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- E-BOOK Theory of Knowledge for the IB Diploma
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*Rounding off positive numbers to a given

number of significant figures

1.Significant figures are the relavant digits in an integer

or a demical num which is rounded off to a certain

degree of accuracy.

2.To determine the number of significant figures in a

given number,follow the rules below.

i. in a demical are significant.

ii. in a whole number may or may not be significant

depending on the specific degree of accuracy.

3.Positive numbers greater than 1 or less than 1 can

be rounded off to a given number of significant figures.

*Comutations involving a few numbers

We can perform operations of addition,subtrction,multiplication and

division involving a few numbers and state the answers obtained in

specific number of significant figures.

1.2 : Stan dard Form

*Stating positive numbers in standard formStandard form is a way of expressing a number

in the form is an integer.

*Converting numbers in standard form to single

numbersTo convert a number in standard form to single number

shift the demical point in A:

(a) n places to right if n id positive

(b) n places to left if n is positive

*Camputations involving two numbers in standard formRules of indicies are used when performing

operations of addititon,

subtraction,multiplication and division involving numbers in standard

form.

Chapter 2 : Quadratic expressions and Equations

2.1 Quadratic expressions

* Identifying quadratic expressions

1. A quadratic expression in the form ax2+bx+c,where a,b and c are constants,a0 and is an unknown.

For example:

(a) 3x2 - 4x + 5

(b) 2x2 + 6x

(c) x2-9

2.In a quadratic expression:

there is only one unknown

the highest power of the unknown is 2

* Forming quadratic expressions by multiplying two linear expressions

1. When two linear expressions with the same unknown are multiplied,the product is a quadratic

expression.

2. The multiplication process is known as expansion

* Forming quadratic expressions based on specific situations

To form quadratic expressions based on specific situations :

1.Choose a letter to represent the unknown.2.Form a quadratic expressions based on the information

given.

2.2 Factorisation of quadratic expressions

*Factorising quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx + c,where b =0 or c =0

1.When b = 0, ax2 + c can be factorised by finding the highest common factor (HCF) of the coefficients a

and c.

2.When c=0,ax2x< + bx can be factorised by finding the highest common factor of the

coefficients a and b.x is also a common factor of the two terms.

*Factorising quadratic expressions of the form px2 - q,where p and q are perfect squares

Let p = a and q = b

px - q = (ax) - b

= (ax + b) (ax - b)

*Factorising quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx + c, where a 0, b 0 and c 0

1.We can use the inspection method and cross method to factorise quadratic equations of this form.

2.To factorise quadratic expressions :

(a) ax + bx + c, where a = 1

x + bx + c =(x + p) (x + p)

=x + qx + px + q

=x + (p + q) x + pq

In comparison,

b = p + q ,c = pq

- Find the combination of two numbers whose product is c.

- Choose the number combination from step 1 whose sum is b.

(b) ax + bx + c, where a > 1

ax + bx + c =(mx + p) (nx + q)

=mnx + mqx + npx + pq

=mnx + (mq + np) x + pq

In comparison,

a = mn , b = mq + np , c = pq

- Find the combination of two numbers whose product is a.

- Find the combination of two numbers whose product is c.

- Choose the number combination from step 1 and step 2 whose sum is b.

*Factorising quadratic expressions containing coefficients with common factors

For quadratic expressions containing coefficients with common factor first before

carrying out the factorisation of the expressions.

2.3 Quadratic Equations

* Indentifying quadratic equations with one unknown

1. Quadratic equations with one unknown are equations involving quadratic expressions.

2. In a quadratic equation :

there is an equal sign '='

there is only one unknown

the highest power of the unknown is 2

* Writing quadratic equadratic equations in general form

The general form of quadratic equations is ax2 + bx + c = 0,

where a,b and c are constants,a 0 and x is an unknown.

* Forming quadratic equations based on specific situations

To form quadratic equation based on specific situations :

1.Choose a letter to represent the unknown.

2.Form a quadratic equation based on the information given.

2.4 Roots of Quadratic Equations

* Determining the roots of a specific quadratic equation

The roots of a quadratic equation are the values of the unknown which satisfy the quadratic equation.

