ISj
THE TEACH YOURSELF BOOKS
CALCULUS
Uniform with this volume
and in the same series
Teach Yourself Algebra
Teach Yourself Arithmetic
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TEACH YOURSELF
CALCULUS
THE ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES PRESS LTD
ST. PAUL'S HOUSE WARWICK LANE
LONDON EC4
First printed /940
This impression ig6j
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
S.B.N. 34 5536 7
Printed in Great Britain for the English Universities Press Limited
by Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Limited, Bungay, Suffolk
INTRODUCTION
Some fifty years ago an excellent little book was
published bearing the title, "The Calculus Made Easy."
The author adopted as Ids motto,
"
What one fool can do
another can," intending thereby to encourage a diffident
student. As the author, however, disclosed the fact that
he was a
"
Fellow of the Royal Society
"
it is doubtful
whether the words would bring much comfort to those
who were proposing to study the subject.
In those days the calculus was looked upon by many as
abstruse and lying beyond the boundaries of elementary
mathematics. But the increasing use of the subject in
engineering and science, and consequently the desirability
of bringing such a powerful mathematical instrument
within the reach of a wider circle of students, led to the
gradual simplification of its presentation.
The present volume is in the line of this development.
It aims at making it easier for the private student, who is
unable to obtain the guidance ana help of a teacher, to
acquire a working knowledge of the calculus. Like other
books in the series, it attempts, within the inevitable
limitations of space, to provide something of the presenta
tion and illustrations employed by a teacher of the subject,
especially in the earlier stages when the student is trying
to discover what it is all about.
Those who propose to use the book will naturally want
to know what previous knowledge of other branches of
mathematics are necessary. It is assumed that the readers
possess an elementary knowledge of algebra, trigonometry
and the fundamental principles of geometry such as is
contained, for example, in the companion books on these
subjects in the same series. To assist the student, cross
references to the relevant parts of these books are given
wherever they may be of assistance to him.
Perhaps the greatest difficulty in writing a book of this
character is to determine what to include and what to
,!
INTRODUCTION
omit
The calculus is so wide and deep in its ramifications
and
applications, that the temptation is contmuaUy present
to include much that the limitations
imposed by the avail
able space, make
impossible. The author, therefore, has
been guided by the policy of including what seems to him
to be
necessary to enable and encourage the student to
proceed further in his study of the subject or to utilise it
ui its application to science and engineering It was only
after much hesitation that the book was
lengthened by he
inclusion of the last three chapters They were inserted
in the hope that they would convey to the student some
idea of the possibilities of the calculus and lead him to
continue his study of it.
As far as possible the
"
proofs of many of the theorems
have been simplified and curtailed. In
consequence of
this
simplification they may frequently be lacking m the
mathematical rigidity and exactitude which a^ Possible
in a larger and more ambitious volume. It is hoped, how
ever, that they will supply the student with a sufficiently
logical basis for an intelligent study of the subject.
A considerable number of
M
routine exercises have been
included, and the student is urged to omit very
^
fewoi
them They are necessary to give him a working know
ledge of the calculus and facility in the
manipulation of it
The majority ol the tables at the end of this book are
taken
.
"dm MrAbbott's
Mathematical
TabUs and Form^cu
by courtesy of the
publishers, Messrs.
Longmans. Green
00
Lt<L
P.
ABBOTT
ClIAf.
I.
II.
Ill
IV
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
CONTENTS
Functions
Variations in Functions Limits
Rate of Changs of a Function Gradients
Coefficient Differentia Differential
tion
Some Rules for Differentiation
Maxima and Minima Values. Points of
Inflexion .....
Differentiation
Functions
op the Trigonometric
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Hyperbolic Functions . . .
Integration. Standard Integrals .
Some Elementary Methods of Integration
Integration of Algebraic Fractions
Areas by Integral Calculus. Definite
Integrals .....
Integration as a Summation. Areas
The Lengths of Curves .
Solids op Revolution. Volumes and
Areas of Surfaces . .
Uses op Integration in Mechanics .
Partial Differentiation .
Taylor's and Maclaurin's Theo Series.
rems
Elementary Differential Equations
Standard and Useful Integrals
CHAPTER I
FUNCTIONS
I. What Is the calculus?
The word
"
calculus " is the Latin name for a stone which
was employed by the Romans for reckoning
i.e., for
"
cal
culation
".
When used as in the title of this book, it is an
abbreviation for
"
Infinitesimal Calculus
", which implies a
reckoning, or calculation, with numbers which are infinitesi
mally small. This, in all probability, will not convey much
to the beginner, and the real meaning of it will in many cases
not be understood until the student has made some head
way with his study of the subject. The following example
may help to throw a little light on it.
Consider the growth of a small plant. In the ordinary
way we know that it grows gradually and continuously. If
it be examined after an interval of a few days, the growth
will be obvious and readily measured. But if it be observed
after an interval of a few minutes, although growth has
taken place the amount is too small to be distinguished. If
observation takes place after a still smaller interval of
time, say a few seconds, although no change can be detected,
we know that there has been growth, which, to use a mathe
matical term, can be regarded as infiniteslmally small, or
infinitesimal.
The process of gradual and continuous growth or increase
may be observed in innumerable other instances, of which
the case of a living organism referred to above is but one.
What is of real importance in most cases is not necessarily
the actual amount of growth or increase, but the rate of
growth or Increase. It is this problem, closely connected
as it is with infinitesimal increases, that is the basis of the
Infinitesimal Calculus, and more especially that part
of it which is called the Differential Calculus. The
meaning of differential will be apparent later.
Historical Note. The calculus is the most powerful
mathematical invention of modern times. The credit for
its discovery has been claimed for both Sir Isaac Newton
9
,
TEACH YOURSELF
CALCULUS
and Leibnitz, the great German
mathematician, and a
controversy
raged for years in England and Germany
as to who was the first to invent it. Leibnitz was the first
to publish an account of it. in 1684. though his notebooks
showed that he used the method for the first time.hi,1675.
Newton published his book on the subject in 1693 bu he
communicated his discovery of it to friends ui lb69. It is
Eenerallv
agreed now that the fundamental basis of the
Invention was reached independently by the two mathe
maticians.
2. Functions.
The student will realise, from his knowledge of Algebra,
that the example cited above of the growth of a plant us
an instance of a functional relation. It may be afiected by
variations in temperature,
moisture, sunlight, etc.. but
these remain constant the growth Is a function of time.
although we are not able to express it in mathematical form.
It is desirable, therefore, that we should begin the study
of calculus by
clarifying our ideas about the meaning ol a
function, since this is
fundamental in understanding the
subject. The student will have become acquainted with
the meaning of
"
function" in his Algebra (Algebra. Chaps.
XIII and XVIII), but a brief revision is given below tor tne
benefit of those who may not be quite clear on this very
important matter.
3. Variables and constants.
Of the letters and symbols used to represent
quantities
or numbers in an algebraical expression or formula, some
represent variable quantities, others represent
constants.
Thus in the formula for the volume of a sphere, viz.
K = f*r>
where V represents the volume and r represents the radius
of the sphere,
(1)
V and r vary with different spheres and are
called variables. ,
(2)
and t
are constants whatever the size ot tne
sphere.
FUNCTIONS it
Again, in the formula for a falling body, viz.i
I =
Igt*
in which s represents the distance fallen in time t,
s and t are variables.
\ and g
are constants.
4. Dependent and Independent variables.
It will be seen that in each of the above examples the
variables are of two kinds.
Thus in V= frrr* if the radius (r) be increased or
decreased, the volume (V) will increase or decrease in
consequence.
i.e.. the variation of V depends upon the variation of r.
Similarly in s =
Jgt*. the distance (s) fallen depends on
the time (/)
So, generally, it will be found that in all such formulae
and mathematical expressions there are two kinds of
variables : dependent and Independent.
(1)
That variable whose value depends upon the value
assigned to the other is called a dependent variable, as V
and s above.
(2) The variable in which changes in value produce
corresponding changes in the other is called the Independent
variable, as r and t in the above formula.
In a general form of an expression of the second degree
such as
y
= ax* + bx + c
a, b and c represent constants, and the value of
y
depends
on the value of x. Consequently x is an independent
variable, and y a dependent variable. The constants a. b.
and c are used' to indicate the relation which exists between
the two variables.
5. Functions.
This connection between two variablesviz. that the
value of one is dependent upon the value of the otheris
expressed by the statement that the dependent variable Is
a function of the Independent variable. When the variables
TEACH YOURSELF
CALCULUS
represent
quantities we say that one quantity is a function
of the other. Thus in the examples above
(1) The volume of a sphere is a function of its radius.
(2)
The distance moved by a falling body is a function
of time.
Hote.For the use of the word
" quantity "see
^
&'*?" 5
Innumerable examples might be given of the functional relation
between quantities. Here are a few common examples
.
The logarithm of a number is a function of the number.
The volume of a fixed mass of gas is a function of the tern
oerature while the pressure remains constant.
P
The sines, cosines and tangents of angles are functions of the
"fte time of beat is a function of the length of the pendulum
The range of a gun. with a constant propelling force, is a
function of the angle of projection.
Definition of a function.
Generally If two variable
quantities ) Y are so
relaSTSat.
whVnVyvalue U assigned to X there Is thus
determined a
corresponding value of Y. then Y Is termed
a function of X.
6. Expression of functions.
When treating generally of
functional relations letters
such as x and y
are commonly employed to represent
variable quantities. Thus, in the expression
y
= x
+
Jx
if
when any value be assigned to x there is always a corre
sponding vllue of y,
then y is said to be expressed as a
function of*.
Similar examples are;
y
= y/x* + 5
y
= log,**
y
= sin x + cos x.
It is usual, when dealing generally with functions in this
way, to employ letters at the end of the alphabet to re
present the variables; when x and y
are so employed the
Independent variable is generally expressed by x and the
de
^r wnstLts, other than actual numbers letters at the
beginning or middle of the alphabet are usually selected.
FUNCTIONS 13
Thus in the equation of the straight line in general form
y
= mx + b,
x and y are variables, m and b are constants.
When expressing functions of angles, the Greek letters
6 (theta) or 4>
(P)
as well as x are often employed to
represent the angle.
7. General notation for functions.
When it is necessary to denote a function of x in general,
without specifying the form of the function, the notation
f(x) is employed. In this notation the letter
"
f
"
is used
as being the first letter of " function ", while the letter
"
x
"
or other letter which might be employed indicates the
independent variables. Thus /(0)
would be a general
method of indicating a function of
"
8
".
Other forms of this notation are F(x), <f>(x), >]<(*).
A statement such as /(x) = x
1
Ix + 8
or /(0)
= sin' cos* 6
defines the specific function of the variable concerned.
This convenient notation is employed when it is desired
to indicate that in a particular function, which has been
defined, a numerical value Is to be substituted.
Thus if /(*)
= x
1
Curve of /(*)
*.
xaxis where x = 1, 2, 3 ... the corresponding ordinates
are drawn, the lengths of these represent /(l),/(2),/(3) . . .
and the ordinate drawn where x = a, represents /(a).
,6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
In Fig. 2, which represents part of the curve of f(x)
x* or y
= x\
Fig. 2.
points L and N are taken on OX, so that
OL = a, ON = b.
Drawing the corresponding ordinates KL, MN,
then KL=J(a),MN=ftb).
In general, if L be any point on OX so that OL = x, let x
be increased by LN where LN = 8x.
MP represents the corresponding increase in f[x) or y.
KL=fx
MN =/
Since
* + Sx).
x + Sx)
x+Sxj
x + tx)f{x)

fw
MP=J
.
or 6y =/
10. Inverse functions.
Let y
= x* ; then * =
Vy
In the first equation y is expressed in terms of x and is a
FUNCTIONS
17
function of x. In the second x is expressed in terms of
ythat is, as a function of y. The two functions
i.e.,
y
= %*, and * =
Vyare called Inverse functions.
Similar examples will occur to the student, as for example
:
y
= a*, then x = log y.
If y
= sm x, x sur
l
y
1 1. Implicit functions.
If an equation such as
x* 2xy
3y
= 4
can be satisfied by values of x and
y, but * and
y are
together on the same side of the equation, i.e.,
y is not denned
directly in terms of x, y
Is said to be an Implicit function
of x. In this particular case it is possible to solve for
y in
4 x*
terms of x, giving
y
=
, which is an explicit
function of y. But the solution is not always possible.
Further examples of implicit functions are
:
X
s
 3x^y + 5y 
7 =
xlogy +y' =4xy.
12. Functions of more than one variable.
We have been dealing with quantities which are functions
of a single variable, but there arc also quantities which are
functions of two or more variables.
For example, the area of a triangle is a function of both
base and height; the volume of a fixed mass of gas is a
function of both pressure and temperature; the volume of
a rectangularshaped room is a function of three variables,
the length, breadth and height of the room ; the resistance
of a wire to electrical current is a function of both the
length of the wire and its sectional area.
In this book, however, we shall confine ourselves in the
main to functions of a single variable.
Exercise I.
1. If f{x)
= 2x 4x + 1, find the values of
/(I).
/(0). /(2), /( 2), /(), f(x + Sx).
18 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
2. If /(*)
= (*

1)(* + 5), find the values of
/(2),/(U./(0)./(a + !),/./( 5).
3. If /(8)
= cos 6, find the values of
/./(oi. /,/(=)./().
4. If f(x)
= x*. find the values of
/(3),/(3l),/(301),/(3001).
Also find the value ot^^M.
5. If <j>{x)
= 2*, find the values of ^(0), ^(1), ^(3), <f>(05).
6. If F(x)
= x*
5x* 3* + 7, find the values of
F{0). F(l), F(2). F( x).
7. If f(t)
= 3/*
+ 51
1, find an expression for/(/ + St).
8. If /(*)
= **
+ 2x + 1, find an expression for
/(x+Sx) /(*).
9. If f(x)
= **, find expressions fori
(1) /(* + to).
(2) /(* + Sx) f(x)
m
/(* + *)/(*)
W
Sx
10. If f(x)
= 2X
1
, find expressions fori
(1) /(* + h).
(2)f(x+h)/M.
/(* +_*)
/(*)
CHAPTER II
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS
13. Variations In functions.
From the definition of a function we learn that when the
independent variable changes in value the function changes
its value in consequence. We now proceed to examine in
a few examples now the function changes. We shall
consider its variations as the independent variable changes
through a range of numerical values. The graph of a
function provides a revealing way of observing these
changes.
As our first example we will consider the familiar function
:
J(x) =x* or y
= x*
and refer to the graph as shown in Fig. 1. It shows within
the limits of the values plotted how the function changes
as x changes. In the conventional way * Is represented as
Increasing through the complete number scale which is
marked on the x axis OX (see Algebra. 35, 36. 67). The
values of the function x* are similarly shown on another
complete number scale on the y
axis (OY).
Remembering that the values of x are shown as con
tinously Increasing from left to right, we see, from examina
tion of the curve, that
(1) As x Increases continuously through negative
values to zero, values of y are positive and decrease
to zero, at the origin.
(2) As x Increases through positive values,
y
also
Increases and Is positive.
(3)
At the origin
y
ceases to decrease and begins
to Increase. Tins is called a turning point on the
curve.
(4) If x be Increased without limit, y will also
Increase without limit. For values of x which are
negative, but numerically very great, y is also very great
and positive.
19
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
14. Variations In the function
y
= ,
In considering this function we recall the effect on a
fraction of changes in the value of the denominator. It is
seen that if the numerator of a fraction remains constant:
(1)
When the denominator Increases, the fraction
decreases.
(2)
When the denominator decreases, the fraction
Increases.
Thus in the function y
=

:
(1) If x is very large, say, 10
10
, y
is a very small
number.
(2) If x = (IO
10
)
10
small number.
y

(
10
io)i
an exceedingly
These numbers, both very large and very small,are
numbers which can be specified in arithmetical form. They
are finite numbers.
A
,
If, however, we conceive of x being increased so that it is
greater than any number which can be specified or expressed
m arithmetical form, then we speak of it as being Increased
without limit. It is said to approach Infinity, and is
expressed by the symbol co .
This is not a number with which we can operate. Multi
plication or division of it by any finite number leaves it
still infinite.
. ,
It is evident from the above reasoning that when x
becomes infinitely large the function , which can now be
represented by
^,
becomes an infinitely small magnitude,
smaller than any finite number which can be specified or
represented in arithmetical terms.
This is denoted by zero
i.e., 0.
We must therefore in this connection conceive of zero,
not as a number, but as an infinitely small magnitude.
Multiplication or division by any finite number does not
alter it; it remains zero.
If, however, a finite number be divided by zero
e.g., the
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS ai
above function becomes $then by the converse of the
above reasoning, the result will be infinitely large.
These conclusions can be expressed as follows, using the
notation employed in Algebra (Algebra, 201).
When x
> co
, >
x
It may be noted that the same conclusions will be reached
if the numerator is any finite number
e.g., .
The above conclusions can be illustrated by drawing the
graph of y =

Tic. 3.
Plotting the curve from the usual table of values, A Igebra,
173, we obtain the curve shown in Fig. 3.
The curve is known as a hyperbola, and consists of two
M
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
branches of the same shape, corresponding to positive and
negative values of x.
Considering the positive branch, we note the graphical
expression of the conclusions reached above.
(1) As x increases,
y
decreases and the curve
approaches the xaxis. Clearly as x approaches infinity,
the distance between the curve and OX becomes
infinitely small and the curve approaches coincidence
with X at an infinite distance. In geometrical terms
the xaxis is tangential to the curve at infinity.
(2) For values between and I it will be noted that
the curve is approaching coincidence with OY at an
infinite distance
.
The arguments employed above apply equally to the
branch of the curve corresponding to negative values of x.
Both axes are asymptotes to the curve in negative directions.
We may further note the following characteristics of the
function y
= .
Throughout the whole range of numerical values of x,
from oo to + oo.
y Is always decreasing. The sudden
change from
oo to f
oo as x passes through zero is a
matter for consideration later. The same feature occurs
in the curve of y
= tan x (Trigonometry, p. 160).
15. Limits.
If in a fractional function of *, both numerator and
denominator involve x, and if each approaches infinity as x
approaches infinity, then the fraction ultimately takes the
form
CO
For example, if f{x)
=
2x
x + V
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS *3
both numerator and denominator become infinite when x
becomes infinite. The question then arises can any
meaning be given to the fraction when it assumes the form
 ? In this case a meaning can be found as follows.
Dividing both numerator and denominator by x
2
1 +
['
If now then 
x
0.
Consequently in the limit the fraction approaches . .
or 2, but clearly it cannot exceed this numberi.e.,
2x
_
 approaches the limiting value 2 as x approaches
* + '
Infinity.
2x
Thus 2 is said to be the limit which  r approaches
as * approaches infinity ; it is called the limiting value, or
the limit of the function.
The following notation is employed to denote a
"
limit
"
of a function;
The value towards which x approaches when a limit is
approached is indicated by x
> oo
,
placed beneath Lt.
The idea of a limit is one of very great importance not
only in the Differential Calculus, but in all advanced forms
of mathematics.
16. Limit of a function of the form %.
Let us examine the function
t, \
x*  4
*4
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
The value of this function for any value of x is readily
found. But if the value assigned to x is 2, both numerator
and denominator become zero, and the fraction takes the
form of $. This form is said to be indeterminate, and it
would be a mistake to suppose that its value is 0.
The form
J
is of great importance, and we must carefully
investigate it further.
Let us begin by assigning to x a number of values which
are slightly greater or slightly less than that which produces
the indeterminate formviz., 2:
(1)
Let x=2l.
Then
X*
X

4 441  4
2 212
=
041
=4l.
1
(2)
Let x 241.
Then
X*
X

 4 40401  4
2
""
201 2 001
(3) Let x = 2001.
Then
X
1

x

 4 4004001

 2
"
2001  2
4 0004001
0001
4001.
Or, taking values less than 2
:
() Let x= 19.
X
1
4 361  4
 039 ,
Then
x  2
_
19  2
(5) Letx= 199.
x*
4 39601  4
01
 00309
= 399.
x2
~
1992 001
A comparison of these results leads to the conclusion that,
as the value of x approaches 2 the value of the fraction
approaches 4, and that ultimately when the value of x differs
from 2 by an infinitely small number, the value of the
fraction also differs from 4 by an infinitely small number.
This might be expressed in the form employed previously
viz.:
** 4
as x>2,
*
f
>4.
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS
**4
*3
It will thus be seen that the function
s
has a limiting
x &
value as x approaches 2, or with the notation for limits.
Lt
x'4
x2
= 4.
17. Let us next investigate the problem in a more
^f*
Q*
general form, taking as our example the fraction
> a, h
> 0,
x*a*
and )2fl.
x a
i.e., 2o Is the limiting value of the function.
26 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
With the notation employed above:
Lt =4 2a.
It will be seen, therefore, that the expression 8. as used
in the above examples, can be regarded as representing the
ratio of two infinitely small magnitudes. The value of this
ratio approaches a finite limit as the numerator and
denominator approach zero.
18. Limit of a series.
In the foregoing Sections we have considered a simple
example of the limit of a function. But the student will
have learned from Algebra that the term
"
limit
"
is also
applied in certain cases to the sum of a series. In a
Geometrical Progression, if the common ratio is a proper
fraction, the sum of the terms of the series, as the number
of them becomes great, approaches a finite number, which
is called the limit of the sum. A more detailed examination
of this will be found in Algebra. 201205. In this
chapter, however, we will confine ourselves only to the
expression for this limit as deduced from the general
formula for the sum of n terms.
If
then
a be the first term of the series,
n be the number of terms,
r be the common ratio,
S be the sum of n terms,
^
1 t
ar*
(A)


\Z^r \ r
'
If r be a proper fraction, the value of r" decreases as n
increases. Using the notation employed above
as noo,r"
>
and ar* > 0.
Hence Lt (?^)=0.
Consequently it is evident from (A) that S, approaches
as a limit as n becomes infinitely great.
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS *7
Thus
I r
becomes the limit of the series as n becomes
infinitely great, and is called the sum to Infinity
If r is numerically greater than unity, the magnitude of
the terms increases as n increases; and if n approaches
infinity, so also does the sum.
As the student extends his knowledge of Mathematics he
will be concerned with many series of different kinds and
he will find that it is important to know the following about
the sum of n terms, when n becomes infinitely great
(1) Does it approach a finite limit?
or (2) Does it become infinite ?
If the sum of the series approaches a finite limit il is
called Convergent, but if its sum becomes infinite it
is called Divergent.
With a limited number of exceptions most series are
either Convergent or Divergent, and we will return to the
matter in Chap XIX.
19. A trigonometrical
Sin e
_
limit. Lt
>o
Note. Through
out this volume it
will be assumed,
unless specified to
the contrary, that
angles are measured
in radians
i.e., in
circular measure.
It is clear that as
becomes very small, so
also does sin 0. so that
ultimately when 6 and
consequently sin ap
Fig. 4.
sin 9
proach zero, the ratio
g approaches the form %. The
limit of this ratio can be found as follows. In Fig. 4 let
be the centre of a circle of unit radius. Let BAC be
28 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
an arc of this circle and BC its chord. Let OA be the
radius which bisects BC at right angles and consequently
bisects the arc BC. From B and C, draw BT, CT tangents
to the circle. They will meet on OA produced.
Let LAOB be radians.
Then TB + TC > arc BAC,
also arc BAC > chord BC.
Considering halves of these
BT > are BA> BD (A)
BT
Now, tan =
^
= BT. since OB is of unit length.
similarly =
arc BA
OB
arc BA , since OB is of unit
length.
and sin =
^l5
= BD, since OB is of unit length.
UlS
or
from (A), tan 6 > 6 > sin 8

n
always lies between

sin 8
J
cos
> 0, and _
s
> 1
8
1
and as
.'. when
i.e., as 8
or
l.and :.,. >!
cos 8
and 1
1
cos 8
+1.
sin 8
sm 6
0,
5_
approaches unity as a limit,
Li
**:
e*o 8
It is left as an exercise to the student to prove, using the
above, that as 8
> 0,
~ approaches unity as a limit.
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS W
Fig. 5.
20. A geometrical illustration of a limit.
Let OAB be a circle.
Let OB be a chord intersecting the circumference at
OandB.
Suppose the chord OB to rotate in a clockwise direction
about 0. The point of intersection B will move along the
circumference towards 0. Con
sequently the arc OB and chord
OB decrease.
Let the rotation continue
until B is infinitely close to
and the chord and arc become
infinitely small.
It can be conceived that in
the limiting position when B
moves to coincidence with
i.e., the two points of inter
section coincidethe straight
line does not cut the circum
ference in a second point. Therefore In the limiting
position the chord becomes a tangent to the circle at 0.
21. Theorems on limits.
We now state, without proofs, four theorems on limits,
to which reference will be made later.
[This can be omitted, if desired, on a first reading.]
(1) // two variables are always equal, their limits are
equal.
(2)
Limit of a sum.
The limit of the sum of any number offunctions is
equal to the sum of lite limits of the separatefunctions.
Let u and v be functions of the same variable x.
Then Lt(u + v) = Ll{u) + Lt{v).
(3)
Limit of a product.
Tlie limit of the product of any number offunctions
is equal to the product of the limits of the separate
functions.
u and v standing for functions as above
Lt[u x v) =U{u) X Lt{v).
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(4)
Limit of a quotient.
The limit of the quotient of the functions is equal
to the quotient of the limits of the functions provided
that the limit of the divisor is not zero.
Thus
unless
Lt(f)=U(u)+Lt(v)
Lt(v) = 0.
22. Worked examples.
Example I. Find the limit
of ^, 
;
when x becomes
infinite.
U
~
U
*+\ Lt
>+
2
?
L
'{
i+
"l}+
U
{
2
,HJ}
<.4]
1+0
20
I
r
X"
Example 2. Find the value of Lt
,_>.,, x
a
When x = a, the function is of the form jj, and therefore
indeterminate.
Let x = a + h, where h is small.
x" a"
_
(a + A)" a
'
x a (a + h) a'
Then
Expanding (a + /)" by the Binomial Theorem (Algebra
p. 281)
_ ^
\a" + na^h + *&&$ */,
+ ...}_*
"
h % a
VARIATIONS IN FUNCTIONS. LIMITS
31
But since x = a + h
when *
y a, h > 0.
.". Limit becomes
u
*L=l = Lt
S
na
^
+
^l)
a^+ . .
.}
** * a
k*.a\ [2 I
= na"
1
.
since all other terms have a power of A as a factor and
therefore vanish when h
> 0.
Example 3. Find the limit of
7 
x
~

?
when
1
Vx 2  \/4  *
x = 3.
Both numerator and denominator vanish when * = 3.
Then the function takes the form j}.
Rationalising the denominator (Algebra, p. 252),
*3
_ L*
~
3)(y*2+V4*}
VTT2

Vfirx
(x2) (4

*)
"
_ (
x 3){Vi~"2+
VT^ji
2x 6
_ V
,
~
r
2
+ V*^x
and limit when x = 3 becomes
vi + vt
,
2
Exercise 2.
1
1. (a) What number does the function 1 approach
as x becomes infinitely large ?
x
~
(b) For what values of x is the function negative ?
(c) What are values of the function when the values
of x are 2, 18,15, 12, 11. 05. 0, 1,2?
(d) What limit is approached by the function as x
approaches unity?
(e) Using the values of the function found in (c)
draw its curve.
32 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
3x + I
2. (a) Find the values of the function
when x
has the values 10, 100. 1000, 1,000,000.
(6) What limit docs the function approach as x becomes
very great?
Find the limit of the function by using the method
of 17.
5x+2
3. {a) Find U
^_f.
(b) Find the limit of the function as x approaches + 1.
v> 1
4. (a) Find the values of the function
y when x has
the values 10, 4, 2, 15, M, 101.
x*
1
(6) Find the limit of
* as x approaches umty.
5. Find the limit of the function
j^t as x approaches
infinity.
x* 4
6. Find Lt
. 2
x* 2x*
7. Find the limit of
(* +
*)* ~
**
^ ft.
8. Find the limit of the function
proaches oo
.
9. Find the limit Lt
0.
2x + l
as x ap
4x f
x 1
,^3** + 2* +
1"
tan6
10. Show from the proof given in 19 that Lt
= I.
CHAPTER III
RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION. GRADIENTS
23. Rate of change of a function.
We have seen that a function changes in value when the
variable upon which it depends is changed. The important
question which next arises is, how to determine the rate
of change ?
In the Calculus we are fundamentally concerned with the
rate of variation of a function with respect to the change in
the variable on which it depends.
We will illustrate the problems which arise by examining
a few simple cases, ana in doing so will make use of the
graph of a function, since the graph makes visible the
changes in the function.
24. Uniform motion.
When a body moves so that it covers equal distances In
equal Intervals of time it is said to move uniformly. The
distance is a function of the time, and from the above
definition the rateof change of the function must be constant.
This will appear in what follows.
Let s be the distance moved, and
t be the time taken.
Then it is shown in books on Mechanics that
s = vt
where v, the velocity, is a constant, and is the distance
moved in each second.
The ratio of the two variablesviz.

is constant for
II corresponding values of them.
Consider the following graphical example:
A motorcar travels distances in limes as shown in the
following table:
Time
(() (in sees.) 1 2 3 4 S
Distance (s) (infi.) . 20 40 60 80 100
B(CAL.)
33
j4
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
These quantities are reckoned from a fixed point in the
motion.
Plotting these points and joining them, they are seen to
lie on a straight line. This is shown in Fig. 6, which
represents the graph.
V
100
1
fl
60
in
20
aaaaaaBBi
!
a
aaaaaaBBi
>
in
>
<
a
aa
a
aaaa
aaaia
aaa
aaaaaaa
aaaaaaa
in.
a .
i.aaaaa
a
.
a
a
a
a
a
a
*
aa
a
a a
a
aa
aaa
aaa
a
a
a
a
a
aa
a
a
1*
aaaa
a
in
mi
mum
i
>
aaaaaaa
aa
.
.
.aa
a ,
.
aa
aaaa
a
aaai*
.
a
a
a
<
ia ...*
A
W Ml
!
*aaa
tsa
aa
aa
a
a
aa
a
*
aaaaaa*
>
BB
l
aaaa
a
a
a
a
a.aa
aaaa* .
aaai .aaaa
mi aaaaaaa
a
a
a
a
aa
a
aa
aa
a
aaa
::::::t%Si 1IIHIIIIIMHI
aaaa aaa
f f
a
aaa
aa
a.a
a
aa
aa
aa*
a
a
aa
aa
>> tiiai
laaal iimmi I
a
MB I aa
a
:::
aaaaaaa
viii
IIIIIMJIIIIIIIMIII
:\J ::::
* a II
aa
.a i Ml
2 3 Q
Time (In seej.
Fig. 6.
X
Let 0Q, OS, represent two intervals of time (/). Then
PQ, RS represent the corresponding distances (s). From
the above general statement it follows that
PQ _RS
0Q~0S'
This is true for any positions of P and R, and therefore the
graph must be a straight line.
Let 8 be the angle made by this line with OX
i.e., LPQQ.
p
Q
RS
a
Then
RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION
33
PQ
.". ~= represents the gradient of the line (Algebra, 72).
Let PM be drawn parallel to OX.
Then, between the time intervals represented by OQ
and OS
PM represent the increase in time. Let this be 8t.
RM represent the increase in distance. Let this be 5s.
, increase in distance 8s
.*, ratio of

r._
 = ;
increase in time 8/
= tan 6
= gradient of the line.
Hencefor any corresponding values of s and t the
ratio of Increase of the distance with respect to the
Increase In time Is constant and equal to the gradient of
the line.
In the example above of uniform motion, this gradient is
seen to be 20 ft. per sec. This is the velocity of the car.
25. Gradient of a linear function.
Generalising the above:
Let y be a function of x. The straight line representing
the function may be of two forms:
(1)
The function y
= mx.
The graph is a straight line passing through the
origin. Comparing with the above example, if By and
6x be increments of y and x,
.' is a constant and
represents the gradient of the line. But this is
represented by m (Trigonometry,
67).
/. m represents the rate of Increase of y
with
respect to x.
(2) The function
y
= mx
f b.
This straight line does not pass through the origin,
but has an intercept b on the y
axis.
36
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
In Fig. 7 let CPQ be the line whose equation is
y
= mx + b.
Fio. 7.
Let 6 be the angle made with OX.
Let P be any point on the line, its coordinates being
(*. y)
Then OA = x,PA =
y.
Let x be increased by 6x from OA to OB.
Let y be increased correspondingly by 8y, from AP
to BQ.
Drawing PR parallel to OX, QR = By.
.'. coordinates of Q
are
(x + 6x,y + 8y).
i.e., OB = x + Sx, QB=y + 8y.
Substituting their values in the equation,
y
= mx + b ....
y f
Sy = m(x f 8*) f
b . .
Subtracting (1)
from
(2)
Sy m m{Sx)
.. m m
S
m tan QPR  tan 6
6v
.., ^
represents the gradient of the line.
.". the ratio of the Increase of
y
to the Increase of x
Is equal to the gradient of the line and is constant for
all points on the line.
(2)
RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION
37
It will be clear that the addition of the constant b
to the righthand side of the equation does not affect
the gradient. In both y
= mx and y
= mx + b, the
gradient is m, and for any given value of m the lines
are parallel (Algebra, 74).
26. Meaning of a negative gradient.
The angle which a straight line makes with the *axis is
always measured in an anticlockwise direction. When
this angle is greater than a right angle, as is the case of the
angle 6 made by the straight line CD in Fig. 8, Its tangent Is
negative (Trigonotnetry, 69).
C\
Y
R
p
N
rfx
A B DN.
Y'
X
1
Fig. 8.
.*. the gradient of the line Is negative.
Let P be the point (x,
y),
so that OA = x and PA =y.
Let x be increased by Sx to OB.
The value of the corresponding ordinate is represented
by QB. Draw QR parallel to OX, i.e., the ordinate PA is
decreased by Sy to QB.
Thus while x is increased by 8x, y Is decreased by 6y, or,
as we might express it, there is negative increase.
8v
.'.
g
Is negatlve^
:r
::::::::::
::
:
:
;::::
:::
;;
::
#
liitmiiha
BtmBSm
::; ::::
::::
:::::
::::: ::! ;;
t: :::
:::::::: 55B9Hm
::::*::::::::::: ::.:u:

