinc scrbc ct lcs districts dc Pirot, Lcskovac ct \ranjc.
Lcs conlrcnccs cn Sorbonnc par dc grands slavistcs dcvcnaicnt plus
lrqucntcs cn ++6. milc Haumant ct \ictor 8rard, qui avaicnt cr lc
Comit lrancoscrbc , y dvcloppaicnt lcurs idcs gnrcuscs sur la Scr
bic. n Sorbonnc sc tinrcnt aussi dcs manilcstations runissant univcrsita
ircs, hommcs dc lcttrcs ct rcsponsablcs politiqucs. Lhistoricn rncst cnis
prononccra, ricn qucn ++6, pas moins dc trois conlrcnccs sur lcs Scrbcs
ct la Yougoslavic :

lc : janvicr ++6, lc prsidcnt dc la Rpubliquc, Ray


mond Poincar, y assista. Lc 8 lvricr ++, l ort scrbc lut organis
par lc comit l ort dc la Francc ct scs allis : ccttc initiativc pcrmit
dcnvoycr plus dc 6 ooo vctcmcnts aux sinistrs cn ++6. nn lc gouvcr
ncmcnt organisa, lc : mars ++ ct lc :8 juin ++6, dcs Journcs lranco
scrbcs dans toutcs lcs colcs pour lairc connaitrc notrc alli lointain.


ans lc prolongcmcnt dc ccttc action, un lan dc solidarit sc mani
lcstait cn lavcur dcs cnlants touchs par la gucrrc. Plus dc +oo cnlants
scrbcs avaicnt ainsi trouv rclugc pcndant la gucrrc cn Francc. La rctraitc
dAlbanic ct loccupation dc la Scrbic n ++ avaicnt bcaucoup mu la
population ct cc lurcnt dcs associations, commc ccllc dcs rphclins dc
gucrrc , qui lcs prcmircs accucillircnt ccs cnlants dmunis. n lcs rctrouva
cnsuitc au lycc dc 8astia, a Saintticnnc commc a \irivillc, donc dans
:
Mihailo Pavlovi, Temoignages franais sur les Serbes et la Serbie :,:::,: (8clgradc :
Narodna knjiga, +88).

Tmoignagc dAugustc Albcrt, in Antonijc juri, O.ako je bilo : Solunci go.ore |Ctait
commc a a Saloniquc tmoignagcs dAncicns combattants| (8clgradc, +86).

rncst cnis, La Scrbic hroquc , Foi et .ie, Cahicr 8, +6 janvicr ++6. \oir aussi
son ouvragc majcur sur la qucstion scrbc, La Grande Serbie (Paris, ++).

Grgoirc Jaki, Li.re sur la France (8clgradc, +o). Consultcr aussi aux Archivcs
dc Scrbic (8clgradc), lcs piccs dc lxposition Franais ct Yougoslavcs +88+88
organisc a 8clgradc cn +88.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt :
toutcs lcs rgions dc Francc. La solidarit nationalc lonctionna a plcin r
gimc pour aidcr ccs civils scrbcs : +, millions dc lrancs daidc lurcnt vots a
lt ++6 au Parlcmcnt ct dcs londs scrbcs allaicnt mcmc ctrc crs dans
quclqucs villcs. nn, plus dc millc tudiants vinrcnt sc lormcr dans lcs
univcrsits lranaiscs , dans lcs anncs vingt, cinquantc vicndront chaquc
annc.
6
++8:o : Libration dc la Scrbic ct action politiquc dc la Francc
:. La percee du front de Salonique en septembre :,:
:.:. La .ictoire decisi.e : accord parfait franco-serbe
n scptcmbrc ++8, lcs colonncs du Gnral Trani ct du Marchal Fran
chct dspcrcy pcraicnt lc lront dc Saloniquc dans lc massil dc la Mo
glcna ct, cn lcspacc dc trois scmaincs, libraicnt la Macdoinc ct la Scrbic
ccntralc. Lc gnral allcmand Mackcnscn dclarait lors dc cct vncmcnt :
Nous avons pcrdu la gucrrc a Saloniquc.
Ccs oprations militaircs mcncs cnscmblc nircnt dc soudcr lcs licns
cntrc Scrbcs ct poilus dricnt ct dc noucr unc amiti indlcctiblc. Paul Roi,
lvcocicr dans lartillcric, voquait lhabitudc dcs combats qui avait ni
dc rapprochcr lcs dcux armcs. La joic dcs Franais ct dcs Scrbcs ds lc
momcnt o lcs canons tonncnt. Ccs canons ont commc rcdonn cspoir aux
soldats scrbcs dans la pcnsc du rctour prochc dans lcur patric. Nous, Fran
ais, avions unc patric. Tous lcs soldats lranais taicnt conscicnts dc ccttc
situation , dc la lcur volont dc sc battrc paulc contrc paulc pour la libcrt
dc la tcrrc scrbc.

