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Summer tyres

Rolling resistance coefficient in %

1,5 1 0,5 0 155/60 R14 n=3 165/70 R14 n=10 185/60 R 14 n=7 195/65 R15 n=10 205/55 R16 n=8 225/45 R17 n=7

Wheels
mean min. max.

Figure 2.1: Rolling resistances in % from 

2.1

In the diagram you see the results of measurements of the rolling resistance coecients. In the study  dierent kinds of tyres with dierent dimensions were investigated1 . The number n is the number of tyres of one dimension which were investigated in  in each dimension group. In the diagram the mean values and the minimum and the maximum values are shown. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 185 means the inner radius of the tyre. 185 is the height of the tyre. 185 is the width of the tyre. 14 is the inner diameter d in inch (d = 14 25.4 mm). 14 is the width w in inch (w = 14 25.4 mm). 60 is the height of the tyre in mm. 60 is the width of the tyre in mm. 60 is the aspect ratio in %, that means the ratio between height to width; the above tyre has the height 0.6 185mm

What is the meaning of the numbers e.g. in the expression 185/60 R14?

Answer the iversity multiple choice quiz! More than one answer may be correct.
1 The data are from: Reithmaier, W and Salzinger T: Determination of the state-of-the-art concerning rolling noise, rolling-resistance and safety properties of modern passenger car tyres, Research report 201 54 112, TV Automotive GmbH Tire-/Wheel-Test-Center Ridlerstrae 57 D-80339 Munich, Commissioned by German Federal Environmental Agency, 2002. (URL: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/les/medien/publikation/long/3163.pdf )

2.2

Consider the wheel: 175/65 R 14. 1. Calculate the radius of the wheel! 2. What is the width of the wheel? Use the OpenOce Calc le for generation of the solution word. Enter the solution word in the iversity answer eld.

2.3

Look at the wheels with 14 inch rim diameter in the Figure 2.1 of homework 2.1. Which statement is correct? 1. The rolling resistant coecient increases with decreasing width of the tyre. 2. The rolling resistant coecient increases with increasing width of the tyre. 3. The rolling resistant coecient is independent of the width of the tyre. Answer the iversity multiple choice quiz! The total mass of a vehicle is mtot = 1500kg. What is the magnitude of the rolling resistance of the whole vehicle? 1. 2. 3. 4. 15 N 150 N 1500 N 15000 N

2.4

Answer the iversity multiple choice quiz!

2.5

Which of the following statements are correct? 1. The coecient of adhesion of a tyre is a = 0.9, the coecient of sliding is s = 1.5. 2. If the coecient of adhesion is a = 0.5 and the the wheel load is Fz = 2500 N, the maximum longitudinal force in the contact patch is :
Fz 2500N = 5000N . = a 0.5

3. If the coecient of adhesion is 0.5 and the the wheel load is 2500 N, the maximum longitudinal force in the contact patch is
a Fz = 0.5 2500N = 1250N .

Answer the iversity multiple choice quiz! More than one answer may be correct.
2.6

The rolling resistance may be approximated by means of the following empirical formula (depending on the speed v ) (v0 = 100km/h)
fr (v ) = fr,0 + fr,1 v + fr,4 v0 v v0
4

(2.1)

The units of the velocities v and v0 have to be the same, the units of the coecients are 1. The values fr are in the range 0.005-0.015. The coecients fr,0 , fr,1 , and fr,4 depend amongst other, on the type of the tire and the ination pressure. Average values for HR tires are fr,0 = 9, 0 103 , fr,1 = 2, 0 103 , fr,4 = 3, 0 104 . Please, use this values for this exercise. 1. Calculate the coecient of rolling resistance for a velocity of v = 30 m/s! 2. The power P necessary for the rolling resistance can be calculated by P = Fr v , where Fr is the rolling resistance and v is the velocity of the vehicle. Calculate the power necessary for a car (m = 1500 kg; all wheel loads equal; g = 9.81m/s2 ) with the above mentioned coecients of rolling resistance! If you have diculties to calculate the coecient of rolling resistance in 1., use fr = 0.01. Take care of the units of the velocities! 5

2.7

Assume you drive on a straight, even road with one dry side and with one slippery side because there is ice. The adhesion coecient on the dry side is a = 1.0, the one on the other side with ice is a = 0.1 (this kind of road is called split- or split-mu, sometimes -split). The distance between the left and the right wheels is 2 m (this distance is called track). The weight of the car is 1000 kg2 . 1. Calculate the absolute value of the maximum moment (with respect to the center of gravity in the middle of the car) in Nm which could occur during braking (please, choose the gravitational acceleration to be 10 m/s2 ). 2. Assume that the moment of inertia with respect to the evz axis is Jz = 106 t mm2 (1 t = 1000 kg; 1 mm = 1 m /1000). Calculate the absolute value of the initial angular yaw accelv in rad/s2 of the car! eration If you have diculties to solve 1., assume that the result of 1. would be 4000 Nm (this alternative result is not the correct result of 1.). Take care of the unit of the angle! 3. Assume, that the yaw acceleration is constant from t = 0s to v (t = 1s) ( v (t = t = 1s. Calculate the angular velocity 0s) = 0. If you have diculties to solve 2. or if you have used the alternative result of 4000 Nm, assume that the result of 2. would be 5 rad/s2 (this is not the correct result of 2.). v (t = 1s) You recognize that there a very high values for and the angle v (t = 1s). The reason is, that we have neglected counter steering and lateral forces. Enter the results in the OpenOce Calc le

integration with respect to time, the angle by integration of the angular velocity with respect to time:
t

equation Mz = Jz z may help solving this exercise. If the time derivative z of the angular velocity z is given, the angular velocity z can be derived by

2 The

(t) = 0 +
0 t

z ( ) d z ( ) d
0

(t) = 0 +

2.8

Consider a wheel (static radius rwst = 0.3m, excentricity ew = 3 mm, wheel load Fz = 2500N). A driving torque M = 382.5Nm is acting on the wheel. The wheel is moving with the velocity vd = 30m/s. Assume for this exercise, that the function can be approximated linearly
(S ) = 10 S .

(2.2)

. Calculate the angular velocity of the wheel! As this problem may be challenging, please follow the guided solving procedure: 1. Calculate the tangential force Fx in the contact patch! Remember, that you need one portion of the torque M to overcome the rolling resistance. 2. Calculate with the linearized function (2.2) the longitudinal slip S . If you have diculties to solve 1., assume that the result of 1. would be 1200 N (this alternative result is not the correct result of 1.). Remember that (S ) = Fx /Fz . 3. Calculate with the longitudinal slip from 2. the angular vew. locity Do not forget the distinction between driven and braked wheels. If you have diculties to solve 2.or if you have used the alternative result in 2., assume that the result of 2. would be 0.06 (this is not the correct result of 2.). Enter the results the in the OpenOce Calc le.