::
::;":::::::::::::::: ::::::::::
:::::: mi :::: :: :::::
'.'.
::
'. *.::: :: ":: :::: t'. :: ::: :* 1;
,'.
HI!::
:."
iili
iijj
::::
;:; ;r
:i:
:
:
m
::
;:
::
1
:::'
HH
ii:i
Hi
:: ::: ::
ill
:::
ininn!
::
jj
"
1 x
Tim* flu
Fig 9.
velocity, Is Increasing. The smooth curve indicates that
this increase of velocity is uniform. Let us consider the
ratio of increase of distance to increase of time over three
successive intervals, as shown in the following table:
Time interval
(in sees.).
Distance
(ft.).
Distance
Time
06 to 1 12
a
1 to 18 20
*
15 to 2 28
s
These ratios represent the average velocities for the
4" TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
corresponding intervals. They are the distances which
would be passed over during the intervals, If the body were
moving with uniform velocities equal to these average
velocities. It is evident that the average velocity over
equal successive intervals is increasing uniformly.
It should be noted, as shown in 24, that the gradients of
the chords joining the appropriate points on the curve will
be equal to these average velocities.
To generalise these conclusions, take any point P on the
curve and through it draw a chord cutting the curve again
in another point A
.
Draw the ordinate AB meeting at B the straight line PB
drawn parallel to the time axis.
Let increase in time between the two positions be 8t
i.e.,
PB = 6t.
Let increase in distance between the two positions be 6s
i.e., AB = 6s.
8s
Then average velocity over the Interval = r.
This Is equal to the gradient of the chord PA.
Now suppose that the interval of time, represented by 8t,
continually diminishes. Then the distance 8s will also
diminish, but their ratio continues to represent the average
velocity during the interval and also the gradient of the
chord PA, which also diminishes.
Imagine now the interval of time to become infinitely
small. The interval of distance will also become infinitely
small. In the limit, when A is infinitely close to P
i.e.,
coincidesthe ratio of jr. approaches a finite limit, and
the chord becomes a tangent at P (see 20).
The limit which st approaches will be the gradient of
this tangent, and also the velocity at P.
Hence the term velocity at a point Is the limit of the ratio
It is also the ^ when these each become Infinitely small.
DC
gradient of the curve at the point P.
Thus the gradient of the curve at any point on the curve
Is equal to the gradient of the tangent to the curve drawn
at that point.
RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION
4*
In Fig. 9 draw PQ, tangent to the curve, at P.
Draw PR of unit length parallel to OX, and from R draw
RQ perpendicular to PR.
LQPR = 8 = angle made by PQ with OX.
Gradient of PQ =
^
=
y
= 32.
.'. velocity at the point P = 32 ft. per sec.
i.e., the velocity at the end of one second is 32 ft. per sec.
Students of mechanics will be able to verify this.
29. Gradients of the curve of y
= x*.
The methods employed above for obtaining the gradient
at any point on a curve will now be employed to solve the
problem more generally in the case of an algberaical
function. The curve of y
= x* has been chosen as a simple
example, and one which is familiar to the student. A more
general form of this function would be y
= ox', but for
simplicity we will take the case where a = 1. The methods
adopted can be readily adapted for any value of a.
Fig. 10 represents the curve of y
= x*.
>'a1!NI!ll*f!a""*""" " ! !
........... !. ** 
*
>**
a*
>*>>*"'
llllllllUIIIIII<il<>lllllll'M>" Illll>f><iiii1l>
;::::',:::::::::::::::::::;:::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
i ***>' *
ii::i::^!:;n:::::;:H:ii::::i:::i:::::i::::i::!:i!:::::::::
:
^!:!
_>
52' ' I!
IMIIIIIIIMIO I/' !
'IIIIIIIIMIMH MH'MIIU .' <
.......>'' F
.* >>(.* .
>' 
**** **** .'la*. **
ffrHfHIIIIIIIHiSffl 1 4fttit fftjn 1 1 II ii ii l h
ilj:
Itl'." '* II *!
IIIUIIHIIIIIIIIIUH ...... ....' . r., ...J
Fic. 10.
42 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Let P be the point (1, 1).
Draw a chord PQ cutting the curve again in
Q.
Draw Pi? parallel to OX to meet the ordinate from Q at R.
Let PR, the increase in x between P and Q, be 6x.
Let QR, the corresponding increase in y, be 6y.
Then gradient of the chord PQ = tan QPR.
By
Sx
'
Also,
^
Is equal to the average rate of Increase of
y
per
unit Increase of x between P and Q.
The algebraical expression for < can be obtained as
follows:
5*
In the function y
= x* (1)
when x is increased by 5x and y
correspondingly increased
y
+ Sy (, +
8*) .... (2)
Subtracting (1) from (2)
Sy = (* + 8*)
1
 x*
by Sy we get
Dividing by Sx
By = 2x8x + (Sx)*.
?=2x+8x.
8x
T
to
From this the value of ^ can be calculated for any
OX
value of Sx at any point on the curve where the value of
x is known.
Thus when x = I, as in the case of the point P on the
curve above,
If 6x = 03.
If 6x = 02,
If 6x = 01.
g
= 2 + 03  23.
gl+W = 22.
& =
8*
= 2+01 =21.
If 6x =
001, ?
= 2 + 001 = 201.
SX
If 8x = 0001, ^ = 2 + 0001 = 2001.
RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION
43
These results exhibit the gradient of the chord PQ when
6x diminishes and Q
moves nearer to P. Then it is evident
that the gradient of the chord approaches 2. We can
therefore conclude that when
Q
moves to coincidence with
P and the chord becomes the tangent to the curve at P.
the gradient of the tangent Is 2.
We may also say that
The rate of Increase of
y
per unit Increase of x at the
point P Is 2.
Similar conclusions follow for any point on the curve, but
the gradient of each tangent will dep*nd on the value of x at
the point; the gradient Is therefore a function of x.
Thus at the point on the curve where x
3, the gradient
of the tangent will be 6.
It is evident that the conclusions reached hold for any
curve whose equation is known. In general, therefore, we
arrive at the following important conclusion
:
The gradient at any point on a curve representing
a function is equal to that of the tangent drawn to
the curve at the point. It is also the rate of increase
of the function for the value of x at the point.
30. Negative gradient.
In Fig. 10 let a point S be taken on the curve, correspond
ing to a negative value of x. Draw the tangent to the
curve and produce it to meet the axis. The angle made
with the ajas is greater than a right angle. Consequently the
gradient Is negative. As was shown in 26, thus indicates
that the rate of increase of the function is negative
i.e.,
the function decreases. An examination of the curve shows
that as x increases through negative values from co to 0,
the function as represented by the curve is decreasing from
+ 00 to at the origin. At this point OX is tangential to
the curve and the gradient of the curve is zero.
Exercise 3.
1. Draw the straight line 3x
2y
= 6 and find its
gradient. If P and Q are two points on the line such that
the value of x at Q is greater by 08 than the value of x at P,
44
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
by how much is the value of y at
Q
greater than the value
atP?
2. Find the gradients of the straight lines
(6)
ix+5y = 16.
3. The gradient of a straight line is 1 2. It passes through
a point whose coordinates are (5, 10). What is the
equation of the line ?
4. The distance passed over by a body falling from rest
is given by the formula s = 1 6t'. Representing an increase
in time by 6t and the corresponding increase in distance by
6s, find by the method used in 29 an expression for 6s in
terms of 6t for any value of t. Hence find the value of =.
Using this result find the average velocity for the following
intervals:
(1)
2 sees, to
22 sees.
(2)
2 sees, to 21 sees.
(3) 2 sees, to 201 sees. (4) 2 sees, to 2001 sees.
From these results, deduce what the velocity at the end of
2 sees, appears to be ?
6. In the curve of y
= x\ using the notation employed
in 29, find the value of  as the value of x is increased
from 3 to 31, 301, 3001 and 30001 respectively. Deduce
the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point where
x = 3.
6. Draw the curve of y
= x
3
for values of x between
and 2.
Find an expression for 6y in terms of x and 6x.
6y
Hence find an expression for
=p.
Taking the values of x as 21, 201, 2001, and 20001, find
the limit which ^ approaches as the value of x approaches 2.
Hence find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the
RATE OF CHANGE OF A FUNCTION
43
point where x = 2. Check by drawing the tangent to the
curve at this point.
j
7. For the function y
= 
(see Fig. 3) find an expression
for By in terms of x and 6x. Hence find an expression for
Sx
Taking the values x = 11, 101, 1001, 10001, find the
limit which
^
is approaching as x approaches unity. Hence
find the gradient and angle of slope of the curve at the point
where * = 1. Check your result by drawing the curve and
constructing the tangent at this point.
8. Find the gradient of the tangent drawn at the point
where x = lon each of the curves
(1) y
= x* + 2
(2) y
= x*

3 (see Algebra, 112)
9. Find the gradient of the tangent drawn at the point
where x = 2 on each of the following curves;
(1) y
= 3*
(2) y
= 2x*  1.
CHAPTER IV
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT. DIFFERENTIATION
31. Algebraical aspect of the rate of change of a function.
In this chapter we take a very important step forward
in the development of our subject. It follows logically
from the work of the preceding chapter. To make this
clear we will briefly summarise the steps by which the
subject has advanced. They are as follows:
(1) The value of a function changes as the variable
changes upon which it depends.
(2) The rate at which the function changes is of
great practical importance and it is necessary to
be able to calculate it.
(3) The rate of change (whether of Increase or
decrease) can be found geometrically as follows:
(a) When the function Is of the first degree.
Such a function can be represented by a straight
line graph, and the gradient of
this straight line is
equal to the rale
of change of
the function.
If y is a function of x, and 8x and By are
corresponding increases of x and
y,
the gradient
Is equal to
J.
This is constant throughout the
line, i.e.. the rate of change Is uniform.
(b) When the function Is not of the first degree
its graph will be a curve, and the rate of change
of the function will differ in different parts of the
curve. Its value at any point is equal to the
gradient of the tangent at the point on the curve
corresponding to any assigned value of x.
The geometrical method has many important applica
tions, and is suggestive as an illustration, but in practice
the gradient is not easily found by this method. For
practical purposes, and for accuracy, an algebraic method
is necessary.
46
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT. DIFFERENTIATION 47
The determination by algebraic methods in the case of
the function
y
= x* has in effect been indicated in
29,
when, by means of arithmetic calculations, the values of
~ were shown to be approaching nearer to a limit, as *
ox
approached an assigned value. For convenience the
working is repeated.
Let y
= x
%
.
Then
Subtracting
y + Sy = (x + Sx)\
Sy = (x + Sx)*
x*
= 2x[Sx)
+
(Sx)*.
Dividing by Sx,
^
= 2x + 8x . .
6x
(A)
We can now carry this a step further.
It has been shown geometrically that when 6x approaches
zero, the gradient of the chord, which represents the
average rate of increase of the function over the interval
represented by 6x, gradually approaches the gradient of
the tangent at a point corresponding to any assigned value
of x.
Thus the gradient of the tangent, represented by the
limit of ^, Is equal to the rate of Increase of the function
for the assigned value of x.
Since from (A) above, for any value of 8x
when Sx 0,
approaches a limit and the limit of
(B)
S*
8*
Sy
i.e., when 8x > the limit of
'
represents the rate of
Increase of
y
with respect to x, for any assigned value of x.
8v
For example, when x = I, limit of
^
2, i.e., the rate
of increase of y, or x* with respect to x is 2. (Cf. 29.)
4
Similarly,
when
when
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
x = 2, limit of
g
= 4.
x = 3, limit of
^
= 6.
Sx
(Cf. Ex. 3, No. 8.)
(Cf. Ex. 3, No. 5.)
Using the notation of 15, we may write (B) above as,
Lt
S
J=2x.
t.toSx
A still more convenient notation is employed to represent
this limit.
Sy dy
Lt
*
is represented by .
in which the English letter d is used instead of the Greek 8
and the condition Sx >
is understood.
Thus (B) becomes
dx
This limit is called the differential coefficient of
the function with respect to x, the independent
variable.
Thus, when y
= x*. Ix is the differential coefficient of
y,
or x*. with respect to x.
A similar procedure will enable us to find the differential
coefficient of any other function.
32. The Differential Coefficient.
Summarising the foregoing section we may conclude:
(1) If
y
be a continuous function of x, and 6x be any
increase \n tlte value
of x, there will be a corresponding
increase (or decrease) in the value, denoted by Sy.
(2) The ratio ? represents the average rate of increase
of y
with respect to x, when x increased to x + 6x.
(3) Since
y
is a continuous function of x, i/8x becomes
infinitely small, so also does Sy.
(4) When 6x
.
0, the ratio
=p
in general lends to
i.e.,
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT. DIFFERENTIATION 49
a finite
limit, and this limit is called the differential
coefficient of y
with respect to x. It is represented by
lite symbol /,
1,t.o
Sx dx
The Differential Calculus is fundamentally concerned
with the variation of functions, and we can regard a
differential coefficient as a ratemeasurer in such variations.
It measures the rate at which a function is changing its
value compared with that of the variable upon which it
depends.
^y
Thus for the function y
= x*. since
f
= Ix, when x =4,
y, or x
%
, is changing its value at 8 times the rate at which
x is changing. j
The differential coefficient
/
is also called a derivative of
y with respect to x, or the derived function.
Except in the case of a linear function, the differential
coefficient of
y
with respect to x Is itself a function of x.
Notation for the differential coefficient.
Besides the form
J,
the differential coefficient of
y
with
respect to x may also be denoted by y'.
Thus if y
=x*
y' = Ix.
In general, the differential coefficient of
y =/(*) may be
denoted by f'(x).
The same forms are used for other letters representing
functions. Thus if s is a function of t, the differential
ds
coefficient of s with respect to t is written j .
33. Differentiation. Differentials.
The process of finding the differential coefficient or
derivative of a function is called Differentiation.
The operation may be expressed by using the operating
5
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
svmbol , Thus the differentiation of x
2
with respect to
dx
d(x
%
) d
x can be written in the form
^'
or , {x*).
In general, the differentiation of
f(x)
with respect to x
or j (/(*))
It may also be
can be expressed by
^
denoted by the form Dzy or Dy when there is no doubt as
to what is the independent variable.
Differentials.
The infinitely small increments of x and
y
which are
implied in the form
2.
are called differentials. Thus h!
represents the ratio of the differential of
y
to the differential
of x.
In the example
y
= x*
we have g
= 2*.
This might be described by the statement that the ratio
of the differential of y to the differential of x is equal to 2x,
or the differential of y is 2x times the differential of x. This
could be expressed by the equation
dy = 2x . dx.
In this form 2x is shown as a coefficient of the differential
of x, hence the term
"
differential coefficient ".
The student should not at present regard
^
as a fraction
in which the numerator and denominator can be separated,
but as a limit, as shown above.
General definition of a differential coefficient.
It will now be seen, from what has been stated above,
that the general expression for the differential coefficient
of any function, /(*) is given by
Lt
fix + Sx) 
f(x)
li0
B*
34. The sign of the Differential Coefficient.
It has been shown above that the differential coefficient
of a function is equal to the gradient of the tangent at a
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT. DIFFERENTIATION ji
point on the curve which represents the function. It was
also shown in 26 that this gradient may be positive or
negative. Consequently the differential coefficient may
also be positive or negative. This will be examined further
in a later chapter. For the moment the student is reminded
of the conclusions stated in 26 as to the sign of the gradient
and the increase or decrease of the function. These con
clusions apply also to the differential coefficient.
35. Differential coefficient of a constant.
Since a differential coefficient measures the rate of change
of a variable, and a constant has no change whatever, the
differential coefficient of a constant must be zero.
36. Differentiation of
y
= mx + b.
As the student has learnt previously, this is the general
form of a function of the first degree. Its graph is a straight
line (25), and therefore of constant gradient. This can
be shown algebraically from first principles as tollows:
Let 8* be an increment of x.
I,et Sy be the corresponding increment of y.
Substituting in y
= mx + b
y
+ Sy = m(x + &x) + b
subtracting Sv = m[Sx).
 gm.
This is true for any value of 8x with the corresponding
value of By, since m is a constant.
. dy
"
dx
=m
It will be noticed that the value of 4 is independent of
6. For different values of b the equation represents a
series of parallel lines, having the gradient
"
m." See 25.
37. Differentiation of y
= X
s
.
The following proof will provide another example of the
general method which may be adopted for finding the
differential coefficient of a function by first principles.
5*
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(1)
Let Sx be an increment of x.
Let 8y be the corresponding increment of y.
Substituting in
y
= *
y
+ Sy = (x + 8x)
s
= x + 3x(8x) + 3x(8x)
+
(8x)
8
. (2)
Subtracting (1)
from
(2)
Sy = 3x(8x) f 3x(Sx) +
(Sx)
8
.
Dividing by 6x, which is not equal to zero, since it represents
any increase of x
g
= 3x + 3x(8x)
+
(8x).
8y
Proceeding to the limiting value of ^, when 8x >
both 3x(8x) and (8x)* approach zero.
..
K ^ =3x
j,_,.o\8x/
3*
3x.
38. Differentiation of
y
= x*.
If the method of the foregoing section be applied toy =**,
this would involve the expansion of (x f 8*)*, which is:
x + 4x(8x) + 6x
f
(8x) + 4x(8x)
8
+ (8x).
After subtraction of x* and division by Sx, tliere is left:
4x + 6x(8x) + 4x(8x)
+
(8x)
8
.
On proceeding to the limit when Sx
y 0.
U g
*
,_*.o8x x'
or
3x
?
Example 2. Write down the differential coefficients of
the following functions.
(i)y = x;
dx
= 8x
= 8x
7
.
E

I*'"
= ** =
I
ly/x
{2)y
(3)y=x;
(4) y
=
**J
(5)y
= x;
(6) y
= x;
Example 3. Differentiate the following functions:
ax x*

= l5x ** = ISx
06
.
%
= (
1)
x (**')
= "
i*"*
^
= xi=x=l.
ax
(1) y
= 6x; =6x4x'
1
= 24x\
3
6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(2) y
= ti/x or y
= ix*
**f***
\
3fi
(3) y
=px
t
*;
d
Jx
= /> x 2q x
**i.
= 2p(jx*.
(4) s = 16/*;
jt
= 2 x 16 x ^ = 32t. (Cf. 28.)
Example 4. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve
y
=  at the point where x 1.
The gradient is given by the value of the differential
coefficient at the point.
Now
Si"
.""
i
 (Example 1.)
when x = 1
d
/
=  I or tan 135.
rfx
(Cf. Ex. 3, No. 7.)
Exercise 4.
1. Write down the differential coefficients of the follow
ing functions with respect to x
:
*'; 5*; ?; 006*;
i*;
15*; ~j; l5x; (4x).
2. Differentiate with respect to x:
bx*;^;axf;x^; &*; 4m.
3. Differentiate with respect to x:
6x + 4; 054*  6; 3*
+ 2; />* + q.
4. Of what functions of x are the following the differential
coefficients:
x; 3x; x*;
J*;
**; *"; x*>;
J*
3
;
4*?
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENT. DIFFERENTIATION 57
6. If v = u + at, where and are constants, find jj.
rfs
,'f
6. If s =
$/2
a
, where / is a constant, find
j
when
/
= 20.
7. If ^ = nr\ find
^.
8. If V = frrr
3
, find
^.
9. Differentiate the following functions of x\
5
^;
h
fy
**\ <m.
10. Differentiate with respect to x:
**
4
: 8r;
^;
6;H; sr*.
11. Differentiate with respect to x:
6*H;
ir"; 29x
07
; T
I!
12.1!^?;. find?.
v?
m
13. Find the gradient of the curve of
y
= \x* at the
point on the curve where x = 3. For what value of x is the
gradient of the curve equal to zero?
14. Find the gradient of the curve of y
= 2x?, at the
point where x = 2.
2
15. Find the gradients of the curve of
y
=  at the points
where x = 10, 2, 1,
J.
*
16. Find from first principles the differential coefficient
1
of y
= ,.
J
x*
17. At what point on the curve of x* is the gradient of the
curve equal to 2 ?
18. At what point on the curve of y
= #* docs the tangent
to the curve make an angle of
45
with thejeaxis ?
19. At what point on the curve of y
= Vx is the gradient
equal to 2 ?
20. It is required to draw a tangent to the curve
y
=
05*' which shall be parallel to the straight line 2x4y = 3.
At what point on the curve must it be drawn ?
CHAPTER V
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
41. Differentiation of a Sum.
The functions which were differentiated in the preceding
chapter were expressions of one term only, with the excep
tion of y
= mx + b ( 30). This was found from first
principles.
We now proceed to consider in general the differentia
tion of a function which is itself the sum of two or more
functions of the same variable, such as
y
= 5x* f
14**
Ix. The proof given below is a general one for the sum
of any number of functions of the same variable.
Let u and v be functions of x.
Let y be their sum, so that
y m u + v.
Let x receive the increment Sx.
Then u, v and y.
being functions of x, will receive corre
sponding increments.
Let 8u, 6v and 6y be these increments, so that
u becomes u
f
8u
v v + By
y y +
6
y
.*. From y
= u + v
we have
y
+ Sy (u + Su)
+ (v + Sv).
Subtracting
ty
= Su f Sv.
Dividing by 8*
8y _ 8m Sv.
Sx
Sx
+
Sx'
This is true for all values of 6x and the corresponding
increments Su, Sv, Sy.
Also their limits are equal. (Th. I, Limits, 21.)
.. If
8* >0
Lt j* Lt
{+}
,^.qSx j,_>.ol8a: Sx)
t (Z\+ Lt
(g).
(Th.2.
21.)
.o\8x/
58
j
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 39
Replacing these forms by the corresponding symbols for
differential coefficients
dy _du dy
dx~dx
+
dx
clearly the theorem will hold for any number of functions.
Hence the Rule for differentiation of a sum.
The differential coefficient ofthe sum of a number offunctions
is equal to the sum of the differential coefficients of these
functions.
42. Worked examples.
Example I. Differentiate with respect to x.
y
= 3x + 7x  9x + 20.
Using the above rule
dY
_
dx
= 9x +  4x
_
9.
Example 2. Find the gradient at that point on the curve
of y
= x
%
ix + 3 where x = 3.
What is the point
of
zero gradient on this curve i
If
4
dx
= x* ix + 3.
= 2*  4.
When x = 3,
d
= (2 x 3)
 4.
= 2.
When the gradient is zero
2*  4 = 0.
x = 2.
Example 3.
findt.
Then
// s = 80t  16/*, find
ds
if
When
$
= 16.
at
s = 80/  161*
ds
dt
ds
'
32/ =64
t=2.
= 80  32/.
i.e. 80  32/ = 16
6o TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Exercise 5.
Differentiate the following functions of xi
1. 6**
+ 5*. 5.
;
+ 4*.
x
4 2
 7
+;*'
7. x(5  x + 3**).
8. 8VT + VlO.
11. s = 3*  U + 7.
12. Find / when y
= ax* + bx* + ex + d.
2. 3*
+ x  1.
3.
4**
+
3* 
*.
4.
i* + * + i.
Find
^
when
9. s = ut
+ \fP.
10. s=5i + 16P.
dx , jvi
13. Differentiate with respect to x, ( * +

J
.
14. Differentiate with respect to x, Vx +
/>
15. Differentiate with respect to x, (1 + x)
3
.
16. If y
= x*>  nx* + 5, find
d
Z.
A O
17. Find when y
=
Vx + Vx +
.
ax x
18. Find the gradient at that point on the curve of
y
= 2x* Zx + 1 where * = 15. For what value of *
will the curve have zero gradient ?
19. For what values of x will the curve of y = x(x*
12)
have zero gradient ?
20. What are the gradients of the curve
y=x
a
6x* + llx6
when x has the values 1, 2, 3 ?
21. What are the points of zero gradient on the curve of
y
=x+
i
7
43. Differentiation of a Product.
The differential coefficient of some products such as
(x + 2)* or 3x{x + 2) can be found by multiplying out and
using the rule for the differentiation of a sum. In most
cases, however, that cannot be done, as, for example,
x'Vl * and x* sin x.
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 6i
The differential coefficient of a product is not equal to
the product of the differential coefficients of the factors,
as will be apparent on testing such an example as
Zx(x + 2).
A general rule for use in all cases is found as follows i
Let u and v be functions of x.
Let y
= u x v,
consequently y is also a function of x.
Let 6x be an increment of x.
Let Sm, Su and 8y be the corresponding increments of ,
v andy.
Substituting the new values of u, v and
y
in
y
= u X V (1)
y f 8y = [u + 8)(w + Sv)
or
y
+ 8y = uv + u(iv) + v . (Su)
+
(8w)(8v)
Subtracting (i) 8y = h(8i;)
f /(8) +
(S)(8i;).
t^
j
l , 8v 8 , 8m
, 8
Dividing by 8x,
g
= U .
g
+ .
^
+ ft* .
&
Lets* >0.
Then 8m, 8z, Sy all approach zero.
.*. by Limits Th. 2.
ii
".
L<
lt*0,(S+.il.(S+A.(&
8ff
0, the last termviz. 8Xr
sx
In the limit, since 8m
also approaches zero.
.". with the usual notation
dx dx
T
dx
This important rule may be expressed as follows
:
(1) Differentiate each factor In turn and multiply
by the other factor. j
(2) The sum of the products Is
J.
This rule may be extended to more than two factors.
Thus if y
= uvw
where m, v, w are factors of x
62
Then
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
dy (du \ , /dv
\ ,
(dw
)
44. Worked examples.
Example I. Differentiate (x*  5x + 2)(2x + 7).
Let
y
= (* 5x 42)(2* + 7).
Then
Tx
{
d{Xl
~dx*
+2)
x (2**47)}
+
{^_W)
x(x
,_
5x+2
)
= (2x 
5)(2x + 7)
4 4x(x*  Sx + 2).
This result can be simplified, if necessary.
Example 2. Differentiate (x*  l){2x + l)(x> + 2x + 1).
+ ft*+j*+
il
x(i,_
1)(8, + 1)
}
= 2x(2x + l)(x + 2x + I) + 2(x*  I)
(X
s
+ 2x* + I) 4 (3x + 4x)(x  l)(2x 4 I).
This can be further simplified.
Exercise 6.
Differentiate the following by means of the rule foi
products.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
3* 41) (2* 41).
* 41)
(J*
41).
3*5)(x*+2x).
*43)(2**l).
x + 4*)(3x
1
*).
*+x + l)(*l).
xx + l)(x + l).
x*+ix + 5){x*
2).
*5)(*46).
10. (x*4l)(*+*l).
11. (x2)(x + 2x+4).
12. (2**3)(3x+x 1).
13. (x
 l)lx + l)(x* + I).
14. (* + l)(2* + l)(3*+2).
15. (ax* + bx + c) (px + q).
16. Vx(2x_l)(x* + x + l).
17. 2x*(Vx+2)(Vx~l).
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION
63
45. Differentiation of a quotient.
In 40 the differential coefficient of a simple example of
a quotient, viz. , was found by first principles. This
method, however, is apt to become very tedious in more
complicated examples. The general rule which is explained
below is that which is usually employed.
Let u and v be functions of x.
Let
'%
y
is then a function of x.
Using the notation employed in the preceding section for
increments of these
+ 8m
y + Sy =
subtracting
v + Sv
t* + Su
S
>
=
7.
u
v v 4 Sv
v(u + 8m) u(v + Sv
)
v(v + Sv)
vSu
uSv
vjv 4 Sv)'
8u
_
Sv
8v
m
v
Sx
U
Sx
Sx
Dividing by Sx,
"
J
Sx v(v 4 Sv)
Let Sx > ; in consequence 8m, Sv, and By tend to zero.
Then
It
(*2\ _
ioV Sx) fa_.oV Sx)
,_.<A**/
~
Lt v(v + Sv)
(Th. 4, Limits).
Tlie limits in the numerator can be expressed by
du
_
dv
"
dx 'dx
and the limit of the denominator is v
%
, since 8t/ >
0.
. dy dx dx
"
dx 7
64
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
This can be written:
dy (den. x d.c. of num.) (num. x d.c. of den.)
dx
=
W
'
46. Worked examples.
Zx
Example I. Differentiate
^^.
Using
du dv
dy _
dx ax
dx
~
v*
where u = Zx and v = x 1.
dy {(*l)(3)}{3*(!))
2x~ (x  l)
1
Zx 3 Zx
=
(*
 l)
1
3
(x  !)
x
8
+ 1
Example 2. y
=
^ _

.
Using the formula quoted above
dy ((*!) x (Zx*)){(x*
+ l) x fls
1
)}
dx W^i)*
Zx*
 3*
1
 3* 3x
Example 3. Differentiate ,
_

_^
g
.
We have v
*'
+
*
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION
Using the above rule
dy {(*  Zx + 2) (2* + 1)}
 {(*' + *)(2x 
3))
dx
=
(*  Zx + 2)
(2x  5s
1
+ x + 2)
 (2x  x* Zx)
~
~i*
 Zx + 2)*
_

4s' + 4* + 2
=
1?
 3x + 2)
*
Exercise 7.
Differentiate the following functions of x.
6j
i.
2.
B,
1  3x'
Zxl
2x +
3'
19.
i^,
1
).
x
2
8.
11.
14.
17.
20.
*4'
* +
l
*'
+ x + 1
***
+ r
2x*
a*  x
r
s+2
x\
'
15.
18.
Vxl'
2x* 
x + 1
3*
+ x  r
2x3
23*
47. Function of a function.
To understand the meaning of "function of a function
"
consider the trigonometrical function sin* x, i.e. (sin x)*.
This function, being the square of sin x. Is a function of
sin x, just as x* is a function of x, or u* is a function of u.
But sin x Is Itself a function of x.
.*. sin* x Is a function of sin x, which Is a function of x,
i.e., sin* x Is a function, of a function of x.
Similarly Vx* + 4* is a function of x* + 4x, just as Vx
is a function of x.
But x* + 4x is itself a function of x.
.*. Vx* + 4x is a function of x* + 4x, which is a function
C(CAL.)
66 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
of x. The idea of a "function of a function" may be
extended. For example, we have seen that sin *x is a
function of a function of x. But sin* (Vx) is a function of
sin Vx. which is a function of y/x, which in its turn is a
function of x. The idea of
"
a function of a function
"
often puzzles the beginner, and there is a tendency to over
look it and to omit application of the rule for differentiating
it which we shall discover later. For example, it may be
overlooked that such a familiar function as sin 2x is a
function of a function, since 2x is a function of x.
We cannot proceed further with the example above of
sin* x, since the rules for differentiating trigonometrical
functions are dealt with in a subsequent chapter.
An algebraic function, say y
= (** 6)*, will be used
as an example in discovering the rule for differentiating a
function of a function.
Now (x*
5)* is a functionthe fourth powerof
x* 5. which is itself a function of x.
If
we can write
u  (z 
5)
y
= u*.
Differentiating y
with respect to u, according to nde
t
= *
du
dv
But we require , , therefore the following method is
adopted to find it.
Let 6x be an increment of x.
6u be the corresponding increment of o.
,. 6y
., y.
These being finite increments, it is obvious that by the
law of fractions
By
=
8jf 6o
6x Su 6x"
Let 8*
dy
=
*
'
du
4
"
dx
Since
= J(l 
*v.
dy
_
dy du
dx
~
du dx
:. substituting
/
=
J(l
x) x ( 
H
* /
 a, y 2x)
= X(l  *)
X
68 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Example 2. Differentiate y
= (** 3* + 5)
a
.
Let u = x*
Zx + 5; then * = 2x 3 and > = uK
2
'
= 3(*  3* + 5}.
Substituting in
%
=
%*%
g
= 3(*  3* + 5) X (2* 
3)
= 3(2x3)(x3*45).
After some practice the student will probably find that
usually he will be able to dispense with the use of
"
U
"
and
can write down the result. The above example is a con
venient one for trying this procedure.
Example 3. Differentiate y
= (3** 5x + 4).
Working this without introducing u, the solution can be
written down in two stages, as follows
^
=
f
(3* 5x+ 4)H x d.c. of (3*  5x + 4)
=
f(3x*

5x + 4) x (6x 
5).
Example 4. Differentiate y
= (** + 5)^?+I.
This being a product of two functions, we employ the rule
dluv) dv , du
dx dx
Hence
d
=(x'+ 5){d.c. of Vi*~TT\
4 {
v
/
*
T
Tl x d.c. of (** + 5)}
(A)
Of these v
/
x* + 1 is a function of a function.
It is better to work this separately and substitute after
wards:
d{{xt
1}>
 > = !(*' + I)
4
"1
X {(d.c.) of (x*
+ 1)}
= *(** +
I)"
1
x 2*
2*
"
3(x 4 l)r
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 69
Substituting in (A)
g
=
^
+ 5
){3i,^ip}+^nnx2,}
This might be further simplified.
Example 5. Differentiate
j
Employing the formula for a quotient, viz. ]
du dv
L (tt\ 
v '
ix
u '
dx
du\v)
v*
and substituting
dy 4* x {d.c.ofy/l +3*}  {Vl +3* X d.c.of 4*} ...
&
(4*)*
(A)
Of these VI + 3x or (1 + 3x)
J
is a function of a function.
Applying the method above
^(l
+
3,) = i(l+3x)'x3=^=.
Substituting in (A)
dy ^*2VT+Tx
Wr+Tx
dx 16x*
6x
VTTTx
Wl +
Sx
16**
6* 
4(1 + 3x)
16xVl + 3*
6x  4  12* _
46*
16xVT+"3* 1QxWT+3x
2+3x
7 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
48. Differentiation of Implicit functions.
It was pointed out in 11 that it frequently happens,
when y is a function of x, that the relation between x and
y
is not explicitly stated, but the two variables occur in the
form of an equation from which y can be obtained in terms
of x, though sometimes this is not possible. Even when
y
can be found in terms of x. it is in such a form that differ
entiation may be tedious or difficult. This is apparent
from the examples of Implicit functions given in 11.
In such cases the method adopted is to differentiate
term by term throughout the equation, remembering that
in differentiating functions of y we are differentiating a
function of a function.
Example I. Find
}
from the following equation.
x* y*
+ 3x =
5y.
Differentiating 2x
2y . 2
+ 3 = 5 /.
dv
The differential coefficient * remains, as we have not
ax
yet determined it. It will be seen, however, that the
equation can be solved for .
Thus collecting terms involving it
or
dx
%
(2> + 5) = 2x + 3
d
l
_
** +
3
dx 2y~+T5'
dy .
It will be observed that the solution gives / in terms of
the two variables x and y. When corresponding values of
x andy are known, the numerical value of ? can be deter
mined. An example of this follows.
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 7>
and
.*. when
Example 2. Find the slope of the tangent to the curve
x* 4 xy + y* = 4 at the point (2,

2).
Differentiating x* + xy +
y* = 4 as shown above, and
remembering that xy is a product
2x+y + x.
d
+ 2y%
i
=0.
d
(x+2y) = (2x+y)
dy 2x
+y
dx x + 2y
x = 2,y = 2
dy 42
dx
~
24
= 1.
.'. the gradient of the tangent to the curve at this point
is 1 and the angle of slope Is 45.
Exercise 8.
Differentiate the following:
1. (2x+6); (1 5*); (3* + 7).
2.
irrs
J f
1

2*)
1
;
vr=s.
3. (*4); (1
*)!; Vs*"  7.
r^2?
:
VT=Ti*; xVT^r?.
l l . I
4x'
Vi~'
(*
*)"r
fi
I
. 1 .
*
7

vr^?'" Vvr=T5^ v(r+i)'
9. v^T^y~
10. y/l *+*;
(1 2x*)\
ft,
5.
72 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Vl + 2i
12.
13.
14.
1
.
Vl+x*
l
V2*
 3* + 4
; *Vl
 x.
15

*??: *V2T+T
Find v^ from the following implicit functions I
16. 3** + Ixy + 9y* = 6.
17. (x* 4y)  (* y) = 0.
18. * +y =Zxy.
19. x 4y" = a
n
.
20. Find the gradient, at the point (1, 1), of the tangent
to the curve x* +y* 3* + Ay 3 = 0.
49. Successive differentiation.
It was pointed out in 32 that the differential coefficient
of a function of x, unless it be a linear function, is itself a
function of x.
For example, if y
= 3x*
& = 12**.
dx
Since 12** is a function of *, it can be differentiated with
respect to * and
d
dx
(I2*
3
) =36x.
This expression Is called the second differential coefficient
of the original function, and the operation can be indicated
The symbol ,', Is employed to represent the second
differential coefficient. In this symbol the figure
"2"
in
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION
73
the numerator and denominator x is not an index, but
signifies that y, the original function, has been twice
differentiated and each time with respect to x.
Thus, r
t
measures the rate at which ^ is changing with
respect to x, just as 3 measures the rate at which
y
is
changing with respect to x.
The second differential coefficient is also a function of x,
dv
unless J is a linear function or a constant. Consequently
j4
can also De differentiated with respect, and the result
is the third differential coefficient of y with respect to x.
It Is represented by , \.
Thus in the above example in which
3"*
Thus it is possible to have a succession of differential
coefficients. This process of successive differentiation can
be continued indefinitely or until one of the differential
coefficients is a constant. This can be illustrated by the
example of y
= x", as follows:
Successive differential coefficients of x\
y
= x
n
&***
dx
g
= n(nl)(2)*.
If n is a positive integer this process can be continued
until ultimately n n is reached as the index of x and the
differential coefficient becomes n(n
1)
(n
2) . . . 3, 2, 1
'.., factorial n or [n. The next and subsequent
74
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
differential coefficients are zero. If n is not a positive
integer the process can be continued indefinitely. The
following example will serve as an illustration.
Find the successive differential coefficients of
Then
y
= x?  Ix* + 6% + 3.
~? = 3%  14* + 6
dx
14
3