Gcorgcs Schwcitzcr, ocicr artillcur a Monastir |8itolj|


cn ++6 puis a la Moglcna cn scptcmbrc ++8, racontait labngation dcs
soldats scrbcs pcndant la bataillc. 8lcss ct pcrdu dans unc tranchc dans lc
massil dc la Moglcna, Schwcitzcr lut sauv dunc mort assurc par plusicurs
Scrbcs vcnu lc soigncr dans la tranchc. un coup, jai compris quc jtais
cntour damis, dc gcns lantastiqucs, dcs soldats scrbcs qui sont maintcnant
la, a ct dc moi. Lcs 8ulgarcs continurcnt a sapprochcr cn lanant dcs
grcnadcs, mais sa pcur avait disparu. Mcs blcssurcs sont soigncs, lc sang
nc coulc plus mais cc qui cst lc plus important : jc nc suis plus scul. Ccst
maintcnant la luttc pour moi : quand un soldat scrbc sc rclvc ct lancc unc
bombc, il lc lait pour moi, il dlcnd ma vic !
8
Gcorgcs Schwcitzcr, dans
unc hallucination cxtatiquc, prouvait toutc sa rcconnaissancc a lcsprit dc
6
Mauricc Torau8aylc, Rorganisation dc larmc scrbc ct trahison dc la Grcc in
Salonique, Monastir et thnes (Paris : Chiron, +:o).

Paul Roi, in juri, juri,, O.ako je bilo.


8
Gcorgcs Schwcitzcr, ibid.
8alcanica XXX\!! :6
sacricc ct dc corps dcs soldats scrbcs accourus pour lc sauvcr. A cc mo
mcntla dc la gucrrc, la solidit dcs licns cntrc Scrbcs ct Franais cxpliquait
cn partic la victoirc obtcnuc par Franchct dspcrcy.
La conancc lut tcllc a la n dc la gucrrc cntrc soldats scrbcs ct lran
ais quon dccla dc vritablcs scncs dc licssc ct dcs lctcs mmorablcs dans
lcs bivouacs dc lArmc dricnt. Albcrt Chantcl, ocicr dc liaison a la
Moglcna cn scptcmbrc ++8, racontait la joic dcs Scrbcs a la vuc dc troupcs
lranaiscs. Un ocicr scrbc passant a ct dc lui avcc son cscouadc au rctour
dunc mission dc survcillancc scria : Cc sont dcs Franais, dcs Franais
Francu.i ! t lcs soldats scrbcs sc mircnt a danscr ct a chantcr. Scs
soldats, hcurcux, riaicnt commc sils allaicnt a unc lctc.
:.:. ccueil chaleureux de l rmee dOrient en Serbie
Lors dc lcur rcmontc a travcrs lcs vallcs du \ardar ct dc la Morava, dcs
scncs dc licssc populairc accompagnrcnt lArmc dricnt. Lcs civils scr
bcs, qui avaicnt appris lcs hauts laits militaircs dc ccttc armc, lurcnt rccon
naissants dc lcur avoir rcndu lcur lamillc ct libr lcurs tcrritoircs.
Lc gnral Trani, qui libra Skopjc cn Macdoinc puis jakovica ct
Mitrovica au KosovoMtochic, nous a laiss dcs tmoignagcs saisissants
dc lamour dun pcuplc pour son libratcur. A Kurumlija, sur la routc qui
mcnait dc Mitrovica a Ni, lcs gcns sont habills pauvrcmcnt, lcs cnlants
prcsquc nus, mais la population nous orc cc qucllc a, lcs maisons sont
largcmcnt ouvcrtcs aux Franais .

