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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY

DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES


Dr. Amitabha Gupta
Professor,
Dept. of Humanities & Social Sciences November 15, 2!
"o
Professor #.S. $ha
%%" Delhi
Dear Professor $ha&
'et me ta(e this opportunit) to intro*uce m)self. % teach in the Dept. of H&SS in this
%nstitute an* have been collaboratin+ ,ith Professor S.D. A+ashe in various
aca*emic activities for last ! )ears.
-e feel ver) stron+l) about the nee* for a fun*amental chan+e in our attitu*e an*
approach to,ar*s science an* mathematics e*ucation at the school level. "he
proposal enclose* here,ith ,as prepare* base* on this ur+e to *o somethin+.
Professor A+ashe as(e* me to sen* the soft cop) of this proposal for )our (in*
perusal. 'et me mention here that ,e (noc(e* on man) +overnmental *oors in vain
over the last 12 )ears.
-e ,oul* *eepl) appreciate if )ou +o throu+h the proposal, an* see in ,hat ,a)
)ou can support school education in our countr). -hat ,e nee* ver) ba*l) is
people ,ho ,ill *o the relevant research an* *evelopmental ,or(. "here are
enou+h number of /.Sc.0s 1an* even 2."ech0s an* /."ech0s.3 ,ho can *o
somethin+, even in their spare time, but it ,ill nee* a lot of coor*ination. An* it is
ver) important to +et the collaboration of the school teachers themselves.
Some time bac( Prof. $.4. Narli(ar in an article in the "5% bemoane* the lac( of
0enthu0 for science, but ,e feel that there is lac( of enthu for any e*ucation, an* that
e*ucation for everyone can be ma*e better.
-ith ,arm re+ar*s,
AmitabhaGupta
A NEW ORIENTATION
TOWARD THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM
IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS
A PROJECT PROPOSAL
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
BOMBAY
2
A NEW ORIENTATION
TOWARD THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM
IN SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS
I. INSTITUTIONAL PARTICULARS
13 1a3 Pro6ect Director & D7. S. D. AGASH8
1b3 /ailin+ A**ress & Dept. of 8lectrical 8n++.
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+)
2omba) 9 :;
8<mail & ees*aia=ee.iitb.ac.in
1a>3 Name of the Pro6ect
#o<Director & D7. A/%"A2HA G?P"A

1b03 /ailin+ A**ress & Dept. of Humanities & Social Sciences
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+)
2omba) 9 :;
8<mail & a+=hss.iitb.ac.in

23 "itle of the Pro6ect& A N8- 57%8N"A"%5N "5-A7D "H8
S#H55' #?77%#?'?/ %N S#%8N#8
AND /A"H8/A"%#S
!3 1a3 Name of the bo*) %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+),
to ,hich attache*& 2omba)
1b3 Status of the
5r+ani@ationA%n*ivi*ual & Deeme* ?niversit)
93 Nature of functions of the "eachin+, 8Baminin+, 7esearch
5r+ani@ationA%n*ivi*ual &
II. PROJECT OUTLINE
II(0) INTRODUCTION
The Gap e!"ee# !he I$ea% a#$ !he Rea%
"he National Policy on Education-19!, in the Section entitle* Science
Education, states&
C.1C DScience education "ill #e stren$thened so as to develop in
the child "ell-de%ined a#ilities and values such as the spirit
o% in&uiry' creativity' o#(ectivity' the coura$e to &uestion'
and an aesthetic sensi#ility)*
C.1E DScience education pro$ra++es "ill #e desi$ned to ena#le
the learner to ac&uire pro#le+ solvin$ and decision +a,in$
s,ills and to discover the relationship o% science "ith
health' a$riculture' industry and other aspects o% daily li%e)
Every e%%ort "ill #e +ade to e-tend science education to the
vast nu+#ers "ho have re+ained outside the pale o% %or+al
education)*
"he Draft 7eport of the .or,in$ /roup on Science Education of the N#87"
confesses 1pa+e 93&
D0n spite o% the e%%orts +ade #y the various
/overn+ent1Non-/overn+ent A$encies in the area o%
Science education' there has #een little i+pact) 0n the
a#sence o% proper curriculu+ transaction' the tas, o%
inculcatin$ scienti%ic te+per a+on$ all citi2ens has
re+ained %ar o%%)*
2
O&' D(a)#*+(+
'eavin+ asi*e Fuestions as to ,hether +reat scientists li(e Ne,ton an*
8instein ha* imbibe* the scientific temper b) a+e 15 or 1;, an* ,hether the
inculcation of the scientific temper has necessaril) to be complete* b) that a+e, our
*ia+nosis of the failure is as follo,s.
-e feel that
1a3 a,areness of the developin$ character o% science 1an* even of human
(no,le*+e3, an*
1b3 a critical attitude,
are the ma6or hallmar(s of the scientific temper.
Scienti%ic te+per, therefore, cannot #e inculcated b) presentin+ science
do$+atically an* as a %inished product, to #e learnt #y rote. .e +ust present
science as a process) "his means in turn that teachers an* ,riters of teBtboo(s of
science have to be ma*e a,are of the *evelopin+ character of science ,ith a vie,
to its utili@ation in science e*ucation. This has not #een done any"here so %ar'
and this is precisely "hat "e propose to do)
Nee$ ,*' Re+ea'-h
-e have propose* that four 7esearch -or(ers be enliste* to ,or( on the
sub6ects of Ph)sics, #hemistr), 2iolo+), an* /athematics for 5 )ears to help
*evelop material that ,ill be useful to teachers an* ,riters of teBt<boo(s. 1"his
accounts for 29. percent of our Pro6ect cost 17s.:.2 la(hs out of 7s.!.5 la(h3.
Nee$ ,*' C*%%a*'a!(*# "(!h Tea-he'+
"he research an* *evelopment of material ,ill be carrie* out in
collaboration ,ith the teachers themselves to improve the chances of its
acceptance. "his ,e propose to *o throu+h the publication of a Fuarterl) 6ournal
1cost of 7s.15 copies an* ! pa+esG 7s.1. la(h, !!.! percent of the total
3
cost3 an* hol*in+ of 2C re+ional ,or(shops 1cost 7s.2.C la(h, E.! percent3. 1%t
comes to a mere 7s.C for ! pa+es of material to be spent over 5 )ears3. "he
HNavo*a)a> schools an* Ien*ri)a 4i*)ala)as coul* be ur+e* to participate.