S
*
dx*
50. Alternative notation for differential coefficients.
The successive differential coefficients are also called the
derivatives or derived functions of the original function.
They may conveniently be denoted by the following
alternative symbols:
(1)
When the functional notation is employed:
If /(*) or <{>(x)
denotes a function of x.
/'(*) or^'(x) denotes the 1st cliff, coefficient.
/"(*) or*"(*)
..
2nd
/"'(*) or
f"(*)
3rd
f(x) or^(x) ..
4th
etc.
(2) Or y may be retained with a suffix or an accent:
Thus if y denotes the function.
y,
1st diff. coefficient.
y* ..
2nd
y%
3rd
,etc.
or sometimes the terms y'
,
y",
y'"
. . . are used.
51. Derived curves.
If has been shown above that successive differentiation
of a function of x produces a set of derivatives each of which
is also a function of x. These derivatives can be represented
by their graphs. Consequently the derived functions give
rise to a series of derived curves, between which definite
relations exist.
SOME RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATION 73
then
and
Consider the function
y
= x* 4* 43
yl=
2*4
y,
= 2.
Fig. 11 shows (1) the graph of y
= x*  4* 43, (2)
the
graph of y,
= 2x
4, and (31 y,
= 2, the graphs of the
two derived functions. The following connections between
the curve of the original function and of its two derivatives
will be obvious.
Fig. II.
(1) Since
yl(
the first derived function.givestherateof
increase of y with respect to *, Its value for any assigned
value of x equals the gradient at the corresponding
point on the curve.
Take any point A on OX where x = 36. Drawing
the ordinate at A, P is the corresponding point on the
curve, and Q the point on the straight liney, = 2*
4,
the first derived function.
Then, the value of the ordinate QA Is equal to the
gradient of the curve at P. This value is seen to be
32 units. By calculation, substituting x = 36 in
76 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
y,
= 2x
4, the differential coefficient, this is equal
to (2 x 36)  4 = 32.
(2)
The graph of the second derived function, viz.
y,
=
2, being parallel to OX and having a constant
value for any ordinate, shows that the gradient of
yi
= 2x
4 is constant, viz. 2.
(3) At the lowest point B on the curve of
y
= x*
Ax + 3 the value of the ordinate at the corresponding
point on the first derived curve,
y,
= 2x 4 is zero
;
it cuts OX at this point. Thus the gradient of the
original function Is zero, when x = 2. A tangent
drawn to the curve at B will be parallel to OX.
(4)
For values of x less than 2, the function x*
Ax + 3 Is decreasing while the derived function values
are negative. For values greater than 2, x* 4x + 3
Is increasing and the derived function 2x A Is positive.
Exercise 9.
Write down the first, second and third derivatives of
the following functions of x:
I. x*(x 
1). 2. *.
3. Sx*  3x + 2x*  x + 1.
4. 10*
8
4x* + 5* 2.
6. Vx.
7. \/2iTT. 8.
i
i*
9. Find the nth differential coefficient of
1
[Hint,
r
1
, =i (
L
+ Ml.
^
L a* x* 2a \a + x a xll
10. If /(*)
= Gx*  5x + 3, find /'(0). For what value
of * is /'(*) =0? To what point on the curve of/(*) does
this correspond ?
11. If /(*) =x*5x* + 7, find /'(l) and /"(2). For
what values of x does /'(a:) vanish?
12. Find the values of x for which the curve of f(x)
=
^x
3
i.e.,
J
must be negative.
More concisely:
(1)
If y Increases as x Increases, ; is positive.
(2)
If y
decreases as x Increases. ,' is negative.
Similar conclusions were reached in connection with the
gradient of a curve at a point. Since algebraical functions
can be represented graphically, the form of the curve, as
shown below, will indicate whether the function is increasing
or decreasing, and consequently whether the differential
coefficient is positive or negative.
A. Functions which are Increasing are shown by portions
of their curves in Figs. 12(a) and 12(6). where P is a point
on the curve and Q the point corresponding to an increase
of 6x in the value of x.
(1) Curves may be concave upwards and rising, as in
Fig. 12(a). Examples are y
= x* (for positive values of
x), y = 10*,
y
= tan x (between and
J.
77
78
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(2) Or they may be concave downwards and rising,
as in Fig. 12(6). Examples are, y
=
V*. y
= log .
y
= sin x ( between and
g)
Fig. 12(a).
Y
P./
f
J.
o Ox
Fio. 12(6).
In both kinds the curve rises upwards to the right as x
increases.
As is evident from the figures, as x is increased by 6x,
y
is increased by 6y,
Thus
J
and Its limit are positive.
Geometrically it is evident that in each case the tangent
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES
79
to the curve at P makes an acute angle with OX. Hence
the gradient, given by tan 8, is positive. It is also evident
that in Fig. 12(a)
J
Is Increasing, in Fig. 12(6) decreasing.
B. Functions which are decreasing can be similarly repre
sented by portions of their curves in Figs. 13(a) and 13(6).
V
Fio. U(
Y
*
Ns\
O dx
Fio. 13(6).
Using the same letters and notation as in Figs. 12(a) and
12(6), it is evident that in each case, as x at the point P
receives an increment 6x, the new value of the function at x
is less. Hence Sy must be regarded as negative and
^,
with
Its limit
J
',
are negative.
8o TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
As before, there axe two types:
(1)
The curve concave upwards falling, as in Fig.
13(a). Examples are:
j
y
= x* (for negative values of *), y
= 
, y
=
cot x (between and
gj,
etc.
(2)
The curve concave downwards falling, as in
Fig. 13(6). Examples are:
y
= sin x (between and *\ y
= x* (positive
values of x), etc.
The tangents drawn to both of these curves make obtuse
angles with OX. Consequently tan 6, the gradient of the
line, is negative. j
It is also clear that ,' Is Itself Increasing In 13(a) but
decreasing In Fig. 13(6).
53. Stationary values.
Two of the cases illustrated aboveviz., Figs. 12(a) and
13(a)occur in the graph of y
= x* 4x + 3 which was
shown in Fig. 11. This is repeated in Fig. 14, and we will
examine it further.
Since y = x* 4x + 3
dx
This latter is represented in Fig. 14 by the straight line
AB.
The following changes in the curve and function can be
seen from the graph:
(1)
While x Increases from oo to + 2, y Is
decreasing. Values of
?
represented by the line
ABare negative (see Fig. 13(a)).
(2)
While x Increases from +2 to + oo , y
Is
Increasing (see Fig. 12(a)). Hence values of r are
positive.
**
(3)
At C the curve ceases to decrease and begins
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES 8i
to Increase. Thus when x = 2, the value of y is
momentarily not changing, but is stationary. There
Is therefore no rate of change, and
J
Is zero. The
straight line AB thus cuts OX at this point.
Hence when x = 2, the function is said to have a
stationary value, and C is called a stationary point on
the curve.
Fig. 14.
These important conclusions may be summarised as
follows:
(1) 1/ x < + 2, y
is decreasing and
is negative.
(2) If
x > + 2, y is increasing and
2
is positive.
(3)
When x = 2, at C y is momentarily neither in
creasing nor decreasingi.e., thefunction has a stationary
value and <~ = o.
dx
8i TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Next we will consider the function:
y
= 3 + 2x x*.
:. 22*.
dx
The graphs of these are shown in Fig. 15, in which the
Xr
2
I
i
2
Y
iiilililii
s
Fig. IS.
straight line AB represents the derived function 2 2x.
Examining these, as was done above, we see:
(1) When x < + 1, y is increasing and
?
is positive.
(2)
When x > + 1, y is decreasing and ? is negative.
(3) When x = 1 (at C) y has ceased to increase and
begins to decrease.
.'. the value of the function at C is stationary and
the curve has a stationary point.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES
83
54. Turning points.
Comparing the stationary points in Figs. 14 and 15 ol
the curves of
y
= x
* 4x + 3
and y=Z+2xx*
we note the following important differences.
In
y
= x* 4x +
3, at the stationary point,
(1) The curve Is changing from concave upwards
falling to concave upwards rising (Figs. 13(a) and 12(a).
The slope, 0, changes from an obtuse angle, through
zero, to an acute angle.
(2) The values of the function are decreasing before
and Increasing after.
(3)
Consequently , is negative before and positive
after.
ax
In y
= 3 + 2x  x
(1)
The curve Is changing from concave downwards
rising, to concave downwards falling; but 9 is
changing from an acute angle before the point to an
obtuse after (cf. Figs. 12(6) and 13(6)).
(2) The values of the function are Increasing before
and decreasing after.
(3)
Consequently ? is positive before and negative
after.
Thus at both points:
(1)
The function decreases before and increases
after, or vice versa.
(2) J
and changes sign.
Such points on a curve are called "turning points"
We shall see later that not all stationary points are turning
points.
It should be noted that for both stationary and turning
points an essential condition is that 7 = 0. It is the
behaviour of the function before and after, and conse
84 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
quently that of the differential coefficient, which deter
mines the difference.
55. Worked examples.
Example I. For what valve of x is there a turning point
on the curve of y
= 2x* 6* + 9 ?
If y
= 2x*  6* + 9
%**
dv
For a stationary point
f
= 0.
and
4x  6 =
x = 15.
For values of x < 15, % is negative.
.". function is decreasing.
For values of x > 15, j is positive.
.'. function is Increasing.
As the function is decreasing before the stationary point
and increasing after,
,\ there is a turning point when x = 15.
Example 2. Examine y = 1 2x x* for turning
points.
If y
= 1  2x x*
=22*.
dx
dv
For stationary values
f
= 0.
.'. 2x  2 = and x = 
1.
,*, there is a stationary point where x = 1.
If x <
1, ? is positive ; .'.
y is increasing.
If x > 1, j is negative; .". y is decreasing.
.".
y
Is Increasing before and decreasing after the
stationary point.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES 83
/. the stationary point Is also a turning point when
x = I.
Note.The student is recommended to draw the
curves of the above two functions.
56. Maximum and minimum values.
There is a very important difference between the turning
points of the curves of the functions examined in 53, viz.
:
y
= x*
 4* + 3
and
y
= 3 + 2x x*.
as the student will have observed by an examination of
Figs. 14 and 15.
(1)
In y
= x
1
4x + 3 (Fig. 14) the turning point
C, is the lowest point on the curve
i.e.,
small changes in x always produce correspondingly small
changes in vthen, between two consecutive values for
which the curve cuts the axis there must be a turning point.
Consequently for the curve of the above function there
must be two turning points.
(1) Between the points x = 1 and x =2.
(2) Between the points x = 2 and * = 3.
We note further by examination of the function:
(1) If * < l.yis always negative.
(2)
If * > 1 and < 2 y is positive.
(3)
If x > 2 and < 3 y
is negative.
(4) If x > 3, y is always positive.
These last two sets of results lead us to the conclusion
(1) That there is a maximum point (positive)
between x = 1 and x = 2.
(2)
That there is a minimum point (negative)
between x = 2 and x = 3.
Making the usual table of corresponding values of x and
y
and making use of the above conclusions, the curve can
be drawn as shown in Fig. 16. It would need, however,
much tedious calculation to obtain with any high degree of
accuracy either the value of the maximum or minimum
points, or the corresponding values of x.
We therefore proceed to the algebraical treatment of the
problem. Multiplying out the function, we have:
y =*6**
+ 11* 8.
7 = 3*  12* + 11.
ax
It is a necessary condition for turning points that
dx
.. 3* 12*
+ 11 =0.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES 87
Solving the equation, the two roots are * = 142 and
* = 258 (both approx.).
For these values of *, therefore (marked P and Q on
Fig. 16), there are turning points on the curve.
I
>\
$
^

Fig. 18.
Substituting the values in the function, we get for the
values of the turning points
:
y
= + 0385 (P on Fig. 16)
and
y
=  0385
\Q
on Fig. 16).
The conclusion therefore is that:
(1) y
has a maximum value of 0385 when * = 142.
(2) y
has a minimum value of 0385 when * =
258.
88 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
58. To distinguish between maximum and minimum values.
In the preceding example it was possible to decide which
was a maximum and which a minimum value by reference
to the curve of the function. This method, though valuable
as an illustration, is not satisfactory for practical purposes.
Accordingly, we proceed to examine algebraical methods,
which are general in their application and can be employed
with certainty and ease.
Three methods can be used; they all follow from the
conclusions previously reached.
Test I. Examination of changes in the function near the
turning points.
A maximum point was denned as one at which the value
of the function is greater than for values of x, a little greater
or a little less than that at the turning point.
A minimum point was similarly defined as one at which
the value of the function is less than for values of x slightly
greater or less than at the turning point.
Test I consists in the application of these definitions.
Values of x slightly greater and less than that at the
turning point are substituted in the function. From a
comparison of the results we can decide which of the above
definitions is satisfied.
This might be expressed in general terms as follows
i
Let/(x) be a function of x.
Let o be the value of x at a turning point.
Then /(a) is the value of the function at the point.
Let A be a small number.
Then /(a + h) is a value of the function slightly greater
than at the turning point and /(a h) is a value of the
function slightly less.
Then for a maximum /(a) is greater than both /(a + h)
and /(a h).
Test II. Changes In the value of the differential
coefficient before and after the turning point.
(1) Maximum point. We have seen above that:
The function is Increasing before and decreasing
after.
,", * must be positive before and negative after.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES 89
To discover this, substitute in the differential coefficient
values of x a little greater and a little less than the value at
the point.
If it is changing sign from positive to negative through
the zero value the point is a maximum. >
(2) Minimum point. Similarly, since
f
must be
negative before and positive after, if on substitution as
before it is changing sign from negative to positive, the
point is a minimum.
Test III. Sign of the second differential coefficient.
This method is based upon the fact that r\ is the
differential coefficient of p, and indicates, therefore, the
variations of that function.
(1)
Maximum point.
(a) The function is Increasing before and decreasing
after.
A.
(*) :. r is positive before and negative after.
X
fly
(c) .'. at a maximum point
J
Is decreasing.
(d) .*.
^ must be negative.
(2) Minimum point.
(a) The function is decreasing before and Increasing
after. i
(b) ;.
f
is negative before and positive after.
iX
fjy
(c) .: at a minimum point
*
In Increasing.
<Pv .
.".
r5
must be positive.
dx
2
59. Graphical Illustrations.
All these conclusions can be exemplified by further
consideration of the curve of
y
= {xl)(x2)(x3)
or y=x*Qx* + 11* 6
which was examined for turning points in 57.
go TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Since
/(*)
= x*  6*"
+ 11*  6
/'(*) = 3*  12% + 11
/"(*) = 6*  12.
All three curves are shown in Fig. 17.
Testing for turning points
3x*  12* + 11 =0
whence x = 142 and 258 (as above).
Fig. 17.
Corresponding to these values of *, marked A and B in
Fig. 17, are the turning points P and Q, and it was found
in
57 that at P,f(x) = 0385 and at Q,f(x)
=  0385.
Test III above may be employed to distinguish alge
braically which is the maximum and which the minimum.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES fi
Accordingly we substitute in
3j
or /"
(*) those values of *
which produce turning points.
From above
5a
= 6* 12
(1)
When * = 142, 6*  12 = 852  12
. d*y
= ~ 348,
jj
t
Is negative
.*, P must be a maximum point.
(2) When x = 258, 6*  12 = 1548  12
d*v
=
+
348.
i.e., t
4
,
Is positive.
,*, Q must be a minimum point.
Turning to Fig. 17, we will now examine these turning
points, comparing for the maximum and minimum values
the corresponding curves, viz., /(*),/'(*) or ,f"{x) or
p^.
A. At the maximum point P.
('
(x) =0, the essential condition of a turning point.
f(x) is Increasing before P, decreasing after.
/ (%) is positive before P, negative after.
,', f'(x) Is decreasing.
(1
(2
(3
(4
(5) .'. f"(x) or \
\ Is negative.
B. At the minimum point Q.
(1) /'(*) = 0, the essential condition
(2) /(*) is decreasing before Q, increasing after.
(3) /'(*) is negative before
Q,
positive after.
(4) ,', f'(x) or ,' Is Increasing.
(5) ,\ f"(x) or ,
y
t
Is positive.
All of these conclusions are illustrated in Fig. 17.
Of the three methods given above for the discrimination
between maximum and minimum values of a function:
Test
j
is a sound one fundamentally, though the
calculations are apt to be tedious.
= 0.
ga TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Test II is also sound, but often laborious.
Test III is generally the easiest and most useful, but
there is an exception which will be discussed later.
60. Worked examples.
Example I. Find the maximum or minimum value when
y
= 2x* 6* + 3.
For a maximum or minimum
dx
:. ix 6=o
* = 15.
There is a turning point on the curve when x = 15.
To distinguish between maximum and minimum:
dv .
(a) Considering the expression for /, viz. 4x 6:
dv
(1) If x < 15,
j
is negative.
(2) If x >
15
^
is positive.
dv
.*. I
Is Increasing as x increases.
.\ by Test II
y
Is a minimum when x = 15.
<
=
*
This is always positive.
.*. by Test III y
Is a minimum when x = 15.
Example 2. Examine y
= 5 x x* for turning points
and distinguish between maximum and minimum.
Since v = 5 x x*
g
12*
For a turning point
whence
1  2x = 0,
* = !
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES
93
= x*  6x* + 9x  2.
d
/
= 3%'  12* + 9.
(a) If * <
J,
1 2x is positive.
If * >
J,
1 2x is negative.
,*, j< is decreasing as * increases.
.'. by Test II
y
Is a maximum when x =
J.
(6) Also
g
= 2.
This is always negative.
.". by Test III the turning point Is a
maximum.
Example 3. Find the turning points on the curve of
y
= x
3
6x* + 9x
2, and distinguish between maximum
and minimum.
. &
"
dx
and
S
= 6x  12.
For turning points,
dx
.'. 3*
1
 12* + 9 =
or x*
 ix + 3 = 0.
.. x = 3orl.
.". There are turning points when x = I and x = 3.
To distinguish between maximum and minimum, we use
Test III and examine
*4
dx
1
From above t^ = Qx 12.
If * = 1, r~
t
= 6. .'. a maximum point.
If* =
3, ^=+6. /. a minimum point.
.*. the curve has a maximum point when x = 1 and a
minimum point when x = 3.
94
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
The values can be found by substituting these values for
x in the function x* 6**
+ 9* 2.
They are maximum value
f 2.
minimum value 2.
Example 4. When a body is projected vertically upwards
with a velocity of 80 ft.
per sec., the height (s) reached after a
time t sees., is given by the formula s = 80/ 16/*. Find
the greatest height to which the body will rise, and the time
taken.
s is a function of t and s = 80/ 16/*.
Differentiating s with respect to /.
ds
dt
= 80  32/.
= 0.
But when s is greatest
ds
dt
:. 80  32/ =
whence t = 25 sees.
d*s
Also
dt*
= 32.
This is always negative,
value for s when t = 25.
s = 80/ 16/*
s = 100 ft.
there must be a maximum
Substituting in
we get
Example 5. The cost, C, per mile of an electric cable is
120
given by C = '
} + 600*, where x is its crosssection in
sq ins. Find the crosssection for which tlie cost is least, and
the least cost per mile.
C = 
+ 600*.
dC

12
x fiOO
dx~~l?
+im
dC
For a maximum or minimum value of C,
. =0.
dx
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES
93
. i_120
*
600
x =
a/62
=
0447 sq. in. (approx.)
.
The negative root has no meaning in this connection, and
is disregarded.
To discover whether this value of x corresponds to a
maximum or minimum, we use Test III.
Then
d*y _24Q
dx*
~
x*
'
When * = 0447 this is positive.
,*, the cost is a minimum for this crosssection.
120
Substituting for x in ( 600*, we get the minimum
cost.
Thus C
=(R47
+600x0447.
=
537 (approx.).
Example 6. A cylindrical gasometer is to be constructed so
that its volume is V cu. ft. Find the relation between the
radius
of
the base and the height of
the gasometer so that the
cost
of construction of the metal part, not inclitding the base,
shall be the least possible. Find also the radius of the base,
r, in terms
of
V.
Let h be the height of the gasometer.
Let A be the area of surface, excluding the base.
The cost will be least when A is least.
Using the formulae for a cylinder, without base,
A = w* + 2*rA
(1)
and V = w*A
(2)
These equations contain two independent variables, r
and h. We accordingly eliminate one of them, h, between
the two equations and obtain A in terms of r and V, which
is a constant.
From (2) A
=
5*
96 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Substituting in
(1)
A = w
+
(2*r x
Jj).
= W
i
^.
Then = 2*r:
differentiate A with respect to r.
2F
Since 4 is to be a minimum,
?
must equal zero.
2V
A is a function of r
;
dA
dr
2w y = 0.
= ttT
and V
=*.
'
Also since V = nr*A
itr
8
= 7W*A.
A
h=r.
Note.The student should not make the mistake of
attempting to differentiate A with respect to r in
Equation (1) as it stands. Care should be taken to
distinguish between constants and variables in such
equations. In addition to containing two variables,
this equation does not contain the constant V. It is
therefore necessary to eliminate h and obtain A in
terms of rand. v.
61. Points of Inflexion.
When studying how to discriminate between maximum
and minimum values of a function, one of the tests applied
(Test III) was that of the sign of
p^;
viz., that for a
maximum it is negative, and for a minimum, positive. To
complete this test it is necessary further to consider what
happens when n &Q.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES
97
The following brief investigation will also include con
sideration of a case in which ,? = but the function is
neither a maximum nor minimum.
We will first illus
trate these points by
considering the case of
y
= x*.
Then & = 3*
and *
ax*
The curves of the
function and its first
two derivatives are
shown in Fig. 18.
It will be seen that
the curve of y
= x?
passes through the
origin, and at that
point its curvature
changes from concave
downwards and rising
(Fig. 126) to concave
upwards and rising
(Fig. 12a). Thus it is
rising in each part
i.e., it is Increasing
throughout, except at
the origin, when the
curve is momentarily stationary. At that point, there
fore, there is a stationary value, the gradient is zero,
and the tangent to the curve is the axis of *. It does not
therefore fulfil the condition for a turning pointviz.,
increasing before and decreasing after, or vice versa.
The curve of its differential coefficient
r< is zero.
ax*
MAXIMA AND MINIMA VALUES
ft 4.
99
(4) Consequently
,
x
is changing sign at the point
of inflexion. .
(5) At the point of inflexion, C,
y
, is a minimum for
the corresponding value of x.
dx
(6)
This value of
?viz., 1
Sx
( ,
Sx\ . S*
2cos(x r^Jsmg
Sx
Sx
or, rearranging
. Sx
sin ^
E{+f)*J
Transferring the numerical factor, 2, on the right side to
the denominator, we have:
^x
2
In this form the second factor takes the form of ^ , the
limit of which, when 8 > 0, was found in
19. From
this we know that, proceeding to the limit in B,
Lt
. Sx
sin g
Sx
2
Taking limits, therefore we havei
r . 8zl
cos
V
x+
2)
x
o7
2
dy
f
= COS X
dx
(since
8
*
>0)
Geometric proofs of the above, as well as of those which
follow, are of interest, and will be found in larger books on
the subject.
io4 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
65. Differentiation of cos x.
Employing the notation and method used with sin x we
obtain:
iy
_
(cos x x cos x) {sin x X ( sin x)}
dx
'
cos" x
cos
1
* + sin* x
1
cos* X
cos
1
*
(quotient rule)
(Trig.,
65)
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 105
. ^_
"
dx
= sec
2
x.
A proof from first principles can readily be obtained by
the method employed above for sin x and cos x, using the
appropriate trigonometrical formula.
67. Differentiation of sec x, cosec x, cot x.
The differential coefficients of these functions can be
found from first principles as above, but they are more
easily obtained by expressing them as reciprocals of cos x,
sin x and tan x, and using the rule for the differentiation
of a quotient.
(a) y
= cosec x.
Then y
=
J
sinx
iy
Q
~
cosx
~.
cos *
* *
dx
~
sin
1
x ' sin* x
1
(quotient rule).
This is more useful in the following form:
cos* cos *
1_
sin* x sin x sin x
;. SK = cosec x cot x.
dx
(6) y
= sec x.
1
y
= sec * =
*
cos*
dy
_
( sin x)
dx
~
cos' x
sina^
~~
cos* *
=
*
x
sin x
cos * cos X
^
= sec x tan x.
dx
(quotient rule)
io6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(c) y
= cot x.
I
tanx
l
=
^x
(quotient rule)
1 COS*_X
cos' x sin* x
I
sin*x
.". /
=
cosec
2
x.
dx
68. Summary.
The above results are summarised as follows for con
venience:
Function.
%
sin x
cos X
tan x
COS X
sin x
sec'x
cosec x
sec x
cot X
cosec x cot x
sec x tan x
cosec
2
x
69. Differentiation of modified forms.
The differentiation of the trigonometric functions
frequently requires the application of the rule for "a
function of a function
".
A very common form involves a
multiple of xfor example, ox. This is a function of a
function, and its differential coefficient is a. Hence this
must appear as a factor of the differential coefficient.
Thus if y
= sin ax.
dy
f
= a cos ax
dx
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
dy
y
= cos ax,
= a sin ox
dv
y
= tan ax,
f
= a sec* ox
and similarly for their reciprocals.
Thus
107
j sin 2x
dx
= 2 cos 2x
d x
dx"**
1 . X
= "2
sm
2
d . ax
J*
tan
b
a .ax
Slightly more complicated forms are such as the following:
If y
= sin (ax + b), ? = a cos (ax + 6)
dv
y
= sin (ji + nx),
/
= cos (it +
nx)
y
= tan (1

*),
%
= ~
sec* (1
 x)
70. Worked examples.
Example I. Differentiate y = sin' *.
i.e. ^
= (sin x)'
d
y  2 sin x v
*(sin *>
' &2sin*x
=jj=
= 2 sin x cos x
= sin 2x.
Example 2. Differentiate y = sin V*.
y = sin x*
'
&
= ^ (
*
J)
x
(i
*"*>
1
=
J
COS X* X
_
cos^Vx
=
2y/i
"
Vx
io8 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Example 3. Differentiate y
= vsin x;
i.e. = (sin x)'
rfv , , > i rf (sin x)
g****H>
cos*
2 sin x
cosx
2\/siFx'
Example 4. Differentiate y
= sin* (x*).
v = (sin*')*.
S = 2 sin x* x cos x* x 2*
ax
= 4x sin x' cos x*.
(See 47.)
Exercise 1 1.
Differentiate the following :
1. 3sinx.
3. cos
2
.
5. sec 06*.
2. sin 3*.
4. tan =.
x
6. coscc *,
C
7. sin 2x + cos 2x.
9. sec * + tan x.
11. cos6 + sin JO.
13. cos (3n x).
15. sin*x.
17. cos* (2x).
19. tan VI
x.
21. a(l cosx).
23. cos(2x
+
V
25. x* + 3 sin \x.
27. x sin x.
29. xtanx.
31.^.
x
33. cos* (x).
8. sin 3x cos 3x.
10. sin 4x + cos 5x.
12. sin (2x +
l).
14. cosec (a
Jx).
16. sin (x
3
).
18. sec (x*).
20. a sin nx + b cos nx.
22. 2 tan,.
24. tan 2x
tan*x.
26.
28.
a
cos .
*
imx*
30.
X
tanx*
32. sin 2x +
sin (2x).
34. x' tan x.
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
36. C0t3x.
109
35. cot (5x_+ 1).
37. Vcos x.
39. sin* x + cos* x.
41.
43.
1 + COS X
sin x
x*
45.
%.
cos2x
47. xVsinx.
49.
38. sin2xcos2x.
40. sin* x cos* x.
42. J^L?.
1 + COS X
44. x*cos2x.
tanx 1
46.
48.
secx
sin*x
1 + sin x'
1 tanx"
71. Successive derivatives.
50. sec* x cosec x.
Let
Then
i
=COS *
2
/,
= sinx
d"y
^
= cosx
d*y
,?. = sin x.
dy*
Clearly these derivatives will repeat in sets of four,
identical with the first four above.
From Trigonometry we know that cos x = sin (x
+
,)
.
.'. the above may be written
;
* *'
^cos_sin(
+
g
Sb{(+3} (+S*('+i)
S4W+5M
(+*)*(+
They may be continued indefinitely, Z being added in
each successive derivative, the sine form being retained.
no TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Thus it may be deduced that
aJ
*(*+
2
)
Successive derivatives of cos x may be similarly obtained.
Those of tan x, sec x, cosec x, and cot x become complicated
after a few steps in differentiation, and cannot be expressed
by a general formula.
72. Maximum and minimum values of trigonometric
functions.
Note.Unless the student is familiar with functions
of an angle of any magnitude, he should revise Trigono
metry,
130136.
(1) y
= sin x, y
= cos x.
When y
= sin x
dy_
dx
= cos a:
d*y
,. = sin x.
dx
%
The graph of sin x is represented by the thickest curve in
Fig. 19. The broken curve is that of y , and the thin one
d*~
dx
%
Fig. 19.
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS m
A periodic function. Since sin x = sin (x \ 2rc), the
portion of the curve between x = and x =2n will be
repeated for intervals of 2r as x increases. There will be
similar sections for negative angles.
Thus the section of the curve between and 2u will be
repeated an infinite number of times between oo and
+ oo , the whole forming one continuous curve.
sin x is an example of what is termed a periodic function,
and the number 2n is called the period of the function.
The following characteristics of the curve of sin x
illustrate much of the work of the preceding chapter.
(a) Types of curvature. The curve between and
2tc provides examples of the four types of curvature
illustrated in Figs. 12(a) and {b) and Fig. 13(a) and (ft),
while that of
r
illustrates the connection between these
ax
forms of curvature and the sign of the differential
coefficient (see 52).
(b) Turning points. The curve between and 2ir
shows that between these two values of x there are
two turning points, at P and Q, the values being + 1
and 1.
" *1 
~l'dx~
.*. P is a maximum point.
At
Q,
when x =
y
.  = and
~'
i
Is positive.
.*.
Q is a minimum point.
This is true for any section of 2n as x increases.
Consequently throughout the curve from oo to + oo
there is an Infinite sequence of turning points,
alternately maximum and minimum.
(c) Points of Inflexion. There are two points of
inflexion on this section of the curve at A and B.
At A the curve changes from concave down to concave
dy . . d*v
up, t is a minimum, viz., 1, t=, = and is
changing from negative to positive.
Hence A is a point of minimum gradient. Its
At P, when x = Jj, j
=0, and S Is negative.
112 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
gradient is given by the value of < at the point, viz.,
1 . As this is the tangent of the angle of slope, the
curve crosses the axis at an angle of 135.
At B this is reversed. The curve changes from
concave up to concave down, / isa maximum, and
My dx
j2, = 0, and is changing sign from positive to negative.
B is therefore a point of maximum gradient. This is
equal to + 1, and the curve cuts the axis at 45*. There
is also a point of inflexion at the origin.
It will be seen that Fig. 19 illustrates graphically the
whole of the summary in 62.
n
The graph of cos x is that of sin x, moved 5 to the left
along OX. The curve of ? shows its shape and position in
Fig. 19. Consequently with angles, where they occur,
diminished by , the above remarks respecting sin x are
applicable to cos x.
1
(2) y
= tan x.
y
When:
y
tm tan *
dy
ik
d*y
cot X.
= sec'
2 sec* x tan *
When!
v = cot x
dy
dx
d*y
d?
cosec* x
2 cosec* x cot *
The graphs of tan x and of its differential coefficient sec* *
are represented in Fig. 20, the latter curve being dotted.
The following characteristics of the curve of y
= tan *
may be noted:
(a) The curve Is discontinuous. When x
>
%
tan x
J
TT ' '
t\
T'HJTTl t
: . f
'Tnnf
5J:
Iff
1.
: IJffl Hi
iiiir^LJ
F10. 20.
(c) The function Is always Increasing, and this is
indicated by the fact that ?, viz., sec' x, is always
positive.
*
(d) There Is a point of Inflexion when x = tt. The
curve is changing from concave down to concave up,
the differential coefficient, sec' x, is a minimum, and
its value is + 1. Consequently the curve crosses OX
at an angle of
46. Similar points occur for x =
and any integral multiple of it.
Since cot x
=
its curve is the inversion of that
tan x
of tan x. It is always decreasing ( cosec' * is always
negative); it is periodic and has points of inflexion
"4
when x =
g, ^
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
. The student should draw it as
an exercise.
(3) y
= cosec x, y
= sec x.
Turning points on these curves may be deduced from
those of their reciprocals. When sin x is a maximum,
cosec* is a minimum; consequently the curves are
periodic, and maximum and minimum values occur
alternately.
If y
= cosec *
dy
f
= cosec * cot x.
ax
When * =
*
cosec x =
1, cot x = 0.
I*
j?,
will be found to be positive.
Hence there is a maximum value when x
2"
Both curves are discontinuous and periodic.
(For the curves see Trigonometry, pp. 157, 158.)
73. Worked example.
Find the turning points on the curve of y
= sin x + cos x.
If y
= sin * + cos x
dx
= cos * sir
For turning points
dy
die
= 0.
Putting cos*
sin* =
sin * = cos*
and tan* = 1.
X =
4"
But this is the smallest of a series of angles whose
tangent is + 1.
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 113
All these angles are included in the general formula
nit + (Trig., 136.)
,*, the angles for which there are turning points in the
above function are
4. 4
4
Abo
dh/
t<
= sin *
cos *.
dx*
This is negative when
it 9n
*=4'
4
and positive when
5n
*=j ...
.*. the curve is periodic, and maximum and minimum
values occur alternately:
n 9n
Maximum when
Minimum when
Max. value
*

4' 4
_5re 13n
*
4< 4
. 7t . 71
= sm + cos .
Similarly minimum value = \/2.
The curve is represented in Fig. 21. P is the maximum
point and Q the minimum. A Is obviously a point of
Inflexion.
The curve can be drawn by first drawing the curves of
sin * and cos *, and then adding the ordinates of the two
curves for various values of *.
The curve is a simple example of what are termed
Harmonic Curves, or wavediagrams, which are of importance
in Electrical Engineering (see Trigonometry, 139).
H6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Exercise 12.
For what values of x, not greater than n are there maxi
mum or minimum values of the following?
1. sin 2x x.
2. sin* * cos' x.
3. sin x + sin * cos x.
. sin x
1 + tan j?
6. 2 sin * + cos x.
6. sin x + cos 2x.
7. 2 sin * sin 2x.
8. sin x sin 2x.
9. What is the smallest value of x for which 2sinx
+ 3 cos x is a maximum.
10. Find the smallest value of * for which tan* x 2 tan *
is a maximum or minimum.
11. Show that the maximum value of a sin 8 + b cos 9
is Va* + b* and the minimum value
Va* + b*.
(Trig., 139.)
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 117
74. Inverse circular functions.
When we write y
= sin x the sine is expressed as a function
of the angle denoted by x. When x varies, the sine varies
in consequence
d
* 
'
dx xVx
a_
I*
Similarly if y = cosec
1
x
dx "xVx
2
 I"
Xr
;
2
!!!!!!
i
i
331
2
77
it
1
i!;
i
Fig. 24.
'(
Fig. 24 represents part of the curve of sec
1
*. It is a
manyvalued discontinuous curve with no part of it between
x = + 1 and x = 1.
Z
i.e.,
.
.
cannot vanish for any finite value
ax xVx* 1
iia TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
of x. There are therefore no turning points, but when
x =
1, * becomes infinite, as was the case in the curve
of sin
1
x (Fig. 22). The curve of cosec
1
x is similar.
78. Summary of formulae.
The differential coefficients of the inverse functions are
collected together below for reference.
Function.
dy
dx
sin"
1
x
COS
1
X
1
VI x
a
1
Vl x
2
tan
1
x
cot
1
X
1
1 + x
a
1
1 + x
a
sec
1
x
cosec
1
x
1
xVx
2
 1
1
xVx
2

1
It should also be noted that
. .x 1
sin
1
 = >
a
Va
1
x*
a a* + x*
*
<*
xVx* a*
THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTION
Similarly for the other three functions.
79. Worked examples.
Example I . Differentiate sin
1
x*.
Using the rule for a
"
function of a function
"
*y 1 d
i w,
*dxW
Sx
Vi^l"
Example 2. Differentiate tan
1
,.
'^
x
2
133
x* 2
=
?"+i
x
"^
2x
Example 3. Differentiate x* sin
1
(1
x).
Using the rule for differentiation of a product
g
= 2xsin
1
(1 x) + x x
^_
l
(l
_ x)t
X
<
(1 x,
2x sin
1
(1
x) +
Ixsln
1
(I x)
VI 
(1
 2x + x)
X*
X (1)
V2x^TxT
Exercise 13.
Differentiate the following functions i
1. (a) sin
1
4*; (6) sin
1 ?
2. (a) ficos
1
^);
(b) cos
1 ?
12* TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
3. (a) tan
1
; (b) tan
1
(a*).
4. (a) cos
1
^*; (6) sin^V*.
5. (a) xsin
1
*; (6)
sin
1
.
6. (a) sin
1
(3* 
1) ; (6)
cosecr
1
1.
7 (a) tan
1
(* + l)
; (6)
(x* + 1) tan
1
x.
8. (a tan^Vl  x; (b) sin^VT^**.
9. (a) seer
1
5%; (6) sec
1
**.
10. (a) sin
1
(sin *) ;
(b) sin
1
Vsin x.
11. (a) 2 sec
1
ax; \b) tan^V*.
2x
**yHB
12. (a) tan
1
j

%
; (b) tan
13.
^seci^j^sec
1
^
'a' x*
x
14. (a) sin
1
^j;
(6) cosecr
1
^
r
15. (a) Stan
1
*; (6) tan* sin
1
*.
CHAPTER VIII
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
80. Compound Interest Law of Growth.
The student will be familiar with two methods of pay
ment of interest on money, termed Simple and Compound
Interest (Algebra, 207). In each the interest bears a
fixed ratio to the magnitude of the sum of money involved.
But while with Simple Interest the principal remains the
same from year to year, with Compound Interest it is added
to the principal at the end of each year, over a period, and
the interest for the succeeding year is calculated on the
sum of principal and interest.
Let P = the Principal.
Let r = the rate per cent, per annum.
f
Interest added at end of 1st year =P x
jqq.
Pr
,\ Amount at end of 1st year =P
+
j
This is the principal for the new year.
.'. by the same working as for the 1st year
Amount at end of 2nd year = P ( 1 +
j
= p
(
i
+Toor
.. ..
tax
..
=p(i+4)'.
Suppose the interest is added at the end of each half year
instead of at the end of each year, them
3rd
Amount at end of 1st halfyear =P (l + *
%fft)
1st year
2nd
.*, Amount at end of t years
123
P(I
P(I
+
f 2 x 100.
+
2 x 100/
)"
2 x 100/
ia6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
If the interest is added 4 times a year:
Amount at end of 1st year =Pjl+ * r^vj
1
" "
P
V
+
Ax"100J
Similarly, if the interest is added monthly, i.e., 12 times
a year:
Amount at end of t year = P (l
+
J2 ^jqq)
If the interest is added m times a year:
1 + Tqq 1
.
**
In this result let
Then
r
roow
m =
1
nr
loo
1 "
.*, the amount after t years = P (l + \
m
'{('+3"}"
Now suppose that n becomes indefinitely large, i.e., the
interest is added on at indefinitely small intervals, so that
the growth of the principal may be regarded as continuous.
Then the amount reached will be the limit of
' {('+*)}*
when n becomes infinitely large.
To find this we require to find the limit of (l +
)"
as
Amount =P{ Lt (l
+l)"p
It becomes necessary, therefore, to find the value of
Lt
,c
+
,r
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS ny
81. The value of Lt (\ +
.)'.
(\\
n
1 +
J
by means of the Binomial Theorem
n(nl)(n2) 1
+ ~
l_3
'9 + '
Li
+ . .
.
But the limit of
(1 + ) is equal to the sum of the
limits. (Th. limits No. 2.)
Also
l
1

U
Z
J Lt
and Lt
(JX'S i
11. IE
IV
Li
TFte.
Lt
('
+
)
The limit is thus represented by an infinite series. It
can be proved that as the number of terms is increased
128 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS r
without limit, the sum of all the terms approaches a finite
limit, i.e., the series is convergent (see 18). Its value has
been calculated to hundreds of places of decimals, and can
be found arithmetically as follows to any required degree
of accuracy. Each term can be found from the preceding
by simple division of the preceding by the new factor in
the denominator. Thus:
1st term = 1000000
2nd
$t
1000000
3rd
il
= 0500000 (dividing 2nd by 2)
4th
$9
= 0166667
6th
91
= 0041667
6th
It
= 0008333
7th
II
= 0001389
8th
II
= 0000198
9th
II
= 0000025
10th
n
= 0000003
Sum of 10 terms = 2718282
Thus its value to 6 significant figures is 271828.
This constant Is always denoted by the letter e.
or .
U(l+JY
I
We have seen above that the amount [A) at C.I. after t
years when the interest is continuously added is
''K'+aT
when n becomes infinitely large.
1\"
Replacing (l + ) by its limit when n
> oo , we get i
A=Pe.
Let
rt
100
== X.
Then we can write:
A == Pe
f is called an exponential function because the index or
exponent is the variable part of function, whether it be t as
above or x in general.
82. The Compound Interest Law.
The fundamental principle employed in arriving at the
above result is that the growth of the principal is con
tinuous in time and does not take place by sudden increases
at regular intervals. In practice, compound interest is
added at definite intervals of time, but the phenomenon of
continuous growth is a natural law of organic growth
and change. In many physical, chemical, electrical and
engineering processes the mathematical expressions of
them involve functions in which the variation is propor
tional to the functions themselves. In such cases the
exponential function will be involved, and as the funda
mental principle is that which entered into the Compound
Interest investigations above, this law of growth was called
by Lord Kelvin the Compound Interest Law.
83. The Exponential Series.
We shall next proceed to show that the function, e", can
be expressed in a series involving ascending powers of x, a
result which might have been anticipated, since a series
was used to arrive at the limit of
(
1 + } when n became
infinite.
Since
Then
EICAL.)
J8Jfr+$
={('+l)T
c+sr
J3o TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Expanding thus by the Binomial Theorem
^l
+n
j
=i +w*.+ .g
^
1 +
*
TF
2)
<*3
. n*(n*  l)(n* 2) 1 ,
+
[8