Partout sur la routc mcnant a Ni, dcs


scncs daccoladc, dcs orandcs dc pain, dc vin ct dc lromagc, toujours don
ncs dc bon cur par un pcuplc pourtant touch par la discttc. Arrivs a
Ni, la sccondc villc scrbc, lcs soldats dc lArmc dricnt lurcnt accucillis
avcc tous lcs honncurs : lcs plus vicux nc laissaicnt pas lc gnral Trani
rcmontcr a chcval ct lcmbrassaicnt commc sil tait lcur ls. Puis cn rc
montant la vallc dc la Morava, dcs actcs symboliqucs trs lorts, qui allaicnt
sccllcr lamiti lrancoscrbc, maillaicnt lc chcmin. A Alcksinac, lc gnral
Trani lut cnthousiasm par laccucil qui lui lut rscrv : c jcuncs llcs
chantcnt la Marscillaisc ct mcntraincnt dans la rondc dansc par tout lc vil
lagc.
6o
Plus loin, a uprija, lc mairc dc la villc t un discours cn lranais
ct lcs soldats scrbcs orircnt cn guisc dc cadcau a lArmc dricnt dcs
loulards , a Svilajnac, dcs dcmoiscllcs orircnt au gnral Trani un drapcau
brod dc lcttrcs dor par lcurs mrcs o il lut crit cn lcttrcs cyrilliqucs :
Aux libratcurs dc la Scrbic, lcs dcmoiscllcs dc Rcsava !
6+

