]
(2)
Where , , ,
and
(3) (3)
5
Where the Nanofluid density, , is defined as
(4)
The nanofluid density can be approximated by the base fluid density,
{(
]
(6)
Detailed explanations of these governing equations can be seen in [2] and [4].
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
As has been mentioned before, there are two main approaches used to deal with
convection with nanofluid. Therefore, the literature review about nanofluid flow over
continuously stretching surface will be devided into two main catagories, i.e., the single
phase approach and the twophase approach.
6
3.1. The singlephase approach
Vajravelu et al. [5] conducted study on convective heat transfer of Agwater and Cu
water nanofluids flowing over a vertical continuously stretching surface. Their focus is on the
effects of nanoparticle volumetric fraction on the flow and heat transfer characteristics having
buoyancy and internal heat generation or heat absorption. The velocity of the surface was
assumed to be a linear function of x (U(x) = b(x)). The nanofluids properties were estimated
using the equations available in the literature. The scheme of the problem considered is
shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Physical model and coordinate system [5].
The method used was similarity method which will transform the coupled nonlinear
partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations.
Afterwards, these equations solved these ordinary differential equations.
They have found that both, base fluids and nanofluids behave the same trend in terms
of its response to natural convection, i.e., the buoyancy will assist the main flow (to +x
direction) if it has the same direction and vice versa.
It was also found that the increase in nanoparticle volume fraction will decrease the
velocity profile and increase the skin friction. Vajravelu et al. [5] stated that this was because
the nanoparticles lead to further thinning of the boundary layer. On the other hand, the
7
thermal boundary layer increases with respect to the increase of the volume fraction. This is
reasonable since the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is higher than that of the base
fluid. Hence, if the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases, most likely, the nanofluids
thermal conductivity will also increase. This, in turn, will increase the thermal boundary
layer.
Study on natural convection flow of a nanofluid over a linearly stretching sheet in the
presence of magnetic field has been conducted by Hamad [6]. The magnetic field applied was
assumed constant and perpendicular to the stretching sheet/surface. The temperature of the
surface as well as the ambient was also assumed constant. The sheet velocity was taken to be
proportional to the x direction (the stretching direction) in the form of
. The
governing equations were solved analytically using similarity method.
The nanoparticles data used are for Copper (Cu), Silver (Ag), Alumina (Al
2
O
3
), and
Titanium oxide (TiO
2
). Hamad [6] found that the magnetic field affected the momentum
boundary layer thickness inversely while, on the other hand, it affected the thermal boundary
layer proportionally. He also observed that the increase of nanoparticle volume fraction will
increase the thermal boundary layer which is consistent with the finding of Vajravelu et al.
[5]. It is also shown that the reduced Nusselt number,
, decreases as the
volume fraction of nanoparticles as well as the magnetic field increases.
Yacob et al. [7] did a research on mixed convection flow adjacent to a stretching
vertical sheet in a nanofluid. Three types of nanofluids are compared, i.e., Cuwater, Al
2
O
3

water, and TiO
2
water nanofluids. The sheet velocity varies as
(x is set in
vertical direction and y is in horizontal direction) where is a constant. The temperature of
the stretching surface is assumed to be
where and
are constants.
The nanofluids properties are obtained from the available literature.
8
They used similarity method in solving the governing equations in conjunction with
the boundary conditions. Consistent with the aforementioned literatures, Yacob et al. [7]
found that for all nanofluids show increase in thermal boundary layer thickness with respect
to nanoparticle volume fraction increase. Consequently, the temperature gradient decreases
with increasing nanoparticle volume fraction. On the other hand, the velocity boundary layer
thickness decreases with nanoparticle volume fraction increase and therefore the velocity
gradient at the surface increases with volume fraction.
It should be noted that, interestingly, the author stated that a decrease in thermal
conductivity is to enhance the heat transfer rate at the surface. Thus, they arrived to a
conclusion that TiO
2
water nanofluid, which has the lowest thermal conductivity, has better
heat transfer capability compared to that of Al
2
O
3
water and CuOwater nanofluids. This
statement is based on the trend of the nondimensional temperature gradient which is
increasing as the volume fraction (consequently the thermal conductivity) is increasing.
However, in our opinion, this statement is misleading because the heat transfer rate does not
only depend on the temperature gradient but also depend on the thermal conductivity. Thus,
to know the effect of nanofluids volume fraction on the heat transfer rate, one should
consider, both, the increase of the thermal conductivity and the decrease of the temperature
gradient.
3.2. The twophase approach
Khan and Pop [8] were the first reserachers who investigated laminar fluid flow and
heat transfer of nanofluid over continuously stretching surface. They take into account
Brownian motion and thermophoresis in analyzing the problem. In solving the governing
equations in conjunction with the boundary conditions, Khan and Pop used similarity method
which resulted in dimensionless ordinary differential equations that depended on Prandtl
number, Pr, Lewis number, Le, Brownian motion number Nb, and thermophoresis
9
number, Nt. The scheme of the problem can be represented by Figure 1. The velocity of the
sheet was assumed linear with x direction (
and
,
respectively, were constant. Furthermore, the temperature and volume fraction of
nanoparticles at the ambient,
and
Where
and
are the volumetric specific heat of the nanoparticle and the base
fluid, respectively. The Brownian diffusivity, thermophoresis diffusifivty, and kinematic
viscosity of the nanofluid are denoted as
and
.