+
1 \~
<^aX2)
li
+ . .
.
LI (l
+)"
=l+x +
x* x
1
H
T
L?
I.e.,
x
3
e
,
= l+x+r
2
+."
3

This series can be shown to be convergent.
Replacing x by x we get
e = I  x +
^
 *  + . . .
Similarly
:
a'x* a*x*
< =
1
+*
+
lZ+Tl
+
_ . ,a*x* a*x*
84. Differentiation of c.
Tliis can be performed by assuming the series for * as
above and differentiating it term by term.
x
i
jft
4
Since e* = 1 +
x
+
^
+
if
+
[4
+
i ltA
_
o 4 1 4
2
*
4  +
**
4
x
1
x
3
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 131
But this is the series for e*
:. n
y
*
1
=

dx
This property, viz. that the differential coefficient of e
is equal to itself, is possessed by no other function of x.
It was to be expected, since we have seen that fundamentally
e* is a function such that its rate of change is proportional
to itself.
Similarly, if *..*
dx
y*.%r~.
The differentiation of e* can also be readily performed
by using first principles.
85. The exponential curve.
(1) If
y
= *
d\
Since 5 is always positive, the curve of the function e*
must be positive and always increasing. ,*, it has no
turning points.
Since Pi
= e* this does not vanish for any finite value
of *.
dx
.'. there is no point of Inflexion.
(2) If y =
r
i
'3* TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
#,.
Applying the same reasoning as above, / is always
negative. .". curve is always decreasing. There are no
turning points and no point of inflexion.
The two curves are shown in Fig. 25. In drawing them,
values of the two functions will be found in the tables on
pp. 379, 380.
Fig. 25.
The curve of e* illustrates the continuous increase of a
function according to the Compound Interest law.
The curve of er* shows a law of decrease common in
chemical and physical processes, representing a
"
dying
away " law, the decrement being proportional to the
magnitude of that which is diminishing at any instant.
The loss of temperature in a cooling body is an example.
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
86. Napierian, Hyperbolic, or Natural Logarithms.
In
81 we arrived at the formula
133
A = P
100
.
This may be written :
A
P
rt
= <s
106
.
Let
rt
100
= X.
Then we can write:
A
P
= e.
In this form it is seen that x represents the logarithm of *
to base e. In many similar examples e arises naturally as
the base of a system of logarithms. So it came about that
when logarithms were first {jiven to the world by Lord
Napier in 1614, the base of his system involved e. Hence
such logarithms are called Napierian logarithms. They are
also called Hyperbolic logs, from their association with the
hyperbola, and sometimes natural logarithms. The intro
duction of 10 as a base was subsequently made by a
mathematician named Briggs, who saw how valuable they
would be in calculations. A short table of Napierian
logarithms is given on
pp.
377, 378.
In subsequent work in this book, unless it is stated to
the contrary, the logs employed will be those to base e.
87. Differentiation of log, x.
The differential coefficient of log, x can be readily obtained
by the method of first principles, the work involving the
limit of (l +
)"
as n proceeds to infinity. Or the
differentiation of f may be demonstrated as follows
:
Let y
= log, x.
Then x = e>.
'34
and
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
dx
*
^ 1
!
dx e> x
If the logarithm involved a different base, say a, then it
can be changed to base e by the usual method. [Algebra,
153.)
Thiis if
y
= log X
then
y
= log. x x log e
and
I* ax
1
=  X
X
log,e,
As a special case if
y
= 10
gl<
*
dy
dx
1
= X
X
1
= X
X
lgio '
04343.
68. Differentiation of the general exponential functions.
e* is a special case of a* where a is any positive number.
Let
Then
or
and
y
= a*
log,^ = xlog,a
x = log,y x
dx
dy y log, a
log, a
=y
x log,
a
d
= a' x log. o.
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 135
As a special case, if
y
= 10*
g
= lf> x log, 10.
89. Summary of formulae.
Function. DifT. Coeff.
e'
0"
e"
 e
"
0*
x log.
log.x
1
X
90. Worked examples.
Example I. Differentiate y = <r
v
.
Employing the rule for the function of a function
If
y
m*
= 6x x e
3**.
Example 2. Differentiate y
= log x*.
d
y
l d
1 is
<rx
=
x**JxW
2
x*
x 2x
Or it can be obtained by noting that log x* = 2 log x.
x*
Example 3. Differentiate log ;=..
Vx*
1
i
3
6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
This may be written
y
=log x* log (x* 1)'
2GO
1
*  U
X
x*2
~
x(x  I)

Example 4. Differentiate y
= c** sin (6x 4 c).
This is important in many electrical and physical problems,
such as, for example, the
"
dying away
'
of the swing of a
pendulum in a resisting medium.
Let y = ea* sin (bx + c).
Then 2 = {<r x 6 cos (bx + c)} {ae"sm (bx + c)}
ax
= r{D cos (bx +c)
a sin (bx + c)}.
Exercise 14.
Differentiate the following functions i
1. (a) **; (6) el;Jc)
e^.
2. (a) r^; (b) <fV; (c)
*.
3. (a) ev; (b) e>; (c)
**.
(6) %^S
(e) *
w
^
6.
6.
7. (a) 2*; (b)
10**;
'(c)
****.
a) xc*\ (6) xr; (c) xV*.
a) (x+4)**; (6) Csinx; (c) 10*.
8.
9.
x"a
x
?*
ir+I.
(c) C
00
".
(6) (+&)*; (C)
*
10. (a) log?; (A) log (ax + bx + c).
11. (a) logx; (6) log (x + 3).
12. (a) xlogx; (6) log (j>x + q).
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 137
13. (a) log (sin x)
;
(b) log (cos x).
14. (a)log^; (ft) log (+*).
15. (a) log (x
+ V" +I}; (6) Vx"  log (1 + Vx).
16. (a) log tan
*
; (6) logVFTl; (c) 4*
17. (a) xc**;
(j)
.wtasinftx.
18. (a)
J;
(b) log (VslHT).
19. (a) x*; (6) log {Vx^T + Vx+1).
20. (a) logjq^; (b) sin x x log sin x.
21. (a) log^^
; (6) ^sin*x.
Va

Vx
22
 () ~;
(*)
Jqrf*
23. (a) sin
1
log x; (6) cos<r*.
24. (a) e* cos (6x + c) ; (b) e* cos 3x
;
(c) <r*' sin
(**+)
25
(")
log /** .; (b) sin^=^.
1
* a
V
* x* e
1
+ e~*
26. Find the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and wth derivatives of
(a)
y
= c*; (b) y
= r<"; (c) y
= log x.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS >39
CHAPTER IX
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
91. Definitions of Hyperbolic Functions.
In Fig. 25 there were shown the graphs of the exponential
function e* and c~*. These two curves are reproduced in
Fig. 26, together with two other curves marked A and B.
(1) In curve A the ordinate of any point on it is
one half of the sum of the corresponding ordlnates of
e* and e~*. For example, at the point P, its ordinate
PQ is half the sum of LQ and MQ.
.'. for every point on the curve
' 2
(2)
On curve B, the ordinate of any point is one half
of the difference of the ordinates of the other two
curves.
Thus RQ = \(LQ  MQ)
i.e., for any point
y
= $(* *).
The two curves therefore represent two functions of x,
and their equations are given by
y
=
J(e* + e)
and
y
= $(e* e*).
It is found that these two functions have properties which
in many respects are analogous to those of y
= cos x and
y
= sin x. It can be shown that they bear a similar
relation to the hyperbola that the trigonometric or circular
functions do to the circle. Hence the function
y
=
J(e* + e*) Is called the hyperbolic cosine, and
y
=
J(e
e
x
) Is called the hyperbolic sine.
These are abbreviated to cosh x and sinh x, the added h
indicating the hyperbolic cos, etc. The names are usually
pronounced
"
cosh
"
and
"
shine," respectively.
They are defined by the equations stated above, viz.
:
cosh x =
i(e + e*)
slnh x
J(e*
e*).
From these definitions, also
cosh x + slnh x = e
cosh x slnh x = e~*
There are four other hyperbolic functions corresponding
to the other circular functions, viz.:
tanh x =
sinh x
cosh x e* + r*
1

as

+
i
i
4
o TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
k
l 2
sech x =
coth x
=
1
cosh*
1
tanh x ef r*'
These functions can be expressed in exponential form by
derivation from their reciprocals.
The names of these are pronounced
"
than,"
"
coshec,"
"
shec
"
and
"
coth."
The curve of cosh x, marked A in Fig. 26, is an important
one. It is called the catenary, and is the curve formed by a
uniform flexible chain which hangs freely with its ends fixed.
These functions can be expressed in the form of series
which are derived from the series for p, found in 83.
Thus
and
Hence by addition and subtraction:
cosh *
= 1
+7i2+j4+..
slnhx = x
+
n+f5
+ '
92. Formulae connected with hyperbolic functions.
There is a close correspondence between formulae ex
pressing relations between hyperbolic functions and
similar relations between circular functions. Consider the
two following examples:
(1) cosh* * sinh* x
fe^)' 2 ) \^
=
i
{(**+ r* + 2)
 (*
+
**
2)}
cosh* x sinh* x = I.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
141
This should be compared with the trigonometrical result
cos* x + sin*x = 1.
(2) cosh* *
f
sinh* *
"
4
=
2
= cosh 2x
i.., cosh* + sinh
1
x = cosh 2x.
This is analogous to cos* x sin* * = cos 2x.
Similarly, any formula for circular functions has its
counterpart in hyperbolic functions. It will be noticed
that in the above two cases there is a difference in the signs
used, and this applies only to sinh* *. This has led to the
formulation of Osborne's rule, by which formulae for
hyperbolic functions can be at once written down from the
corresponding formulae for circular functions.
Osborne's Rule.
In any formula connecting circular functions of general
angles, the corresponding formula connecting hyperbolic
functions can be obtained by replacing each circular
function by the corresponding hyperbolic function, If the
sign of every product or Implied product of two sines Is
changed.
For example
becomes
since
93.
sec* x = 1 + tan* *
sech' x = 1 tanh* x
sinh x x sinh x
tanh'* =
cosh x x cosh x"
The more important of these corresponding formulae are
summarised for convenience.
M*
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Hyperbolic Functions. Circular Functions.
cosh* x sinh* * 1 cos" * + sin* * 1
sinh 2x 2 sinh cosh * sin 2x 2 sin x cos *
cosh 2* = cosh* *
+
cos 2* = cos* * sin* *
sinh
1
*
sech* * 1 tan
h
' * sec' x  1 + tan* x
cosech' * coth* * 1 cosec* * = cot" * + 1
sinh (*
y)
sinh * cosh
y
sin (*
y)
= sin * cos
y
cosh
j sinh
y
cos * sin
y
cosh {* y)
" cosh * cosh
y
cos (* y)
cos * cos y :f
sinh x sinh
y
sin x sin v
The following striking connections between the two sets
of functions are given for the information of the student.
For a full treatment any book on advanced trigonometry
should be consulted.
cosh *=!(<* + r
z
) ; cos x = }(** +
fa
)
sinh *
i(*
*); sin x = ^(e** "<*)
sinh x = . sin ix
t
cosh x = cos
'*
where =
V~
=
T. (See Algebra, Appendix, p. 284.)
94. Differential coefficients of hyperbolic functions.
(I) sinhx.
y
= sinh*
e* t*
Let
2
Then
Ix
2~~
= cosh x.
(2)
coshx.
Let y
= cosh *
e* + r
2
Then
dy _ c* tr
dx~ 2
= sinh x.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
143
(3) tanhx.
The differential coefficient may be found from the
exponential definition, or we may use the above result.
t
. . sinh *
Let y = tanh x
,
.
'
cosh x
*n,m
dy cosh x . cosh x sinh * . sinh x
I hen /
=
rj
ax cosh**
(Quotient rule.)
_ cosh
1
x sinh' *
cosbTx
ooffiil
<
92
>
= sech
2
x.
Similarly, it may be shown that, if
y
= cosech x,
= cosech x coth x
y
= sech x,
y
= coth x,
dy
f
= sech x tanh x
dx
j = cosech* x.
dx
These results should be compared with the differential
coefficients of the corresponding circular functions.
95. Curves of the hyperbolic functions.
The curves of cosh * and sinh x in Fig. 26 should be
examined again with the assistance of their differential
coefficients.
(1) y
= cosh x ;
2. = S  n h x, 5? = cosh x.
+ vanishes only when * = 0. There is therefore a
turning point on the curve (curve A). Also, since
sinh * is negative before this point and positive after,
d*x
while tj is positive, the point is a minimum. There
is no other turning point and no point of inflexion.
44
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(2) y
= slnh x; j = cosh x, ^
= sinh x.
dy
dx
~
^,
*'.., cosh a: is always positive and does not vanish.
Consequently sinh x is always Increasing and has no
turning point. When x = 0, p^
= 0, and is negative
before and positive after. Therefore there is a point
of Inflexion when x =
0; since
i^,
i.e., coshx = l
when * = 0, the gradient at is unity and the slope j
(3) y
= tanh x; = sech
1
x.
Since sech* x is always positive, tanh x is always increasing
between eo and + oo . Also since sinh x and cosh x are
always continuous and cosh x never vanishes, tanh x must
be a continuous function.
Fig. 27.
As was shown in 91, tanh x can be written in the formi
tanhx =
e** + 1
1

e^T~V
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS '43
From this form it is evident that while x increases from
oo to 0, e** increases from to 1.
2
.". 1
4. , ,
or tanh x increases from 1 to 0.
e
u
+ 1
Similarly, while x increases from to +
eo , tanh x
increases from to +1.
The curve therefore has the lines y
= 1 as its asymp
totes and is as shown in Fig. 27.
96. Differentiation of the inverse hyperbolic functions.
Inverse hyperbolic functions correspond to inverse
circular functions, and their differential coefficients are
found by similar methods.
(1)
Differential coefficient of slnh"
1
x.
Let
Then
or
y
= sinh
1
x
x = sinhy.
J*
= cosh:y
dy
=
1
ix cosh y
'
I
1
Vl+smhTy
1
(93)
or
VI + X
a
V? +
1'
(2)
Differential coefficient of cosh"
1
x.
Using the same method as above we geti
dy
=
I
dx
"
Vx
a

r
(3)
Differential coefficient of tanh
1
x.
If y
= tanh
1
x
x = tanhy
A
g
= sech\y
dv 1
and
dx sech*y
1
1 tanh*y
(93)
.
4
6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(4) The differential coefficients of the reciprocals of the
above can be found by the same methods. They are:
dy
=
I
dx~
xV\x*'
y
= sech"
1
x,
dv
^cosechix./^^.
y
=
coth

lx>
^
= _^_L
r
The following forms will be found of importance later :
(1) If y= sinh
1
dx
1 i
x

a
or i j
.
Vx* +
(2) Similarly, if y
= cosh
1

,
dy i
2i
Vx*F
97. Logarithm equivalents of the Inverse hyperbolic
functions.
(I) sinh
1
x = log{x
+ vT+lfy
Let y
= sinh
1
x.
Tlien x=sinhy.
But cosh*y = 1 + sinh*.y
( 93)
= 1 +
**.
coshy = VT+^_ (A)
.", sinh
y + cosh y
= x + i/l + x*
but sinh
y + cosh y
= e
( 91)
.. ef=x+
V\+~x*.
Taking logs
y
= log {x + Vl +x*
}
i.e., sinh
1
x = log {x + Vx* + I}.
Note.Since cosh
y
is always positive, the plus sign only
is taken in A.
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
*47
(2)
cosh"
1
X = log {x + Vx
2
>}
Let
y
= cosh
1
x.
,*, *=coshy,
but sinh'y = cosh*y 1
= x*  1.
.". sinh y
= Vx*~^ 1
(93)
(both signs applicable).
As above = cosh
y + sinh
y
= x Vx*  1.
.*.
y
= log {x
Vx*

1}
or cosh
1
x = log {x
Vx*

I}
The two values thus obtained are:
xV> log {x
+ Vx*
1} and log
{
= 
1}.
Their sum :
\og{x+Vx* _l}+log{* Vx* 1}
= logUx + Vx*~~l) x (*
= logx(xl)}
Vx* 1)}
= logl
= 0.
.*. these two values of cosh
1
x are equal, differing
only in their sign. Hence we may write
:
cosh
1
x =
log {x + v/x^

!}
Note.
i.e.,
the Integral of a sum of a number of functions Is equal to
the sum of the Integrals of these functions.
Examples.
(1) J(*6x
+ 7*ll)<fc

J*dx

5Jx*dx + ijxdx  11jdx
J
**+**" 11* + C.
Note.The constants which would arise from the
integration of the separate terms can all be included in one
constant, since this constant is arbitrary and undetermined.
ha^W*
=
fxidx
 jxtdx
xi*
1
ixtixi + C.
I
**+
+ c
106. The Integration of
If the rule for the integration of x" be applied to the case
of or x
1
, we get:
jf./^^
+C
58 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
This result is apparently infinite, and the rule does not
seem to apply. The apparent contradiction must be left
for future consideration, but it should be remembered that
in these processes we are dealing with limits.
We know, however, that by the rule for the differentia
tion of a logarithmic function (87) that the differential
coefficient of log, x is .
Hence we conclude that
*.
107. A useful rule for Integration.
By combining with this last result the rule in differenti
ation for the function of a function we know that:
if
J
= log
{/(*)}
consequently
Hencewhen integrating a fractional function in which,
after a suitable adjustment of constants,
if necessary, it is seen
that the numerator is the differential coefficient of the denomina
tor, then the integral is the logarithm of the denominator.
Clearly all fractional functions of x in which the
denominator is a function of the first degree can be integrated
by this rule by a suitable adjustment of constants.
108. Worked examples.
(1)
/*i/4*
'
J
ax a J
ax
=  log ax + C.
(2)
/sti

N
<"
+
+
C
/i?TW2*+3
I
log (2x + 3) + C.
INTEGRATION. STANDARD INTEGRALS
Ml ,
2
J*
+
l
)
dx
.. t (
2
* +
2
)
dx
w
Jx* +2x + 7
~
]x* + 2x + 7
= log
(
X
+ 2x + 7).
'59
~J
sinx
dx
cosx
= log COS X + C
I.e.,
I
tan xdx = log sec x + C.
(6,
/cot^=/g>
.*.
Jcot
xdx m log sin x + C.
(7)
3*'+5~*
+ l
dx =
'g
(3x*
+
Sx
+ ') +
C
(8)
j(x + 2)l2xl)dx.
Although there is a definite rule for the differentiation of
the product of two functions, there is none for the integra
tion of a product as in the above example. In such a case
the factors must be multiplied.
Then j(x + 2) (2*  l)dx =
J(2x*
+ 3x

2)dx
= 2jx*dx + Zjxdx  2jdx
= *
+ ix* 2x + C.
In this example we employ a device which will be used
later in more complicated cases; the fraction is split up
into its component fractions. This we do by dividing eacn
term of the numerator by the denominator.
(x* + 3x* + 1 . [i 3 . 1 \ .
=
fxdx + Sjldx
+
l%
Then
J^+Slog*^ rC.
i6o TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
109. If t = x
3
express
y
In terms of x.
Since t is the differential coefficient of
f,
it follows
dy
dx'
Having thus found that by integrating
P^
we obtain
+
j, a second integration will give the equation connecting
y and x.
Since
Integrating
3*
=
i* + c
x
.
Integrating again y =
J
(Jx* + CJdx
=
jix*dx + JCjdx
=
I x
i* + d*
+ C
r
.'.
y
=
A*
5
+
Cjx
+ C,.
As a result of integrating twice, two constants are intro
duced, and these are distinguished as Cj and C
f
.
To find these it is necessary to have two pairs of corre
sponding values of x and y. On substituting these, we get
two simultaneous equations involving C
1
and C, as the two
unknowns. Solving these, the values found are substituted
in the equation
y
=
ft*
1
+ C
x
x + C
p
and so the equation connecting x and
y is found completely.
Exercise 16.
Find the following integrals.
1. jzxdx. 2. UxHx.
3. [\x*dx. 4. foix*ix.
5. Jl2xdx. 6. jl5Pit.
7.
\%
8.
J*.
INTEGRATION: STANDARD INTEGRALS 161
9.
J
(4x* 5x + l)dx.
11.
fx(8x
 \)dx.
13.
J{(*3)(x
+
3)<**.
.
./
19. Ux*dx.
21.
J(x*
+
*"*)<**
. vT. it.
ft*
23
25
27
29
"/A
f
2xrfx
x + 3
35. ;^<k
37.
^=^1
39. fV2x + Six.
43. f{ax + Vfdx.
*.
10.
J(3x
 5*)<fc.
12.
J6x*(x* + x)ix.
U. ji(2x*Hx+i)}ix.
16. hxHx.
18.
JvT:
<&.
22. f{xi
+ 1 fsrtyfe.
24.
Jg
 6*) <*x.
28
/(
I
'"*b)'
i*
32
34
/(*4i*4>
fx*7
dx. 30./*
38. /Va
44. jx{l+x)[l+x*)ix.
40
42
1 6a
45
( xdx
jx*Y
47

JF+1'
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
sin axdx
INTEGRATION: STANDARD INTEGRALS 163
46. [1
J
1 + cos ax
48 f
"*" cos ^xd*
I 2x + sin 2x
49. If
Jyj
= 3x .find y in terms of x,
50. If
o
2
o. o o
a
a
(c) Inverse hyperbolic functions.
(20)/
*
Vx
2
+ a
2
= slnh"
1
 or
log{
x + Vx
2
+ o
2
]
166 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
is{
x + Vx" 
o
z
!
i
*
or
dx
(">
//:
= 
l
coth
1 *
or
a a
'
log
+
*
2o
fe
o 
x
(24)
f
*L_ !sedr*5
J
xVefi x* a a
la
*
x + o
or
 !
tog
+ v
s
~
zr
*
i
a x
(25)
/
/*
m
  1 cosech
1
v
'JxVa*
+ x
a
a
or
a
6
x
The following variations of Nos. 2025 will be found
useful, especially in some of the applications in the next
chapter:
20
(
fl
) [ TffiTI i

l
sinb
1

v
/ voV + a* b . a , . rrr, .
21 (a) /T^.Jcashi*?
'
y Vb
2
x* b a
jlogf
to + Vbx*  a*
22 (a]
r
1
ba
. .bx 1 . a
4 6*
tanh
1
st log
^
. .
a 2ba a bx
oo i.\ (
dx 1 .. , bx I . bx a
23
/
wr^ii 
S
coth
" 1
*
555
Io
* ET+v
INTEGRATION. STANDARD INTEGRALS
24(a)
f.Jj*..fc
!**
1
xV* + 55
s
167
itog'
+ Vj^W
"
bx
25 (a)
J

,
.i5=^_ =  1
cosech>
*?
1
a
i. a
+ yy+y?
a
s "
bx
Notes.
(1) In Formulae 20, 21, 20(a), 21(a) the "a" which
appears in the denominator of the logarithm is omitted.
This means that the log a is merged in the constant of
integration.
(2) In Formulae 1725, if a = 1, we get the simpler form
stated in 78 and 95.
(3) The Formulae 1725 will be proved directly in a
later chapter.
(4) In the trigonometrical integrals it will assist the
memory if it be noted that whenever the name of the
function in the resulting integral begins with "co" the
function is negative.
112. Worked examples.
Example I. Evaluate the integral I>.,
^
J vie  9*
The form of this integral can be transformed to that of
No. 17:
J VI6 ^1*
=
J3VV  *
=
J
i V5?*
This is now in the form of No. 17, where =
.
.'. Integral =
$ sin
1
(x 4
J).
= Jsln^.
Example 2. Evaluate the integral I j=*L=..
^
JV9x*l
The form is that of No. 21 (a), where b =
3, a = 1.
i68 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Hence
IvS^i
=
*
cosh_1 3x
=
J{log 3x
+
v

l}
Example 3. Find the integral 1 =
t
. .
This can be transformed into No. 18.
*+W
;. by No. 18 integral
(x{) tan
=
(Jxf)tan^
3x
T
dx
=
i
an*
Exercise 18.
Find the following integrals:
6

At^T*
<6)
/
&
fj?~+i6*
6
 /**=' ""far*
/tT
INTEGRATION. STANDARD INTEGRALS 169
I'
8
 w
/dri
:
<*>
/to
;
(c)
/ts:
(fl)
/vSF+B
: (6)
/^#+B
9
10
14 (.1 f
<**
/ f(* +
l
)
dx
CHAPTER XI
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION
113. This chapter will contain some of the rules and
devices for integration which were referred to in
99. The
general aim of these will be, not direct integration, but
transformations of the function to be integrated so that it
takes the form of one of the known standard integrals
which were given in the last chapter.
Transformations of Trigonometric Functions.
1 14. Certain trigonometrical formulae may frequently be
used with advantage to change products or powers of
trigonometric functions into sums of other functions when
the rules of 105 or
107 may be employed to effect a
solution. Examples of this were given in
108, Nos. 6 and
6, where, by changing tan x to
  and cot x to
C
^, the
, . cos x sin x
integrals
J
tan xdx and I cot xdx were found.
Among the formulae which are commonly employed are
the following
:
m slnx =i(l cos2x).
(2)
cos
1
x =
J(l + cos 2x). (Trigonometry,
83.)
Hence, /sin' xdx =
j\(\
cos 2x)dx
,
=
J(*
i
sin 2x).
Similarly, /cos* xdx =
J(x +
J
sin 2x).
It will be noticed that the formula employed in each
case enabled us to change a power of this function into
a sum, when integration was immediately possible.
The following are two further examples:
(3) tan*x = sec*x 
I.
/.
J
tan* xdx =
J
(sec
1
*  l)dx
= tan x x.
170
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 171
(4)
cot* x. By the same device
J
cot* xdx = f(cosec*x \)dx.
= (cot x + x).
(5)
fsin' xdx. This can be found by employing the
rule:
sin 3,4 = 3 sin A
4 sin
3
A
whence sin*^4 =
J
(3 sin A sin 3.4).
The integral can now be written down
:
(6)
J
cos* xdx. The method is the same as in No. 5,
using
cos 34=4 cos* A
3 cos A.
The following formula are useful for changing products of
sines and cosines into sums of these functions
:
la) sin A cos B = Ij
(b) cos A sin B =
J
(c) cos A cosB
=
(d) sin A sin B
=
sin (A + B) + sin (A  B)
sin (A + B)  sin (A
 B)
cos (A + B) + cos (A
 B)\
cos (A
 B)  cos (A + B)\
(Trigonometry,
86.)
115. Worked examples.
/sin' x
Rearranging
/sin' x , _ Tsin* x sin x ,
cos* x ~
J
cos* x
/Qj
cos* x) sin x
,
cos* x
=
{%
x
dx{
x
t

x
dx
J
cos* x
I
cos* *
= / sec x tan xdx
J
sin xdx
= sec x + cos x.
Example 2. Integrate fsin 3x cos 4xdx.
Using formula (b) above
in&.
ano*.
17a TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
/cos 4x sin 3xax = ji{{sin (4x + 3x) sin (4x

3x)}
=
$
J
sin 7x<*x jjsin xdx
= { $ cos Ix
f
cos x}
=
I
(cos* $cos7x).
Exercise 19.
Evaluate the following integrals:
6. / sin* xdx.
7. [sin*2xdx.
9. /cos* {ax + b)dx.
11. Icos* xdx.
13. /cos 3* cos six.
15. /sin 4x cos
^
<*
17.
J
sin G cos 6 dB.
is
L**L*.
y sin* x cos* x
21. (tan* xdx.
2. Jcos*^dx.
4. I cos* xdx.
6. (cot*2xdx.
8.
J
cos' 3xrfx.
10. /sin* xax.
12.
J
sin 2x sin 3fce.
14. /sin 4x cos 2xdx.
16. / sin ax cos 6xax.
18. / sin* x cos* xdx.
20
,
I
Vl + cos xax.
Z
1
+ sin* x
dx.
cos* x
22. / sin* x cos* xdx.
24. (sec
1
xdx.
Integration by Substitution.
1 16. It is sometimes possible, bychanging the independent
variable, to transform a function into another which can
be readily integrated. Experience will suggest the par
ticular form of substitution which is likely to be effective,
but there are some easily recognised forms in which certain
known substitutions can be employed.
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 173
Irrational functions can frequently be treated in this
way, as will be seen in the following examples, and those
employed serve to prove some of the standard integrals
given in
111.
A. Some trigonometrical and hyperbolic
substitutions.
1 17.
Jvo

x*dx.
The form of this suggests that if x be replaced by a sin fl,
we get
*
a* sin* 0, i.e., u
!
(l sin
2
0). This is equal to
a* cos
1
6, and on taking the square root the irrational
quantity disappears.
It will be seen that we are then left with two independent
variablesviz., x and 6, since dx remains as part of the
integral. But we must have the same variable throughout
the integral. Consequently
dx must be expressed In terms of 0.
Since * = a sin 8.
Differentiating with respect to
dx .
ft
acose
which, for this purpose, we can write as
dx = a cos 8d9.
The solution will therefore be as follows 1
To integrate
J
Va*
x* . dx.
Let x = a sin 9.
Then dx = a cos 8a"8.
Substituting in the integral
[
y/a
* _ x*dx = (Va
1
a* sin* x a cos . a"6
=
JaVT
sin* 6 x a cos 0i6
= a*
J
cos* 6d"8
= *{J(e+isin28)}
=
Ja*8 +
\a sin 8 x a
(See
114.)
cos 8
(since sin 28 = 2 sin 8 cos 8).
174
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
It is now necessary to change the variable from 6 to x.
Since * = a sin 8 and sin 8 = 
*
a
8 = sin
1
=
also a cos 8 = aVl sin'
= Va* a* sin* 8
= Ya*
 x*.
.". Substituting in
/ Va*
x*dx =
Ja*8 + \a sin 8 x a cos 8
we get
JYtf^lfidx
=
^
sin
1 *
+ JxVo^Tx
2
.
Note.Instead of substituting x = a sin 6 we could
equally well put x = a cos 8. The student should work
this through for practice.
/
dx
Va*' x
2
'
Using the same substitution as in the previous case
* = a sin 8
Va* x
%
= a cos 8
dx = a cos 6</8
cos 8d!8
cos 8
= jdQ
VIZ.,
we have
i
and
7
/
dx
V 2 
X
2
= sin'

a
= sin
1
. (See 111.)
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 175
/
Vx
2
 a
2
c/x.
For this integral we employ hyperbolic functions.
Let x = a cosh z.
Then * = cosh
1
.
a
From cosh z
 sinh
1
* = 1 (See 92.)
and sinh z = Vcosh
1
z 1
4
'.iVJr^.
Also since
'a* a
x = a cosh z
dx = a sinh z . dz
:. fVx'
Ifidx = [Ya*~cash
r
i ? x a sinh 2 . az
=
J
aVsmh*z x a sinh z . <fz
=
a'
Jsinh
1
zdz
= a*/l(cosh 2z  l)rfz (See 93.)
=
a
^(Jsinh2zz)
=
j sinh 2z
g
z
a*
'
=
^2 sinh z cosh z
* z
* l
b
=
(a sinh z x a cosh z) 4
=
J(\/x*
a* x *)
tt
cosh
1 
(from above)
/. jVx
2
 o
2
dx  JxVx
2
 o
2

\
cosh"
1
5
or
fx + Vx
2
 a
ixV^^^^(log{
a
(See 97.)
176 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
/
dx
Vx
2

a
2
'
As in the case of the preceding integral
Let x = a cosh i.
Using the equivalents found above I
I ,
.
i . = /
ir X a sinh x . dx
J y/x
*
a* J
a sinh z
dz
.f<
dx
'
JVJT
= cosh"
1
 or
log
x + Vx
2
 a
2
(See 111, No. 21.)
jVx* + a
2
dx.
Let
and
x = a sinh x
dx = a cosh zdz
x = sinh
1
 and cosh x = Vx* + a*,
a a
Substituting
JV(x* + a*)dx =
j
a'\/slnh' 2 + 1 x a cosh zdz
=
fa
cosh x x a cosh zdz
= a*
J
cosh* ziz
=
^J'(
cosh2!; + 1)'fo
=

,
(Jsinh2z+z)
a* a
1
=
j
x 2 sinh * cosh z + ^ z
"a*
=
} a sinh x x a cosh * + s *
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 177
.. jVjfl + a
2
dx = xVx
2
+ a
2
+
\
sinh"
1
or
xVx"
2
+ a
2
+

log
1
2
.
x + Vx
2
+ a
2
I
dx
Vx
2
+ a
2
'
As above, let
711611
/tFtW'
/
dx
x = a sinh *.
'a cosh zdz
a cosh 2
J*
= z
= sinh"
1
 or
Vx
2
+"a
2
_
log
X
+
x2
+
2
. (See 111, No. 20.)
"
/**
The form of this suggests the substitution
tan* 6 + 1 = sec
1
6.
Accordingly, let x = a tan 8.
then
Substituting
6 = tan
1 
a
dx = a sec* 8i0.
f
<*x /"a sec* 8i8
I,
aSJtan* 8 +TJ
a sec*
8^
o^ec* 8
i
7
8 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
[
dx I , x
I 9 ~i
9
=

tan "
J x
2
+ a
2
a a
(See 111, No. 18.)
1 19. Summary of the above formulae.
Integral. I Substitution. Result.
I Va* x'dx I
* a sin 
1
x <a\
dx
[ _L_.
j
\Tarzrx
t
g
sin"
+
\xVa* *
sin*
a
ft,
/
Vx*  a*dx
x> a
dx
x a cosh i irvVa'^coslr'?
or
ixVx'^i*

i><*
+ Vx*

j V* 
* a cosh i
log*
cosh"
1
a
or
+ Vx* 
a
6.
ft,
v7T^i
/
d.t
V'i* + a
* a sinh 7
* a sinh
l*V*
+
+ ytalrj
*V? + a
1
+
sinh"
1
or
log
+ Vx*
+
7.
4
I
x*
+ a'
* a tan 6
a a
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 179
Note.
, . ,
can be
^
/ + b cos x
J a + b sin x
solved by the above substitution. The following example
will illustrate the method.
Find the integral I' ,
d*
.
fa
J 5 + 4 cos*
Let
then cos x =
2dt
dx = .
v
where t = tan \x
1 C
On simplication the integral becomes 1
J 5(r+<) +4(i7)
2
)
+!
This is of the form of integral (18) of 111.
.'. integral =
2/
J tani}
1 tan
1
(j
tan
*).
The resulting integral may take one of the forms 18, 22,
or 23 of the standard integrals of 111, according to the
relative values of a and b. Or, it may require methods
given in Chapter 12.
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 181
Worked examples.
The following worked examples are numerical variations
of the above.
Example I. Integrate
JVU
9x*dx.
Let Zx = 4 sin 0.
then x =  sin 8 and = sin
1
Jx
dx =  cos 6tf 9
cos 6 =
VIafo
1
6 =
Jl
*g"
"jVlOftf.
Substituting
jVl69x*dx =
JVl6168infl x fcos Oi0
=
4J
cos x 1 cos Odd
V/cos* W0
,/
1 + cos 20
do
=
f(0 + }
sin 20)
= ffsin
1
x + sin cos 0}
c= {sin jx
+
^
x iVI6
 9*}
=
f
sin
1
jx
+ lxV\6^9x*.
Examples Integrate
J
^r^=j
Put * =
J
sinh r ; then z = sinh
1
Zx
.'. dx =
\
cosh zrfz
and cosh 2 = VI +sinh'z = Vl +
9*'.
rw
f
<**
( I
cosh z
.
dt
fcosh zrfz
cosh ?
*/&
1'
Jsinh^x.
i8s
Example 3.
Put x
. dx
cos e
I V2

3x* J V2
r
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
inugrauf^^,
=
V~l
sin 8, then 6 = sin
1
Vfx.
= Vcos8<#
___ i
= Vl Sn
r
G = Vl
T*
1
=
i=
V2
 3*
1
V2
 /
Vlcos8i6
V2
 2 sin
1
6
_ fVf coseie
/ V2 cos 6
Example 4. Integrate I 7==.
J x*v 1 H
Let *
Then 4x
and sec
Then
dx
= tan 8.
= sec
1
848
= Vl + 3.
sec
1
erfe A 4*_
^
f sec'eti
/*Vl + x* /tan
1
8\/r
_
+ tan
T
8
/
/
/
sec
tan
1
sec 8
cos 6
r
cos 848
sin
1
8
1
sin 8
sec8
tan 8
cos
1
8
sin
1
8
48
(by inspection or by putting
sin 8 =z)
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 183
Exercise 20.
Use the methods given above to find the following
Integrals by using suitable substitutions.
Note.For other examples analogous to 110 but
involving the irrational quantities as the denominators
of fractions, the student is recommended to solve some
of the examples of Exercise 18 by the method of
substitution.
1. V9
x*dx (put *
3 sin 8).
3. Vr^4x*dx.
5.
fVx
r
idx.
7.
fVx*
+iQdx.
9.
JV25x*
1^164*.
11 (
*