Gnral Trani, in Antonijc juri, Solunci go.ore |Lcs soldats dc Saloniquc parlcnt| (8cl
gradc, +8), 8.
6o
Gnral Trani, ibid., 6.
6+
Gnral Trani, ibid., 6.
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt :
:. Implantation franaise :,:,:,:c
:.:. Projet dimplantation durable en Macedoine
Lc dpouillcmcnt dc la Rcvuc FrancoMacdonicnnc , journal dcs ol
cicrs dc lArmc dricnt qui a publi plus dc + numros mcnsucls cn
trc scptcmbrc ++6 ct n ++, nous pcrmct dattcstcr la volont dc ccr
tains milicux lranaisc dc stablir durablcmcnt dans la rgion unc lois la
gucrrc tcrminc. Par cxcmplc, autour dc Korytsa (Korc) cn Albanic actu
cllc a t tablic pcndant plusicurs mois unc Rpubliquc avcc colcs, routcs
ct droit lranais. n mars ++, un articlc souligna ainsi limportancc dc
linucncc culturcllc pour lcs rcsponsablcs lranais. omainc plac audcs
sus dc lconomic, dans lcqucl la Francc tait considrc plus lortc quc lcs
autrcs, la culturc rcprscntait un produit (sic) o la concurrcncc nous scra
la moins dangcrcusc
6:
. Ccst dans cct tat dcsprit quc lut construitc par
larmc lranaisc lcolc dc Lcmbct cn Macdoinc. Accucillant ::o lvcs,
tous civils, sur unc population dc oo mcs, lcolc lranaisc dc Lcmbct
dispcnsait dcs cours dhistoirc ct dc gographic cn languc grccquc, mais lcs
mathmatiqucs ct lcs lcons dc choscs sc laisaicnt dans la languc dc \ol
tairc. Lautcur dc larticlc crit cn mai ++ dans la Rcvuc FrancoMac
donicnnc mcttait lcspoir quc ccttc colc rcstcra aprs la gucrrc commc
un modlc dc la culturc lranaisc cn Macdoinc .
6
Ccttc action sc pour
suivit aprs larmisticc : dans un comptcrcndu cnvoy au Quarticr gnral
lc +o lvricr ++, locicr dc liaison dclara quil laudrait cnvoycr dcs
publications dc Francc car il ncst pas cncorc parvcnu ni livrcs ni journaux
lranais durant ccttc gucrrc .
6
r ds octobrc ++8, lc gouvcrncmcnt scrbc
luimcmc avait dcmand la cration dun journal cn lranais a Skopljc.
Mais ccst surtout au nivcau dcs inlrastructurcs conomiqucs quc va
portcr a la n dc la gucrrc lcort dc la Francc. n ++, lc gouvcrncmcnt
lranais dpccha cn Macdoinc hydrologucs, gographcs, historicns ct lin
guistcs. ans un prcmicr tcmps, ils allaicnt mcttrc cn plan toutc la rgion
contrlc par lArmc dricnt : la cartographic compltc du pays ralisc
par lArmc dricnt rcmplaa la cartc autrichicnnc incompltc ct incx
actc .
6
nsuitc, un rscau dc routcs quadrilla la Macdoinc : unc voic Kas
toriaSaloniquc comprcnant dc nombrcux ponts sur la Moglcnitsa, ct unc
routc Florina\clcs, donc vcrs la Scrbic, lurcnt construitcs. nn, lcs rcs
sourccs du sol ct du soussol lurcnt cxploitcs. LArmc dricnt asscha lcs
marais autour dc Kastoria ct \crria pour cn lairc dcs culturcs maraichrcs.
6:
La culturc lranaisc cn Macdoinc , Fe.ue Franco-Macedonienne 8 (Mars ++).
6
Lcolc lranaisc dc Lcmbct , Fe.ue Franco-Macedonienne (Mai ++).
6
SHAT, :o N ::, dossicr n8, notc du +o lvricr ++.
6
Jacqucs Anccl, Tra.aux et jours de l rmee dOrient (Paris : 8rossard, +:+), 8.
8alcanica XXX\!! :8
cs mincs dc charbon (Komotini) ct dcs giscmcnts dc lcr (Kavala) appro
visionnrcnt lcs industrics dc Saloniquc.
66
Mais lc plus tonnant lut lc projct dinstallcr dans la rgion dcs com
battants nordalricains aprs la gucrrc. Un articlc dc dccmbrc ++ dc la
Rcvuc FrancoMacdonicnnc nous clairc ainsi sur lcs cspoirs carcsss
par lcs ocicrs dc lArmc dricnt. La similitudc cntrc lAlriquc du nord
ct la Macdoinc tait dcritc dans scs aspccts gographiqucs ct sociaux, in
citant lc soldat a migrcr dans ccttc rgion balkaniquc. cs rucs troitcs,
pavcs a larabc, bordcs dc pctitcs maisons donncnt loccasion a lautcur
dc souligncr quc Macdonicns ct Alricains possdaicnt lcs mcmcs cou
tumcs, lcs mcmcs caractrcs ct lcs mcmcs murs . aillcurs, la Macdoinc
scmblc ctrc rsignc dcpuis dcs siclcs a vivrc sous lc protcctorat (sic) dun
autrc pays plus grand ct lcs Macdonicns montraicnt dc pctitcs ambi
tions dc cultivatcur ct dpicicr . LAlricain pouvait donc sy installcr sans
y ctrc dpays, dautant plus quc lc vidc quc rcprscntait lc nombrc trop
rcstrcint dc nos compatriotcs dcvait ctrc combl.
6
:.: Politique acti.e de la France
LArmc dricnt narrcta pas dc combattrc cn octobrc ++8 avcc la capitu
lation dc la 8ulgaric. n cct, alors quc lc gnral Trani poursuivait son
avancc a loucst, lautrc partic dcs armcs lranaiscs sinstalla a Constana,
avcc pour mission dc bloqucr lc nouvcl cnncmi, lc bolchcviquc. Jusqucn
+:+ stationncront dcs soldats lranais dans lcmbouchurc du anubc, mais
avcc bcaucoup datcrmoicmcnts dcvant un cnncmi souvcnt invisiblc, cc qui
cntraincra dcs lormcs dc lassitudc.
Lc plus important pour notrc sujct rsidc dans lc lait quc ccttc situ
ation idalc sur lc anubc va amcncr la Francc a joucr un grand rlc dans
la construction du Royaumc dcs Scrbcs, Croatcs ct Slovncs . Lcs lron
tircs dc cct tat cr cn dccmbrc ++8 taicnt souhaitcs par dcs gog
raphcs lranais, commc rncst cnis. cs juristcs lranais lurcnt trs vitc
aprs la gucrrc cnvoys dans cc nouvcl tat, cc qui cxpliquc quc lc systmc
politiquc y rcsscmblait lortcmcnt. n cct, dans ltat dcs Scrbcs, Croatcs
ct Slovncs, unc Asscmblc nationalc dc + dputs lus pour quatrc ans
