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Assignment no.


Research Definition & Introduction to
Educational Research

Educational Research
Assigned by:
Zafar Iqbal

Submitted by:
Qamar Usman(Semester -I)
Masters of Education

I nternational I slamic University I slamabad
A) Research


According to Martin Shuttle worth:
"In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering
of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.

Cambridge Dictionary defined research as:
Research is a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new)
information or reach a (new) understanding.

Research directed toward the increase of knowledge, the primary aim being a greater
knowledge or understanding of the subject under study.

B) Educational Research
Introduction to Educational Research:-
Definition of Educational Research
Purposes for Studying Educational Research
Types of Educational Research
According to Dr. Anthony G. Picciano:
Educational research is a careful, systematic investigation into any aspect of education. From
the French word "recherche" which means to travel through or survey.
Basic, applied, and developmental research conducted to advance knowledge in the field
of education or bearing on educational problems.
Purposes for Studying Educational Research:-
1. To orient students to the nature of educational research: its purposes, forms, and
2. To provide information which helps students become more intelligent consumers of
educational research: where to locate it, how to understand it and critique it.
3. To provide information on the fundamentals of doing educational research such as
selecting a problem, using available tools, organizing a project, etc.
Types of Educational Research:-
There is not general agreement on the types of educational research which exist. Some of the
types are as follows:
Ethnographic - attempts to describe group behavior and interactions in social settings. It
relies on qualitative techniques especially observation and careful recording of events and
social interactions.
Historical - attempts to describe and explain conditions of the past. It generally relies on
qualitative data such as written documents and oral histories.
Descriptive - attempts to describe and explain conditions of the present. It relies on
qualitative and quantitative data gathered from written documents, personal interviews,
test results, surveys, etc.
Correlational - attempts to explore relationships or make predictions. It relies on
quantitative data such as test scores, grade point averages, attitudinal instruments, etc.
which can be correlated and shown that some relationship exists between or among them.
Action and Evaluation Research - attempts to determine the value of a product,
procedure, or program in a particular (e.g., school, district) setting with the goal of
improving same. Action and evaluation research does not attempt to generalize results for
a broader population.
Causal Comparative - attempts to explore cause and effect relationships where causes
already exist and cannot be manipulated. It relies on both qualitative and quantitative data
such as written documents, interviews, test scores, etc.
Experimental - attempts to explore cause and effect relationships where causes can be
manipulated to produce different kinds of effects. It relies mostly on quantitative data
such as test scores and measures of performance.