1&,
17. /cosec \xdx.
19. /cosec 3xdx.
21 \
ix
**
Jl + COSX
25

/ 4 + 3 cos*
27
f
^
.
J4 + 5cosx
8
10
12
2. V2g *V*.
4. V9
 4x*dx (put x
f
sin 8).
6. \y/x
i
2bdx.
. jVx"'+5dx.
>
(
xH
JVW
u
u
; (1 x)Vi'x* (put
18. /sec J/x.
'
20. /sec x cosec xix.
22. L
*
 .
J 1 + sin x
24. (sec x + tan x)4x.
26 f_

75  3 cos x"
28.
f
,
4
,
74 Ssint
34*.
x*4x_
+T
4*
V.!* x
1
'
t4 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
B. Algebraic Substitutions.
121. Transformation of a function into a form in which
it can readily be integrated can be effected by suitable
algebraical substitutions in which the independent variable
is changed. The forms these take will depend upon the
kind of function to be integrated and, in general, experience
and experiment must guide the student. The general aim
will be to simplify the function so that it may become
easier to integrate.
A frequent example of this method is in the cases of
irrational functions in which the expression under the
radical sign is of the first degree, that is of the form ox + b.
These can be integrated by substitution.
Let ax + b=u*
or m = Vax + b.
The following examples are typical of the use of alge
braical substitution.
122. Worked examples.
Example I. Integrate JxV2x + ldx.
Let 2x + 1 = u*
or u = V2x + 1.
Then x =
J(*
1)
and dx = udu.
Substituting
jxV2T+~idx =
Ji(u*

1) x x udu
= j/m*(u  l)du
= \j(u*u*)du
=
A
(3m
8
 5m
s
)
=
A{3(2x + l)5(2x + !)}.
Example 2. Integrate I .
We rationalise the denominator by the substitution.
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 185
Then
and
Substituting
x = Vx + 3 or x + 3 = z*.
X = 2  3
dx = 2zdz.
[ xdx
=
f(z*  3)2zdz
JVxT3 J V?
= 2
nz>z)zdz
=
2J
(2
1
 3)dz
u
= (x6)VT+l.
Example 3. Integrate jx*Vl x*dx.
Let u* = 1 x* and x* = 1 *.
Then x = Vl *'
and dx
=
^
1
~
i
du.
Substituting
/*V(n=lV*
= /(I
 *')VT=1? x x
^i
>
Z^
*
= _
j
u*(l  u*)du
/
5m
3
3u\
~\
15 /
= ^u>(53u*)
= 
yV(1
 *
%
Wl
 **{5  3(1  x'))
=
tV{(l xV(2 +
3x)}.
f
dx
Example 4. Evaluate \
p^.
In this case no rationalisation is needed, but we try a
substitution which will simplify the exponential form, thus j
i8fl
Let
then
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
U = C
u
du = cdx
or
, du
dx= ~
or
du
u
'
Substituting
/ dx (du .
/ ,
l\
/,
du
Thus we have reached a standard form, viz.. No 18
(5111).
Integral i tan
1
w
i tan
1
e.
Example 5. Integrate
/SS^
rf*.
This example illustrates the advantage in certain cases ol
changing trigonometrical forms into algebraical, the reverse
of the method employed in
117120. It will then be
easier to operate with the indices.
Let u = sin x.
.'. cos X = VI *.
Then du = cos xdx.
fcos* xdx
_
/cosVr x cos xd
x
"
/"^sm7 J (sufip
m  w) x du
j 5?
 !* 
yY
v
ft
v
/
sTn*x(ll 
2sln x).
Example 6. Find the value
of the integral /"sin* x cos
4
xdx.
The form suggests trying the same substitution as that of
the preceding example.
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 187
Let cos * = u '
then sin x = Vl cos* x.
Also
sin xdx = du.
Splitting the factor sin
3
x into sin* x. sin x and sub
stituting
Jsin*
x cos* xdx =
Jsin*
* . cos* x . sin xdx
m
J
(I *) x u* x (du)
= 
J(u*
u*)du
/ m'\
= _
l"5
~~
l)
=  cos' X
J
COS
6
X.
CAdllipit
""""JVi+i
Let x=u*
then dx = 2<fM
f dx ( 2udu
= 2{
 2 log ( + 2))
= 2{\/  2 log {Vx + 2)>.
Exercise 21.
Note.Some of the following examples may be
solved by inspection, remembering the rule for the
differentiation of a function of a function. The
student is advised, however, if only for the sake of
practice, to solve by the method of substitution.
Integrate the following functions:
d{uv) dv du
dx
~ u
*fx
+
v
'dx
in which u and v are functions of x.
SOME ELEMENTARY METHODS OF INTEGRATION 189
Integrating throughout with respect to x, we get 1
Since u and v are functions of x, this may be written
more conveniently in the form
:
uv = (u .dv
+
v . du.
Thus if either of the integrals on the right side is known,
the other can be found. We thus have a choice of solving
either of two integrals, whichever is possible or the easier.
If, for example, it it decided that Jvdu can readily be
determined, then the other integralviz., Judvcan be
found, thus 1
judv = uv
Jv
. du . . . (A)
The method to be employed will be better understood by
studying an example. Suppose it is required to find the
integral r
I x cos xdx.
Let
= x and dv = cos xdx.
Then du = dx
Since dv = cos xdx
v
= (cos xdx = slnx.
Substituting in the formulae
Judv
= uv
Jvdu
we get
Jx
. cos xdx = x sin x
J
sin xdx.
Thus instead of finding the original integral, we have now
to find the simpler one of
J
sin xdx, which we know to be
COS X.
*.
J
x cos xdx = x sin x + cos x.
If u and v had been selected as follows:
+
e"
esln (bx + c)dx = ^^asln (bx +c) bsln (bx+c)}.
Exercise 22.
Evaluate the following integrals :
1.
J
x sin xdx.
8.
J
x*
cos xdx.
5.
J
x log xdx.
7.
J
x* log xdx.
9. Jxe*dx.
11. Jxer*dx.
13. Jcos
1
xdx.
15.
J
x ten
1
xdx.
17.
J
x sin* xdx.
19.
J
x sec* xdx.
21.
J
x* sin
1
xdx.
G(CAI..)
2.
J
x sin 3xdx.
4.
J
x
3
cos xdx.
6.
J
x* log xdx.
8.
J
Vx log xdx.
10. Jx'Cdx.
12.
Je*
cos 2xdx.
14.
J
tan
1
xdx
16.
Je*
sin xdx.
18.
J
x sin x cos xdx.
20. Jxsinhxdx.
22.
J>
(log *) dx.
CHAPTER XII
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
I. Rational fractions.
1 25. Fractions of certain types have occurred frequently
among the functions which have been integrated in
previous work. One of the commonest is that in which the
numerator can be expressed as the differential coefficient
of the denominator. As stated in
107
f
n)</x =
iogflx) + c.
A special form of this which will constantly appear in
the work which follows is that in which the denominator is
of the first degree, the general form of which is
!
(
dX
=(
J ax + b a) iax +T>
1
=  log (ax + b) + C.
126. Variants of the above include fractions in which the
numerator is of the same as or of higher dimensions than the
denominator, simple examples of which have already
occurred. Such fractions can often be transposed so that
the rule quoted above may be applied. Worked examples
illustrating this follow.
127. Worked examples.
[ x*
Example I. Evaluate I
tj dx.
The process employed in transforming such a fraction is
similar to that employed in arithmetic. Thus the fraction
11 8+ 3
_
. , 3
8
=
8
"*"
8"
194
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
Similarly, in the example above
/<*D*+/_TT*
=
Jx
 x + log (X + I).
Example 2. Evaluate / ~dx.
Then
}2xZ
ax
J
2*
3
ax
'95
I
f(2*3)+V
Tx~S
dx
=
f
x
+ x 1 log (2x 
3)
=
i*+log(2x3).
1
Exercise 23.
Integrate the following:
[
xdx
)x+2
 1
i 3
a r bx
1 X
+ x
dx.
x +2
[
x*dx
/fF=T
dx.
[xdx
hx
J2T+i
dx
(
x
l
dx
Jlx
( 126.)
196 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
128. Method of partial fractions.
In the fractions above the denominators are of the first
degree. We next proceed to consider fractions of which
the denominators are of the second or higher degree.
When adding two such fractions as
2 1
we get 
x+3 x+B
2(x + 5)
 (x + 3) _
x + 7
(*+3)(x+6) x* + 8x +
15"
By reversing this process,
t

. ., can be resolved
2 j
into the two fractions
(i~2)(*+4)
_
*2
+
*+4
.
(x* + 10* +6 , //. , 5 . 3 \ ,
= x + 5log(x2)
+
3log(x + 4).
130. When the denominator Is the square of a binomial,
as. for example, (x + a)
1
.
In this case the fraction may be the sum of two fractions
of which the denominators are (x + a) and (x + a)* with
constants as numerators.
Let
u
(1)
then
(2)
then
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Example. Integrate I .rppdx.
Let
3x + l A
(x + 1)
~
x + 1
5
+
(* +
l)
r
Zx + \=A(x + l)+B .
(1)
Let * =  1
;
then 2=A{0)+B. .*. B =  2.
A may be found by using the property of an identity, viz.,
the coefficients of like terms on the two sides of the
Identity are equal. Comparing the coefficients of x in
(1),
above, we get
:
3=A.
.
3x + l 3 2
(x + 1)
_
x + 1 (x +
!)
"
J(x + i)*
ax
)x + i
y (* + i)

3k
*
(x+,)+
rr
The second integral, '.., / . ..
t
, is found by inspection,
remembering that
[dx 1
}x*~x
Exercise 24.
Find the following integrals i
1
[**
l

)x*V
3
Jx*4
5
/x* + 6x48'
irf*.
4 f
3xl
1
+ x 
6
<*x.
/
7x8
4x* + 3x 1
dx. 10

Ar^**
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS mi
,,/
2x
1

t
ix.
13
15
(x+2)
f
x'2
ix*12
* 2x llx8
12
2x
+
l
*dx.
,dx.
t
x*  x  6
dx. 16
'
i
(2x
H
14.
f,*'
+
V
*
y x* x 2
fx
8
 2x  1
"
i x  1
ix.
131. Denominator of higher degree than the second and
resolvable Into factors.
(a) When the denominator Is entirely resolvable Into
different linear factors.
The method is the same as when there are only two
factors, but the number of partial fractions will correspond
to the number of factors.
Example. Integrate
^^J+y
.
Factorising the denominator we get I
3  4x  x'
x(xl)(x3)'
B
Let
Then
x* 4x + 3 _ A ,
xlx~^l)(x

3)
~
x
+
x  1
+
x3'
x4x + 3 =A (x l)(x 
3)
+Bx(x 
3)
+Cx(x 
1).
(1)
Let x = 0;
then 3 = 3/1+ Blfl) + C(0). ,\ A=l.
(2)
Let x = 1
;
then  2 =A (0)
 2B + C(0). .'. B = 1.
(3)
Let x =
3;
then 18=^(0) +B(0) +6C. .'. C = 
3.
m log x + log (x  I)  3 log (x 
3).
(6)
When the denominator can be resolved Into linear
factors, one or more of which may be repeated.
Example. Integrate
J (

_
1
^*_
2
y
>i TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
The procedure is the same as that of 130.
Let
1
then
A
i
B
i
C
*
2"
1 ~4(*l)(*2) + B(*_2)+C(x1)
1
.
(1)
Let x = 1
;
then  1 = /i (0)
 B + C(0). .'. B = I.
(2) Let * =
2;
then  1 =4(0) +B(0) +C. :. C =  1.
(3)
Let * = ;
then 1 = 2A 2  2. .'. 4 ~ t.
(on substituting the values already found for B and C).
'
J
(x  l)
s
(* 2)
=
J
(i  1
+
(*"^I)*
~~
F^2J
dx
= log (x  I) 
]_,
log(x2).
132. When the denominator contains a quadratic factor
which cannot Itself be factorlsed.
The method adopted in cases already considered can be
employed.
Example. Integrate J^fcLj^jL^.
The factor (x* f 1) cannot itself be resolved into real
factors. However, two partial fractions with the denomina
tors (x + 1) and (x* + 1) can be obtained. But the
numerator of the fraction in which the denominator is of the
second degree, viz. (x* + 1) may be of the first degree in x.
The general form of this can be expressed by (Bx + C).
/. Let
l A
(x + l)(x*+ I)
~
X + 1
Then *  1 = A (* + 1) +
(Bx
+
Q(x + 1) (1)
Let x
1
then  2 = A (2) + 0. :. A =  1.
,
Bx+C
x*+l
'
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS 203
Substituting this value of A in (1),
we get :
x
_ 1 = _
(
X
*
+ i) + (BX + C)(x + 1)
,r
*
+ * = (Bx + C)(x + 1).
Equating coefficients of x*
\=B :. B = 1. ( 130.)
Equating coefficients of x
1 = B + C. :. C = 0.
Hence
x 1  1 *
(x 
wm

x+i
+ ** +r
(
*~ *
A \
dx
(
Xdx
J (
x + l)(x* +
I)"* ~
)x + l
+
)x* + l
=  log (x + 1) + i
log (x* + 1).
Note.The integral / y ry is one which can be
found by the application of the rule in 107, but more
difficult cases will require the methods given in the
next section.
Exercise 25.
Integrate the following:
1 (
dx

*"
)x(x*  1)'
* [
(2* + Wx
d

Jx(x l)(*+2)

J(x+2)(x^W
/(**
+ l)dx
) x(x  1)
dx
(x* + l)(*2)'
I
(?+4)(l*)'
13
{**
Z

)x*(x+2Y
4
/(*l)(x2)(*+3)
8

}x(x' + \y
10

/(T+ im*
+!j
u./
+ *
zo4 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
form ax* + bx + c and not 133. Denominator of the
resolvable into factors.
The student will have learnt from Algebra that the
expression ax* + bx + c can always be expressed as the
sum or difference of two squares. The following examples
illustrate this.
x*+4x+2={x*+4x+ (2)*}
 2*
+ 2
= (x + 2)*  2 or (x + 2)*
2x*  3x + 1 = 2[x* f*)+l
= 2{x*

 (V2)
i* + (i)*}2
x (\)* + \
= 2(x  })* 
i
= {V2(x

I)}*

(Vi)*
x*+6x+U = {x* + 6x + (3)*}
 (3) + 14
= (x + 3)* + 5 = (x + 3)
+ (V5)
12 + 5x  x* = 12

= 12
5x)
pp)'
(.
All of these are expressions for which there are no rational
factors. They are all included in the three types:
[a
x*a*
x*+a*
a*x*
We have seen that fractions of which these are denomina
tors are of standard form (see 111, Nos. 18, 22, 23).
Consequently the denominator of a fraction which is of the
form ax* + bx + c can be transformed into one of these
three types. For convenience these three integrals are
repeated, as they will be in constant use in work which
follows.
B
'
X"  O
z
dx
 1 coth
1
x
 or =
i
x a
2c^x~+a
+ x
2
Ja
2
x*
Itan^.
a a
1 tanh
1 *
or
2a
b
a
x
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS 205
If (x + b) is substituted for x in each of the above, since
the differential coefficients of x + b and x are the same,
we have
:
a f
d* I ...x
+ b I
,
(x + b) a
A I.
riT
* coth
1 or .; log; . ; ,
.
J (x + b)*
a*
a a la
&
(x + b) + a
dx
(x + b)* + a*~a
Un
a
'
r (
<^x I ,,x+i I . a
+
(x+b)
C I s
,rm
=  tanh
1 !
or = log
; ,;.
J a* (x +b)* a a la
B
a (x+b)
Two cases may occur in the integration of such fractional
functions. They will be illustrated by the following;
(I) When the numerator Is constant.
134. Worked examples.
Example!. Integrate
J^*L_
g
.
We first express the denominator in the form x* + a*.
x* + 6* + 2 = {x* + 6*
+ (I)*}
9+2.
=
f*+3)7.
. f
dx
_
f
dx
./*+6*+2 /
(
X + 3) 
(Vl)*
which is of form A above.
/
dx I . , x + 3
V7
I , x + 3 y7
2V7
IOg
x + 3+v7
Example 2. Integrate
/g .
3 *
_
x
r
Since 2 + 3* ** = 2 {** 3*
+ 5} + *
206 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Using formula C
(
dx
f
dx
J2+3*i*./(*~)
2
V\7
VI7
" 77,,
lo
8
Y
/ ','^T
2VI7
dx
yT7
+
(2x 
3)
VI7
 (2x  3)
Example 3. Integrate
j^^
Rearranging the denominator
2x* + 4* + 3 = 2{(* + 2* + 1)
 1
+ f}
Using formula B and substituting
)2x*+4x + 3
=
4
j (T+TF+T
Using (2?) as integral
)2x* + 4 + 3
=
*/ IfjT+l)
1
+
}
^j tan
1
V2(x + I).
u
(2) When the numerator Is of the first degree In the
variable.
Type
I
OX
2
4
Ax + 8
ox
2
+ bx + c
dx.
135. To solve this integral a combination of the devices
previously used is required as shown in the following
examples.
Example I. Integrate I
**
wdx.
The numerator must be first rearranged so that part of it
is the differential coefficient of the denominator.
Now j (x*  x 
1)
= 2x  1.
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS 107
Rearranging numerator
6x + 7 = 3(2*

1) + 10.
denominator x* x 1 = (x
J)
1
J.
r (6x + l)dx [Z
{
2x 
1) + 1 .
<x*xl J' x*xl
ax
n
_f3(2*l)
f
10_
The first integral is found by the rule of 107 and the
second by using the standard from {A) above.
(xJ)^
. f(6x + 7)dx ,. ,, . ., . 10
,
v
*'
2
\
X
tl T
2
"
Verification.The student will find it a very useful
exercise to verify some of these results, by differentiating
the integral obtained. The verification of the exercise
above, follows as an example.
Ut
10 (**>f
.y=31og(** + l)
+
^Llog
Then
dy
_
3(2*__l]_ 10
dx
~
x*~ x + 1
+
VI
6* 3 10,
x*x
+
l
+
V5
6s 3 10
>
+ !
+
^
1 1
(*i)f (*i)+fj
_ 4 + y@\ _
(x
_ * _ \/5)
frl + Wfri
(**)'
(f)
1
6*3_
_10_
;
i* 
*'
+ 1
+
** x + 1
6*_+7_
20S TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
5* + l
/.
Example 2. Integrate
U^"!
~te+ 3
dx'
~
(2x* + 4* + 3) = 4* + 4.
Rearranging numerator
5* + 1=5(4* + 4)
4.
Rearranging denominator
2x* + 4* + 3 = 2{* + 2*
+ }
= 2(* + l)+&
(5* + l)dx
f2*
+ 4* + 3
= fi(^+4)4
7
2%
+ 4* + 3
ax
.f
(4*+4)fr t dx
=
Jlog (2x* +4* + 3)

(2 + Vft
tan^p
=
! log (2x + 4x + 3)
 2\/2 tan
1
V2(x + I).
Example 3. Integrate I ;~^= dx.
First we must resolve the fraction into partial fractions.
Since x*  1 = (x  l)(x* + * + 1).
2* + l A ,
Bx+C
Let
+
x  1
~
x 1
""
*+*+!*
/. 2* + l =.4(*+* + l) +(.Bx+C)(*l).
Let * = 1 ; then 3 = A
(3) + 0; .. A = I.
Comparing coefficients
(1)
x* 0=4+5 = 1+ . :. B=l.
(2)
Constants 1 = C + 1.
xdx
C = 0.
f
t
2
* +
*)**
 f Jf_  f
"
y xl ~Jxl Jx' + x + V
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
ri(2. + i)i,
x
209
x*+x + l
2* + l dx
=
*j **~+!T+T

*/(*
+ *) + }
= Jlog(* + * + l)(lx^)tan^
B
=
Hog
(* + x + 1)
_^tan^i.
Adding (1) and
(2)
+ 1
**
+
l
1 2x 4 1
= log(xl)+llog(x+x + l) ^tan^
Exercise 26.
Integrate the following:
dx
+ 6* +
17
dx
+ 4* +
6'
V3
<**
VT
f (l3*)rf*
y3*+4*
+
2
7 f
J??_+
B
)*L
Jx*+4x
+5"
y*+2a:+2
11 f
(**+)&
y3x+x+3"
II. Fractions with irrational denominators.
136. Type
f , 9
d*
L
/K
'vW
+ bx + c
By the use of methods similar to those employed in
2
/
*
+ 6* 
4*
4 f 4
*?
J2x* + 2x+T
f+u
no TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
previous sections, integrals of this type can be transformed
to one of the following standard forms (see 111).
(A)
/t^F
= cosh
~l
a
= log {x
+ v
*~
=r
**
(Q
hAi?
= slnh
"1
i
= ,og {x
+
v/xJ
"
ir?}
In this type the numerator is a constant and does not
involve the variable. Consequently it is necessary only
to transform the denominator into one of the three forms
(A), (B), or (C).
The method of doing this is illustrated in the following
examples:
137. Worked examples.
Example!. Integra*
J^
+
*
+ ^
Now
x* + &t + 10 = x* + 6*
+ (3)  9 + 10 = (x + 3) + 1.
f
dx
_ = [
d
.,T '
' J Vx^Ttx +10 J VTx + W + r
This is of type (C) above, in which x is replaced by x + 3,
which has the same differential coefficient.
dx
Vx* + 6x +13
= slnh
1
(x + 3) or log {(x + 3) +
%/**"+
6x + 10}.
/
Example 2. Integrate I .  . _
v ^S
J V2x* + 3a:
 2
Now, [2x* + 3* 
2) = 2(x
+ f
* 
1
)
=
2{(* + }) 
ft}.
f
<**
f
<

U
<**
Vfi/Vtt (**)
1 .*

\
r
sm
1
I . .5x4
V5
s,n
T
138. Type
f
(** +
6
)
dx
' Vox" + 6x + c'
Let us consider_ajspecial case in which the denominatoi
is, say, V2x* + 7* + 8, i.e., (2x* + Ix
f
8)*.
Then
j
(V2x"+ 7* + Sj
Z
= 4f2r 4 7r
=
J(2*
+ 7*  8) x
dx
(2x + 7x

8)
=
i(2x + 7x  8)* x (4x + 7)
V2** + 7* 
8"
From this it is evident that, ij the numerator of a fraction,
of this type, is one half of the differential coefficient of the
expression under the root sign in the denominator, then the
integral
of the fraction is equal to the denominator, i.e.,
/ij
x
(o*'
+
(x+c)
'
V'ax* + bx +~c
. dx =
v
/
ox
r
+
_
lx + c.
2ia TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Consequently, when evaluating an integral of this type,
arrange the numerator so that part of it is the differential
coefficient of the expression under the root sign in the
denominator.
In general, this results in a constant being left over in
the numerator, as in the corresponding type in 135. The
expression can then be divided, as in 135, into two
fractions, in whieh the first will be as above, and the
second as in 137.
A worked example will make this clear.
139. Worked example,
(x + \)dx
InUsraU
iv&+ x 3
Now (2* + *3)=4*+l.
Rearranging the numerator
x + 1 = i(ix + 1) +
}
= &(** + !)} + !
(x + \)dx
'
y/2x* + x3
fHH^
+ m + f^
h
1'
V2** + x 
3
if
l(4x+l)dx [
\
dx
Vy/2x* + x 3 J V2x* + *
3'
As shown above
if
J&+})^
=
tf
2#
+
, 
3.
Also using the methods of 135, 136
/
\d_x
V2x* + x
I
_
T f
**
3 V \?2x* +x3
til***
1
}
(* + l)dx
V2x* +x3
=
iVlx* + x  3
+ i*..*J.
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
Exercise 27.
Integrate the following:
ai3
1
dx
'
JVx* +6* +
10*
'
J Vx*
 4x +
2'
*/i
dx
dx
Vox* \2x +
xdx
7
JV*
r (x + i)dx
f
(2x3)dx
V*~+ 2x +
4"
4 f
*
6.
f
"
i V*(4

*j
f(x + l)Jx
Mwrr
)7xT=:
10
2x+5
13
f
(2x + 3)dx
12
* +
i
(
(2x + l)dx
'
JV34XX*'
14
iVx + 2^l
Vx* + * +
r
140. Some useful devices.
Other irrational functions can sometimes be transformed
so as to admit of the use of the above methods.
(a) Rationalisation. In certain cases the rationalisation
of the numerator enables the integration to be performed.
Example. Integrate lW . dx.
Rationalising the numerator
Vx
1 _ Vx I x Vx 1
Vx + l
~
Vx+l x Vx
I
x I
(4
f=i
.dx
Vx*
1'
; v*

1
[_xdx__ f <fo
J Vx*~^l / Vx* 1
= Vx* I cosh
1
x.
2I
4
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(b) Substitution. By substitution for the irrational
expression a new variable, such as u, the Integral can be
simplified as shown in the following examples:
Example I. Integrate
J
ymm
Let
Then
+
4
1 1
* =  or =.
u
j
x
dx = .du.
u
1
1
fdu
. [
dx
_ f
."'
"
JxVx*'+4,
)i If
sVs
+
4
/
.du
,V1 +
4
/
du
Vl + 4m
= 
I
sinh
1
2w
= 
i
sinh
1
.
Example 2. Integrate I ? .
J xvx* x + 1
Let
Then
+
x =  and a = .
u x
dx=
i
.
/*** *
+ i ii
/1 1
7;
aV ?
~
u
+
1
/
:iVl  u +u*
INTEGRATION OF ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
du
215

f
du
J Vl
u
'+
u* Vl u+u*
. , , 2 1 (using method
=

smh
VT
of 137)
= sinh
21
X
V3
= _s,nh^*.
Exercise 28.
Integrate the following functions:
MS*
[
dx
"
Jx + Vi
5"
1
(rationalise the denominator).
0./
/VS
6 f
ix
'
; *Vx* + 6* +
10'
8 f
**
f
*
(x + l)Vx*+4x + 2
(pot* +
1).
. f^H?*
12.
f f*
I x JxWl + x
1
II
(rationalise numerator).
vV +
I
(put * = tan w).
14.
/
**
16
I
\/3~+T
dx
(x + \)Vx + 2
(put Vx + 2 = ).
CHAPTER XIII
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS. DEFINITE
INTEGRALS
141. Areas by Integration.
The integral calculus had its origin in the endeavour to
find a general method for the determination of the areas
of regular figures. When these figures are bounded by
straight lines, ele
mentary geometry
supplies the means of
obtaining formulae
for their areas; but
when the boundaries
are wholly, or in
part, regular curves,
such as the circle,
ellipse, semicircle,
etc., then, unless we
have the help of the
integral calculus, we
must depend upon
experimental or ap
proximate methods.
We proceed therefore
to investigate how
integration can be
Y
/
r
A(
*ry("
A
S
y\ B
O Qli X
Fig. 29.
employed to determine any such area.
Let us consider, as an example, the parabola
y
= x*.
In Fig. 29, OA represents a part of this curve.
Let A be any point on the curve and AB the corre
sponding ordinate.
Let OB = a units.
Suppose it is required to find the area under OA, that is,
the area of OAB, which is bounded by the curve, OX, and
AB.
7
ai6
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS ai7
Let the area be A sq. units.
Let P be any point on the curve OA.
Let its coordinates be (x,
y).
Drawing the ordinate PQ we have OQ = x, PQ =
y.
Suppose the area to be increased by a small amount SA
,
due to the point P moving along the curve to M, and
Q
moving along the axis to N.
Draw PS and MR parallel to OX and produce QP to
meet MR at R.
Then we can represent QN by Sx
and MS by 8y.
/. ON = x + Sx
MN =y + Sy.
Also SA is represented by the figure QPMN.
The area QPMN lies between the areas of QRMN and
QPSN,
and area of QRMN is
(y
+ 8y)8x
QPSNisyhx.
.'. 8/1 lies between y$x and
(y
+ Sy)Sx
SA
and
Sx
y and
y
+ Sy.
Now suppose Sx to be decreased indefinitely.
Then as Sx
0, 8y 0, and j becomes j in the
Sx ax
limit, i.e., in the limit
dA
Tx
=
y
= x*.
:. dA = x
x
dx.
Integrating A =
Jx
8
+ C.
This result provides a formula for the area A in terms of
any abscissa x and the undetermined constant C.
But when x = 0, A =0,
then C = 0.
/. for any value of x, when measured from O.
When x = a as in the figure for the area of OAB
A =
Jo* sq. units.
>i8 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
If now another value of x, say b, be taken, so that OD in
Fig. 30 = b. Then by the above result
Area of OCD =
J6.
.. Area of CDBA = J(fl
 6
s
).
Fie. 30.
We will now proceed to establish a general rule which will
apply to any function.
142. Definite Integrals.
Let the curve drawn in Fig. 31 represent part of the
function
y
= *(x).
Let AB and CD be fixed ordinates such that
OB = a,OD = b.
Let ABDC be the area which we require to find and let
it be A sq. inch.
Let PQ be a variable ordinate corresponding to any
point, (x,
y),
so that OQ = x, PQ =
y
=
<f>(x).
Then, if
Q
moves along OX so that x be increased by 6x
[i.e., QN), P will in consequence move along the curve to
M (say).
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Draw PS and MR parallel to OX.
Then MS =
8y
219
and
also
Let the area be in
creased by &A. wheie $A
is represented by the
figure PQNM
.
Then the area of
PQNM lies between the
areas of PQNS and
QRMN.
,'. 6Alles between y6x
and
(y
+ 6y)8x,
tlA
i.e., =r lies between
Sx
y and
y
4 8y.
Let 8* be decreased
indefinitely.
Then, as 8x > 0,
Sy > 0, and
Sv
ap
MN =
y + Sy
ON = x + 8*.
8x
dA
proaches , as its limit.
in the limit
Fig. 31.
dA
dx=y
.'. dA = +(x)ix.
Integrating, and representing the integral of <f>(x)
by/(x).
jdA = j<f,(x)dx
and A = f(x) + C . . . .
(I)
where C is an undetermined constant. Its value can be
determined when the value of A is known for some value
of x.
Now A has been taken to represent the area ABDC, i.e.,
between the ordinates where x = a, and x = b respectively,
and the variable ordinate moves from x = a to x = b.
When
to TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
But when % = a,A = 0.
Substituting in I, =/(a) + C,
.. C =
f(a).
x = b, i.e., at D
A=f(b)+C.
Substituting the value found for C.
A = f(b)f(a). ... (II)
Since f(a) and
f(b)
are found by substituting a and 6
for * in
f
(x) which represents the integral of
<f>(x), the area,
A , between these limits a and b can be found by integrating
4>(x) and substituting the values x a and * = b, f(a) being
subtracted from/(6).
This can conveniently be expressed by the notation
m

m =
/W)<fc
j
4>(x)dx is called a definite Integral and a and b
are called its limits, a being called the lower limit
and fa the upper limit.
.'. To evaluate a definite Integral such as
[
<f>(x)dx
(1) Find the indefinite integral
J<f>(x)dx, viz.f(x).
(21 Substitute for x in this the upper limit b, i.e.,f(b).
(3) lower limit a, i.e., /(a).
(4)
Subtract J(a) from f(b)
.
In practice the following notation and arrangement is
found convenient
:
jy
X)du
=
[f(x)j
= fY(a).
143. Characteristics of a definite Integral.
The following points about a definite integral should be
carefully noted i
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS 221
(a) The results of substituting the limits in the
integral are respectively
f{a) + C and f{b) + C. Con
sequently on subtraction the constant C disappears,
hence the term
"
definite." If a and b are numbers
the integral will also be a number.
(b) The variable is assumed to be Increasing from
the lower limit to the upper limit, i.e., in the above
from to b. This must be carefully remembered when
dealing with negative limits. If, for example, the
limits are 2 and 0, then the variable x is increasing
from 2 to 0. Consequently the upper limit is
and the lower limit 2.
This definite integral would therefore be written
f<f>(x)dx.
(c) The term
"
limit " in this connection has not
the meaning attached to it previously in 15. It
denotes the values of the variable x at the ends of the
range of values a to b over which we are finding the
value of the definite integral.
144. Worked examples.
Example I. Evaluate Hie definite integral i Zx . dx.
Now hxdx = \x* + C.
...
j>* =![>*];
=
f{(5)(2)}
=
} x21
_63
~ 2*
The student will find it a useful exercise to check this by
drawing the graph of
y
= Zx, the ordinates at x = 2 and
x = 5 and finding the area of the trapezium by the ordinary
geometrical rule.
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Example 2. Evaluate the definite integral l*sin xdx.
Now /sin xdx =
cos x + C.