au suragc univcrscl dircct ct a la rcprscntation proportionncllc lut lor
mc ds ++. Ladministration lut aussi lortcmcnt imprgnc dcs valcurs
lranaiscs. nn, un systmc dpartcmcntal avcc units dirigcs par dcs
prlcts lut install, cc qui rcmplaait lcs ancicnncs rgions historiqucs.
66
Ibid.
6
La politiquc lranaisc cn ricnt , Fe.ue Franco-Macedonienne +: (ccmbrc
++).
A. Troudc, Lcs rclations lrancoscrbcs au scin dc lArmc dricnt :
ans lc domainc conomiquc aussi, la politiquc dc la Francc sc t
scntir ds laprsgucrrc. n Scrbic, Lalargc cxploita lcs mincs dc cuivrc
dc 8or ct lc giscmcnt dc charbon dc Rudnik , cn 8osnic, dcs cntrcpriscs
lranaiscs prcnaicnt posscssion dcs mincs dc lcr dc Zcnica ct dc charbon a
8anjaluka , cnn cn Macdoinc, lc giscmcnt dc Prilcp intrcssa lcs Franais.
Sur lcs pas dc lArmc dricnt, pour micux dcsscrvir ccs mincs au dpart,
lurcnt construitcs dcs routcs qui allaicnt dcvcnir dcs axcs importants. Ainsi
lcs voics 8orNcgotin ct Kratovo\ranjc lurcnt construitcs au dbut dcs
anncs vingt. A la mcmc poquc, la voic lcrrc 8clgradcSarajcvo tait tcr
minc par dcs compagnics lranaiscs.
Conclusion
La Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc a pcrmis a la Francc dapprolondir son im
plantation dans lcs 8alkans. Sur lcs plans conomiquc, politiquc ct culturcl,
lc travail cntam par lArmc Franaisc dricnt puis lArmc dricnt
pcndant la gucrrc a pcrmis a la Francc dc sc prscntcr commc puissancc
dc prcmicr plan dans lcs 8alkans dans lcs anncs +:o. Grcc au souticn
indlcctiblc a scs allis scrbc, grcc ct roumain, la Francc put rcmplaccr lcs
Puissanccs ccntralcs dans lcs 8alkans.
Ccttc politiquc dintrct crcra lcs conditions lavorablcs pour
lmcrgcncc dunc amiti indlcctiblc cntrc lcs pcuplcs scrbc ct lranais.
ncorc dans lcs anncs +:, un train cnticr dc journalistcs spcialistcs
mais aussi dc simplcs citoycns t lc trajct Paris8clgradc pour tmoigncr
dc lattachc prolondc qui liait ccs dcux pcuplcs. A 8clgradc, lassociation
lrancoscrbc rigca un monumcnt o il tait crit Nous aimons la Francc
commc cllc nous a aim ct cn Francc bcaucoup dc nos villcs sc paraicnt dc
rucs cn rlrcncc a dcs pcrsonnalits ou dcs licux dc Scrbic. Mais lassassinat
cn + du roi Alcxandrc Karadjordjcvi ct du Prsidcnt du Conscil Louis
8arthou a Marscillcs, ct larrivc du communismc cn + cn Yougoslavic
amcnuiscront ccttc ammc. Pourtant, lc Gnral dc Gaullc voqucra tou
jours la Scrbic au licu dc parlcr dc la Yougoslavic ct cncorc dans lcs anncs
+8o, unc troupc dc thtrc scrbc itinrantc, rcmontant lc trajct dc la col
onnc dc Trani, tait partout accucillic commc aux plus bcaux jours dc la
libration dc ++8.
68
cademie de geopolitique
Paris
68
\oir aussi lcs rccucils dc tmoignagcs suivants: A. 8oppc, la suite du gou.ernement
serbe (8rossard, ++), Fappa, Sou.enirs dun ocier de liaison (Flammarion, +:+),
JouinFranois, Uskub, cest loin (Lavauzcllc, +6), R. Labry, .ec le retrait de l rmee
serbe (Paris, ++8), M. Sarrail, Mon commandement en Orient (:,:&:) (Paris, +:o).
UDC ,,:.,J(,,.::+,,)(c,.:):,::,:
Traian Sandu
Les relations roumano-serbes et la question du Banat
durant la Premire Guerre mondiale
La convcrgcncc dintrcts cntrc la Scrbic ct la Roumanic lors dc lclatcmcnt
dc la Prcmirc Gucrrc mondialc procdait bicn cntcndu dcs rcvcndications
ocicuscs dcs dcux tats a lcncontrc dc tcrritoircs dc lmpirc austro
hongrois. Mais lcur situation diplomatiquc tait lort dircntc : la Rou
manic tait lic aux Ccntraux par lc trait dlcnsil dc +88, rgulircmcnt
rcnouvcl, la Scrbic sc trouvait claircmcnt dans lc camp dc lntcntc, sous
la protcction politiquc dc la Russic ct sous linucncc conomiquc dc la
Francc. Lcs obligations dc la Roumanic cnvcrs lntcntc nc possdaicnt
donc pas la mcmc lorcc quc ccllcs dc sa voisinc : cllc tait donc aussi
commc l!talic plus dicilc ct plus intrcssantc a courtiscr cn vuc dc la
dtachcr dc la Triplicc.
r lcs prtcntions dcs dcux tats sc rcncontrrcnt lorsquil sagit
dattribucr la provincc historiquc du 8anat, qui lormc un quadrilatrc dc o
ooo km
:
cntrc lcs vallcs du Murcs au nord o lc 8anat sc trouvc au con
tact dc la Transylvanic, galcmcnt convoitc par la Roumanic dc la Tisza a
loucst ct du anubc au sud, ainsi quc par lcs monts du 8anat a lcst.
+
ans
lcs trois comitats composant la rgion, lc Krasso montagncux a lcst, la
plainc du Tcmcs avcc la villc dc Timisoara (Tcmcsvar cn hongrois) ct lc
grand complcxc mtallurgiquc dc Rcsita au ccntrc ct la plainc du Torontal
a loucst, lcs Scrbcs nc possdaicnt la majorit sur lcs Roumains quc dans lc
Torontal.
:
Sur lc plan stratgiquc, lc 8anat lormait unc sortc dc coin hongrois
introduit cntrc Scrbic ct Roumanic sur laxc danubicn, cc qui pcrmcttait aux
+
\oir Jcan Nouzillc, La Transyl.anie, terre de contacts et de conits, Rcvuc duropc ccn
tralc (Strasbourg, +), +.
:
Jovan Cviji et alt., La Question du Banat, de la Batchka et de la Baranya. Le Banat (Paris,
++), +.
8alcanica XXX\!! ::
Ccntraux dc mcnaccr tous lcs 8alkans, ct notammcnt dc pcscr sur la dci
sion dc la 8ulgaric.
Parmi lcs argumcnts dont lcs propagandcs dcs dcux comptitcurs
inondrcnt lcs capitalcs allics,