II(.) O/e-!(0e+
"o prepare e*ucational material consonant ,ith a ne" orientation to"ard
the school curriculu+ 3Std) 0 to 45 in Science and 6athe+atics "ith a vie" to
+a,e science education +ore +eanin$%ul and e%%ective' #y overco+in$ the
%ollo"in$ de%iciencies o% the present approach7
1i3 lac( of inte+ration bet,een mathematics an* the sciencesG
1ii3 lac( of a,areness of the histor) of i*eas in the various sub6ects an* of the
*evelopin+ character of (no,le*+eG
1iii3 absence of critical treatment of the concepts an* theories that are intro*uce*
an* of their honest evaluationG
1iv3 ne+lect of the relationship of science an* mathematics ,ith lifeG
1v3 absence of an overvie, an* un*erstan*in+ of science an* technolo+), cause*
mainl) b) the isolate*, fact<oriente* content of the curriculumG
1vi3 failure to relate science ,ith technolo+)G an*
1vii3 emphasis on rote learnin+, ma(in+ self<learnin+ *ifficultG
usin+ a ne, approach that&
1i3 *ispla)s the *evelopin+ character of scientific en*eavour b) incorporatin+
historical a,arenessG
4
1ii3 fosters a critical attitu*e on the part of the learnerG
1iii3 brin+s out the close an* evolvin+ relationship bet,een mathematics an*
ph)sicsG
1iv3 emphasises the interrelationship bet,een science an* technolo+)G
1v3 *ispels some of the misconceptions as ,ell as naive euphoria about science
an* technolo+) create* in the min*s of stu*ents b) the isolate* technical
scientific content an* mere fact<oriente*ness of the science curriculum, an*
+ives an over<vie, an* un*erstan*in+ of science an* technolo+)G
1vi3 relates (no,le*+e to *ail) life b) emphasi@in+ un*erstan*in+ an* application
rather than accumulation of mere factual (no,le*+eG
1vii3 ma(es learnin+ a stimulatin+ an* re,ar*in+ eBperience b) *iscoura+in+ mere
rote learnin+G an*
1viii3 provi*es for self<learnin+, learnin+ in non<formal environments, an* *istance<
learnin+.
%t shoul* be emphasi@e* that the pro6ect is a**resse* mainl) to science an*
mathematics teachers, teachin+ at all levels from St*. % to St*. J. "here ,ill be
*irect contact ,ith man) of these throu+h 7e+ional -or(shops an* in*irect contact
throu+h a Kuarterl) $ournal. -e aim to create a ne, Ha,areness> amon+ the
teachers in the hope that this ,ill be reflecte* in their teachin+. Ho,ever, the
e*ucational material that ,ill be *evelope* shoul* prove to be of value not onl) to
stu*ents of hi+her stan*ar*s 1sa), St*. 4%%% to J3 but also to e*ucate* la)men, an*
recipients of nonformal e*ucation.
II(1) J&+!(,(-a!(*# ,*' Ta2(#) &p !he S!&$3
5
2ac(+roun* & -e, the Pro6ect Director an* the Pro6ect #o<Director, have been
teachin+ elective courses in the follo,in+ sub6ects& 1%3 %ntro*uction to the
/etho*olo+) of Science, 1ii3 Philosoph) of Science, 1iii3 Histor) of Science, an* 1iv3
'o+ic an* Loun*ations of /athematics, to en+ineerin+ stu*ents at the %n*ian
%nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba), for the last 25 )ears or so. "hrou+h this teachin+
,e have come to realise that the Histor) an* Philosoph) of Science an*
/athematics can ma(e si+nificant an* essential contributions to the learnin+ an*
un*erstan*in+ of science an* mathematics, even at the school level. "his
contribution ,oul* not consist in the a**ition of historical or philosophical material
to the topics alrea*) bein+ tau+ht. 7ather, ,e su++est that a historical an*
philosophical a,areness shoul* be brou+ht to bear on the teachin+ of the tra*itional
topics. "he absence of such an a,areness has resulte* in the follo,in+
*eficiencies in the learnin+ of science an* mathematics in schools not onl) in %n*ia
but also abroa*.
1i3 "here is a ten*enc) to (eep the school sub6ects ri+i*l) separate* from each
other, resultin+ in a fra+mente* approach. "hus, in particular, the ph)sics an*
the mathematics that the stu*ents learn *o not appear to be naturall) relate* to
each other. %nstea*, it appears as if someho, ph)sics nee*s mathematics an*
the mathematics can be applie* to ph)sics. "he researches of historians of
science an* mathematics in this re+ar* have been lar+el) overloo(e*.
1ii3 Althou+h much is bein+ sai* about inculcatin+ a scientific temper amon+
schoolchil*ren, ,hat is bein+ achieve* is the impartin+ of scientific (no,le*+e
as of to*a) in a *o+matic, authoritative manner. "he scientific approach or
metho* is either completel) hi**en from vie, or misrepresente*. "he import of
recent philosophical *ebates an* thin(in+ about the scientific metho* 1inclu*in+
*iscussions on scientific revolutions an* scientific pro+ress3 for science
teachin+ an* learnin+ has not been +raspe*. "hus, a critical attitu*e on the
part of the learner nee*s to be nurture* ,hereas the present approach to the
curriculum encoura+es rote learnin+ an* *iscoura+es an) creative effort an*
reflective thin(in+ b) the learner.
6
1iii3 -e all reco+ni@e the importance of technolo+) in societ) an* also its close
relation ,ith science. Ho,ever, the present curriculum pro*uces ver) little
technolo+ical a,areness in the min*s of schoolchil*ren. Sub6ects li(e H-or(
8Bperience> an* HSociall) ?seful an* Pro*uctive -or(>, an* vocational sub6ects
< fe, as the) are < are not relate* to science an* mathematics. "he result is
that the learners feel that the (no,le*+e the) are acFuirin+ is all boo(ish an*
not of an) use in their later ,or(in+ life. "hus, the present approach
emphasi@es (no,le*+e, rather than un*erstan*in+ an* application.