"
.'. /'sin xdx = T cos
f
{{ f
008
0)}
= + 1
= 1.
AM*.This gives, in square units, the area beneath
the curve of
y
= sin x between and
5. A graph 01
a
this function between and
is shown in Fig. 32. Clearly,
from symmetry the area under
this curve between and x
must be twice that between
and
5, i.e., 2 sq. units. Thii
can be checked by evaluating
I sin xdx.
X
Fig. 32.
Example 3. Evaluate
J
xe*dx.
Now (xe*dx = \e* + C
/>^=K
=
to
x

o
*(el).
Example 4. Evaluate the definite integral
f
(1 + 3x  2x*)dx.
*i
(by inspection)
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Since
j
(1 + 3*  2x*)dx = x +
?J*
 *
.'.
(1 + 3x

2*)<fc =
[*
+
3
J*

^J
= 0
(l+l + f)
7
"
6"
Example 5. Evaluate the definite integral \ . .
/
*_.,
J Vx*\
223
Since cosh
1
x.
rv^b[
odri
*i
= cosh
1
(3)
 cosh
1
(2)
= 1763  1316 (both approx.)
= 0447.
Rough values for cosh
1
(3) and cosh'
1
(2) can be found
from the tables on p. 379.
More exact values can be found by using the algebraical
equivalent of cosh
1
*, viz. log, {* + Vx
%
+ 1} using the
hyperbolic logs on p. 377.
Example 6. Evaluate the definite integral
j
x log xdx.
Using the result of Exercise 22, No. 5, we get 1
f x*
Jx
log xdx =

2
(
lo
S
* 
D
.'.
j
x log xdx =
[!
(log * 
$)]
=

,
(log#e J)(log.l_l)
=
(f
x
i)

1(0

t)
=
c
*+
'
J24 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Exercise 29.
Evaluate the following definite integrals!
2.
jV
+ 4)^*. 1. j*x*dx.
3.
(*(*
+ 3x 6)dx.
6. f xo'dx.
7.
(V+*v*
4. T (2* + l)<fc.
6. j'Vx'dx.
n
fi
8. I cos3*ix.
9.
J
(cos  sin 26)<*8. 10. f*cos (28 +
j)<f0.
12. j*4*dx.
14. \np j* (a* 
*Fix.
16. f sin
1
*fc.
/o
a
18. I ssinxix.
20
22
24
26
. / ** log xdx.
. ( tan
1
&,
. Pyl+2xtt*.
f
dx
'
iovT+1'
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS
dx
"5
35 f
1
^ _
'
k Vti  \x  x*'
37

/, (T=V
32
34
36
'
i.V Vx* + 2*
+2'
tan* zrf*.
.ft
Jo
'
h Vx(l  X)'
145. Some properties of definite Integrals.
(1) Interchange of limits.
Let <f>(x) be the indefinite integral of f(x).
Then, if the limits of the definite integral are o and b
ff(x)dx
= 4(b)  *(o).
If the limits be interchanged
[
'f(x)dx = 4(a)  4(b)
it.
f/(x)dx
=  j'/(x)dx.
Thus, the Interchange of the limits of Integration
changes only the sign of the definite Integral.
(2)
j"f(x)dx =
ff(x)dx + ff(x)dx.
'a ' c 'a
Let <f>(x) be the indefinite integral of
f(x).
also
and
H (CAL.)
j
i
/(x)dx=4(b)f>(a)
j'f(x)dx= 4(b) 4(c)
[j(x)dx= 4(c) 4().
226 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
/. ff(x)dx + \'f(x)dx = {4(b) 
<f>(c)} + {4(c) 
4(a))
' '
= 6(b\  d>(a\ , 4(b)  4(a)
= \"f(x)dx.
In Fig. 30 there is a graphical illustration of this theorem.
Clearly,
Area of OMi = Area of ABDC f Area of OCD,
i.e..
jf(*)
=
/>(*) +
/W
'0 ' '0
(3) Since / f(x)dx = <t>(b)
 4(a). where ^(x) is the
indefinite integral of I j(x)dx, then as the definite integral
0(6)
4(a) does not contain x. any other letter could be
used in the integral, provided the function of each of the
two letters in the sum is the same.
For.
ff(y)dy
= 4(b)  4(a)
'a
t
f/(x)dx
= 4(b) 
4(1).
'a
.: ff(x)dx
=
\"f(y)dy.
(4) j'f(x)dx =
j'f(a
 x)dx.
'o Jo
Let
Then
x = a u or a x = u.
dx = du.
Now, If In definite Integration the variable Is changed,
che limits will also be changed and the new limits must be
determined.
.". in the above, when x = a,
u = a x = a
a =0.
when x =
u = a x = a
= a.
Thus when x = a,u = 0, and when x = 0,u = a.
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS 227
.*. When x is replaced by a u in I f(x)dy, the limits
0
must be changed to those found above.
/. j"/(x)dx = 
f(a
 u)du
(a
u)dx
=
j
(a
x)dx
(by (1) above)
(by (3)
above)
Examples.
I sin xdx = ("sin
(^
xjdx
/ft *0
i
cos xdx.
In general
n
rl
/(sin x)dx = ,' /(cos x)dx.
Jo
146. Infinite limits and Infinite Integrals.
In the calculation of definite integrals between two limits
and b it has been assumed
(1)
That these limits are finite.
(2)
That all the values of the function between them
are also finite, i.e.. the function is continuous.
We must, however, consider cases when one or both of
these conditions is not satisfied.
147. Infinite limits.
The problems which arise when one of the limits is infinite
can be illustrated by considering the case of
y
=
{
.
In studying this function it will be helpful to refer to its
gTaph, part of which is shown in Fig. 33. The values of
1
being always positive, the curve of the function lies
228 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
entirely above OX. It consists of two parts, corresponding
to positive and negative values of x. These two parts are
clearly symmetrical about OY.
Fig. 33.
Let P, Q
be two points on the curve.
Let PA, QB be the corresponding ordinate.
Let OA =a,OB = b.
Then, as shown in 142, the area beneath the part of the
curve PQ and bounded by PA, QB and OX, is as shown by
the shaded part of the figure and is represented by
t*dx r li /I 1\
l*
=
l x\
a
=\b ah
(1) Suppose the ordinate QB to move indefinitely away
from OY, so that OB
y co
.
The definite integral can now be written
:
f g
or
fMT
In the limit r becomes infinite.
R&
Thus the definite Integral becomes Infinite and cannoi
be found numerically.
At the same time OY becomes an asymptote to the curve.
We therefore conclude that in the definite integral I
,,
'a
X
(a) If x becomes infinitely great, while
y
becomes
indefinitely small, the integral will have a finite value.
(b) If x becomes indefinitely small, while y becomes
infinitely large, the integral has no finite value.
It is clear therefore that in all such cases we must
investigate and determine whether the definite integral
can have a finite value or not.
Next we will consider an example in which both limits
become infinite.
(<
dx r. . i
,=[tani*]
a
= tan
1
b tan
1
a.
LIT*
'3 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
If
If
then
then
tan
1
b
tan' a
2'
r.
2'
a
* <o
In the limit
,+*
becomes
g(g)}
Therefore there is a finite value of the inti
/:.
igral
j
dx
1 +
**"
148. Functions with Infinite values.
We next consider functions which become infinite for
some value, or values, of the variable between the limits
of the definite integral, i.e., the function is not continuous.
The function ,, which was considered above, is an
x*
example; it becomes infinite when x = 0, as shown above.
If therefore it is required to find the value of the integral
(**dx . .
, it is evident th;it the function becomes infinite (or a
/_
*
value of x between the limits, viz. x = 0.
[+ "^x
If I j be evaluated as usual, disregarding this infinity
value, the result is as follows:
r+*dx r In*
8
But this result is at variance with that obtained above
(*
2
dx
when it was shown that I , becomes infinite as x
approaches zero. Similarly, it can also be shown that
I
*
is infinite.
Jt
x
r+tfa
As I , must be the sum of these
( 145), it must be
't
x
infinite.
It is therefore necessary, before evaluating certain
AREAS BY INTEGRAL CALCULUS *3>
integrals, to ascertain if the function is continuous between
the assigned limits, or whether it becomes infinite for some
value of x.
This is specially necessary in the case of fractional
functions in which, while the numerator remains finite, the
denominator vanishes for one or more values of x.
Thus i
_ i\/
_ 21
becomes infinite, and the curve is
therefore discontinuous
(1)
when (x I) = 0, and x = 1, and
(2)
when (x 2) = 0. and x = 2.
Similarly in , the denominator vanishes when
x = 2. or more accurately, y/2 x > when x
2.
Consequently the function approaches infinity as x >
2.
All such cases must be examined to ascertain it a finite
limit and therefore a definite value oi the integral exists.
For this purpose the property of an integral as stated in
145, No. 2, can often be employed. In using this theorem
the integral to be tested is expressed as the sum of two
integrals in which the value of the variable for which the
function becomes infinite is used as an end limit. Each
of these must have a finite value if the original integral is
finite and its value is given by that sum.
An example of this was given above, when it was pointed
out that I
t
, when expressed as the sum of I ,, and
/0 dx
'*
*
'<>
*
. must be infinite, i.e., it has no meaning, since each
Jt
x
of the two component integrals had been shown to be
infinite. A further example is given below in which a
method is employed for determining whether a given
definite integral is finite or not.
rdx ,,
=
has a finite value.
The integral approaches infinity as x > 2.
231 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Using the above theorem ( 145), the integral can be
expressed as follows:
f*
dx
I
s
dx
(* ii
) Vx~2
~
I
vr=2
+
)
W=r
It is necessary, if the original integral is to have a finite
value, that each of these integrals should be finite. We,
therefore, test these separately.
In the first let the end limit
"2"
be replaced by 2 + a,
where a is a small positive number.
(1)Then
t.^2=fr
2
)
,
]! +a
= ll{(32)l}{(2+a)2}l]
= f(l
al)
= 

f
l.
As a
L
~v~*
16
18
20
CHAPTER XIV
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS
149. Approxlmatlom to an area by division Into small
elements.
In the preceding chapter it was seen how, with the aid ot
integration, we could find the area of a figure bounded in
part by a regular curve whose equation is known. We
now proceed to the consideration of another, and a more
general, treatment of the problem.
Fig. 34.
In Fig. 34 let AB be a portion of a curve whose equation
is v =
<(*).
Let AM, BN be the ordinates of A and B, so that
OM = a, ON = 6.
.. AM = tf,(a), BN=<f>(b).
Let the coordinates of A be (*, y).
ABNM is the figure whose area is required.
Let MN be divided into n equal parts at X
x
, X
t
,X
234
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 135
Then MX
X
can be represented by 8*. Hence each of
the divisions X,X
t
, A.A, ... is equal to 8*.
Let A
X
X
X
, i4
r
.Y,, A
9
X
t
... be ordinates corresponding
to the points A
x
, A
t
, A
t
. . .
Completetherectangles^P,^
,Q X
,A ,Pt/itQ
t
,A
t
P
x
AgQ
3
. .
.
There are now two sets of rectangles corresponding to
the divisions MX
X
, X
x
X
t
, . . .
(1)
MP
l
A.X.. X.PJIJL* X
t
P
3
A,X
(2) MAQ
X
X
X
. X
x
A
t QX. XJ4J
The area beneath the curve, i.e., the area of MABN. lies
between the sums of the areas of the rectangles in sets
(1) and (2).
If the number of divisions be increased the area of each
of the two sets will approximate more nearly to the area of
MABN.
If the number of divisions be increased indefinitely. 8*
will be decreased indefinitely and the area of each of the
sets (1) and (2) approaches to equality with the area under
the curve. It is therefore necessary to find expressions for
the sums of these sets and then to obtain their limiting
values when 8* > 0.
The ordinates can be expressed thus:
AM = 4{a)
A ,X
X
= 4>{a + 8x)
A
t
X
t
=
Ua
428*)
A
K

X
X ,=#
4 (n 1)8*)
and BN m <f>\b)
where n is the number of divisions.
.". the areas of these rectangles in (1) are as follows:
Area of MAQ
X
X. = (AM x MX.) = <j>(a)Sx
X
X
A tQtX,
= (A
X
X
X
) x (AVYJ
= *(a + 8*)8*
., AVI ,<?,*,
= (A
t
X
t) x {XJCJ = 4>(a + 28*)S*
X
K
.
x
An
.
x Qn
.
x
N = M..AV
x) x (X..
X
N)
=
<f,{a +
(n  1)8*)8*.
The sum of all these rectangles is
S*tf() + <f>{a
+ Xx\
+ . . . + 4\a + ( 
1)8*}] (A)
2
3
6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Similarly the sum of all the rectangles in (2) is
Sx[6(a + Sx) + <f.(a + 28x) . . .
+
4{a
+
(n 
1)8*} + Ub)] (B)
The area of the figure AMNB lies between {A) and (C).
Then (B)  (A) =
8^(6)
 4(a)).
In the limit when 8*
> 0,
and this is written in the form
A= Lt 'i ^(x)Sx.
J* o
But we have seen,
( 142), that this area is given by the
integral
]
b
<f,(x)dx.
Lt 'i" <f>(x)dx
=
f<f>{x)dx.
I x a 'a
150. The definite Integral as the limit of a sum.
It is thus apparent that a definite integral can be
regarded as a sum, or, more correctly,, the
"
limit of a sum,"
of the areas of an infinite number of rectangles, one side of
each of which (dx in the above) is infinitesimally small.
The use of the term integral will now be clear, the word
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS
237
integrate meaning
"
to give the total sum
".
Thefirst letter
of the word sum appears in the sign /, which is the old
fashioned elongated
"
s." It is also evident why the
infinitesimal, dx, must necessarily appear as a factor in an
integral.
The definite integral has been used in the illustration
above to refer to the sum of areas. This, however, is used
as a device for illustrating the process by a familiar geo
metrical example. Actually there was found the sum of
an infinite number of algebraical products, one factor of
which, in the limit, becomes infinitely small. The results,
however, can be reached independently of any geometrical
illustration.
b
Consequently, I <j>(x)dx can be regarded as representing
la
the sum of an Infinite number of products, one factor of
which is an Infinitesimally small quantity. The successive
products must be of the nature of those appearing in the
demonstration above, and must refer to successive values of
the independent variable, x, between the limits x = b and
x = a.
This being the case, the method can be applied to the
summation of any such series, subject to the conditions
which have been stated.
This is of great practical importance, since it enables us
to calculate not only areas, but also volumes, lengths of
curves, centres of mass, moments of inertia, etc., such as
**
are capable of being expressed in the form <f>(x)dx.
xa
They can then be represented by the definite integral
In the above demonstration <f>(x) has been regarded as
steadily and continuously increasing, but the arguments
employed will apply equally when if>(x) is decreasing. It
is essential, however, that the range of values of x between
a and b can be divided into a definite number of parts, and
that the corresponding values of <j>{x) are continuously
increasing or decreasing.
*3 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
The practical applications of the above conclusions are
very many, and some of them will be discussed in succeeding
chapters.
The most obvious application, in view of the method
followed in the demonstration, is to areas ; so a beginning
will be made by examining examples of them.
151. Examples on Areas.
Example I . Find the area between the curve ofy
= $x*, the
xaxis, and the ordinate
of the curve corresponding to x = 2.
The part of the curve involved is indicated in Fig. 35 by
OQ, where the ordinate from
Q
corresponds to the point
* = 2.
The area required is that of OAQ indicated by horizontal
shading.
Let P. (x, y)
be any point on the curve, so that ON = *.
Let x be increased by 8*. and drawing the corresponding
ordinate there is enclosed what is approximately a smalJ
rectangle, as shown in the figure.
The area of this is approximately y8x.
When 6x becomes indefinitely small, the sum of the area
of all such rectangles throughout the range from x =
to x 2 is equal to the required area.
The area of this very small rectangle is ydx.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION AREAS J39
This is called an element of area, and it is always necessary
to obtain this element before proceeding to the solution.
The sum of all such areas is given by the definite integral
,1
ydx.
y
= **
I
But
Area = j* ix*dx =
i[V]'
'0
4
units.
Example 2. Find the area between the curve
of y
= \x
%
,
the axis
of y and the straight line
y
= 2.
The curve is the same as in Example 1, and is shown in
Fig. 35 with vertical shading ; BQ is the line
y
= 2.
Take any point P(x,
y)
on the curve ; as before, OM
y,
ON = x. PM represents a small element of area.
In this problem it is convenient to consider the area as
being formed by the movement parallel to OX of PM, i.e.,
y is regarded as being increased by 8y to form the rectangle
PM.
Then area of PM = x6y.
Then the rectangle becomes infinitely small, and when
8y

1 
1
The similarity to the equation of the ellipse will be
noticed.
If b = a, i.e., AO = AL. LAOL =45.
Thus LLOL
x
, between the asymptotes, is a right angle,
and the equation of the curve can be written
x*  y* = a*.
This form of the curve is called a rectangular hyperbola.
The area of the hyperbola,
unlike the ellipse and circle,
is unenclosed, and conse
quently has no definite
value. We can, however,
find the area of a segment
such as is shown in Fig.
42, being cut off by the
double ordinate PMPK
Let AM = x
v
Then, considering the
upper half of the segment,
the element of area can be
written ydx.
But from the equation of the curve
y
= 
Vx*~ a*, and
the limits are a and x, since OA = a.
a
.'. Area of whole segment = 21  Vx* ~a*tfc

*[w^=y
1 log*
+
Vx
*~
a{
T
o
IM).
Equation of a hyperbola referred to its asymptotes as
axes.
This form has been mentioned above.
The curve is represented in Fig. 43.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 249
The general form of the equation is shown in coordinate
geometry to be
xy = c*.
The area required to be found is usually that under a
portion of the curve as
shown by the shaded
portion of the figure.
This can be found in
the usual way. A modi
fied form is worked out
in the next example.
Example 8. Find ti\c
area enclosed between tlie
4
curve of y
=
^ry
the
axis of x, and tlte ordin
ates x = 1, * = 4.
The curve of this
function is a hyperbola
(see Fig. 44).
When x
y l,y ><.
.. the ordinate x = 1 (dotted in the figure) is an
asymptote to the curve. So also is the xaxis.
The area which it is required to find is that which is
shaded. ...
Taking the element of area as ydx and substituting
Fig. U.
we have
Area
= 4(log 5  log 2)
= 4(log
)
= 4(09163) (remembering the logs are hyperbolic)
= 3665 (approx.)
ISO TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
152. Sign of an area.
It will be seen that in the foregoing examples of the
determination of areas, these were, in most cases, lying
above the axis ol x, and the values of the function were
consequently positive. In the examples of the circle and
ellipse, in which the curve is symmetrical about both axes,
positive values of the function were still adUnd to by
finding the area of one quadrant and then the whole by
multiplication by 4. We must now proceed to the con
sideration of areas which lie below the x axes, and the values
ol the function are negative. The following examples will
serve as an illustration:
?mm
Fio. 48.
Example I. Find the area enclosed between the curve
y
= x*
3* 42 and the axis of x.
Since x  3* + 2 = (x 
1)(*
 2).
The curve cuts OX at x = 1, x = 2.
Also ? = 2x 3. .". there is a turningpoint when
* = .
ax
Since
J^
t
= 2 and is always positive, this point is a
minimum.
The curve is represented in Fig. 45, and the area
required lies entirely below OX.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 151
Let A represent this area.
Then A =
J*
(x*  3* + 2)dx
=
(
 6 4
4)

(J

 + 2)
= *
The result is a negative area. But an area, fundament
ally, is signless. How, then, is this result to be interpreted ?
It will probably not come as a surprise to the student
because he will have seen that the definite integral I ydx
represents the sum of an infinite number of products which
are themselves infinitely small. When the area lies below
OX, all values of the function, \.e.,y, are negative, and since
dx, being the limit of 6x and representing an Increase, is
positive, all the products must be negative. Hence the
sum is negative. It has been pointed out
(
15(1) that the
summation is general for all such products, and the repre
sentation of an area by it is but one of the applications.
Hence if we are finding an actual area by the integration,
the negative sign must be disregarded, Since by the con
vention of signs used in the graphical representation of a
function ordinates below the axis are negative, the corre
sponding areas are also negative. Hence as a matter of
convention, areas above the xaxis are considered positive
and below the axis are negative.
The student may note the following in connection with
the above examples:
(1) The area below the curve between x = and
x = 1, i.e., the area with horizontal shading in Fig. 45,
is given by
f (x*  3x + 2)dx m
l
'a
(2) Consequently the total actual area, .., di>
regarding the negative sign of the above integral, is
844 = 1
a
5
2 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(3)
The total area as given by the integral
I* (x  Zx + 2)dx =
i,
i.e., 

I
Example 2. Find the area enclosed between the curve of
y
= 4x(x l)(x
2) and the axis of x.
The function 4x(x \)(x
2) vanishes when x = 0,
1 and 2. Consequently its curve cuts the xaxis for these
values of x. Proceeding as shown in 57, there are found
to be two turning points, as follows:
(11 a maximum value 155 when x = 045;
(2) a minimum value 155 when x = 155.
That part of the curve with which we are concerned is
shown in Fig. 46. The areas required are shaded.
Fig. 46.
(1) Area of OPA =
f
4x(x  l){x 2)dx
= I (4x*  12x* + 8x)dx
r I
1
= [x
4
 4*"
+ 4x*
J
= (l
_
4 + 4)

= I square unit.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 253
(2) Area of AQB =
/'
ix{x l)(x 2)dx
= I x*
 4*
+
4x
J
= I square unit.
Hence, disregarding the negative sign of the lower area,
the total actual area of the shaded portions is 2 square units.
If we integrated, for the whole area between the limits
and 2 we get :
Area =
f*4x{x l)(x  2)dx
1
=
[*
4x + 4.1/]
= 1632 + 16
= 0.
This agrees with the algebraical sum of the two areas
found separately.
From these examples we conclude that when finding the
total area enclosed by a curve and the axis of x when it
crosses the axis, we must find separately the areas above
and below the axis. The sum of these, disregarding the
signs, will be the actual area required.
Other examples follow.
Example 3. Find the area enclosed between the axis of x
and the curve ofy
= cos x, between the limits
(1)
Oand^.
(2)
J
and ir.
(3)
Oandir.
(1) The first area is shown in Fig. 47, in which it is the
area above OX with shading.
is
Area = I cos OdO = [sin
8
sin
5
sin
I.
254 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(2) The second area is shown with shading below OX.
Area =
j
cos 0i9 = [sin

= sin * sin
5
=  1
Fig. 47.
(3) The third area is composed of both (I) and
(2).
I cos 6if = Tsin el
= sin tt
sin 0.
= 0.
These results agree algebraically, but if we require to
know the actual area between and n, the negative sign of
the second area must be disregarded, and consequently the
area of the two parts is 2 square units.
Example 4. Find the area enclosed between the axes of x
and the curve ofy
= sin x, for values
of x between
(1)
Oandir.
(2) it and 2tt.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 155
It is evident from the part of the graph of y
= sin x in
Fig. 48, that the area enclosed between the curve and the
1 1
1
V. _ _ _
T
^ ^yps
//vyyvs
WtYrtffc
'
tfyVYY/'Y \ 4
x
KW/teJ.U.ti ,..., ... Chi
I \ A.
, M/teW/M** .
X
_.?. 4: _ _ Z 2?5V
<< _2 
X

1
R?X/yS77
\~~...
Z X"I"I32___
:::
::
__ _jz __t
"T'
*
Fig. 48.
xaxis consists of a series of loops of equal area, each
corresponding to a range of n radians, and lying alternately
above and below the xaxis; consequently they are
alternately positive and negative.
(1) Area of first loop
= / sin xdx = cos x = (cos n cos
0)
= (
 1) = 2
(2) Area of second loop
= I sin xdx = cos x\ = (cos 2* cos n)
= {+l(l)}=2.
It is evident that if there are n loops, when n is an odd
number, the total area, regard being paid to the negative
signs, is 2. but if n is even, the area thus calculated is zero.
The actual area of n loops is 2n.
2J6
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Example 5. Find the area contained between the curve of
y
= x
3
and the straight line
y
= 2*.
Fig. 49 represents the parts of the curves of the given
functions between their points of intersection, A and A
1
.
The areas shaded are those which we require to find.
ijijijijlljll;
 
   3 I awi hi
^a
iiiilliiiiiii:
:;:::H:::::::
::jl :::::::
1 UbU i
iiciiiiliiil
Mi
fit :: ::::
   2

if
mm
._._
:::::::::::::::
;;;;;;;;:;;;S
........J
:::::::fl:::::
+
+
;
:
! iiliiiiii;
Fig. 49.
From symmetry it is evident that the parts above
and below the xaxis will be equal in magnitude but of
opposite signs.
Wetherefore proceed to find the area of ABO (the shaded
area). This is the difference between (1) the triangle OAC,
and (2) the area beneath the curve of y
= x*, viz. OBAC.
We first find as usual an expression for the element of
area.
From any point P on the line
y
= 2x draw the ordinate
PR, cutting the curve of y
= x* in
Q.
As before, construct a small rectangle represented by
PR.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS i
57
This represents the element of area for the triangle, while
QR represents the element of area for OBAC.
.". their difference PQ represents the element of area for
the shaded part.
Let PR =y
v
QR =y
t
.
Then element of area represented by PR is equal to
y,dx, in the limit.
Then element of area represented by QR is equal to
y,dx, in the limit.
/. the element of area PQ is represented by
(y
i
yjdx,
in the limit. Before we can integrate, the limits of the
integral must be found. These will be the value of x at
and A , the points of intersection.
To find the value of x at these points we solve simul
taneously
y
= 2x
y
= x*.
Then x* = 2x
and the roots are 0, + V?.
V2.
These are values of x at 0, A and A
1
respectively.
.*. for the positive area OABO the limits are
x = and * =
+ V2~.
.; the area required =1 (y,
yjjdx
Jo
rV*>*l>r
= I square unit.
From symmetry and previous considerations we conclude
that the area below the xaxis is I square unit. This can
be verified as follows:
/o
r
^,0
,0jV^t^L
4
]
= 01 I.
1(CAL.)
258 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Disregarding the negative sign the actual area of the two
loops is 2 square units.
The student, as an exercise should verify by finding the
area of the two loops by the integral
,+ vj
(2x  x) dx.
Exercise 31.
Note.The student is recommended to draw the
figure which represents each problem, even though the
drawing might be rough.
1. Find the area bounded by the curve of y
= x
3
, the
xaxis and the ordinates * = 2, x = 5.
2. Find the area bounded by the straight line 2y
= 5x + 7,
the Xaxis and the ordinates x = 2, x = 6.
3. Find the area between the curve of y
= log x, the
xaxis and the ordinates * = 1, x = 6.
4. Find the area enclosed by the curve of y
= 4x'. the
yaxis and the straight lines
y
= 1 , y
= 4.
5. Find the area between the curve of y*
4x, the xaxis
and the ordinates x = 4, x = 9.
6. Find by the method of integration the area of the
circle x*
+
y* = 4.
7. In the circle x*
+
y* = 16 find the area included
between the parallel chords whose perpendicular distances
from the centre are 2 and 3 units.
Find also the area of the segment cut off from the circle
x* +
y* = 16 by the chord whose distance from the centre
is 3 units.
, ,
8. Find by integration the area of the ellipse .^ + % =1
I
O '
9. Find the area of the segment cut off from the hyperbola
x* v*
jj
J
. = 1 by the chord x = 4.
10. Find the area between the hyperbola xy = 4, the
xaxis and the ordinates x =
2, x =
4.
11. Find the area included between the curve of
y
= 2x 3x* and the xaxis.
12. Find the area bounded by
y
= c* and the xaxis
between the ordinates x = and x = 3.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 259
13. Find the area cut off by the xaxis from the curve of
y
= x  x  2.
14. Find the whole area included between the curve of
y
1
= X
s
and the line x = 4.
15. Find the area of the segment cut off from the curve
of xy = 2 by the straight line x + y
= 3.
16. Find the total area of the segments enclosed between
the xaxis and the curve of y
= x(x 3)(x + 2).
17. Find the area between the curves ofy =8x*andy =X
s
.
18. Find the area which is common to the two curves
y
= x* and y* = x.
%
19. Find the area between the catenary,
y
= cosh
^
(see 91), the xaxis and the ordinates x = 0, x = 2.
20. Find the actual area between the curve of y
=
x* 8x + 12, the xaxis and the ordinates x = 1, x =9.
21. Find the actual area between the curve of y
= x* and
the straight line
y
=
j.
153. Polar coordinates.
The equations of curves are frequently more simple and
the determination of areas easier when polar coordinates
are employed, instead of
rectangular. For the
benefit of those students
who have had no previ
ous acquaintance with
them, a very brief ac
count is accordingly
(
given below. For a full
treatment the student
should consult a text
book on Coordinate Geometry.
(0) Definitions. Let OX (Fig. 50) be a fixed straight
line and a fixed point on it.
Then the position of any point P is defined with reference
to these when we know
(1)
its distance from 0,
(2) the angle made by OP with OX.
Let r be this distance.
X
Fig. 50.
260 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
X
Fig. 51.
Let 6 be the angle made by OP with OX.
Then (r, 6) are called the polar coordinates of P.
0, the fixed point, is
called the pole, OP is
called the radius vector,
the vectorial angle,
and OX the Initial line.
6 is the angle which
would be described by
the radius vector, in
rotating in a positive
direction from OX.
(b) Connection be
tween rectangular co
ordinates of a point and
the polar coordinates.
Let P be a point (Fig. 51) whose polar coordinates are
(r, 0), and rectangular coordinates (x,
y),
viz. OQ and PQ.
Then it is evident that x = r cos 6
y
= rsln6
x
+
y = r*.
(c) Polar equation of a curve.
If a point moves along a curve, as 8 changes, r in general
will also change. Hence
r Is a function of 6. x^""" vP
The equation which
states the relation be
tween r and 6 for a
given curve is called the Xy^ \]A
polar equation of the

curve.
(</) Example of a
polar equation.
Let a point P move
along the circumference
p, 52
of a circle (Fig. 52).
Let be a fixed point at the extremity of a fixed diameter.
Let 2a = the diameter of the circle.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 261
Then, for any position of P with reference to and OA
,
the polar coordinates are
:
OP = r
IAOP = 0.
From geometry it is known that LOPA is a right angle.
.". r
la cos 6.
This is the polar equation of the circle with the above
conditions. It may be noted that if the centre of the circle
were taken as the pole, r is always equal to a ; i.e., the polar
equation is then
r = a.
In such a case r is a constant, being the radius of the
circle, and has no functional relation to G.
The equation of the circle may take other forms.
154. Plotting curves from their equations In polar co
ordinates.
Many curves are easily drawn from their polar equations,
though the plotting of points may be difficult when using
the equations of the curves in rectangular coordinates.
The following example is given as typical of the method
employed.
Example. Draw the curve whose polar equation is
r = a(\ + cos 9)
= a + a cos 6.
The general method is to select values of G, find the
corresponding values of r; then plot the points obtained.
As has been shown above r = a cos G is the equation of a
circle of diameter a, when the pole is on the circumference.
It is evident therefore that if for any value of G, the value
of r for the circle is increased by a, the result is the value
of r for the required curve.
Draw a circle of radius

(Fig. 53).
Take a point at the end of a diameter OA. will be
the pole for the curve.
Since cos 6 is a maximum, viz., unity, when 0=0, the
262 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
maximum value of r for the curve will be at the point B,
where AB = a.
Thus the maximum value of r Is la.
When 8 = ? and
*\
cos e = 0. r = a. Hence we
get the points C and D.
Fio. S3.
In the 2nd quadrant, cos 6 is decreasing to 1, at n,
then r = a
a =0
Similarly the general path of the curve may be found for
the third and fourth quadrants.
Finally, when 8 = 2n, cor 8 = 1.
.'. the curve is closed at B.
To get other points on the curve between the special
points considered above, draw a series of chords of the
circle, for increasing values of 8. If OP be one of these,
produce it and mark off PQ equal to a. Then
Q
is a point
on the curve. The complete curve is as shown in Fig. 53.
It is known as the cardlold, from its heartlike shape.
It is of importance in optics.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 263
Other examples of curves which are readily drawn from
their polar equations are
(1)
The lemnlscate, r
l
= a* cos 28.
(2) The llmacon. r = b a cos 8.
(3) The spiral of Archimedes, r = a8.
(4)
The logarithmic or equiangular spiral, log r = 8.
(5) The hyperbolic spiral. r8 = a.
155 Areas In Polar Coordinates.
Let AB, Fig. 54, be part of a curve whose equation is
known in polar coordinates.
Fig. 64.
Suppose it is required to find the area of the sector OAB,
contained between the curve and the two radii OA, OB,
the angles made by them with the fixed line OX being
LAOX =
LBOX = p.
Let P be any point on the curve, and its polar coordinates
{r. 8).
.. LPOX = S.
Let 6 receive an increment 88, and r, in consequence be
increased by 8r. The polar coordinates of
Q, the new
position on the curve, are
((r + 8r). (8
4
88))
Then, with the construction shown in the figure, the area
of the sector OPQ lies between the areas of the As 0PM,
ONQ, the areas of which are
AOPM =
Jr*88
&0NQ = (r +
8*)88.
264
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
If the angle 86 be now decreased indefinitely, then as
89
> 0, (r + ix)
y r
and the area of the infinitely small sector approaches r*d6.
This is, therefore, the element of area, and the sum of
all such sectors between the limits G = a and == (J will
be the area of the sector OAB.
Expressing this as an integral, as before,
rfi
Area of sector OAB = I \r*dd.
When the polar equation of the curve is known, r can be
expressed in terms of 8 and the integral can be evaluated.
Example. Find the area
of the circle whose polar equation
isr = la cos 9
( 153, d).
If P be a point moving round the curve, the radius
vector describes the area of the circle.
Fig. 65.
When Pis at A, 9 = 0.
When P is at 0, 6 =
g.
.*. as P moves from A to 0, and the vectorial angle 9
changes from to 5,
the area described is a semicircle.
Using the formula obtained above
Area of semicircle
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 265
The area of the circle is twice this.
,*, Area of circle =
J
r*dO.
'0
But r = 2a cos 9.
IT
.". Area =
j
4a* cos' 9i9
= 4a*
I
cos* OiG
"o
= 4a* f*J(l +cos29)rf9 (114)
Jo
= 2a[9
+ Jsin29j
Srfg
+ Jdnw]
=irO.
Exercise 32.
1. Find the area of the cardiod whose equation is
r = o(l + cos 9), the limits of 9 being 2tc and 0.
2. Find the area of one loop of the curve r = o sin 29, i.e.,
between the limits and =. How many loops are there
between and 2n.
*
Note.a sin 29 vanishes when 9=0 and 6 =
.
SB
As the function is continuous between these values, the
curve must form a loop between them. The student
should draw roughly the whole curve.
3. Find the area of one loop of the lemniscate
t* = a* cos 29.
How many loops are there in the complete curve ?
4. If the radius vector of the function r = a 9 makes one
complete rotation from to 2n, find the area thus passed
over.
266 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
5. Find the area which is described in the curve
r = a sec' = from 8 = to 6 =
5.
6. Find the area enclosed by the curve r = 3 cos 6+5
between = 2n and 9=0.
156. Mean value.
Let PQ (Fig. 55A)
represent part of the
curve of a continuous
function
Let PA, QB be the
X ordinates at P and
Q.
where OA = a, OB = b.
Then from previous
Fl0 68a
work we know that
Area of APQ8 = l"f(x)dx.
Let A BCD be a rectangle whose area is equal to that of
APQB. i.e., to
j
f(x)dx.
Draw LM parallel to OY, from L, the intersection of the
curve, and DC parallel to OX.
Area ABCD = AB x LM
. . .. Area of ABCD
LM
=
'AB
_
Areaof APQB
AB
j
t
/(x)dx
AB
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 267
LM 1$ said to be the mean value of ordinates of the
curve for the range of values x = to x = b.
ff{x)dx
;. Mean value of
f(x)
from a to b = '
z
.
Example. Find the mean value of 2 cos t sin 3t between
the values t = and / =
6
From the above,
f
mean value
2 cos t sin 3t)dt
[2
sin /
+ J
cos
*i
>Q
6
J2
sin
g
+ J
cos
g)
 {2 sin 4
i
cosO)
8
B
4
w'
Exercise 33.
1. Find the mean value of the function sin x over the
range of values x = to * = n.
2. Find the mean value of the function sin* x over the
range of values x = to x = n. 1
3. Find the mean value of y
=  for the range of values
x = 1 to x = 10.
*
4. Find the mean value of y* = 4x between % \ and
* = 0.
x
5. The equation of a curve is y
= b sin'
. Find the
268 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
mean height of the portion for which * lies between b
and a.
6. Find the mean value of cos x between x = and * =
t
7. Find the mean value of the function y
= a sin bx
between the values x = and x = r
8. The range of a projectile fired with initial velocity v
and an elevation 6 is ^ sin 26. Find the mean range as
vanes from to 3.
157. Irregular areas.
The determination of irregular areas, i.e., areas the
boundaries of which cannot be expressed by formal equa
tions, is often a matter of great practical importance.
There are certain practical methods, such as using squared
paper and counting squares, which yield rough approximate
results, but there are also methods of calculation by which
the area can be determined with greater accuracy, though
still approximate. The first of these is the trapezoidal rule
which is as follows:
158. The trapezoidal rule.
Let the area which it is required to determine be that
enclosed by the irregular curve PV (Fig. 56), the xaxis
and the ordinates PA and VG. Divide AG into any number
of equal parts, at B, C, D . . ., each of length I, and draw
the corresponding ordinate PA, QB, RC . . .
Join PQ.QR.RS . . . VV.
Let the lengths of the ordinates be
yv yt,
yt
. . .
Then each of the figures formed by these constructions,
such as APQB, is a trapezium, and their areas are
i'Oi +yJ + l'(y, +y) +  + V(y,
+y,)
The areas of the trapeziums approximate to the areas of
those figures in which the straight line PQ is replaced by
the curve PQ, and so for the others. Consequently the sum
of all these approximates to the area of the whole figure
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 269
which is required, and the greater the number, the closer
will be the approximation.
Y
/
1
^^^^^^
^^^H
A B C O E F G
Fig. 56.
Vpx+yJ+{y,+y,) + (yt +yJ

M(/i + y,) + 2(y, + y> + y.
the area is approximately equal to
+ y)}
(half the distance between the strips) x {(sum of first
and last ordinates)
+
(twice the sum of other
ordinates)}.
159. Simpson's rule for area.
Considering again the irregular curve of the previous
section, it is evident that if the chords PQ, QR, RS . . .
were to be replaced by the arcs of suitable regular curves,
and the areas so obtained be found by previous methods,
the approximation to the area would be closer than that
founa by the trapezoidal rule.
Accordingly we assume that the part of the curve
joining three consecutive points, such as P, Q, R, is the arc
of a parabola.
Assume the origin for this parabola to be at B, so that
the coordinates of A , B and C are /, 0, + /, then the
area of APRC can be found by integration.
270 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Let the equation of the parabola, of which PQR is an arc.be
y
= a + bx + ex*.
Then, since the equation is satisfied by the coordinates
of A, B, C
AP = abl+cl*=y
l
. . . (1)
BQ=a=y.
(2)
CR=a + bl + cn=y
t .. . . (3)
adding (1) and
(3) yx
+y.
= 2(a + cl*)
whence 2c/* =
y, + y,
2a
=yi+y2y*
from
/:,
Integrating area of APRC
{a + bx + cx*)dx
= \ax
+
\bx*
+ lex
3
!
= 2al
+
\cP
= 2/(a + \cP)
= 2l{y
t
+ i(yi + V
~
2>J}
(A)
Similarly, area of RCET
= l
(y>
+ 4y
i
+&)
and area of TEGV
.". area of whole

gtta
+*y% +>) + (* +
4
^ +>) + (y. +
4
>". +y7)}
=
j{fa + r)
+
2
(y + yi) +
4
<y + y + y)V
Clearly, this process can be applied to any even number
of intervals, which involves an odd number of ordinates.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 271
Thus, if there be In intervals, there will be In + I
ordinates. From the consideration of these results we
may deduce
:
Simpson's rule for areas.
// the area be divided into an even number of strips by
equidistant ordinates. then
. width of strip
,, ,_ ,.
,, ,
Area = 
r
{(sum of first and last ordinates)
( 2(sum of odd ordinates) + 4(sum of even ordinates)}.
It will readily be undersood that the greater number of
strips which are taken, the greater will be the accuracy of
the approximation to the area
160. Worked example. Find the area
of a quadrant of a
circle
of 2 inch radius.
In this example the result as obtained by Simpson's Rule
can be compared with the calculated area of the quadrant.
Fig. 57 represents the quadrant.
~  J
_ _^5
___ ::

TS
_ :::: x ::s:::: ; :
,.
. :: ::::::::: : s : : : : :
:
. . L
 ~ .. _
SJ

 
~\ ~
 
I
__
..
_
O
"