il laut chcrchcr unc synthsc plus apaisc


chcz lc gographc mmanucl dc Martonnc, dont lc rapport sur lc 8anat
pour lc Comit dtudcs du Quai drsay cn vuc dcs discussions dc la Con
lrcncc dc la Paix lut rcmis lc lvricr ++.

n lavcur dcs Scrbcs, il rclvc


lancicnnct dc lcur pcuplcmcnt ct dc lcur civilisation, la nccssit pour cux
dc couvrir lcur capitalc trop cxposc sur lc anubc ainsi quc la com
plmcntarit cntrc la production agricolc dc la plainc banataisc ct ccllc dcs
rgions montagncuscs dc la Scrbic pauvrcs cn grandcs plaincs cralircs, cc
qui ntait pas lc cas pour la Roumanic. Pour lcs Roumains, dc Martonnc in
voquc la nccssit dunc lrontirc stratgiquc sur lc anubc ct sur la Tisza
cn continuit avcc la Transylvanic, mais voquc aussi lcurs argumcnts dc
lantiquit du pcuplcmcnt, dc lcur majorit dmographiquc rclativc
contrc : dAllcmands, +8 dc Scrbcs ct + dc Magyars ct dc la con
ucncc du Murcs ct dc la Tisza cc qui lournissait un axc commcrcial
complct pour lc drainagc dcs produits transylvains ct banatais vcrs la voic
danubicnnc, ainsi quc la maitrisc stratgiquc dun possiblc axc dc pntra
tion cstoucst. n lait, cn ++, lc 8anat ntait li conomiqucmcnt a aucun
dcs dcux rclamants, puisquil rcprscntait surtout lc grcnicr dc 8udapcst.
Mais cn ralit, lvolution dcs chanccs dattribution du 8anat a lun
ou a lautrc dcs dcux allis dpcndit troitcmcnt dc lcurs avatars militaircs
rcspcctils durant lc conit , ccuxci lournisscnt la tramc dcs rclations rou
manoscrbcs ct du sort mouvant dc la provincc dans lcs buts dc gucrrc dcs
comptitcurs ct dc lcurs puissants protcctcurs.
Au dbut dcs hostilits, lcs dcux camps avaicnt pour la Roumanic
un intrct d a sa ncutralit, a scs rcssourccs cn hommcs, cn cralcs ct cn
ptrolc, avant tout, sa position stratgiquc lui pcrmcttait soit dc participcr a
lisolcmcnt dc la Scrbic ct surtout, dcpuis la lcrmcturc dcs troits par lcs
ttomans lc +cr novcmbrc ++, dc la Russic avcc laidc vcntucllc dc la
8ulgaric, dc la Turquic ct dc la Grcc soit dc sintgrcr au systmc balka
niquc cmbryonnairc dc lntcntc pour ravitaillcr la Russic ct pour coupcr
lcs communications cntrc lcs Ccntraux ct lcs ttomans, avcc laidc dc la