-e feel that publishin+ our ,or(, as also that of others ,illin+ to contribute,
in the form of a $ournal ri+ht from the start, ,ill enable us to (eep in touch ,ith the
communit) of school teachers an* e*ucators so that the ne, orientation that ,ill
emer+e ,ill be realistic an* acceptable to the school teachers. "o receive further
fee*bac( an* to i*entif) collaborators, ,e propose to or+ani@e 7e+ional -or(shops
in *ifferent parts of %n*ia. -e inten* to enlist the help of science an* mathematics
+ra*uates, teachers an* e*ucators ,ho ma) li(e to ,or( as 7esearch
AssociateA7esearch AssistantA4isitin+ member in the pro6ect for a *uration of one
month to one )ear. Some of the support material *evelope* ,ill be trie* out in the
t,o schools on the %.%.". #ampus, affiliate* to t,o *ifferent 2oar*s, namel), the
#entral 2oar* of Secon*ar) 8*ucation, an* the /aharashtra 2oar* of Secon*ar)
8*ucation.
7evie, of Status of 7 an* D in the Sub6ect
%nternational Status & #urriculum research has been a continuin+ activit) abroa* as
here in %n*ia. %n mathematics one shoul* mention amon+ others the ,or( of&
1i3 School /athematics Stu*) Group 1S/SG3 at Stanfor* ?niversit)G
1ii3 ?niversit) of %llinois #ommittee on School /athematics 1?%#S/3G
1iii3 "he /athematics #urriculum Pro6ect of the Schools #ouncil at the ?niversit) of
Nottin+ham, ?.I., 1E:!<::G an*
1iv3 "he Nuffiel* /athematics Pro6ect, ?.I.
%n Science, in the ?.I., the Nuffiel* Loun*ation Pro6ect for the Histor) of
%*eas ,as aime* at provi*in+ a bac(+roun* in histor) an* philosoph) of science to
7
teachers of science. "he HHarvar* #ase Histories in 8Bperimental Science>
1
1see
2iblio+raph) belo,3 ,as a ver) successful effort at pro*ucin+ science material for
colle+e stu*ents of the 'iberal Arts. %n the ?.S.S.7., a series of boo(lets calle* the
H'ittle /athematics 'ibrar)> has been publishe*, an* volumes in a ne, series title*
HScience for 8ver)one> have been comin+ out in recent )ears. 2oo(s such as HAn
%ntro*uction to the Stu*) of Science> b) Smith an* $e,ett,
2
HHousecraft Science> b)
Griffiths,
!
HAn 5utline for 2o)s an* Girls an* their Parents> e*ite* b) /itchison,
9
HScience in #ommon "hin+s> b) Scarr,
5
H/athematics in "heor) an* Practice>, e*ite*
b) Sa,)er,
;
an* HA #ompanion to School /athematics> b) 2oon
:
,hich relate*
mathematics an* science to life an* civili@ation are, unfortunatel), out of fashion
an* out of print. -e have come across onl) t,o recent boo(s ,hich contain a
critical treatment an* honest evaluation of some concepts in school ph)sics&
HKuestions an* Problems in School Ph)sics>
C
an* HDiscussions on 7efraction of
'i+ht>
E
both b) "arasov an* "arasova.
National Status & "he N#87" has been *oin+ pioneerin+ ,or( in curricular research
an* pro*uction of teBt<boo(s. A report on the ,or( *one in mathematics till 1E;:
can be foun* in HSome Aspects of School /athematics> b) Iapur.
1
"he mo*el set
b) N#87" has been follo,e* b) the various State 8*ucation 2oar*s. "he Homi
2habha #entre for Science 8*ucation, 2omba), has also *one eBcellent ,or( in
re+ar* to science teachin+ to stu*ents in rural areas an* those comin+ from the
,ea(er sections of societ). Ho,ever, it ,oul* be fair to sa) that these efforts *o not
have the orientation that ,e are envisa+in+ in our Pro6ect.
B(%(*)'aph3
1. DHarvar* #ase Histories in 8Bperimental ScienceM, $.2. #onant, General 8*itor,
4ol.1 an* 2, Harvar* ?niversit) Press, #ambri*+e, /assachusetts, 1E5:.
2. DAn %ntro*uction to the Stu*) of Science& A Lirst #ourse in Science for Hi+h
SchoolsM, b) -a)ne P. Smith an* 8*mun* Gale $e,ett, "he /acmillan
#ompan), Ne, Nor(, 1E1C.
!. DHousecraft ScienceM, b) 8.D. Griffiths, /ethuen an* #o. 't*., 'on*on, 1E1:.
9. DAn 5utline for 2o)s an* Girls an* their Parents& Science, #ivilisation an*
4aluesM, e*ite* b) Naomi /itchison, 4ictor Gollanc@, 't*., 'on*on, 1E!2.
8
5. DScience in #ommon "hin+sM, 2oo(s %, %% an* %%%, b) -.A. Scarr, 8*,ar* Arnol*
an* #o.,'on*on, 1E!!G reprinte*, 1E52.
;. D/athematics in "heor) an* Practice& A Novel an* Simplifie* Approach in ,hich
/athematical Processes are relate* to 8ver)*a) AffairsM, e*ite* b) -.-.
Sa,)er, 5*hams Press 't*., 'on*on, not *ate*.
:. DA #ompanion to School /athematicsM, b) L.#. 2oon, 'on+mans, Green an* #o.
't*., 'on*on, Secon* 8*ition, 1E;.
C. DKuestions an* Problems in School Ph)sicsM, b) '.4. "arasov an* A.N.
"arasova, /ir Publishers, /osco,, 1EC9.
E. DDiscussions on 7efraction of 'i+htM, b) '.4. "arasov an* A.N. "arasova, /ir
Publishers, /osco,, 1EC9.
1. DSome Aspects of School /athematicsM, b) $.N. Iapur, Ar)a 2oo( Depot, Ne,
Delhi, 1E;:.