_f
Fxo. 57.
ij2 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Divide the radius OA into 10 equal divisions each of
02 inch.
Then the ordinates will be represented byy
v yt ,ys
. . ,y
u
.
Measuring these, the working is arranged as follows:
(2)
Odd (3)
Even
ordinates. ordinates.
ya
= 196
yt
m 199
yt
= 183
yt
= 191
y7
= 16
yt
= 173
sum 2
y,
= 12
yt
= 142
yi0
= 086
(1)
First and
last.
sum 059
By Simpson's rule
02
sum 791
Area =
^
{2 + (2 x 659)
+ (4 x 791)}
=
~
x 4682 = 312 square inch.
Calculated areas = Jnr* = Jxitx4=3l4 square Inch.
The error 02 in 314 is less than one per cent.
Exercise 34.
1. The lengths of nine equidistant ordinates of a curve
are 8, 105, 123, 116, 129, 138, 102, 8 and 6 inches
respectively, and the length of the base is 24 inches. Find
the area between the curve and the base.
2. An area is divided into ten equal parts by parallel
ordinates, 02 inch apart, the first and last touching the
bounding curve. The lengths of the ordinates are 0, 124,
237, 410, 628, 476, 460, 436. 245, 162, 0. Find the
area.
3. The lengths of the ordinates of a curve in inches are
23, 38, 44, 60, 71, 83, 82, 79, 62, 50, 39. Find the
area under the curve.
4. Ordinates at a common distance of 10 feet are of length
in feet, 5, 65, 9, 13, 185, 22, 23, 22, 185, 145. Find the
area bounded by the curve, the axis of x, and the end
ordinates.
INTEGRATION AS A SUMMATION. AREAS 273
5. Find the area under the curve shown in Fig. 58, the
ordinates being drawn at the points marked 1 to 12, each
division representing one foot.
CHAPTER XV
THE LENGTHS OF CURVES
161. The measurement of the length of a curve.
The student will remember that he has previously been
faced with the problem of the length of a curve when
considering the
"
circular measure
'
of an angle. The
unit employed in this method of measuring angles is the
radian, which is the
"
angle subtended at the centre of a
circle by an arc equal in length to the radius {Trigonometry,
p. 150). The difficulty of comparing the length of a curve
with that of a straight line is met by the assumption that
the arc of a semi circle subtends n radians, where r is a
constant the value of which the student has no means of
finding except by approximate practical methods. The
student learns that this value has been found to be
approximately 314159 . . . or some less accurate approxi
mation. Using this constant, the semicircle is stated to
contain ur units of length, where r represents the radius
and that the length of the circumference of the circle is
2nr units.
It will be observed that this
"
formula
"
for the circum
ference of a circle is, in reality, merely a statement that
the ratio of the length of the circumference of a circle to
its diameter is represented by the Greek letter n, where the
value of t is undetermined. The determination of its value
occupied mathematicians through the centuries, and by
various ingenious devices, with which we are not concerned
here, approximations were found.
Modem mathematics, however, with the help of the
calculus, as the student will see later, has solved the
problem, and it can now be proved that the ratio is incom
mensurable, but that its value to any required degree of
accuracy can be calculated with certainty.
Since no part of a curve, however small, can be super
imposed on any portion of a straight line, so that it coincides
with it, its length cannot thus be found by comparison with
a straight line of known length. Integration, however,
supplies a method of determining the length of any regular
*74
THE LENGTH OF CURVES
*75
curve. This method, as the student has probably antici
pated, is similar to that used for areas. An expression is
found for
"
an element of length
"
of the curve and the sum
of all such elements is obtained by integration.
This process is called
"
the rectification of a curve."
162. General formula for the length of a curve in cartesian
coordinates.
Let AB (Fig. 59)
represent a portion
of the curve of a
function y
=
f(x) be
tween the points A,
where x = a, and B,
where x = b.
Let P, Q be two
points on the curve,
and PQ the chord of
the curve through
them.
Let P be (x,
y).
Let s be the length
of the arc from A to B.
When x is increased by Sx
y y
then s
8s.
i.e., 8s represents the length of the arc PQ.
M N
Fie. 60.
Then by geometry the chord PQ = V(8x)*
+ (8y)*.
If
Q
be taken close to P, i.e.. S.v becomes small, the length
of the chord is nearly equal to the length of the arc.
If Q
is indefinitely close to P, in the limit when 8* >
0,
the chord approaches to coincidence with the curve and
the sum of these chords is equal to the length of the arc.
Then ds = V{d~x)*
+ (dyf*
/. Integrating
or
V
T
+ 1 dy.
2
7
6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
If the integration is more conveniently performed with
respect to values of
y,
then s =
I a/( j )
+ 1
tyt
where
c and d are the limits of y.
>*
v xa
>"
In many cases the evaluation of the integral is difficult
and requires a more advanced knowledge of the subject
than is contained in this volume.
163. Worked examples.
Example I. Find the length of lite circumference of the
circle x*
+
y* = a*.
Since x'
+
y* = a*
y
= y/&~=l? = {a*  *)
=
V
a
 x
1
'
.
(
d
y\* 
x
*
"
\dxl ~W^x*
Considering the area of a quadrant the limits will be a
andO.
Using the formula above, viz.
[ dx
=ax
[
sin
",
3o
.xgO)
"T
then
THE LENGTH OF CURVES
277
.". circumference of the circle
=
4X
2
= 2tto.
Note.The use of ji is necessitated in the evaluation
of the definite integral, and it is there employed in the
same way as referred to in 101.
Example 2. Find the length
of the arc of the parabola
x* = Ay from the vertex to the point where x = 2.
The equation can be written in the form
;
x*
whence
jg
_

A sketch of the curve is shown in Fig. 60, where OQ
Fio. 60.
represents the part of the curve of which the length is
required. The limits of * are clearly and 2.
Using
"
+
*
278
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
on substitution
*!*
.. by the formula of 1 16,
=
J[J
x 2VS + 2{log (2 + V8)
 log 2}]
_*
+
*%*/*'
= V5 f
log (1 + v^)
= 2295 (approx.).
(The logs being to base e.)
164. Equation for the length of a curve In polar co
ordinates.
The general method is similar to that in rectangular
coordinates. In Fig. 61 let AB represent part of a curve
whose polar equation is known.
Fig. 61.
Let the angles made by 0A and OB with OX be 6, and 6,.
Let s be the length of AB.
THE LENGTH OF CURVES
179
Let P be any point (r, 8) on the curve.
Let
Q
be a point on the curve near to P, so that LOOM.
the increase in 6 is 89 and PM is the increase in r, i.e.. ir.
Whence Q is the point (r + 8r. 8 + 88).
let PQ be the chord joining P to Q.
Then QM = r86 and the arc PQ represents 8s.
With the construction shown
PM = 8r.
Then PQ* = (r80) + (Sr)*
When
Q
is taken indefinitely close to P. i.e.. 80 > 0,
in the limit
Ids)* = {rdQ)* + (dry
;. ds = Vr*\dQ)* f
\dr)*
=
V<
()'"
The limits of the integral are 8, and 6
t
.
. Integrating, S
=
I /
'+CS
de
(A)
(')
We may also write (A) in the form
*{V'*0"*
.., we regard 8 as a function of r, hence if the limits of r
are r
v
r,
=
(%/''*
w
165. Worked example.
Find the complete length
of
the cardioid whose equation is
r = a(l cos 6).
As was seen in
154. the construction ol a complete
cardioid involves a complete rotation of the radius vector,
so that 8 uicreases from to 2s.
Since r = a(\ cos 0)
dr
de
= *
s,n e
Using formula (1)
above
380 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
s =
j
V{a(l cos 0)}*
+
(a sin 8)a"6
= f Vfa(T
 2 cos G + cos
1
e)^Mi5
= aV2 I Vl cos 8i8 (on simplification)
'o
= aV2 f**y2 sin* </9
= 2ai sin<fO
*[*
ST
= 4a[ cos 7t + cos
0]
= 8o.
Exercise 35.
1. Find the length of the arc of the parabola
y
*
between the origin and the ordinate x = 2.
2. Find the length of the arc of the parabola y* =4*
from * = to x = 4.
3. Find the length of the arc of the curve y* = x* from
x = to x = 5.
4. Find the length of the arc of the catenary
y
= cosh x
from the vertex to the point where x = 1.
5. Find the length of the arc of the curve y
= log,*
between the points where x = 1 and x = 2. (For the
integral see Ex. 28, No. 11.)
6. Find the length of the part of the curve ofy
= log sec x
between the values x = and x =
5.
3
7. Find the length of the circumference of the circle
whose equation is r = 2a cos 8.
8. Find the length of the arc of the spiral of Archimedes,
r = ad, between the points where = and 8 = jr.
(Note.The student should draw the curve.)
9. Find the length of the curve of the hyperbolic spiral
r = a from 8 =
J
to 8 = 1. (For the integral see Ex. 28,
PiO. loj
10. Find the whole length of the curve of r = a sin
8
.
8
CHAPTER XVI
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND
AREAS OF SURFACES
166. Solids of revolution.
It is obvious that the methods of integration which
enabled us to find areas of plane figures may be extended
to the determination of the volumes of regular solids.
The solids with which we shall chiefly be concerned are
those which are marked out in space when a regular curve
or area is rotated about some axis. These are termed
Solids of Revolution. For example, if a semicircle is
rotated about its diameter it will generate a sphere.
Similarly, a rectangle rotated about one side will describe
a cylinder in a complete rotation.
167. Volume of a cone.
The method employed for the determination of the
volumes of solids or revolution can be illustrated by the
example of a cone. If a rightangled triangle rotates com
pletely about one of the sides containing the right angle as
an axis, the solid generated is a cone.
Or, if a straight line, equation y
= mx, is rotated about
the xaxis (or yaxis) so that it makes a constant angle
with the axis, it will generate a cone. Since the straight
line passes through the origin, and is of undetermined
length,
The volume will be undetermined.
The complete solid will be a double cone with the
origin as a common apex.
Incidentally, if the complete cone be cut by a plane
Sarallel to the xaxis, the section will be a hyperbola,
[ence it is that the curve as stated in 151, Example 7,
has two symmetrical branches.
The volume becomes definite if an ordinate from a point
on y
a mx is also rotated to enclose a definite portion of
j8j
(1)
.(2)
28a TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Fig. 62.
the cone. It is the volume of such a cone that we will pro
ceed to determine.
In Fig. 62 let OA be the straight line
y
= mx, A being
any point on it.
Let 8 be the angle
made with OX.
.*, tan 8 = m.
Let OA rotate
around OX so that
the angle made with
OX is always 8.
Let OA
1
be the
position after hall
a complete rotation.
Then A, and every
other point on OA
after a complete
rotation, will de
scribe a circle, and
a cone will be generated with apex at 0.
Let AMA
l
be the double ordinate joining A and A '. It
is also a diameter of the circle formed by the rotation of
Aviz.,AHAK
Let V be the volume of the cone of which is the vertex
and the circle A BA
'
the base.
OM represents the height of the cone, Let this be h.
Let P be any point on OA and its coordinates (x,y).
Let x t>e increased by Sx so that the corresponding point
Q on OA has coordinates (x + Sx.y + Sy).
PQ. on rotating, describes a small slice of the cone of which
the ends are the circles described by P and
Q.
The thickness of the slab is 8x.
Its volume lies between the cylinders whose volumes are
tcv*8* and n(y + Sy)*8x.
Let
Q
become infinitely close to P, so that 8x tends to
become infinitely small and in limit is represented by dx.
Thus as 8x
> the volume of the slice
* lry'dx.
Tiy'dx Is therefore the element of volume.
'
The volume of the cone is the sum of all such elements
between the values x = and x =
h.
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 283
1*
V =
But
= I ity*dx
= n I {mx)*dx
* a
AM
m = tan 8 =
,
V =
in .
ht
h*
= frAM*h
or, if AM =
yv
the radius of the base
v =
Wi'*
or volume of cone =
J
(area of base x height).
168. General formula for volumes of solids of revolution
(A) Rotation around the xaxis.
Let AB (Fig. 63) be part of a curve whose equation is
y =/(*)
V
j/
p9
N
P'C
r
8
\
Fig. 83.
Let it rotate around OX, generating a solid which is
depicted in the figure.
28
4
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Let AMA
l
. BNB
1
be double ordinates so that OM = a,
ON =b.
Let P (x,
y)
be any point on the curve.
Let x be increased by 8x, so that Q, the corresponding
point on the curve, is (x + Sx,
y + Sy).
Then, the volume of the slab described by PQ on rotation
lies between rty^x and n(y + Sy)*Sx.
In the limit when Q is infinitely close to P,
r.y*dx. as Sx 0, volume 0, and Sy
The volume of the whole solid is the sum of all such slabs
between the limits x = a and x = b. Let V be this volume.
= fttfd* (I)
Since
y =f{x) we can substitute for y in terms of x and
integrate.
B. Rotation around the
y
axis.
Let AB (Fig. 64) be a portion of the curve of y =/(*)
Fig. 64.
Let it rotate around OY so that A and B describe circles
as indicated, centres M and N.
Let OM = a, ON = b.
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 285
Let P (x, y)
be any point on the curve and Q another
point with coordinates (x + Sx, y
j Sy).
Then, using the method of the previous example, the
slab generated by PQ becomes, in the limit,
nx*dy.
.". the volume of the whole solid is the sum of all such
slabs between the limits y
= a,y = b.
= f
4
7t**<fy (2)
From the equation y =/(x), x can be found in terms of
y
and substituted in the integral.
169. Volume of a sphere.
Let the equation of the
circle in Fig. 65 be
x*
+p
= a*.
The centre is at the origin
and radius OA = a.
Let the quadrant OAB
be rotated about OX. The
volume described will be
that of a hemisphere.
Using formula (1)
of the
preceding section, and re
presenting the volume of the sphere by V, we have
:
V
= 2 x j^y'dx
= 2\'it{a* x*)dx . .
= 27t[a*J*
3
]'
= 2*(a
s
 Jo
8
)
= 2" x
i
a
'
4*
(A)
286 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
170. Volume of pare of a sphere between two parallel
planes.
In Fig. 66 let the quadrant OCD of the circle x*
+
y* = r*
rotating around OX describe a hemisphere. Let two
parallel planes whose distances from are given by OA = a,
OB = b, mark out the segment whose volume (V) is required.
We may use equation (A) in the example above to express V.
Then V = (**(>*  x*)dx
[(r6J6)'(rfJa)]
= *{>(* ) 
W
<**))
= Tr(bo){r'4(b + ob + 6)}
If 6 = r the part of the sphere becomes = spherical cap.
Then V = it(r  a){r* 
J(r + ar + a*)}.
Note.When in this result a = 0, the spherical cap
becomes a hemisphere, and the result is onehalf of
the volume of the sphere found above.
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 287
171. Volume of an ellipsoid of revolution.
This is the solid formed by the rotation of an ellipse
(1) about its major axis,
or (2) about its minor axis.
(1)
Rotation about the major axis.
The rotation as shown in Fig. 67 is supposed to be about
AA\i.e.,0X.
Consequently any section perpendicular to OX is a circle.
Let the equation of the ellipse be
+*i
?>
* _
*).
Let V be the volume of the ellipsoid.
Consider the volume marked out by the rotation of the
quadrant OAB, the limits being o and a.
Then, using formula
(1) of 168
This volume
I'nyUx.
288 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
.. V =
2J\{
b
j
t
(a>x*)dx
2nb*
f
.
,
...


a
t
I
(
f
 *v*
iVofe.If b m a. the ellipsoid becomes a sphere.
(2) Rotation about the minor axis.
x* y*
Let the equation of the ellipse be j + V
= 1.
In this case, as indicated in Fig. 68, the rotation being
Y
about OY, any point P (x,
y)
on the circumference of the
ellipse will describe a circle radius x and centre on OY.
The area of such a circle is nx*.
;. Volume of slab between two such circles infinitely
close together is
nx*dy.
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 289
,*. Using formula (2) of 168 and considering the half
of the ellipsoid above OX, we have, the limits of y being
b and :
Volume of half the ellipsoid
= \\x*dy
'0
.; Volume of whole ellipsoid
= 2*
\
b
x*dy
M)
[*!
The solid formed by the rotation of the ellipse about
(1)
The major axis is called a prolate spheroid.
(2)
The minor an oblate spheroid.
Note.The solid, not of revolution, in which those
sections which are perpendicular to the plane of
XOY, as well as those which are parallel to it are all
ellipses, is called an ellipsoid.
172. Paraboloid of revolution.
This is the solid generated by the rotation of a parabola
about its axis. It is not a closed curve, consequently we
can obtain only the solid generated by part of the curve.
There are two cases.
(1)
When the axis of the parabola coincides with OX.
The general form of the equation in this case is
y
%
= 4,ax.
K(CAI_)
2Q0 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
OP in Fig. 61) represents part of the curve.
P is any point on the curve, its coordinates being (x,
y).
PA is the ordinate of P, and OA = c. OP rotates around
OX, generating a solid, with a circular base PQR.
Fig. 69.
As shown in
167, the element of volume is ny*dx, and the
limits of x are and c. Let V be the volume.
/. V = {'ity^dx = n f'taxdx
Jo
'
'o
= 2ttoc*.
Note.The cylinder indicated by the dotted lines in
Fig. 69, having PRQ for one base, and a circle equal
and parallel to it with as centre, is the circum
scribing cylinder of the paraboloid.
The volume of this cylinder = Try* x OA
= it x 4ac x c
= 4iroc'.
,', Volume of the paraboloid equals half that of the
circumscribing cylinder.
(2) When the axis of the parabola coincides with OY.
In Fig. 70, QOP represents part of a parabola, the equation
of which is
y = ax*.
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 291
Let P (x,
y)
be any point on the curve.
Let PB be its abscissa, so that
OB = b.
The element of volume as shown in 168 (B) is
TtxHy.
The limits of y are and b.
,', using formula (2) of
168
= f
'
nx*dy
=
i
TTb
Note.Compare this with the volume of the circum
scribing cylinder.
(3)
Parabola whose equation Is y = (ex
1
rotating about
OX.
The parabola does not
rotate about its own axis,
which coincides with OY,
but with the other axis.
Let the curve OQP
(Fig. 71) represent part
of the curve of the func
tion between the origin
and x = a, where PM is
the ordinate of P and
OM = a.
Let V be the volume
generated by OP as the
curve rotates around OX,
occupying the position
0Q
l
P
i
after a half rotation.
Using formula (I) of 168, the element of volume is
ny'dx, and the limits of x axe and a.
Fig. 71.
29i TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
= irrk'o
5
.
If the part of the curve which is rotated is QP, where
QN is the ordinate of Q
and ON = b, then the volume
generated is given by
V = PityW* = lTTk(o
6
 b
5
).
173. Hyperbolold of Revolution.
This is the solid generated by the rotation of a hyperbola.
It may take different forms.
(1)
Rotation about OX of the curve whose equation is
Y*
a"
_
P
~
L
Since there are two symmetrical branches of the curve,
as shown previously, there will be two corresponding solids,
one of which is shown in Fig. 72.
These two parts are called an hyperbolold of two sheets.
Clearly, there will be no part of the solid between A
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS
93
and A
1
. Also there is no enclosed solid, but the volume
can be found between sections corresponding to two values
of x.
Let P be any point on the curve, and PM its ordinate.
Let OM = c.
Let V be the volume between the vertex A, where
x = a and x = c.
Then
=
v[y

'*x
= Sp

3a
*
c

a*
+
3a3)
jg(*3e +2).
(2) Rotation around OY.
Let the equation be
* Y* _ I
The solid formed will be as indicated in Fig. 73.
Y
v
/ yS'
p'
>?^ / p
)A'^*\
r
A
(
Q' /
^'^S Q
^
/
^
V
Fig. 73.
Since the two parts of the curve are symmetrical, any
point P on the curve, after a half complete rotation, will
coincide with the corresponding point P* on the other arm.
This point, like every other point on the curve, will describe
a circle.
294 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
The solid is therefore continuous, and is called a hyper
bolold of one sheet. It stretches out infinitely around the
yaxis, and any volume which has to be determined will be
bounded by sections corresponding to two values of
y,
say
y
}
and
yt
.
This volume can be found as in former examples.
(3) Rotation of rectangular hyperbola about its asymp
totes, which, as shown in 151, Ex. 7, are the rectangular
axes OX and OY. The equation of the curve is xy = c\
and there are two parts of the solid, above and below OX.
The part of the volume contained between two sections
parallel to one of the axes can be found in the usual way.
Thus, if P and Q are two points on the curve (Fig. 74), and
the corresponding values of
y are y,
and
yt
, the volume
would be given by
puxMy.
't,
Note.Only that sheet of the hyperboloid which is
above OX is shown. There is a second similar sheet
below.
Exercise 36.
1. Find the volume generated by the arc of the curve
y
= x'
(1)
when it rotates round the xaxis between * =
and x =
3
;
(2)
when it rotates round the yaxis between * =
id * = 2. an
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 195
2. Find the volume generated when an arc of the curve
of y
m x*
(1)
rotates round the xaxis between *=0 and
* =
3;
(2)
rotates round the yaxis l>etween * = and
x = 2.
3. Find the volume of the cone formed by the rotation
round the xaxis of that part of the line 2x
y f
1 =0,
intercepted between the axes.
4. The circle x* +y* = 9 rotates round a diameter which
coincides with the xaxis. Find
(1)
the volume of the segment between the planes
perpendicular to OX whose distances from the centre,
and on the same side of it, are I and 2;
(2)
the volume of the spherical cap cut ofl by the
plane whose distance from the centre is 2.
5. Find the volume generated by the rotation of the
ellipse x* + 4y* = 16, about its major axis.
6. Find the volume generated by the rotation round the
xaxis of the part of the curve y* = 4x between the origin
and x = 4.
7. Find the volume generated by rotating one branch of
the hyperbola x*
y
a
= 0* about OX, between the limits
x = and x = 2a.
8. Find the volume of the solid generated by the rotation
round the yaxis of that part of the curve of
y
1
= x
3
which
is contained between the origin and
y
= 8.
9. Find the volume of the solid generated by the rotation
about the xaxis of the part of the curve of
y
= sin x,
between x = and x = Jt.
10. Find the volume generated by the rotation round
the xaxis of the part of the curve of
y
= x(x
2) which lies
below the xaxis.
1 1. If the curve of xy = 1 be rotated about the xaxis.
find the volume generated by the part of the curve inter
cepted between x = 1 , x = 4.
12. The parabolas y* = 4x and x* = 4y intersect and the
area included between the curves is rotated round the
raxis. Find the volume of the solid thus generated.
296 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
174. Simpson's rule for volumes.
Simpson's rule for calculating the areas of irregular
figures can be adapted to find the volume of an irregular
solid. Thus, if the areas of the crosssections of the solid
at equal intervals are known, these can be plotted as
ordinates of an irregular curve. For example, if in Fig. 68
of Exercise 34, each of the ordinates represents the area of
a crosssection of the irregular solid and / represents the
distance between the crosssections, then the sum of their
products, which are represented by areas in Fig. 58, will
represent the volume of the solid. Just as by applying
Simpson's rule in Example 34 wefind the area of the irregular
figure, so the products will now represent the volume of
the irregular solid. In the particular example quoted the
area was found to be 735 square feet, so, now, the volume
of the Irregular solid Is 735 cubic feet.
Note.When the values of the areas of sections are
not known at equal intervals, those which are given
should be drawn, the curve plotted and then the
ordinates required should be drawn and measured.
Examples can be found in books on practical
mathematics, such as National Certificate Mathematics,
Vol. II.
Areas of surfaces of solids of revolution.
175. Area of curved surface of right circular cone.
The curved surface of a right circular cone, if unrolled, is
the sector of a circle. The problem is therefore that of
determining the area of this sector, and this can be found
by previous methods.
Let / = radius of the sector (i.e., the slant side of the
cone).
Let r = radius of circular base of cone.
Let A = area of curved surface of the cone.
Then it can readily be shown that
A = ml.
Area of curved surface of a frustum of a cone.
Let the cone (Fig. 75) be cut by a plane, CD, parallel to
the base.
SOLIDS OF REVOLUTION. VOLUMES AND AREAS 297
Then ADDC is a frustum of the cone.
The curved surface of the frustum can be considered as
the limit of a very large number of small trapeziums, such
as PQRS.
Y B^_
>jr
A
A
O
\
A
3
V B
Fig 76.
Using the formula for the area of a trapezium, in the
limit, this sum
^J'+C^lJ
Va'

x*
dx
i*x*
.dx
The limits of the integral when a quadrant rotates are
and a, giving rise to a hemisphere.
/. using formula (1) above.
Surface of hemisphere = 2n I
y x  dx
'0
y
= 2n j'adx
= lira'.
,*. Area of surface of sphere = 4tto
8
.
Exercise 37.
1
.
Find the area of the surface of the solid generated by
the rotation of the straight line
y
=
f
x around the xaxis,
between the values x = and x = 3.
2. Find the area of the surface generated by the rotation
about OX of the curve of y
= sin x, between x = and
x = 71.
3. That part of the curve of x
%
= 4y which is intercepted
between the origin and the liney = 8 is rotated around OY.
Find the area of the surface of the solid which is generated.
4. The curve of the function x* + y* = a* rotates
around OX. Find the area of the surface of the solid which
is formed between x = and x = a.
5. Find the area of surface of the zone cut off from a
sphere of radius r by two parallel planes, the distance
between which is h.
6. Find the area of the surface of the solid generated by
rotating round OX the part of the curve
y
= x*, between
x = find x = 1.
USES OF INTEGRATION IN MECHANICS 301
CHAPTER XVII
USES OF INTEGRATION IN MECHANICS
I. Centre of Gravity.
178.
Integration, as a method of summation, can be applied
to the solution of many problems in mechanics in which
it is required to find the sum of an infinite number of
infinitesimally small products. Some of these are included
in this chapter, but in a volume of this size and purpose
only a few of the simpler examples can be given.
179. The centre of gravity of a number of particles.
It is shown in treatises on mechanics that if a series of
parallel forces acts upon a body, the point through which
their resultant can be considered as acting is called the
Centre of Force ; also the resultant is the algebraical sum
of these parallel forces (Mechanics,
24).
This can be otherwise expressed as follows:
Let m m
t
, m
s
. . . be the masses of a number of particles.
Let
(
x
v >i). (*> >t). (*s> y?)
be the coordinates of the
positions of the particles with reference to two rectangular
axes, OX, OY.
Each of the particles is acted upon by the force of
gravity, this force being termed the weight of the particle
and being proportional to its mass.
Since this force is always directed towards the centre of
the earth, these forces, in a small system of particles, may
be considered as a system of parallel forces, which can be
denoted by
m
\g
m
iM.
m
tg. .
or u> w
t
, w
3
, . . .
where w represents the weight of a particle.
The centre of force of this system Is the centre of gravity
of the particles.
Let the coordinates of the centre of gravity be (x,
y).
Let M be the sum of the masses of the particles.
300
i.e., M = m. + m,
f
m
t
+ .
or M=S(m).
The product of the mass and the distance of the particle
from any point or axis, Is called the moment of the force
about that point or axis.
It is established in mechanics that the moment about any
axis of the resultant acting at the centre of force Is equal to
the sum of the moments of the particles about the same axis.
,*. considering the system of particles above and taking
moments about OY
Mgx = m
1
gx
1
+ m
1
gx
t
+ tn^ = . . .
or, dividing throughout by
g
Afx =
,*, + m
x
x
t +
m
t
x
s +
.". with the usual algebraic notation
_ Zfmx)
~
2(m)
Similarly, considering the moments about OX
>

Z(m)
*
The point (x,
y),
the moments of which we have found,
is the centre of mass of the system, or considering the masses
as acted upon by the force of gravity, the centre of gravity
(e.g.) of the system.
180. The centre of gravity of a continuous body.
In the above section we have considered the e.g. of a
system of particles irrespective of their distances from one
another. But a continuous solid body can be regarded as
made up of an infinite number of infinitely small particles,
and the centre of gravity of these is the centre of gravity
of the body.
As the moment of each of these particles about an axis
is the product of its mass and its distance from the axis, the
problem of finding the sum of these products at once
suggests integration as the means of effecting it. The
method of applying integration is most easily shown by
examples, such as those which follow.
It should be noted that e.g. of a body must clearly lie
3i TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
upon any axis of symmetry which the body possesses. For
example, the e.g. of a solid of revolution must clearly lie
on the axis about which the revolution takes place. This
suggests that for the purpose of finding the e.g. it will
generally be simpler to take the axis of revolution as a co
ordinate axis.
181. To find the centre of gravity of a uniform semi
circular lamina.
The e.g. evidently lies upon the radius which is perpen
dicular to the diameter of the semicircle at its centre, i.e.
on OA in Fig. 77. This line
should therefore be taken as
the xaxis and the diameter as
the yaxis.
If the radius of the circle is
a its equation is
x*+y
t
=a*.
Since the lamina is uniform,
its mass, or that of any part of
it, can be represented by its
area. If m be the mass of
unit area, it will occur on both
sides of the equations found in
179, and so will cancel out.
Let x be the distance of the
e.g. from 0, along OX.
If a narrow strip of width Bx be considered, at a distance
x from OY, such as is indicated by PQ in Fig. 77, then
area of the strip =
2y . Sx
momenc of the strip = 2ySx x x.
In the limit when the width of each strip becomes
indefinitely small.
Sum of areas of strips, i.e.. area of semicircle
= \'2ydx
also sum of moments of these strips
= \'2ydx x x = f"2yxdx.
Y
f
I "\
' X
' \
\
I
\
'
\
:
U
!
/ I
/
I
/
'
/
/
*
/

/
' s
i ^r
"Q
Fig. 77.
and
USES OF INTEGRATION IN MECHANICS
303
.*, by the principle of moments
.. x x \'2ydx = j'2xydx.
x =
j
a
2xydx
=
{2ydx.
But y
= Va*
x*.
x =
I
2xVa* x* . dx +
fW^*
1
. dx
J
o
= [!(
,
*
I
)*]
i*a* (151, Ex. 3)
=
la* * few.
 4o
* = 3.'
182. To find the centre of gravity
of a solid hemisphere.
Let the semicircle of the pre
ceding example rotate about OX,
thus generating a hemisphere.
The e.g. will lie on the axis of
rotation, OX.
Let x be its distance from 0.
Equation of curve is
x* +y* =a*.
.'. radius of circle = a.
The rectangle PQ of the pre
ceding example on rotating will
generate a slab, which, when the width of the rectangle
is very small can be considered as cylindrical.
.'. in the limit this volume = ny*dx.
tm
:. volume of hemlsphere = I ny*dx
'0
moment of cylindrical slab = ity'ix x *.
/. sum of moments of all such slabs =

ny*xdx.
'a
Fig. 78.
Also moment of hemlsphere = ix I ny*dx
'a
304
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
But these are equal.
.'.xx
J
ttyHx =
J
ny*xdx.
J '
Jo
.. x = n j"x{a*  x*)dx +
('
(a* 
x*)dx
Jo 'a
( 169)
Jo Jo
= jt(a* la') tW
x = la.
183. Centre of gravity of paraboloid generated by the
rotation of the curve of y
= x*, about OY.
Let the limits of x be and 2. When x =
2, y
= 4.
Fig. 79 represents the solid generated by the rotation
about OY of that part of the
parabola
y
x* between the
values x = and x = 2 (see
172).
The e.g. lies on OY.
Let its distance froraO bey.
PQ represents a small
cylindrical slab, formed, as
in the preceding example, by
Tj
(
.; moment of whole solid =
y x I itx*dy
(2)
'0
Fio. 79.
USES OF INTEGRATION IN MECHANICS
Equating
(1)
and
(2)
y x I nx'dy =
j
nx*ydy.
Jo Jo
.'.
y
=
I *y*dy
=
I nydy (since x* =
y)
Jo Jo
=
(* X 4
s
) r
X 16)
305
y
.\ the e.g. Is
i
units from along OY.
Note.This is
the height of the solid.
184. Centre of gravity of a
uniform circular arc.
Let BAC (Fig. 80) represent
a circular arc.
Let r = radius of arc, centre
0.
Let 2a = angle subtended at
the centre.
Draw OA bisecting this
angle.
Let OA be the axis.
The e.g. of the arc must lie
onOA
L
Let * = distance of e.g. from
0.
Let P be the point (x,
y),
and PQ be a small arc sub
tending an angle 89 at 0.
Then PQ = r . 80.
The e.g. of all such arcs as PQ must lie on OA.
;. moment of PQ about = r88 x x and x = r cos 0.
PQ = r* cos . 86.
In the limit when PQ is taken infinitely small
Moment of PQ = r* cos (WO.
Mass of arc BC=rx2
Fig. 80.
jo6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
(representing mass by length as arc is uniform)
moment of arc = x x r x 2a.
Equating moments
x x 2ra = I r* cos 6 . d8
= 2 f r* cos do
.*. x x 2ra = 2r Tsin el
= 2r* sin a.

__
2r* sin a
*
_
"
2m
I"
*
x =
r sin a
Exercise 38.
1. Find the centre of gravity of the parabolic segment
bounded by y* = 4ax and the line x = b.
2. Find the centre of gravity of the segment of the para
bola y* = fix, which is cut off by the line x = 5 and the
axis of the parabola.
3. Find the centre of gravity of the area bounded by the
curve
y
= **, theyaxis. and the liney = 1.
4. Find the e.g. of the parabolic segment of y
x
%
,
which is contained by the curve, the yaxis, and the line
y
= 9.
5. Find the e.g. of a quadrant of a circle, radius r.
6. Find the e.g. of the area between the curve of y
= sin x,
and the xaxis from x = to x = it.
7. Find the e.g. of a thin uniform wire in the shape of a
semicircle, radius r.
8. Find the e.g. of a thin uniform wire in the shape of a
quadrant of a circle, radius r.
9. Find the e.g. of the circular sector shown in Fig. 80
as OBAC.
10. Find the e.g. of the right circular cone formed by the
rotation of the line y
= mx about the origin to x = h.
11. Find the e.g. of a quadrant of an ellipse whose
diameters are 2a and 2b.
USES OF INTEGRATION IN MECHANICS
307
12. Find the e.g. of the area bounded by the hyperbola
xy = *, the xaxis. and the ordinates x = a, x = b.
13. Find the e.g. of the solid formed by the rotation of
y
= x* about the xaxis between the origin and x = 3.
14. If the portion of the curve of ay* = x* which is
bounded by the curve, the xaxis and the ordinate x = b,
rotates about the xaxis, find the e.g. of the solid thus
generated.
MOMENTS OF INERTIA AND RADIUS OF
GYRATION
185. Moments of Inertia.
Let m
x
, m
t
, m
3
, ... be the masses of a series of particles
forming a system.
Let r
v
r
t
, r
8
, . . . be their distances from a given straight
line or axis.
Then the sum of the products
m
i
r
i* "Vi*
OT
a''s*
or Z(mr
l
)
is called the moment of Inertia of the system, and is usually
denoted by M.I. or I.
It is also called the second moment of the system, while
(mr), which was defined in 179, is called the first moment.
As was pointed out when considering centre of gravity
( 179), a continuous rigid body can be regarded as a
system of infinitely small particles which, with the usual
notation, can be expressed by dm.
The sum of the products or second moments then
becomes T,r*dm. This sum, taken throughout the body,
becomes in the limit the integral Jr*dm.
.. M.I. = jr*dm.
The moment of inertia becomes of great importance
when the body is rotating about an axis.
Suppose a body of mass M to be moving in a straight line
with velocity v. Then its
Kinetic Energy = \Mv*.
Thus the Kinetic Energy of any particle is v*<2m.
3
o8 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Now suppose a body of mass M to be rotating with
angular velocity co about an axis.
Then a particle dm is moving at any given instant with
linear velocity v where v = rco.
Its kinetic energy is \dmv
%
i.e., \dm(ru>)
%
.'. the total kinetic energy of the body is
K.E. =
Ji{ra)*dm
= \a*jr
%
dm
= Jw x M.I.
,". Total kinetic energy =
J
(moment of inertia) x co
1
186. Radius of gyration.
If the moment of inertia be written in the form
7=Mk^
so that k Vl ? M.
then k is called the radius of gyration of the body.
From these statements it is clear that
= 6*'
+
10ty+y
?
= 5x + Ixy + 3y*
(2) x = sxay + x* cosy + e*
* =2* cosy +2e
t
Bz
8y
=
C0S y*' smy
(y constant)
(x constant)
(y
constant)
{x constant)
192. Graphical Illustration of partial derivatives.
We have seen that a function with one independent
variable can be represented by a plane curve. If, however,
there are two independent variables, the dependent function
can be represented by a surface, i.e., coordinates in three
dimensions are employed. This can be illustrated as
follows.
In Fig. 88. let XOY represent a plane with OX, OY as
coordinate axis at right angles to one another. Values of
Fig. 88.
two variables x and
y
can be represented along OX and OY
as heretofore. This we call the xy plane.
Draw OZ at right angles to the plane from 0.
Thus the planes XOZ, YOZ, are perpendicular to the
plane. XOZ is the (x, x) plane and YOZ is the
(y,
z) plane.
Values of z, corresponding to values of x ana y, are
marked on OZ.
Let P be a point in the plane of XOY with coordinates
Along OX mark OB = x, and along OY, OA = v,.
Then P is the position of the point in the plane XOY.
From P draw PC parallel to OZ and equal to *,, where *,
is the value of x corresponding to x, for x and
yl
for
y.
320 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Then C represents the position of the point in space when
the coordinates are (x
v ylt
zj.
If other values of x and
y
are taken, with the corresponding
values of z, we shall obtain an assemblage of points such as
C, which will lie on a surface.
(1) Let y
be constant and have the value
yv
GCE will now represent the variations of z relative to x
wheny is constant.
gg
Consequently the partial differential coefficient = will
represent the slope of the tangent to the curve, corresponding
to any assigned value of x. For example, when x = x
v
C is the corresponding point on the curve and the tangent
to the curve GCE at C represents the value of j when
x = x
v
x
(2)
Let x be constant and have the value x,.
Then the curve of DCF represents the variations of z toy.
The tangent to the curve at any point on it represents
^
for corresponding values of y
and z.
193. Higher Partial Derivatives.
The partial derivatives are themselves functions of the
variables concerned, and thus may have their partial
derivatives.
(1)
Thus if be differentiated with respect to x
[y
being constant), this is indicated by ^
( p)
and
denoted by ^*
v
(2)
Since it is also a function of y, it can be differ
entiated with respect to y, x being constant. Thus we
have:
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION jai
/y(ax)
den0tedby
<Px
dz
(3)
Similarly r can be differentiated with respect
to x and
y, so that when it is differentiated with respect
to x,
y
being constant, we have
:
()
denoted b
y
arly
(4) When differentiated with respect to y, x being
constant, we have
:
dyCdy)
denoted
^ !?
It will be seen that (2) and
(3) are the same, except for
the order of the differentials in the denominators. These
indicate the order of differentiation.
In (2) we differentiate with respect to y first and
then x.
In
(3) we differentiate with respect to x first and
then y.
It can be shown that these are commutative
i.e., the
order of differentiation is immaterial
s*
=
{ f(
x
+
*x
y +
s
y) Ji
x
 y^L
*y) }?*
Sx
[f(*.y r *y) Ax,y))Sy
Sy
(B)
(1)
Considering the first part of B.
If 8x and 6y tend to become zero, then
x + Sx,y+Sy)
f(
x,y+Sy)
Sx
in the limit becomes the partial differential coefficient of
f(x,y + Sy), when x alone varies and
y
remains constant.
But in this expression Sy ultimately vanishes, and thus
it takes the form
Ax+Sx,y)f(x,y)
Sx
Thus it becomes the partial differential coefficient ol
f(x. y),
when x varies and
y
is constant,
8z
Bx
(2)
Considering the second part of B.
In the limit this represents the partial differential coeffi
cient of/(x,.y), when
y
alone varies,
8z
By
*..,
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
3*3
Also, in the limit, with the usual notation, 8*, Sy, Sz,
become the differentials dx, dy, dz.
;. substituting for the corresponding parts of (B) they
become
dz =
l
Z
dx +
l
Z
dy
ox dy
'
(C)
This is called the total differential of z, where z is a
function of the variables x and
y.
A similar expression may be obtained when z is a function
of three variables.
195. Total differential coefficient.
Let x andy, and consequently z, be functions of a variable
t.
In equation (B) above, divide throughout by St.
On proceeding to limits in the same way as was adopted
above with (B), then in the limit we reach the result
:
dz dz dx dz dy .
m
dx
'
dt
+
dy di
' dt
This is termed thf total differential coefficient of z with
regard to x and y, these being variables dependent on t.
If
y
Is a function of x. and the total differential coefficient
of dz is found by replacing t by x in the above, we get i
dz
_ dz dz dy
Sx
~
Jx
+
dy dx
This may be obtained independently in the same way
as the above.
196. A geometrical Illustration.
The following geometrical illustration will probably be
helpful to many students in realising the meaning and
significance of the above results.
The area of a rectangle is a function of two variables, the
lengths of its two unequal sides.
Fig. 89 represents a rectangle, with sides x and y.
Let A be its area.
Then A = xy.
324
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Let x be variable and receive an increment 8x, while
y
remains constant.
Then A + SA = (x + 8x)y.
Subtracting SA =ySx, i.e.,
rectangle CGHD.
The rate of Increase of A
with regard to x, y being
constant, is the partial differ
ential coefficient , i.e.,
Similarly, if y be variable.
Fig. 89. x being constant
8.4 = the rectangle DEFC = xSy
BA
and rate of increase =
8y
= %(*y)=*
If both x and
y
vary, then by formula C the total differential
increase, in the limit, when Sx and 8y proceed to zero, is
, . BA , . BA ,
dA^^.dx
+
^dy.
Substituting the values of the partial differential coeffi
cients, we get i
dA = ydx + xdy.
Comparing with Fig. 89, it is seen that the total increase
in area, due to small increases of x and
y, is rectangle
BEFC + rectangle CGHD + the small rectangle CFKG,
i.e., in the limit
ydx 4 xdy + dxdy.
But dxdy is the product of two Infinitesimals and is
called an infinitesimal of the second order. It can be
disregarded in comparison with ydx and xdy, which are
infinitesimals of the first order.
.'. total differential Increase of area Is ydx + xdy.
Total differential coefficient.
Now suppose
y
= 8 in., and at a given instant is increasing
at the rate of 2 in. per sec.
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
3*5
Also let x = 5 in., and be increasing at the same instant
at 3 in. per sec.
At what rale is A increasing at the given instant t
In this problem another variable, time [t), is introduced,
so that x and y, and consequently A, vary with time.
The rate of increase of A is clearly given by the total
differential coefficient as stated in formula (D)
This becomes
We know that
_
BA dx BA dy
~
Bx
'
dt
+
By
"
dt'
=
y
= 8
dA
dt
BA
Bx
By
dt~
3
dt
~
2
dA
:. substituting =(8x3)
+ (5x2)
= 34 square Inches per second.
197. Worked examples.
// 2 = tan
1
,
find
the total differential dz.
If * = tan
1 2
x
8z 1
/_ y\
~
Sx
i
+
m
%
x
^
*>
=
**
x
(2\
y
x*+y* \ W
_
x
l
+ i
Bz
8y
1 1
y?* *
+y*
x* 1 x
x*
+
y*
X
x
~
x*+
y
r
Ji6 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Substituting in formula D
dz =
~~y
t
. dx + .
*
.dy
*'
f y* x* j y*
J
_
xdy
ydx
198. Implicit functions.
Partial derivatives will, no doubt, have reminded
students of the method of differentiating implicit functions
as described in 48. The connection will be made clear
by a modification of formula (C), 194.
Let * ==
f(x. y)
= a constant, say c.
Then its differentiatials equal zero.
.'. Formula (C) becomes
*+g*o
dx
dy
ay
s
dx
dx
dz
. ^
dx
"
dx
~
n
dy
It will be noted that though the total differential co
efficient of z is zero, this was not the case with the partial
differential coefficients.
Referring to
48 it will be seen that the results are. in
principle, identical.
Worked example. // * = 4** xy*
+
y* =
0, find
d
/.
From above
dy
_
/dz dz\
but
dx
"
\dx
"
dy)