* Determining the solutions for quadratic equations

1.The solutions for a quadratic equation can be determined by :

Trial and improvement method

Factorisation

2.To determine the solutions for ax2 + bx + c = 0 using trial and improvement method :

Try using the factors of the last term,c.

If a > 1, try using fractions with a as the denominator and the factors of c as numerator.

3.To determine the solutions for ax + bx + c = 0, using factorisation method :

Factorisation the equation to the from (mx + p)(nx + q) = 0

Equate each factor to zero to obtain the solutions.

mx + p = 0 nx + q = 0

x = - p x = - q

m m

Chapter 3 Sets

3.1 Sets

* Sorting objects into groups

A set is a collection of objects with common characteristics.

* Defining sets

1. Sets are usually denoted by capital letters.

2. There are two ways to define a set :

By descriptions

By set notations, { }

*Identifying elements of a set

1.The objects in a set are known as elements.

2.For example,if A is a set of even numbers,then 2 is an element of set A.

We write 2 A an 5 A.

3.The symbol is used to denote the phrase 'is an element of' or' is a member of'.

*Representing sets using Venn diagrams

1.Sets can be represented using Venn diagrams.

2.A Venn diagram is an enclosed geometrical diagram in the shape of a circle,ellipse,triangle,square or

rectangle.

3.For example,A = {1,2,3,4} can be represented in the Venn diagram below.

4.Notice that there are 4 elements in set A.Set A can also be represented in a Venn diagram as

follows.

*Listing elements and stating the number of element in a set

We use the notation n(A) to represent the number of elements in set A.

*Empty sets

1.An empty set is a set with elements.

2.We use { } or to represent empty sets.

3.For example,M = {x : x < 0 and x is a positive integer} is an empty set as M contains no elements.We

write M = or M = { }

*Equal set

1.Two sets,A and B are equal if both have the same elements.

2.For example,A = { 1,2,3,4} and B = {2,4,3,1} are equal sets.It is written as A = B.

3.If set M is not equal to set N,then it is denoted as M N

3.2 Subset,Universal Set and the Complement of a set

*Subsets

1.Element of set A is also an element of set B,then A is a subset of B.

2.if not all the elements of set M are the elements of set N,then M is not the subset of N.The

relationship is

written as M N

*Representing subsets using Venn diagrams

Subsets can be represented using Venn diagrams.

*Listing the subsets of a specific set

Given that A = {1,2,3}.The possible subsets of A are ,{1},{2},{3},{1,2},{1,3},{2,3} and {1,2,3}.

*Universal set

1.Universal set is a set consisting of all the elements under discussion.

2.the symbol is used to denote a universal set.

3.All the sets under discussion are subsets of the universal set.

*The complement of a set

1.The complement of set A is a set consisting of all the elements in ,which are not the elements of set A

2.The symbol A' denotes the complement of set A.

3.In the Venn,diagram below,the shaded region represents A'

3.3 Operation on Sets

*Intersection of sets

1.Intersection of set A and B is a set of elements which common to both sets A and B.

2.The intersection of set A and B is denoted by A B.

3.The shaded region in Venn diagram represents A B.

*The complement of the intersection of sets

1.The complement of A B is a set containing all the elements which are not the elements of set A B.

This is denoted by (A B)'.

2.The shaded region in the Venn diagram below represents

(A B)'.

*Solving problems involving the intersection of sets

We can solve some problems in our daily life by applying the concepts of the intersection of sets.

*Union of sets

1.The union of sets A and B is a set of elements belonging to either of the sets or both.

2.The symbol A B denotes the union of set A and B.

*The complement of the union of sets

1.The complement of A U B is a set containing all the elements in the universal set, which are not

elements

of the set A U B.This is denoted by (A U B)'.

2.The shaded region in Venn diagram represent (A U B)'.

*Solving problems involving the union of sets

Venn diagram is very useful when solving problems involving the union of sets.

*Combined operations on setsWhen combined operations are involved,carry,out the operations in the

brackets first.