%mportance of the Propose* Pro6ect in the #onteBt of #urrent Status & %n vie, of the
+reat importance bein+ attache* to Human 7esources Development b) the #entral
Government an* the formulation of a Ne, National Polic) on 8*ucation, it har*l)
nee*s to be emphasise* that curricular research an* pro*uction of support material
,ill once a+ain be of +reat ur+enc). -e stron+l) feel that the ne, orientation that
,e are proposin+ ,ill ma(e a Fualitative chan+e in the e*ucational fiel*. 5ur
su++estion of publishin+ a $ournal an* hol*in+ 7e+ional -or(shops, *urin+ the
course of the Pro6ect ,ill ensure the cooperation an* support of the teachin+
communit) in implementin+ the ne, orientation. Lurther it ,ill be un,ise not to ta(e
a*vanta+e of the tremen*ous opportunit) of H*istance e*ucation> provi*e* b)
satellite communication via television. -e *o hope that the material that ,ill be
pro*uce* b) the Pro6ect ,ill be ta(en up b) some of the man) a+encies pro*ucin+
8*ucational "elevision Pro+rammes, such as the #entral %nstitute of 8*ucational
"echnolo+). "he %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba), also has an 8*ucational
"echnolo+) #ell upon ,hich ,e coul* *ra, for support.
7evie, of 8Bpertise Available ,ith Pro6ect Director an* #o<Director in the Sub6ect of
the Pro6ect
9
1i3 "eachin+ an* research eBperience of about 25 )ears in the sub6ects of
/etho*olo+) of Science, Histor) of Science, Philosoph) of Science, an* 'o+ic
an* Loun*ations of /athematics.
1ii3 #on*ucte* a short<term course on H"eachin+ of 'o+ic an* /etho*olo+) of
Science> un*er the sponsorship of the Kualit) %mprovement Pro+ramme of the
/inistr) of 8*ucation in /a), 1E:C.
1iii3 8*ite* an antholo+) title* DScience, "echnolo+) an* Social #han+e& A 2oo( of
7ea*in+sM, prescribe* for the Loun*ation #ourse < Paper %% of the "hree<Near
De+ree #ourses in Arts, Science, an* #ommerce of the ?niversit) of /umbai,
an* publishe* b) the ?niversit) of /umbai in 1EC. -e have also contribute*
intro*uctor) material to man) of the HSelections> in this antholo+).
1iv3 5r+anise* a -or(shop on H?n*erstan*in+ Science> un*er the 6oint
sponsorship of the %n*ian #ouncil of Philosophical 7esearch, Ne, Delhi, an*
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba), in April, 1EC5.
1v3 ",o schools, comin+ un*er the 6uris*iction of t,o *ifferent 8*ucational 2oar*s
1#entral 2oar* of Secon*ar) 8*ucation an* /aharashtra State 2oar* of
Secon*ar) 8*ucation3 are locate* ri+ht on the #ampus of the %n*ian %nstitute
of "echnolo+), 2omba).
1vi3 "he Pro6ect Director has ,or(e* as #hairman of the #ampus School of the
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba) for t,o )ears.
1vii3 "he Pro6ect Director ,as on an A*visor) #ommittee of the Ien*ri)a 4i*)ala)a,
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba).
1viii3 "he Pro6ect Director has been participatin+ in the activities of the /aharashtra
/athematics "eachers> AssociationG he has lecture* at their Annual
#onventions an* publishe* articles in their $ournal.
1iB3 "he Pro6ect #o<Director has been associate* ,ith 7eme*ial "eachin+ for the
chil*ren of the Ien*ri)a 4i*)ala)a, %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba).
1B3 "he Pro6ect #o<Director has ,ritten material title* DA #ase Stu*) base* on
8arl) Astronom)M ,hich is meant as a "eachin+ Ai* in Loun*ation #ourse,
Paper %%, DScientific /etho*, Science, "echnolo+) an* DevelopmentM, an* has
been publishe* b) the #olle+e Development #ouncil of the ?niversit) of
2omba), in 1EC9.
II(4) Re%e0a#-e !* !he S-he5e O/e-!(0e
10
-e feel that a *istin+uishin+ feature of our pro6ect is the proposal of
brin+in+ out a Kuarterl) $ournal an* the or+ani@ation of several 7e+ional
-or(shops *urin+ the tenure of the Pro6ect, to enable us to obtain the cooperation
an* collaboration of the communit) of school<teachers an* e*ucationists, on ,hose
shoul*ers the responsibilit) of shapin+ the course of e*ucation rests. -e are
confi*ent that the support material that is *evelope* b) the Pro6ect ,ill be helpful to
the various 2oar*s of Secon*ar) 8*ucation in revisin+ the teBt<boo(s brou+ht out
b) them. -e also inten* to be in touch ,ith researchers abroa* in the area of
school science an* mathematics. Linall), ,e hope to receive a*vice an* +ui*ance
from in*ivi*uals an* institutions.
Althou+h i*eall) all the school teachers of science an* mathematics in %n*ia
shoul* be reache*, ,e ,ill limit ourselves to about 2C of them ,hom ,e hope to
meet personall) at the 2C 7e+ional -or(shops 1assumin+ an avera+e participation
b) 1 teachers at each -or(shop3. -e ,ill, of course, see( the a*vice of all the
2oar*s of Secon*ar) 8*ucation in the countr).
%f paper is ma*e available at concessional rates, ,e shoul* be able to brin+
out a lar+er number of copies of the $ournal an* thus reach a si@eable number of
teachers, thou+h in*irectl), throu+h the pa+es of the $ournal.
Since teBt<boo(s are, an* ,ill remain for some time, the main e*ucational
material in our countr), ,e *o hope that the material publishe* in the $ournal an*
the *iscussions at the -or(shops ,ill result in appropriate chan+es in the present
teBt<boo(s an* in the attitu*e of the teachers to,ar*s teBt<boo( material. -e also
hope that in the en* this ,ill create a ne, a,areness amon+ the lar+e number of
stu*ents for ,hom St*. J ,ill be the terminal sta+e of their formal e*ucation, man)
of ,hom ,ill be associate* ,ith *ecision<ma(in+ bo*ies, especiall) in rural areas.
II(6) App'*a-h a#$ Me!h*$*%*)3
As a result of our stu*) of an* teachin+ courses in the sub6ects of
/etho*olo+) of Science, Histor) of Science, Philosoph) of Science, an* 'o+ic an*
11
Loun*ations of /athematics, over the last 25 )ears or so, ,e have alrea*)
i*entifie* some topics in the school curriculum in Science an* /athematics upon
,hich a historical a,areness an* a critical attitu*e can be brou+ht to bear fruitfull).