n pcut commodmcnt cn consultcr un chantillon rcprscntatil dans trois volumcs


dc mlangcs dc la bibliothquc du Ministrc dcs Aaircs trangrcs intituls : Fle
diplomatique de la Foumanie, :,::,:,, Problmes roumains, :,::,:, ct nnexions
roumaines, :,::,:,.

Lc passagc suivant cst inspir dc Jacqucs 8aricty, Lc Comit dtudcs du Quai dr


say ct lcs lrontircs dc la Grandc Roumanic, ++8++ , a paraitrc dans La Fe.ue
roumaine detudes internationales (manuscrit aimablcmcnt communiqu par lautcur).
T. Sandu, Lcs rclations roumanoscrbcs ct la qucstion du 8anat :
Scrbic, dc la 8ulgaric ct dc la Grcc. Lopinion tant toutclois lavorablc a la
ncutralit acquisc aprs lc Conscil dc la Couronnc du aot ++ lcs
principaux bclligrants cngagrcnt, cn vuc dc lobtcnir lalliancc roumainc,
unc coursc diplomatiquc qui consistait cn unc surcnchrc dc promcsscs tcr
ritorialcs aux dpcns dc lautrc camp.
Ccst ainsi quc lc 8anat dc Tcmcsvar dcvint lcnjcu dunc comptition
cntrc lalli scrbc ct lalli potcnticl roumain. La puissancc dc lntcntc la
plus dircctcmcnt intrcssc a lcntrc dc la Roumanic dans lc combat tait la
Russic, mais lc clicnt scrbc avait dja mis dcs prtcntions sur lc 8anat oc
cidcntal, cn changc dc conccssions quil lcrait a la 8ulgaric cn Macdoinc,
an dc lattircr galcmcnt du ct dcs Allis.

La Roumanic, qui stait cn


gagc dans unc ncutralit bicnvcillantc cnvcrs lntcntc par un changc dc
lcttrcs avcc la Russic lc prcmicr octobrc ++ par lcqucl la Russic lui
promcttait la Transylvanic avait cngag, a partir du mai ++, donc
aprs lcs chccs allis du dbut dc lannc, dcs ngociations avcc la Russic
pour cntrcr cn gucrrc.
6
Toutclois, lc prcmicr ministrc, lc nationallibral !on
8ratianu, avait dabord prscnt cxclusivcmcnt au ministrc dc Francc lcs
rcvcndications tcrritorialcs compltcs, car cllcs comprcnaicnt lc 8anat ct la
8ucovinc ccttc dcrnirc intrcssant dircctcmcnt la Russic

sans oublicr
laccs quc la Russic dcmandait aux troits, cc qui pouvait sc traduirc par
lanncxion dc toutc la ctc occidcntalc dc la Mcr Noirc, au dtrimcnt dc
la Roumanic dans la obroudja ct dc la 8ulgaric. La Roumanic nc lai
sait ainsi quimitcr l!talic, qui avait galcmcnt cngag dcs ngociations avcc
lntcntc cn marsavril ++ sur la basc dc la ccssion dc la ctc dalmatc quc
convoitait la Scrbic.
Aprs lc trait dc Londrcs du :6 avril ++ avcc l!talic, lcs Allis
csprrcnt lcntrc immincntc dc la Roumanic dans lc conit , ainsi, malgr
unc notc indignc dc Pai du mai, clcass prcssa lc + mai la Russic
dacccptcr lcs rcvcndications tcrritorialcs roumaincs ct lc + mai, unc notc
dc Pctrograd rcconnut lcs droits dc la Roumanic sur la 8ucovinc du sud ct
sur la totalit du 8anat, y compris sa partic occidcntalc, lc Torontal.
8
Lcs
Scrbcs ntaicnt pas au bout dc lcurs pcincs avcc lcs promcsscs laitcs a la
8ulgaric lc : mai, ct qui portaicnt sur la Macdoinc du sud , unc nouvcllc
protcstation dc Pai ny t ricn. Lcs dlaitcs dcs Russcs cn juin lcs incitrcnt

Jasna KoulischcrAdlcr, La Croatie et la creation de l Etat yougosla.e (Gcnvc, +),


++. \oir aussi la notc du prcmicr octobrc ++ du Quai drsay dans lcs Archivcs du
ministrc dcs Aaircs trangrcs (plus loin : AMA), sric A, vol. , lolio +.
6
\oir, cntrc autrcs, \asilc \csa, Les Felations politiques roumano-franaises au debut du
XXe sicle (:,cc:,:&) (8ucarcst, +86), ++.