*Solving problems involving combined operations on sets

Venn diagram is very useful when solving problems involving the union of sets

Chapter 4 Mathematical Reasoning

4.1 : Statements

*Determining whether a sentence is a statement

A statement is a sentence that is either true or false but not both.

4.2 : Quantifiers "All" and "Some"

* Constructing statements using the quantifiers "all" and "some"

A quantifiers denotes the number of objects or cases involved in a statement.

(a) "All" refers to each and every object or case that satisfies a certain condition.

(b) "Some" refers to several and not every object or case that satisfies a certain condition.

*Determining the truth value of statements that contain the quantifier "all"

In statement that contains the quantifier "all",each and every objects is being considered in

the statement.If there is one object (or more) that contradicts the statement,then the statement is

false.

*Generalising statements using the quantifier "all"

Sometimes a statement can be generalised to cover all cases using the quantifier "all" without changing

its truth value.

*Constructing true statements using the quantifier "all" or "some"

To construct a true statement based on given objects and their properties :

(a)Use the quantifier "all" if each and every object satisfies the given property.

(b)Use the quantifier "some" if there is one or more objects that contradicts with the given property.

4.3 Operations on Statements

*Changing the truth value of statements using the word "not" or "no"

1.The word "not" or "no" can be used to change the truth value of a statement.

2.The process of changing the truth value of a statement using the word "not" or "no" is known as

negation.

3.~p represent the negation for statement p.

4.Example:

*Identifying two statement from a compound statement that contains the word "and"

1.In compound statement containing the word "and" we can identify two statement.

2.For example,7 is an odd number and 14 is an even number.Is a compound statement that is made up

from the following two statement.

statement 1 : 7 is an odd number.

statement 2 : 14 is an even number.

*Forming compound statement using the word "and"

W can use the word "and" to from a compound statement from two statement.

*Identifying two statement from a compound statement that contains the word "or"

In a compound statement containing the word "or" we can identify two statement.

statement 1 : -5 < -2

statement 2 : = 0.5

*Forming compound statements using the word "or"

We can from compound statement from two statement by using the word "or"

*Truth value of compound statement that contains the word "and"

1.When two statements are combined with the word "and" the compound statement formed is :

(a) True,if both statement are true.

(b) False, if one of the statement or both the statement are false.

2.The truth value are summarised in the truth table below.

*Truth value of a compound statement that contains the word "or"

1.when two statements are combined with the word "or" the compound statement formed is :

(a) true,if one of the statement or both the statement are truth.

(b) false,if both the statement are false.

2.The truth values are summarised in the truth table below.

4.4 Implication

*Antecedent and consequent of an implication

Statement in the form "if p,then q"is known as an implication.p is the antecedent and q is

the consequent.

*Writing two implications from a compound statement containing "if and only if"

A compound statement in the form "p if and only if q"is a combination of two implications.

Implication 1 : "if p, then q"

Implication 2 : "if q, then p"

*Constructing implications "if p,then q" and "p if and only if q"

Based on the given antecedent and consequent,we can construct a mathematical statement in the form

:

(a) "if p,then q"

(b) " p if and only if q"

*The converse of implication

For the implication "if p,then q",the converse of the implication is "if q,then p".

*Truth value of the converse of an implication

The converse of an implication is not necessarily true.

4.5 Arguments

*Premises and conclusion of an argument

1. An argument consist of collection of statements,which are the premises,followed by another

statement,which is the

conclusion of the argument.

*Making a conclusion based on the given premises

Argument Form I

Premise I : All A re B

Premise II : C is A

Conclusion : C is B

For example,

Premise I : All multiples of 10 has the unit digit 0

Premise II : M is a multiple of 10

Conclusion : M has the unit digit 10

4.6 Deduction and induction

*Reasoning by deduction and induction

1.Deduction is the process of making a specific conclusion based on a general statement.

2.Induction is the process of making a general conclusion based on specific cases.

*Making conclusion by deduction

Through reasoning by deduction ,we can make conclusion for a specific case based on a general

statement.

*Making generalisations by induction.

Through reasoning by induction,we can make generalisation based on the pattern of a numerical

sequence.

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