A fe, of these topics ma) be mentione*&
1i3 the role of the ABiomatic /etho* in +eometr)G
1ii3 the +eometrical ori+in of the concepts of ratio an* proportion, these later +ivin+
rise to the nee* for an arithmetic of fractionsG
1iii3 the actual observe* motions of the stars an* planets, an* the concept of mo*el<
ma(in+ in astronom)G
1iv3 Galileo>s ,or( on Hfallin+> bo*ies an* Hlocal motion>G
1v3 the astronomical foun*ation of Ne,ton>s mechanicsG
1vi3 the actual eBperiments of #oulomb an* his formulation of the 'a, of Lorce
bet,een char+e* bo*iesG
1vii3 the actual eBperiments of 5hm an* his formulation of his 'a,G
1viii3 the *evelopment of the concept of temperatureG
1iB3 the overthro, of the "heor) of Live 8lements 1,ater, air, fire, earth an* space3
in #hemistr) an* the stu*) of +ases lea*in+ to Dalton>s Atomic "heor)G an*
1B3 classification an* comparative stu*ies in 2iolo+).
"o start ,ith, e*ucational material ,ill be pro*uce* in these areas. -hen
Pro6ect Staff is recruite*, man) more areas ,ill be i*entifie* an* the staff members
,ill be put in char+e of some of these.
"he e*ucational material that is *evelope* ,ill be publishe* in a Kuarterl)
$ournal ,hich ,ill be circulate* to about 1 schools an* 1 #olle+es of
8*ucation in %n*ia, an* to +roups ,or(in+ on curricular research in %n*ia an*
abroa*, to elicit comment an* criticism, an* also to solicit in*epen*ent or collateral
investi+ation b) intereste* teachers an* e*ucators in %n*ia an* abroa*. "he
material ,ill also be presente* at t,o<*a) 7e+ional -or(shops to be or+anise* in
various parts of the countr), once ever) three months *urin+ the first )ear of the
Pro6ect an* once ever) t,o months *urin+ the neBt four )ears. "hus, there ,ill be a
total of 2C -or(shops. At each -or(shop, about 1 teachers an* e*ucators ,ill
be invite* to participate in the *eliberations. "heir reaction to the material alrea*)
12
publishe* in the $ournal ,ill be ascertaine*. "his contact ,ill also enable us to
i*entif) teachers ,ho ma) li(e to ,or( in the Pro6ect as 4isitin+ /embers.
II(7) De!a(%+ *, Da!a C*%%e-!(*# a#$ A#a%3+(+ P'*p*+e$
1i3 Preparation of material for publication in the $ournal, an* the publication an*
*istribution of the $ournal. 1"he $ournal ,ill be brou+ht out once ever) three
months3.
1ii3 Preparation of material for *iscussion in the -or(shops, an* or+anisation of the
-or(shops. 1"he -or(shops ,ill be con*ucte* once ever) three months *urin+
the first )ear an* once ever) t,o months *urin+ the neBt four )ears.3
II(8) T(5e S-he$&%e
8stimate* time in ,hich Pro6ect ,ill be complete*& 5 )ears.
"ime sche*ule of Activities Givin+ /ilestones &
1i3 Publication of Fuarterl) issues of the $ournal & /arch 1, $une 1, September 1,
December 1.
1ii3 5r+anisation of 7e+ional -or(shops& /arch, $une, September, an* December
1to,ar*s the en* of the month3 in the first )ear, an* Lebruar), April, $une,
Au+ust, 5ctober an* December 1to,ar*s the en* of the month3 in the neBt four
)ears.
13
III. STAFFING PATTERN
III (.) H*#*'a'3 S!a,,
113 1a3 Name of the Pro6ect Director & SADANAND D%NIA7 AGASH8
1b3 Present Position & Professor
Department of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+)
2omba)
1c3 /a6or positions hel* b) the Assistant Professor in the
Pro6ect Director previousl) & Department of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+
at the %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), Ianpur,
$ul) 1E;:<December 1E:!.
4isitin+ Lello,, #omputer Group, at the
"ata %nstitute of Lun*amental 7esearch,
2omba), $ul) 1E:<$ul) 1E:1.
Assistant Professor in the
Department of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+
at the %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba),
December 1E:! < September 1EC!.
1*3 Liel* of specialisation 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+
of the pro6ect Director
1a>3 Name of the Pro6ect
#o<Director & A/%"A2HA G?P"A
1b>3 Present position & Professor
Department of Humanities & Social Sciences
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+)
2omba)
1c>3 /a6or positions hel* b) 'ecturer in the Dept. of Humanities an*
the Pro6ect #o<Director Social Sciences at the %n*ian %nstitute of
previousl) & "echnolo+), 2omba),
$anuar) 1E:9<$ul) 1EC1.
Assistant Professor in the Dept.of Humanities
an* Social Sciences at the %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), 2omba),
$ul) 1EC1</a) 1EC;.
1*>3 Liel* of speciali@ation of
the Pro6ect #o<Director & Philosoph) an* Histor) of Science, 'o+ic an*
#o+nitive Science
1e03 Pro6ects complete* b) HSche*ule* #aste an* "ribe Stu*ents in
Pro6ect #o<Director Hi+her 8*ucation& A Stu*) of an %.%.".>
previousl) an* or+ani@ation %.%."., 2omba).
for ,hich un*erta(en &
14
CURRICULUM 9ITAE OF PROJECT DIRECTOR
Name & SADANAND D%NIA7 AGASH8
Date of 2irth & April :, 1E92
Present Position & Professor
Department of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba)
Aca*emic #areer &
1. Secon*ar) School 8Bamination #ertificate of the 2oar* of Secon*ar) School
8Bamination, 2omba), 1E5;, in Lirst #lass ,ith Distinction.
2. %nterme*iate Science 8Bamination #ertificate, ?niversit) of 2omba), 1E5C.
!. 2achelor of 8n+ineerin+ 18lectrical3 De+ree, ?niversit) of 2omba), 1E;1.
9. /.S. in 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+ at the ?niversit) of %llinois, ?rbana, ?.S.A., $une
1E;!.
5. Ph.D. in 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+ at the ?niversit) of %llinois, ?rbana, ?.S.A., $une
1E;:.
Aca*emic A,ar*s an* Distinctions &
1. Stoo* 1Cth amon+ over 1, stu*ents at the Secon*ar) School 8Bamination,
1E5;.
2. Stoo* Secon* at the %nterme*iate Science 8Bamination, 1E5C, an* share* the
Gibbs Pri@e for obtainin+ the hi+hest mar(s in Ph)sics.