Ibid., +:.
8
Ibid., +:.
8alcanica XXX\!! :
a lairc dc nouvcllcs conccssions cn 8ucovinc, mais lamplcur dcs cxigcnccs
roumaincs dans lc 8anat mridional rctarda la conclusion du trait, car ccttc
lois lcnscmblc dcs Allis notammcnt lAnglctcrrc ct mcmc lc chcl dc
lailc cntcntophilc dcs conscrvatcurs, Takc !oncscu, slcvrcnt contrc dc
tcllcs prtcntions a lgard dun alli, avcc lcqucl on risquait dc voir souvrir
un conit lrontalicr.

Mais lurgcncc dcs bcsoins allis lcs obligca a cdcr aux rcvcndications
roumaincs, qui rcurcnt satislaction lors dc la rcncontrc cntrc clcass ct
Asquith a Calais, lc 6 juillct ++ : Sazonov acccpta dc sacricr lcs intrcts dc
la Scrbic dans lc 8anat, mais lcntrc cn gucrrc dc la Roumanic lut rctardc
par dcs considrations stratgiqucs dc coordination dcs mouvcmcnts dcs
armcs allics dans la zonc ct dapprovisionncmcnt cn matricl.
+o
Lorsquc
tous lcs doutcs roumains lurcnt lcvs, lcs Allis cnvoyrcnt unc notc lc aot
++ au prsidcnt du Conscil scrbc, Nikola Pai, comprcnant lcs abandons
tcrritoriaux quc lon attcndait dc son pays au bncc dc la Roumanic ct
dc la 8ulgaric , la Francc tcnta dobtcnir son asscntimcnt cn suggrant
vcrbalcmcnt unc compcnsation cn Croatic, mais Pai rclusa lc scptcmbrc
lcs cxigcnccs roumaincs, cn invoquant lcs sacriccs quon lui dcmandait cn
Macdoinc.
++
c toutc laon, lcs succs dcs Ccntraux cn aot avaicnt stopp
lcs ngociations avcc lcs Roumains.
Ainsi, malgr lcs manilcstations dc sympathic rptc dcs milicux
intcrvcntionnistcs roumains cnvcrs lcs Scrbcs quc lc ministrc dc Francc,
Camillc 8londcl, cncouragcait lortcmcnt la Roumanic scn tint, aprs scp
tcmbrc ++ ct lacc aux succs dcs Ccntraux dans la zonc, au rclus du transit
cntrc ccs dcrnicrs ct lcs ttomans : lors dc locnsivc bulgarc contrc la Scrbic
doctobrc a dccmbrc, ccllcci a, sans succs, chcrch a obtcnir lappui dc la
Roumanic pour lc rcspcct du trait dc 8ucarcst |dc ++| ct la dlcnsc dcs
intrcts communs aux dcux pcuplcs ,
+:
qui tait unc dcs clauscs dc cc trait
qui mcttait n a la dcuximc gucrrc balkaniquc. n lait, la Roumanic tcnta
dc dissuadcr Soa dintcrvcnir, mais lAutrichcHongric couvrait locnsivc
bulgarc ct aprs lchcc dunc cntcntc roumanoscrbogrccquc, la dlaitc ct
lc rcpli dc larmc scrbc vcrs Corlou laissa la Roumanic isolc sur toutcs
scs lrontircs, a lcxccption dc ccllc dc lcst.
+
Louvcrturc dun lront dlcnsil
timidc a Saloniquc au mcmc momcnt cut lc don dc maintcnir la Grcc ct
la Roumanic dans unc ncutralit bicnvcillantc, a dlaut dc lcs cncouragcr a
intcrvcnir aux cts dc lntcntc.

Ibid., +.
+o
Ibid., +6.
++
\oir notc du Quai drsay citc cidcssus.
+:
Ibid.
+
\csa, Felations politiques, +o+.