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Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing

Undergraduate Modular Scheme

Semester 2, May/June Examinations 2011/2012

Level 5

MODULE: AU2452: Vehicle Technology


Instructions to Candidates

This paper contains SIX questions.
Answer ALL questions.
Not all questions carry equal marks

INTO THIS EXAMINATION: from either Casio FX83 or Casio FX85 series (with
any suffix), FX115MS, FX570ES or FX991ES

Invigilators are under instruction to remove any other calculators

Candidates are reminded that the major steps in all arithmetical calculations
are to be set out clearly.

Stationery Pink Answer Books
Attached Data Sheet

Number of Pages: 1 5
+ Data Sheet: 1 page
1. With respect to Vehicle steering system:

(a) Given that a vehicle weights 1500 (kg) and take 25 (s) to travel around
a circular road that has a radius of 30 (m).

(i) What is the velocity of the car?
(3 Marks)
(ii) What is the acceleration of the car?
(3 Marks)
(iii) What is the magnitude of the frictional force needed be to
maintain this acceleration?
(4 Marks)

(b) When cornering, what is the term used to describe the situation when
all 4 wheels on a vehicle follow a path with no scrub?
(3 Marks)

(c) With aid of a diagram, justify if the self-centring function of a vehicles
front wheels with a positive caster angle will increase or reduce when
the vehicle brakes.
(3 Marks)

(d) Explain, with the aid of a diagram, why a positive ground offset layout
of steering system will produces a toe out force.
(4 Marks)

2. With respect to Vehicle Safety Systems

(a) Define the term Active Safety Systems.
(2 Marks)

(b) List four active safety systems and four passive safety systems.
(8 Marks)


3. With respect to Materials:

(a) Calculate the bending ratios and torsion ratios for the materials listed in
the Table Q3
(3 Marks)

Table Q3

(b) According the results you gained and properties listed in the Table Q3,
select the most suitable material for a racecar chassis under the same
load conditions and explain the reasons from the safety view.
(7 Marks)

4. With respect to Suspension systems

(a) What is the typical static toe setup for :

(i) A front wheel drive car
(ii) A rear wheel drive car
(4 Marks)

(b) Relating to a modern road vehicle using radial tyres, give typical static
values for the following :-

(i) Camber front
(ii) Camber rear
(iii) Castor
(iv) Ackerman
(6 Marks)

Question 4 continued on page 3

Continuation of Question 4:

(c) With the aid of a simple diagram, show how it is possible to achieve a
different angle of road wheel movement at the left and right wheels on
the front steered axle.
(4 Marks)

(d) With the aid of a simple diagram:-

(i) explain the difference between sprung and unsprung mass

(ii) Write down a sensible value for the total unsprung mass at one
corner of a modern road vehicle with a non driven axle.
(3 Marks)

(e) Explain the purpose of the gas chamber in a monotube damper and
what is the typical pressure of the gas.
(3 Marks)

5. With respect to a Manual gearbox

(a) State three reasons why a gearbox is necessary on a motor vehicle
(3 Marks)

(b) What are the inherent problems with an internal combustion engine
that make a gearbox necessary
(2 Marks)

(c) The tractive effort T
at constant speed is equal to the sum of all the
opposing forces. These can be divided into three main groups. State
the three main groups.
(3 Marks)

(d) Describe how synchromesh units facilitate smooth gear changing.
(3 Marks)

(e) In the design of a clutch state how you could reduce the diameter of a
clutch and still transmit the same torque.
(2 Marks)

(f) State three advantages of a modern diaphragm clutch compared with a
coil spring type.
(3 Marks)

Question 5 continued on page 4

Continuation of Question 5:

(g) Name and state the purpose of the components of a clutch arrowed in
Figure Q5(g)
(4 Marks)

a. b.

Figure Q5(g)

(h) The maximum torque that can be transmitted by a single plate clutch is
192Newtons, The coefficient of friction is 0.3, 10 helical coil clutch
springs provide equal clamping load and the plate has an inner radius
of 0.15m and an outer radius of 0.25m. Calculate the clamping force
provided by each helical coil spring.
(5 marks)

6. With respect to a Vehicle transmission systems

A conventional propeller shaft uses universal joints (UJ ). When conventional
universal joints (UJ ) are fitted on a vehicle they are normally in pairs.

(a) What is the disadvantage of a UJ . joint that requires them to be fitted in
(2 Marks)

(b) When, fitted in pairs how do they compensate for the disadvantage
inherent in their construction
(2 Marks)

(c) How, does a normal propeller shaft allow for the change in length
between the gearbox and final drive
(2 Marks)

Question 6 continued on page 5


Continuation of Question 6:

(d) State why a differential is necessary on a modern motor vehicle?
(2 Marks)

(e) A differential is sometimes called a torque equaliser, why is this?
(2 Marks)

(f) Describe with the aid of diagrams the operation of the differential.
(6 Marks)

(g) Modern automatic gearboxes use torque converters in place of fluid
flywheels so that clutch control and wear is a thing of the past .With the
aid of simple diagrams describe the difference between a torque
converter and fluid flywheel.
(5 Marks)

(h) Why are modern Torque converters more efficient at :

(i) Low speeds?
(ii) High speeds?
(4 Marks)


Data Sheet

Bending Stiffness Elastic Modulus E
Bending Ratio = = =
Weight Density

Torsion Stiffness Shear Modulus G
Torsion Ratio = = =
Weight Density

c c
F m
= =

t R

= =

2 R


F m g =

( )
r r
bf max
W l h f
+ +