!. Stoo* Secon* at the Lirst Near 8n+ineerin+ 8Bamination of the ?niversit) of
2omba), 1E5E.
9. Stoo* Lirst at the Secon* Near 8n+ineerin+ 18lectrical3 8Bamination of the
?niversit) of 2omba), 1E;.
5. Stoo* Lirst at the 2achelor of 8n+ineerin+ 18lectrical3 8Bamination of the
?niversit) of 2omba), 1E;1, receivin+ the 'ate 2oman an* Lali H. Ihan Pri@e.
;. 7ecipient of the General 8lectric Loun*ation Lello,ship in 8lectrical
8n+ineerin+ at the ?niversit) of %llinois, ?rbana, %llinois, ?.S.A., 1E;2<;9.
:. 7esearch Assistant at the #oor*inate* Science 'aborator), ?niversit) of %llinois,
?rbana, %llinois, ?..S.A., 1E;9<;:.
Professional #areer
15
1. Assistant Professor, Dept. of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+, %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), Ianpur, 1E;:<1E:!.
2. 4isitin+ Lello, at the #omputer Group, "ata %nstitute of Lun*amental 7esearch,
2omba), 1E:<:1.
!. Assistant Professor, Dept. of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+, %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), 2omba) 1E:!<1EC!.
9. Professor, Dept. of 8lectrical 8n+ineerin+, %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+),
2omba), since September 1EC!.
P&%(-a!(*#+ *, P'*/e-! D('e-!*'
2oo(s & 1 7esearch Papers, 7eports& 11
General Articles& 5

5thers& Notes for the Short<"erm #ourse on HTea-h(#) *, L*)(- a#$ Me!h*$*%*)3
*, S-(e#-e> un*er the sponsorship of the Kualit) %mprovement Pro+ram of the
/inistr) of 8*ucation, /a) 1E:C.
Si+nificant Publications on the Sub6ects of 7elevance to the Pro6ect
1. D8ucli*, Geometr) an* the ABiomatic /etho*M, 2ulletin of the 2omba)
/athematical #olloFuium, 4ol.1, No.1, Nov. 1EC!, pp.:<11.
2. D4ector Spaces in 8n+ineerin+M, 2ulletin of the 2omba) /athematical
#olloFuium, 4ol.1, No.2, /a) 1EC9, pp.9!<;2.
!. D#ontributions of Histor) an* Philosoph) of Science to the 'earnin+ of ScienceM,
Paper presente* at the -or(shop on D?n*erstan*in+ ScienceM at the %n*ian
%nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba), April ;<C, 1EC5.
9. D"he Genesis of Kuantification an* /easurementM, Paper presente* at the
-or(shop on D?n*erstan*in+ ScienceM at the %n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+),
2omba), April ;<C, 1EC5.
5. D"he Heart of /athematicsM 1in /arathi3, %nvite* A**ress at Cth Annual
#onvention of the /aharashtra /athematics "eachers Association, Nasi( 7oa*,
November 21<2!, 1EC5.
;. O"he aBiomatic metho*& its ori+in an* purposeO, $ournal of the %n*ian #ouncil of
Philosophical 7esearch, vol.4%, No.!, /a) <Au+ust 1ECE, pp. 1E < 11C.
16
CURRICULUM 9ITAE OF THE PROJECT CO:DIRECTOR
Name & A/%"A2HA G?P"A
Date of 2irth & November 2:, 1E99
Present Position & Professor
Dept. of Humanities an* Social Sciences
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), 2omba)
Aca*emic #areer &
1. Hi+her Secon*ar) #ertificate of the 2oar* of Hi+her Secon*ar) 8*ucation, -est
2en+al, 1E;,
2. 2.A. 1Hons.3 of 4isva 2harati ?niversit), Santini(etan, 1E;!,
!. /.A. in Philosoph), 4isva 2harati ?niversit), Santini(etan, December 1E;;.
9. $unior 7esearch Lello, at the Department of Humanities an* Social Sciences,
%n*ian %nstitute of "echnolo+), Ianpur, 1E;:<;C.
5. /.A. in Philosoph), "ufts ?niversit), /e*for*, /assachusetts, ?.S.A., 1E:.
;. Ph.D. in Philosoph), ?niversit) of Geor+ia, Athens, Geor+ia, ?.S.A., 1E:!.
Professional #areer
1. 'ecturer, Dept. of Humanities an* Social Sciences, %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), 2omba), 1E:9<1EC1.
2. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Humanities an* Social Sciences, %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), 2omba), 1EC1<1EC;.
!. Associate Professor, Dept. of Humanities an* Social Sciences, %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), 2omba), /a) 1EC; < $an. 1EEC
9. Professor, Dept. of Humanities an* Social Sciences, %n*ian %nstitute of
"echnolo+), 2omba), since Leb. 1ECC.
P&%(-a!(*#+ *, P'*/e-! C*:D('e-!*'
2oo(s & 1 7esearch Papers , 7eports & :
General Articles& 5
5thers& 7esearch Pro6ect on the A*6ustment of S#AS" Stu*ents in %.%.". 2omba),
complete* in Au+. 1EC9.
Si+nificant Publications on the Sub6ects on 7elevance to the pro6ect
17
1. A #ase Stu*) 2ase* on 8arl) Astronom), publishe* b) "he #olle+e
Development #ouncil, ?niversit) of 2omba), 1EC9.
2. DSche*ule* #aste an* "ribe Stu*ents in Hi+her 8*ucation& A Stu*) of an %.%.".M
alon+ ,ith 4. Iirpal, N. S,ami*asan an* 7.I. Gupta, 8conomic an* Political
-ee(l), 4ol.JJ, No.2E, $ul) 2, 1EC5.
!. D#ommunication in Humanistic Stu*iesM < A paper presente* in the 1EC!
?N8S#5 Seminar on #ultural %mplications of #ommunications "echnolo+) hel*
in Pune, Dec. 1<!, 1EC!, 4isva 2harati $ournal of Philosoph), vol. JJ%%, No.2,
Leb. 1EC;, pp. E < !;.
9. O"he #oncrete an* the Abstract Science& Description vs. 8BplanationO, $ournal
of the %n*ian #ouncil of Philosophical 7esearch, vol. 4%, No.!, 1ECE
5 O7epresentation 4s. /irrorin+ & A #o+nitivist 7esponse to 7ort)O, $ournal of the
%n*ian #ouncil of Philosophical 7esearch, vol. %J, no.9, Sept.< Dec. 1EE1, pp
12:< 1!C, ,ith S. Sashi*haran.