Khan and Pop [8] have found that the thermal boundary layer increased with respect
to the increase of Brownian motion number, , and thermophoresis number, .
Furthermore, the nanoparticle volume fraction boundary layer decreased with the increase
of .
It was also shown that the reduced Nusselt number was decreasing function of Nb
and Nt which means that the higher the Nb or Nt the lower the reduced Nusselt number. Most
likely this is due to the effect of Brownian motion and Thermoporesis which cause the
increase of the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and, consequently, will reduce the
Nusselt number.
10
We would like to point out that Khan and Pop [8] have stated that dimensionless heat
transfer rate decreased with the increase of Nb and Nt. In our opinion, this statement is
misleading because the actually Nusselt number is the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient
or dimensionless temperature gradient and not the dimensionless heat transfer rate. The heat
transfer rate is actually a function of, both, thermal conductivity and the temperature gradient.
Figure 3: Effects of Nb, Nt and Pr on the dimensionless concentration gradient at the surface [8].
The effects of Nb, Nt and Pr on the dimensionless concentration gradient at the
surface were also presented by Khan and Pop [8]. It can be seen in Figure 3.a which is for
Prandtl number of one such as gas, the dimensionless concentration gradient decreases with
Nb and Nt. On the other hand for Prandtl number of 10 (Figure 3.b), such as water at certain
temperature, the trend is the opposite. In our opinion, the reason of this opposite phenomena
is due to the difference in nature between gas and liquid. Such opposite phenomena can also
be found on the viscosity of gas and liquid, i.e., the viscosity of gas increases with increase of
temperature while the viscosity of liquid decreases as the temperature increases.
Makinde and Aziz [9] conducted research on boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past
a continuously stretching sheet under convective boundary condition (Figure 4).
11
Figure 4: Geometry of the problem [9].
In this study Makinde and Aziz [9] assumed that the velocity of the stretching sheet
was
,
was the result of convective heating process which was characterized by a temperature,
,
and a heat transfer coefficient, h. The nanoparticle volume fraction at the surface and far
away from the surface are denoted by
and
, and the reduced Sherwood
number,
.
5. All of the studies taking the twophase approach based their governing equations on
those developed by Buongiorno [2] with or without modifications.
6. Generally, in the single phase approach it is found that the increase in nanoparticle
volume fraction will decrease the velocity profile and increase the skin friction. On the
other hand, the thermal boundary layer increases with respect to the increase of the
volume fraction. It also can be concluded that reduced Nusselt number,
,
decreases as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases.
7. For the twophase approached it can be concluded that, in general, when the Prandtl
number, Pr, and Lewis number, Le, were hold constant, the thermal boundary layer as
14
well as the local temperature increased as the Brownian number, Nb, and
thermophoresis number, Nt increased. However, the opposite trend was true for the
thermal boundary layer thickness when all parameters were kept constant while the
Prandtl number was increased.
8. Also the twophase approached it can be concluded that, for fixed Pr and Le, the
reduced Nusselt number decreases while, on the other hand, the reduced Sherwood
number increases as the Brownian number and thermophoresis number increase.
REFERENCES
[1] Haddad, Z., Oztop, H. F., AbuNada, E., and Mataoui, A., 2012, "A Review on Natural
Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7),
pp. 53635378.
[2] Buongiorno, J., 2005, "Convective Transport in Nanofluids," Journal of Heat Transfer,
128(3), pp. 240250.
[3] Http://Aerosols.Wustl.Edu/Education/Thermophoresis/Section01.Html, last accessed
January 6, 2014,
[4] Nield, D. A., and Kuznetsov, A. V., 2009, "Thermal Instability in a Porous Medium Layer
Saturated by a Nanofluid," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(2526), pp.
57965801.
[5] Vajravelu, K., Prasad, K. V., Lee, J., Lee, C., Pop, I., and Van Gorder, R. A., 2011,
"Convective Heat Transfer in the Flow of Viscous AgWater and CuWater Nanofluids over
a Stretching Surface," International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50(5), pp. 843851.
[6] Hamad, M. a. A., 2011, "Analytical Solution of Natural Convection Flow of a Nanofluid
over a Linearly Stretching Sheet in the Presence of Magnetic Field," International
Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38(4), pp. 487492.
[7] Yacob, N. A., Ishak, A., Nazar, R., and Pop, I., 2013, "Mixed Convection Flow Adjacent
to a Stretching Vertical Sheet in a Nanofluid," Journal of Applied Mathematics, 2013(pp. 6.
15
[8] Khan, W. A., and Pop, I., 2010, "BoundaryLayer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Stretching
Sheet," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53(1112), pp. 24772483.
[9] Makinde, O. D., and Aziz, A., 2011, "Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a
Stretching Sheet with a Convective Boundary Condition," International Journal of Thermal
Sciences, 50(7), pp. 13261332.