;. O8Becutable $ustificational 7ationalit) as Naturali@e* 8pistemolo+)O in Lacets of
7ationalit), 1e*s.3 Daniel An*ler et al, Ne, Delhi& Sa+e Publication, 1EE5,
pp.!12 < !99, ,ith Nilesh Sutaria
:. O 7ationalit) an* #o+nitive /o*els of 7easonin+ & S)ntactic an* SemanticO, in
#o+nitive S)stems 1e*s3 $.7. %saac et al, Ne, Delhi & "ata /cGra,<Hill
Publishin+ 't*. 1EE:, pp. 1!E < 19E.
III(1) O!he' S!a,,
Number of persons to be emplo)e* & F*&'
Desi+nation & 7esearch AssociateA7esearch AssistantA
4isitin+ /ember
Pa) & 7s.!, per month
Duration of 8mplo)ment & ?p to F(0e )ears
"he Selection an* Appointment of Pro6ect Staff & Pro6ect staff ,ho ,ill be appointe*
for a perio* of more than siB months 17esearch AssociatesA7esearch Assistants3
,ill be selecte* after an intervie, b) a *ul) constitute* Selection #ommittee.
"eachers coul* be invite* on the basis of recommen*ation b) their school or
interest sho,n b) them at the 7e+ional -or(shops or throu+h their response to
material publishe* in the $ournal, to ,or( as 4isitin+ /embers for a perio* of siB
months or less. 8minent e*ucators ma) also be invite* at 4isitin+ /embers.
18
I9. BUDGET ESTIMATE ; SUMMARY (IN RUPEES)
(See a%+* !he <P(e Cha'!= *# !he ,*%%*"(#) pa)e)
2?DG8"
%"8/S 1
st
)ear 2
n*
)ear !
r*
)ear 9
th
)ear 5
th
)ear "otal
A. 7ecurrin+
1. Salaries
2. Honoraria
!. #onsumables
9. "ravel
9. $ournal & -or(shop
5. Permanent eFuipment
maintenance
;. Posta+e
1,99,
25,
Nil
;,
2,9,
Nil
2,
1,99,
25,
2,
E,
2,;,
Nil
2,
1,99,
25,
Nil
E,
2,;,
Nil
2,
1,99,
25,
2,
E,
2,;,
25,
2,
1,99,
25,
2,
E,
2,;,
25,
2,
:,2,
1,25,
;,
9,2,
12,C,
5,
1,,
Sub<"otal < A
9,CE, 5,5E, 5,!E, 5,C9, 5,C9, 2:,55,
2. Permanent 8Fuipment
2,5, Nil Nil Nil Nil 2,5,
"otal 1A P 23
:,!E, 5,5E, 5,!E, 5,C9, 5,C9, !,5,
"otal, if $ournal cost is
borne b) Schools
5,!E, !,5E, !,!E, !,C9, !,C9, 2,5,
19
PIE CHART FOR BUDGET
1"5"A'& !.5 'AIH3
Salaries
:.2 la(h
129. Q3
-or(shop
%nci*ental
2.C 'a(h
1E.!Q3
$ournal
1. 'a(h
"ravel 1!!.!Q3
9.2 la(h
119.Q3
2.5 la(h
1C.! Q3
5thers
Permanent 2.:5 la(h
8Fuipment 1E.1Q3

#onsumables


.;
'a(h
12.Q3
20
I9(.) (() SALARIES AND ALLOWANCES FOR STAFF
Desi+nation an*
No. of persons
/onthl)
8molu<
2?DG8"
ments 1
S"
Nr. 2
n*
)r. !
r*
)r. 9
th
)r. 5
th
)r. "otal
Lull "ime
7esearch
AssociatesA
7esearch
AssistantsA 4isitin+
members 1Lour3
7s.!, 1,99, 1,99, 1,99, 1,99, 1,99, :,2,
JUSTIFICATION
"he Pro6ect ,ill nee* F*&' 7esearch AssociatesA 7esearch AssistantsA4isitin+
/embers to ,or( on topics in the four sub6ects of Ph)sics, #hemistr), 2iolo+) an*
/athematics. Since the staff ,ill be *ra,n mainl) form the communit) of school
teachers, monthl) emoluments of about 7s. ! ,ill have to be offere*, as the
teachers ,ho are *epute* to participate in the Pro6ect ,ill have to be pai* at least
the total emoluments the) ,oul* normall) *ra, from their schools. "he Pro6ect
Director an* #o< Director ,ill not *ra, an) salar)Ahonorarium from the pro6ect.
I9(.) ((() TRA9ELLING ALLOWANCES
%"8/ 2?DG8"
1
S"
Nr. 2
n*
)r. !
r*
)r. 9
th
)r. 5
th
)r. "otal
"ravel of Pro6ect Personnel
to con*uct 7e+ional
-or(shops
1 7s.15, per ,or(shop 3
;, E, E, E, E, 9,2,
JUSTIFICATION
"he Pro6ect Director, the Pro6ect #o<Director, an* Pro6ect Staff1four in
number3 ,ill con*uct the -or(shops. About 7s.25 per person per -or(shop ,ill
be reFuire* on an avera+e for Lirst #lass train fare an* inci*ental eBpenses *urin+
6ourne) an* at the place of the -or(shop.
21
I9(.) (((() STATIONERY AND PRINTING
%"8/ 2?DG8"
1
S"
Nr. 2
n*
)r. !
r*
)r. 9
th
)r. 5
th
)r. "otal
Printin+ of Kuarterl) $ournal
Au*io #assettes & Dis(ettes
2oo(s
Stationer)
1Paper, stencils, in(, etc.3
2,,
5,
1,
2,
2,,
5,
1,
2,
2,,
5,
1,
2,
2,,
5,
1,
2,
2,,
5,
1,
2,
1,,
25,
5,
1,,
"5"A'
2,!5, 2,!5, 2,!5, 2,!5, 2,!5, 11,:5,
JUSTIFICATION
Printin+ of the Kuarterl) $ournal& Another *istin+uishin+ feature of the Pro6ect,
,hich is also essential for its success, is the publishin+ of a Kuarterl) $ournal ,hich
,ill be circulate* to about 1 school teachers, #olle+es of 8*ucation, 2oar*s of
8*ucation, an* other intereste* scholars in %n*ia an* abroa*. "he $ournal ,ill be
pro*uce* b) Photo<offset printin+. "he final t)pescript ,ill cost about 7s.15A< per
pa+e. "he cost of printin+ comes to about 7s..9 per t,o pa+es. "hus, assumin+
15 pa+es per issue an* a small amount for the cover, the cost ,ill come about
7s.5, per issue of 15 copies. "he cost coul* be re*uce* consi*erabl) if
printin+ paper is ma*e available at concessional rates, an* ,oul* not be incurre*
b) the Pro6ect at all if the /inistr) instructs schools to bu) the $ournal.
Au*io #assettes& -e propose to recor* the 7e+ional -or(shop Sessions so that
the su++estions an* *eliberations can be *ul) consi*ere* after the -or(shops.
2oo(s& About 7s. 1, per )ear ,ill be reFuire*.
Stationer)& Preliminar) *rafts of teBt of the $ournal issues ,ill have to be prepare*.
"here ,ill be consi*erable amount of correspon*ence. Also, man) reports about
curricular ,or( *one earlier an* material publishe*, ,hich is no lon+er in print, ,ill
have to be BeroBe*. About 7s.2, per )ear ,ill be reFuire* to,ar*s the cost of
paper, stencils, in(, t)pe,riter, ribbon etc.
22
I9(.) ((0) OFFICE E>UIPMENT
1a3 Permanent 8Fuipment 1in rupees3
Name of 8Fuipment an* Accessories
8stimate* cost
1. Automatic Des(<"op Jero+raphic Plain<
Paper #opier 1,ith enlar+eAre*uctionAno
sortin+ & ,ith three<)ear +uarantee3
2. D"P s)stem
1,,
1,5,
"5"A' 2,5,
1b3 #onsumable /aterials 1in 7upees3
%"8/ 2?DG8"
1
S"
Nr. 2
n*
)r. !
r*
)r. 9
th
)r. 5
th
)r. "otal
#artri*+eADrum, "oner an*
Developer for #opier
Nil 2, Nil 2, 2, ;,
1c3 /aintenance 1in 7upees3
%"8/ 2?DG8"
1
S"
Nr. 2
n*
)r. !
r*
)r. 9
th
)r. 5
th
)r. "otal
/aintenanceASpares
i3 Automatic
Jero+raphic #opier
ii3 D"P s)stem
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
1,
15,
1,
15,
2,
!,
"5"A'
Nil Nil Nil 25, 25, 5,
23
JUSTIFICATION
Permanent 8Fuipment
%3 Automatic Des(<"op Plain<Paper Jero+raphic #opier
Althou+h the %nstitute *oes have copiers, its polic) is to char+e for use b) Pro6ects.
-e ,ill nee* to loo( at a lar+e number of reports on curricular research *one earlier
an* material publishe* ,hich is no lon+er in print. So there ,ill be a substantial
reFuirement of Bero+raphic ,or(.
ii3 D"P s)stem& apart from help in the preparation of the *raft material of the
$ournal, the D"P s)stem ,oul* be eBtremel) useful in preparin+ in*eBes for the
material pro*uce*, ,or(in+ out hierarchies an* lin(a+es amon+ concepts etc.
#5NS?/A2'8 /A"87%A'S& "he Pro6ect ,ill reFuire one cartri*+e 1containin+
*rum, cleaner an* *eveloper3 capable of +ivin+ 5, eBposure per )ear. "he cost
of a cartri*+e is about 7s. 2,. %f the copier approve* *oes not have a cartri*+e,
a similar amount ,ill be reFuire* for the *rum, cleaner an* *eveloper bou+ht
separatel).
/aintenance A 7epairs&
i3 Automatic Jero+raphic #opier& About 7s.2, ,ill be reFuire* to,ar*s a
maintenanceA service contract.
ii3 D"P s)stem & About 7s.!, ,ill be reFuire* to,ar*s a maintenanceA
service contract.
I9(.) (0) CONTINGENCIES INCLUDING POSTAGE
%"8/ 2?DG8"
1
S"
Nr. 2
n*
)r. !
r*
)r. 9
th
)r. 5
th
)r. "otal
%nci*ental 8Bpen*iture on
Participants in -or(shops
1in 7upees3
9, ;, ;, ;, ;, 2,C,
/iscellaneous
i3 Honorarium for
")pin+ ,or(
ii3 Honorarium for
clerical assistance
iii3 Posta+e
2,
5,
2,
2,
5,
2,
2,
5,
2,
2,
5,
2,
2,
5,
2,
1,,
25,
1,,
"5"A'
C5, 1,5, 1,5, 1,5, 1,5, 5,5,
JUSTIFICATION
24
%nci*ental 8Bpen*iture on Participants&
5ne of the *istin+uishin+ features of the Pro6ect, ,hich is also essential for its
success, is the or+ani@ation of t,o<*a) 7e+ional -or(shops in various parts of
%n*ia. At each -or(shop, 1 teachers an* e*ucationists ,ill be invite* to
participate. -e eBpect that the) ,ill be sponsore* b) their schools A Rilla
Parisha*s A 2oar*s of 8*ucation A #olle+es of 8*ucation as far as their travel an*
lo*+in+ an* boar*in+ eBpenses are concerne*. "he Pro6ect ,ill, ho,ever, incur a
mar+inal eBpen*iture of 7s.1 per participant to,ar*s inci*ental eBpenses. "hus
on an avera+e, 7s. 1, per -or(shop ,ill be reFuire*.
/iscellaneous&
i3 Honorarium for ")pin+ -or(& 8stimatin+ about 95 pa+es of *raft material per
issue of the 6ournal, an* about 15 pa+es of correspon*ence per each issue an*
-or(shop, about 7s. 5, ,ill be reFuire* per issue.
ii3 Honorarium for #lerical Assistance& "his ,ill be reFuire* to han*le the
correspon*ence an* mailin+ of the $ournal, 7s. 5, per )ear ,ill be a*eFuate.
iii3 Posta+e& Lifteen hun*re* copies of the $ournal ,ill be printe* an* maile* to
various schools, #olle+es of 8*ucation, 2oar*s of 8*ucation, an* other intereste*
scholars in %n*ia an* abroa*. About 7s.5, per issue ,ill be reFuire*.
25