. _ 2xy + 3y*.
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
S
a?
.'. substituting
dy
=
12*  y*
dx ~  2xy 4 3y
_
llx
1

f
2xy 
ly*
Exercise 41.
A. Find the partial differential coefficients
f
Z
,
d
.
z
. In
questions I to 7.
dx
i
I. z = x*. 2. z = cos (x* + y). 3. z =
,*2v
i = i
,
+3iyt Qxy* + 2y.
* +>"
5. z = sin' . 6. * = tan
1
. 7. z =
u
*.
y
y . y
8. II z = log ( + e), show that
+ %
= 1.
ox dy
B. Find the total differentials In questions 9 to 14.
9. z =
*
y
11. f = Iogx.
13. 2 = *.
10. x = ax* + Ibxy + cy*.
12. z = x*y + xy*.
14. z = a*e*.
15. Tf u = 2* + 3y\ find du. when * I, v
=
3
dx = 001, and dy = 002.
.,
16. If the law of a perfect gas be V =  , where K
represents the volume,
p
the pressure, and t the absolute
temperature, find the relation between dV, dt, and dp.
17. If u = x'y siny, find ^, and show that it is
equal to = < .
^
dydx
18. In the solid representing z = a*
x
%
2y* what
is the slope at a point of the curve along a section for
which
y
is constant ? What is the slope at a point along a
section for which x is constant ?
19. The radius of the base of a right cylinder is increasing
at a given instant at the rate of an inch per sec, while the
height is increasing at 2 inches per second. At the same
instant the height is 10 inches, and the radius of the base
5 inches. At what rate is the volume increasing ?
CHAPTER XIX
SERIES.
TAYLOR'S AND MACLAURIN'S THEOREMS
199. Infinite series.
When studying algebra the student has become ac
quainted with certain
"
series," as, for example, geometric
C
regression or series, arithmetical progression, and the
inomial series.
la the first of these he will have considered the impor
tant problem of the sum of the series, when the number
of terms is increased without limit, i.e., becomes
"
Infinite."
Two cases arise
:
(1)
When the common ratio r is numerically greater
than unity, as the number of terms increases the terms
increase individually and so does their sum. If the
number of terms becomes infinitely great, their sum
also becomes infinite, i.e., if S
H
represent the sum of n
terms, then, when n > oo , S
> oo
.
(2) If, however, the common ratio be less than unity,
the terms continually decrease and the question of
what happens to S when n becomes infinitely great
is a matter for investigation.
In this case it is readily shown that when n
> oo
,
S approaches a finite limit.
200. Convergent and divergent series.
In general when considering any kind of series, it becomes
a problem to be investigated as to whether
(1) S
n
approaches a finite limit when n > oo , or
(2) S approaches infinity when n
> oo
.
If a series is of the first kind it is said to be convergent'
if of the second, it is called divergent (Algebra, 270, 282).
There is also a third type of series called oscillating, but
we shall not consider it in this chapter.
For theoretical and practical purposes it is very important
to know whether a given series is convergent or divergent.
TAYLOR'S AND MACLAURIN'S THEOREMS 319
There is no universal method of determining this, but there
are various tests which can be applied for certain kinds of
series. A consideration of such tests is, however, beyond
the scope of this volume. Students who desire, or need to
study, this important matter, should consult a book on
Higher Algebra.
In this brief treatment of infinite series by the use of the
Calculus, the series considered will be assumed, without
proof, to be convergent.
201. Taylor's theorem.
In the binomial theorem it is stated that the function
(x + a)" can be expanded in a series of descending powers
of x and ascending powers of a. Many other functions can
be similarly expanded, and various methods are employed
for this purpose. In this chapter, however, it is proposed
to investigate a general method of expanding functions in
scries.
Briefly, we shall see that fix + h) can, in general, be
expanded in a series of ascending powers of h. Such an
expansion is not possible for all functions, and there are
limitations to the application of the theorem which defines
the form of the expansion.
We will begin by stating the theorem which is known as
Taylor's Theorem, and proceed afterwards to demonstrate
the truth of it.
Taylor's Theorem.
f(x + h) =
f(x) + hf'(x) + ^f'(x)
+
f"*
+ . . . + ^p(x)+ . . . ad Inf.
The following assumptions will be made :
(1)
That any function which will be considered is
capable
of
being expanded in this form.
(2)
That subject to certain conditions in some cases,
the series is convergent.
(3)
Tltat the successive differential coefficients,
f
l
(x),
/
n
W./
m
W.
. f'(x)
all exist.
h
2
,
330
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
In accordance with ( 1) we will assume that
f(x
4 A) can
be expanded in ascending powers of h as follows:
f{x + h) = A + A,h + A,h' +
W*
+ . . . (B)
where the coefficients A , A
v
A
t
, . . . are functions of x
but do not contain A.
Since this is to be true for all values of h
let h = 0.
Then on substitution in (1), we havei
A =/(x).
Since the series (B) is an identity, it may be assumed that
if both sides be differentiated with respect to h, keeping x
constant, the result in each case will be another identity.
Repeating the process, we get:
WP(x+h)=A
l + (A
i
x 2A)
+ (A, x 3/.')
+
(A
t
x 4A
S
) + . . .
since f(x)
= 0, where x is constant.
Similarly
:
(2)
fa(x + h)=2A
t
+ &MAJt\ + (4.3,4 ,A) + . . .
(3)/i"(x
+ A) = 3.2.L4, + 4.3.2L4
t
h + . . .
and so for higher differential coefficients.
In all of these results put A = 0.
Then from
(l)P(x) =A
V
(2
/n(x)
=2.M
t
.
(3) f(x)
= 3.2.1/1,.
P
y
(x) = 4.3.2. IA
V
i.e., A
1
=P(x)
A
/"W
A
'~
.2
4 ^
"LL
y4
=/J2
and so on.
IE
Substituting for these in (B) we obtain the theorem, viz..
TAYLOR'S AND MACLAURIN'S THEOREMS 331
/(* + *)
=/W + V
1
!*) + y*2
/"(*)
202. Application to the binomial theorem.
To expand (x + A)" (by Taylor's theorem).
/(* + A) = (x + A)
=
/(*) +
I
W + r
2
/"(*) + 3 f'
a
(x) + ...
When A = 0.
ft*)
=
*"
'(*) = nx">
'(* = n(x  l)x"
(*j=(nl)(*2)x
Substituting in Taylor's expansion
(x
+
A) = x + h . n*
l
+ f^ "l
n  l
**"*
+ * l)(2)* + ...
or with the usual arrangement
(x + h) = x
f b**Ji +
n(n
r" '^xh
+
i{?.!)("
2
)
x
,.
h
3
+
...
203. Maclaurln's theorem (or Stirling's theorem).
This is another form of Taylor's theorem. It is obtained
by putting x = 0. and for convenience replacing h by x.
This is possible since Taylor's theorem is true for all valu
of x and h.
.'. let x = 0, and h = x.
Then Taylor's theorem becomes
f(x) =
R0)
+ xf(0) +
*
HO) + +
f( )
Li [
In this form
f"(0)
means that In the n
th
differential
coefficient of fix), x Is replaced by 0.
33 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
204. Worked examples.
Example I . Expand log (1 + x).
Since /(x) = log (I
+*)J /(0)
 log (1)
,
/
m
W
1.2
(1+*)*'
/(,)
= 
L"
(!+*)'
/*(0) =
{
= 1
/n
(0)
= 
J
 
1
/(0)
= 1.2
/(x) = ( l) .
jfjjjs:
/"(0) = ( !)! 1.
Substituting these values in Maclaurin's series, viz.
/{*)
= log (1 + x) =/(0) + xP(0) + gfm
+
we have l
log (I +X) = X
_ + _
+ ...
+
(_
)lx
+ .. .
It should be remembered that the base employed
throughout has been e. Consequently the above series
may be used to calculate logarithms to that base. From
these the logs to any other base, such as 10, can be
obtained.
Example 2. Expand sin x in a series involving powers
ofx.
/(x) =sinx.
.\/(0)
=0
P(x)
= cosx = sin(x+?). /.
P(0)
=1
F(x)
= sinx. ;.
f^(0)
=0
/m(x) = cos x =sin (x
+
^Y .%
/m(0)
=  1
/(x) = sin(x
+
f).
nn
.\/"(0) = sin
TAYLOR'S AND MACLAURIN'S THEOREMS 333
Substituting in Maclaurin's series we have
:
sin x = x
+
fk

f
+ . . .
+
*+
?
B71I H
In this series x is measured in radians.
If now we put x = 1, we may readily calculate the value
of a radian to as great a degree of accuracy as may be
desired, by taking sufficient terms of the series. It will
be noted that the terms decrease rather rapidly, or the
series is said to converge rapidly.
It should be further noted that the series contains only
odd powers of x, i.e., it is an odd function. The series for
cos x will be found to contain only even powers of x, i.e.,
it is an even function.
Example 3. Expand e* in a series involving powers
of x.
We have f(x)
= e*. ,".
/(0)
=1.
.'. P(x)
= e*. :. p(0)
= 1.
/"(*)=* .'. /(0) = 1.
Substituting in Maclaurin's series we get 1
y2 y3 y4
,!+,
+ +
* + *+...
Compare 83.
205. Expansion by the differentiation and Integration of
known series.
The method may be illustrated by the following example:
By division.
1
l
i
= lx*+x*x+...
It may be proved that when a function is represented
by a series, and the function and the series are integrated
throughout, the results are equal.
y3 y5
tan
1
x = x
  +
 
+
334
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
This is known as Gregory's series. It
and can be used to calculate the value of n.
Thus, in the series let * = I.
is convergent
Then tan' (1)
=
.
Substituting in Gregory's series
J
'.I
'
+;
Hence, by taking sufficient terms, the value of n can be
lound to any required degree of accuracy. It converges
slowly, however, and consequently other series which
converge rapidly are employed for the calculation.
Exercise 42.
Expand the following functions in powers of xi
1. (a) sin (a + x)
;
(b) cos (a + x).
3. tan
1
(x + A). 2.
**.
4. log (1 + sin x).
6. tan x.
8. a'.
10
"".
12. log sec x.
14. log (1
 x).
16. e* sin x.
5. cos x.
7. log (1 + e*).
9.
**.
11. sec x.
13. shv'x.
15. sinh x.
17. tanhx.
CHAPTER XX
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
206. Meaning of a differential equation
A dtfferential equation is one which involves an independent
variable, a dependent variable and one or more of their
differential coefficients.
These equations are of great importance in Physics,
Engineering of all kinds, and other applications of Mathe
matics. Although it is not possible in this volume to give
more than a very brief introduction to what is a big subject,
the elementary forms which are dealt with in this chapter
may prove valuable to many students.
Examples of differential equations have already appeared
in this book, as, for example, questions 4954 in Exercise 16.
Again, as illustrated in 100
J*
H
or dy = 2xdx .... (2)
we obtain by integration the relation :
y
= x* + c . . . . (3)
(1) and (2) are differential equations, and (3) is their
solution. Thus a differential equation is solved when, by
integration, we find the relations between the two variables
x and
y.
This process involves the introduction of an undeter
mined constant. Thus the solution
(3) is the genera]
equation, or the relation between y and x for the whole
family of curves represented in Fig. 28.
207. Formation of differential equations.
Differential equations arise or may be derived in a variety
of ways.
For example, it is shown in mechanics that if s be the
distance passed over in time t by a body moving with
uniform acceleration, a. then
d*s
dfl
==a
335
(1)
336 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
By integration
g
=
*+, .... (2)
Integrating again s = \at' + c
t
t + c, . . (3)
Of these (1) contains a second derivative, (2) the first
derivative, while (3) is the general solution of (1) and (2).
Differential equations may also be formed by direct
differentiation. Thus, let
V
= x+7x* + Sx + l . . . (a)
dy ... .,... ...
... (b) then
g
= 3x* + 14* + 3
(a) is called the complete primitive of (a").
208. Kinds of differential equations.
(A) There are two main types of differential equations:
(1)
Ordinary differential equations, involving only
one independent variable.
(2)
Partial differential equations, which involve
more than one independent variable.
In this chapter we shall concern ourselves with
(1) only.
(BJ
Orders. Differential equations of both types are
classified according to the highest derivative which occurs
in them. Thus of the differential equations (b), (c), (d)
in 207:
(b) is of the first order, having only the first deriva
tive.
(c) is of the second order.
(d) is of the third order.
(C) Degree. The degree of a differential equation is
that of the highest power of the highest differential which
the equation contains after it has been simplified by
clearing radicals and fractions.
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
337
Thus the equation ( j\) + 3 , = is of the second
order and third degree; 5 =
^1 + (^
dx
( 162) is of
the first order and second degree.
209. Solutions of a differential equation.
A solution which is complete or general must contain a
number of arbitrary constants which is equal to the order of
the equation. Thus in 207 (3) contains two arbitrary
constants and is the solution of (1), an equation of the second
order.
Solutions which are obtained by assigning particular
values to the constants, as in Exercise 16, question 54, are
called particular solutions.
This chapter will be concerned only with equations of
the first order and first degree.
Differential equations of the first order and
first degree.
210. Since solutions of differential equations involve inte
gration, it is not possible in consequence to formulate rules,
as with differentiation, which will apply to any type of
equation. Some indeed it is not possible to solve. But a
large number of equations, including very many of practical
importance, can be classified into various types, solutions
for which can be found by established methods. Some of
these types we will proceed to consider.
211. I. One variable absent.
There may be two forms:
(1)
When y Is absent.
The general form is dy = f{x)dx
and the solution is y
= \f(x)dx.
This requires ordinary integration for its solution.
Example. Solve the equation
dy = (x* + sin x)dx.
338 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Then
y
=
j(
x
*
+ sin x)dx.
."
y
=
i*
s
 cos x + c.
(2) When x Is absent.
The general form is
or
dy =/(y)dx.
This may be written in the form i
dx
_ 1
*y
"Ay)
The solution is then obtained by direct integration.
Example. Solve the equation
jf
~
tan v.
Hence
*?
= J
Ay tan
y
tany
J J sin
y
.*. x = log sin
y + c.
212. II. Variables separable.
If it is possible to rearrange the terms of the equation in
two groups, each containing only one variable, the variables
are said to be separable. Then the equation takes the form
F(x)dx
+ f(y)dy
=
in which F{x) is a function of x only, and/(y) a function of
The general solution then is i
JF(x)dx +
ff(y)dy
=
c.
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
213. Worked examples.
Example I. Solve the differential equation
xdy + ydx = 0.
To separate the variables divide throughout by xy.
Then
339
d
y
+
dx
=o.
y
/?+/?
/. logy + log* = c,.
If the constant c, be written in the form log c
Then log y + log x = log c
whence xy
c.
The factor used to multiply throughout to separate
the variables is called an Integrating factor.
Example 2. Solve the equation
(1 +x)ydx+ (1 y)*iy = 0.
Multiplying throughout by , we get i
l +*
dx +
Ly
dy = o.
x
y
(I
+ l)/* +
(il)<iy = 0.
or
log x + x + logy
y
= c.
log xy + (x

y)
=r c
Exercise 43.
Solve the following differential equations:
i.f +

t
= o.
dx x* dx a
4. (1 +
y)dx 
(1
 x)dy = 0.
5. (* + \)dy ydx = 0.
6. sin x cos ydx = sin y cos xdy.
dx
34<> TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
7. (y>  x*)dy + 2xydx = 0.
J
dx x
1
+ 1
9. 2yrf* =x(y
\)dy.
10. y* + sin 2x . & = 1.
11
1 +y _
rfy
"'
(1 + *)*y
_
<&'
ltg_*
13. xVy
1
 ldx yVx* l<fy = 0.
14.L +^.* IK 4?
1+2
,7
=
to
dx"
15.
/x
= 2xy.
16. The slope of a family of curves is 2, What is the
equation of the set ?
*
214. III. Linear equations.
An equation of the form
where Pand
Q
are constants, or functions of x only, is called
a linear differential equation.
It is so called because y and its derivatives are of the
first degree.
It has been discovered that if such an equation is multi
plied throughout by the Integrating factor el
M
*. an equation
is obtained which can be solved.
When multiplied by this factor, the equation becomes i
It may now be seen that the integral of the lefthand side
is yei
1'''*.
This is evident on differentiating yef
Pi
*. There
fore the solution is
:
yei"* = jQfif"'dx ... (A)
The procedure in solving this type of differential equation
is to begin by finding the integral jPdx, then substitute in
(A).
i
Examples will illustrate the method more clearly.
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
341
215. Worked examples.
Example I . Solve the equation
(i 
**)%  *y  1.
Transforming this to the general form, viz.,
we get
dv
_
x _ 1
dx r^p
y ~~
1
r&
Since the integrating factor is eJ
pdx
, we proceed first to
x
1
Pdx in this case, noticing that P =  Q
= .
_ ,
.
Comparing with the equation above we have,
jpdx =
f r
l1
dx
= ilog(l_*)
= log %/!**.
/. integrating factor =
lo
*
v/l *'
=
Vl
**.
Using the form (A) in 214, we have 1
yVlX*=J
r
^xVl~x*dx
/.
dx
.'. the solution is :
= sin
1
x + c.
yVl x = sln x + c.
Example 2. Solve lite equation
dv
cos*/ +ysinx= 1.
Dividing by cos x,
+y
tan * = sec x.
J43 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Comparing with the type equation
P = tan *.
/. JPdx
= I tan xdx = log sec x.
;. ef
fi
* = s"o"o
= sec x.
Using formula (A) and substituting
y
sec x = / sec x sec xix
= / sec
1
xix
= tan x + c.
.'. the solution is i
y
= cos x tan * (
c cos x
or
y
= sin x + c cos x.
Example 3. So/ue the equation
fx
+
2xy  1 + 2x*.
Companng with the type equation
P = 2x . Q m 1 + 2x.
.'
J/Vx
=
J2xdx
= x.
.'. integrating factor is
*.
.'. using formula (A) and substituting
VJil
\2x*)e*'dx
= j{f 4 2xV)&
= x**" + c.
.". the solution is :
ye* = xe* + c
or
y
= x 4 er*.
EXAMPLE 44.
Solve the following differential equations:
'
%

2x
>
 2* 2 X
^
+ *+^=
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
J
3.
f=yx.
dx
J
dy
6

dx
+
ay = **
?
<y _
ay
=
x + 1
'
a*x x x
4.
t)
dx
dy
dx
+ xy = x.
4
y tan x = 1.
8. tan x 2 = 1 + y.
9. rtily = ( 1 e*y)dx. 10. xrfy  aydx = (x + \)dx.
1 1 . cos* x . ,
+ y
= tan x.
<fx
12. x' . ^
4
xy + 1 = 0.
216. IV. Homogeneous equations.
These equations are of the form
where P and Q are homogeneous functions of the same
degree In x and y.
P V
Then is a function of .
Q
x
Such equations can be solved by using the substitution
y
i. = v or y = x
x
'
Thus the two variables x and c are separable, and the
solution can be found as before.
When the solution has been found, using these variables
substitute

for v and so reach the final solution.
217. Worked examples.
Example I. Solve the differential equation
i*+y) *
In this example P and Q. i.e., x +
y
and x, are each
functions of the first degree throughout in x and y.
Let

v or y = ix.
x
'
Then dy
\dx 4 xdv (d.c. of a product)
344
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Substituting in equation above
.*. (x + vx)dx + x(vdx + xdv) =
and xdx + 2vxdx + x*dv
0.
Separating the variables
(1 + 2v)dx + xdv = 0.
'
1 + 2v
+
x
"
Integrating,
i!og(l +2)+log* =
ei
and log (1 + 2d) + 2 log * = c
r
:. x(l + 2v) = c.
Substituting * (l + 2^)
= c.
.*. solution is x* 4 Ixy = c.
Example 2. Solve the equation
(x* y*)dy = 2xydx.
Put
y
=
vx
then
dy = vdx + xdv.
Substituting
(x*  v*x*)[vdx
+ xdv) = 2vx*dx.
Dividing by x*
(1  v*)(vdx + xdv) = 2vdx
whence
(1
v*)xdv = v{l + v*)dx.
Separating variables
1 
dx
vJT+V*)
dv==
i
:. by partial fractions
fl 2v \ , dx
\vT+7*}
dv=
x
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Integrating
log v log (1 + v*) = log * + c,.
its
lo
s
r+v*
=1
s* +
Io
s
c
t
ir  = c*
1 f
tr
z
X
i+5
whence
x^+y*
= cx
and the solution is x*
+
y* = cy.
Exercise 45.
Solve the following equations:
1. {x+y)dx+xdy = 0.
2. (x +y)dx xdy = 0.
3. (x+y)dx
+
(yx)dy=0.
4. (x 2y)dx +ydy = 0.
5. (x+y*)=2xy
d
.
7.
ty
2xy)rfx = (x 2xy)4y.
8. x*dy +y*dx + xWy = 0.
9. y*dx
+ (x* xy)dy = 0.
10. y*dx
+
(xy + x*)dy = 0.
11. (x  2y)dy + xdx = 0.
218. V. Exact differential equations.
The equation Mdx
f
Ndy =
is called an exact differential equation, when it is formed
from its complete primitive by simple differentiation.
Thus, if the complete primitive be
* 4 3xy
+ f
= c . . . . (A)
Then, on differentiation
(3**
+ 0xy)dx
+
(3x* 4 3y*)dy = ( 198)
14& TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
This is an exact differential equation. Consequently
(1) (3x* + Qxy) is the partial differential coefficient 5. and
ox
(2) (3*  3y) is the partial differential coefficient
*\
py
The first is obtained by differentiating (A) with * variable
and
y
constant, the second by differentiating with
y
variable
and x constant.
In general the result is of the form
( 198)
Bit , , ou
, n
ex
dx
+dy
dy=0
Comparing with the form
Mdx + Ndy =
it is evident that M = *?
ox
By
219. Test for an exact differential equation.
In
193 it was shown that if
*",
?,
be the first partial
differential coefficients, that of the second derivatives are
8
l
e
"\ j
B I Bus
by\Bx)
oxioy)
These are denoted by
ByBx
an
BxBy
It was further shown that these are equal.
Consequently, if the equation Mdx + Ndy = is an
exact differential equation
. if the function M be differentiated on the asumption
that
y
is variable and x constant, and W be differentiated
with x variable and
y constant
the results are equal.
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Thus, in the example above
(3* + 6xy)dx
+
(3x + Zy*)dy =
6x
347
8
(3* + Qxy)
(3x + 3y)=6*.
Hence the equation is exact.
220. Solution of an exact differential equation.
The integral
J
Mdx, i.e., M, integrated assuming x
variable and
y
constant, will contain those terms in Ndy
which contain x. Hence the following rule:
(1)
Integrate
J
Mdx, assuming y is constant.
(2) ..
jSdy
x
Add the results, but the terms common to both are written
down once only.
Thus in the above example
J
(3x* + 6xy)dx = x* + 3x*y
/(3**f 3y')dy =3*^+/
Since 3**y occurs in each, it is written down once only.
.". the solution is
X
s
+ 3xy
+ f
= c (see 218)
221. Integrating factors.
Equations which are not exact may often be made so by
multiplying throughout by a suitable function of x and y.
Such a factor is an integrating factor (see 213).
It represents common factors which have been cancelled
out during the process by which the equation was obtained
from its primitive. This factor is not always easily
obtained. In some cases it may be found by inspection;
sometimes by the method of trial ; in others there are rules
for obtaining it. The work in this chapter will be confined
to the simpler cases only.
348 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
222. Worked examples.
Example I. Solve (he differential equation
{x+y)dx+ (x + 3y)dy = 0.
Applying the test of
219, the second partial differential
coefficient in each case is 1.
.'. the equation is exact.
Applying the rule of 220
j
[x
+
y)dx = \x* + xy
]{x +3y)dy = xy
+ fy*
.'. the solution is
fr* + xy
+ iy*
= c,
or x +2xy + 3y* = c.
Example 2. Solve the differential equation
(6x*  IQxy + 3y
l
)dx
+
( 5x* + 6xy  3y*)dy = 0.
Testing
 (6x*  lOxy + 3y*) = 
10* + fry
I
(_ 5x* + 6xy  3y) =  10* + Qy.
Hence the equation is exact.
Solving by method of 220
/(6x  lOxy + 3y*)dx = 2x>  5x*y + 3xy*.
j{5x* + Qxy  3y*)dy =  5x*y 4 3*y*  y*.
Writing down the common terms 3xy* and
5x*y once
only the solution is
2x 5x*y + 3xy y = c.
Example 3. Solve Hie differential equation
2ydx + xdy = 0.
Applying the test, it is seen that this is not an exact
equation.
,
Multiply throughout by the integrating factor
Then dx + dy = 0.
x
T
y
J
xy
ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
This is exact.
/2
 dx = 2 log x = log x*
349
/
dy = log
y.
.'. the solution is
log x* + log v
= c
1
or x*y log c
1
or x
!
y
= = c.
Exercise 46.
Solve the differential equations.
1. (*
+y)dx + (x + *y)dy = 0.
2. (2* +y + \)dx
+
(x + 2y
 \)dy = 0.
3. 2xdy +ydy = Zx*dx.
4. (x* y)dx
+
(x y*)dy = 0.
5. (2xy y*
+ 2x)dx
+
(x* 2xy + 2y)dy = 0.
6. ydx
[x +y*)dy = (integrating factor
,.}
7. xdy ydx = x*dx. (Integrating factor j.)
8. x{l y>)dy +ydx = 0.
v
*
'
9. (x* y*)dx + xydy = 0.
10. [y*
x*)dy + 2xydx = 0.
11. xdy +ydx = xy*dy.
INTEGRALS OF STANDARD FORMS AND
OTHER USEFUL INTEGRALS
I. Algebraic functions.
(1)
Jw*
=
s
i
ri
*+.
/f
=log.*.
(3)
la*dx = a' x log e.
(4)
jfidx = C.
35
o TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
II. Trigonometric functions.
(5)/ssin xdx = cos x.
/
sin axdx = cos ax.
a
(6) I cos xdx = sin x.
1
( I
/
cos axdx =  sin ax.
i I a
(7)
/ tan xdx = log cos * = log sec x.
/ tan axdx = 
log sec ax.
(8) /
cot xdx = log sin x.
J
log cot axdx = 
log sin ax.
III. Hyperbolic functions.
(9) /
sinh xdx = cosh x.
f 1
/
sinh axdx =  cosh ax.
r J a
(10) J cosh xdx = sinh x.
s
cosh axdx =  sinh ax.
a
(11)
/
tanh xdx = log cosh x.
J
r
J
tanh axdx = 
log cosh ax.
(12) / coth xdx = log sinh x.
f 1
I coth axdx  log sinh ax.
IV. Inverse trigonometrical functions.
(,4)
/v'^=
Sin
 ,
i
OT

COS
1
5
(15)
/,
rfx
I a* + x
itan  or
I
Cot' .
a a a a
y xV
x* a* a
, x 1 , x
seer'  or cosec
1
.
a a a
STANDARD INTEGRALS 351
V. Inverse hyperbolic functions.
(17)
J
,,
. = sinh
1
 or log {x + Vx
r
+a
i
).
(18)
/rr^p =
C08h
"1
5
r l0
6 {* +
y

flt
>
">/,,.
/*
1 , x 1 . a + x
=  tanh
1
 or
h
log 
.
a a 2a a x
1 .. , x 1 . x a
=
coth
1
or
it
loc

.
a a 2a ' x + a
(21) (
Tf
.
= sech
1
 or
log{
(22) (
r
$L =   cosech
1

1
' ; xvV r ?
a a
"Nl^)
w/vw? =J
sinh
ci nK
1
= ilog{6x + Vo'x + a).
*/*=
"*?
1
.
r iog {ox + v^**
1
 a*}.
= ; tanh
1
1
=
2oa
,0g ~*
a +bx
a bx'
, coth
1
ba a
1 ox a
=
26a
[0S
br+~a
352
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
/;7TWi"""*
,
7
i^ r
+v
r
w
'
}
=*{
~6i r
Squares of the circular functions.
(23) /
sin
1
xdx = \{x\ sin 2x).
(24)
J
cos* xo* =
}
(x
+ $ sin 2x).
(25) f tan* xax = tan x x.
(26)
J
cot
1
xax =  (cot x + x).
(27)
j
sec* xdx = tan*
(28) [ cosec
1
xrfx =
cot x.
Other useful Integrals.
(29) jVa
1
 xHx =
^
sin
1
^ +
\xVa* 
x\
(30) jVx*~=a* = \xVx*  a
1

^
cosh
1
^
,
/s , a* , x + Vx*
a*
or xVx
a*
g log
 T . X.
^
.
(31) [Vx* + a*dx = ixVx* + a*
+ Jsinh
1
^
or ixVx^+^+po
g
X
+
V
^
.
(32)
J
sec xdx =log tan
g +
1)
or log (sec x + tan x).
(33)
f
cosec xox = log tan =.
(34)

log xdx = x(logxl).
ANSWERS
p. 17. Exercise I.
1.
 I, I, I, 17. 2<j  4a + 1. 2(* + S.r)  4(* + 8x) + I.
2. 7.0. 6. a(a + 6).
^"X.L+^.O.
3. 0. ..
fc
f
.  1.
4. 9. 961. 90601, 9006001. 6001.
6. 1, 2. 8, 1414 . . .
6. 7. 0.  11,
 x* Bx> + 3x + 7.
7. 3(< + S/) + 5(1 + 80  1. 8. 2* . 8* + 2 . Sx + {8x)>.
9. (11 x* + 3x* . Sx + 3.r(8*)'
+ <S*).
(2) 3* . Sx + 3.*(8.v) + (8*).
(3) 3*
1
+ 3*(8*) 4 (8*).
10. (1)
2*' + ihx + 2A
(3) 4* + 2/i.
(2) ihx + 2A.
p. 31 Exercise 2.
1. a) 0:
(A) values less than 1;
e) I, 1 25. 2, 5, 10, 2,  I, 
i
;
.V; infinity
) the graph is a hyperbola similar to that of Fig. 3, but
the y axis is at x = 1.
2. (a) 31. 301, 3001, 3 000001;
3. (a) 5;
4. (a) 11, 5. 3, 26, 21, 201;
5. 1. 6. 2. 7. 3*'.
(6) 3,
lb) infinity.
(6) 2.
8.
J.
9. 4.
Exercise 3.
(6)
 08;
p. 43.
1. 16; 12.
2. (a) 25;
3. y
= 12* + 4.
4. 8s = 32/ X (80 + 16(8i)*;
(1)
672; (2)
656;
(4) 64016; 64 ft.
6. 6.
6. Sy
= 3*(8.r) + 3*(8*) + (Sx)*
(c)

fe
per sec.
= 32/+ 16(8/);
w
(3) 6416;
Sy
8*
7. Sy
=. 3*
+ 3*18*) + IS*)'; 12.
 8* Sy
x*+x&x' Sx
slope = 135'.
8. (1) 2; (2)
2.
M <CAI_)
1
x'+xJtx'
9. (1) 12;
353
gradient = 1
;
(2) 8.
35*
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
p. 56. Exercise 4.
1. 7*; 6; J; 000;
f**;
60**; 4*; 45*; 32*.
2. 4&*;
^;
apx>
1
; 2o*; 2(26 + !)**; 8n*.
3. 6; 054; 
3; p.
+1
4.
J*';
*; 1*;
A**;
**;
6. a.
n+
1*
2a + V
6'
S<M^
7. 2w. 8. 4nr. 6. 20*.
. . 2 .
;
2

2\/*' *" 2*' 8^5'
*Vi
.. 04. 16. 16. 24.
p
J.
203
15.  002,  05, 2.8.
18. *  4= 19. * =
fg.
9.
11. 192**';
14. 24.
X* ' X**
1
_ i 12 
40
13. 16; 0.
2
16.

?
p. 60.
1. 12* + 6.
4. x +
",.
7. 6 2* + Ox*.
10. 5 + 32*.
13.2**.
16. 2n*
1
2nx.
18. 3;* .
20. 2,  1, 2.
p. 62.
1. 12* + 5.
4. 8* + 10*.
7. 3*.
10. 4*  2* + 2.
13. 4**.
V?
Exercise 5.
20. * =
J.
2. 9*
+ 1.
8.4.
11. 0/  4.
3. 16** + 6* 
I.
9. +/<.
12. 3o*+26*+.
17
J
+
!
1
2Vi
+
3^
2
y^i **"
19. * = + 2 or  2.
21. * + 1 or *
1.
Exercise 6.
2. * + 2*
+ J.
3. 9*'
+ 2* 
10.
6. I2* + 33**  8*. 6. 3*.
8. 4* + 12*'
+ 6* 8. 9. 4*.
11. 3*. 12. 24* + 6* 22*
3.
14. 18*' + 26* +9.
15. (2o* + &)(/>*
+ q) +
p(ax' + bx + c).
16

S^*
2
*  ** + *+ +
2V*(* +
+
1)
ZVX
+ Vx(2x

1)(2* + 1).
17. ZVHV* + 2)(V'x

1) + x{2Vx + 1).
1.
3.
6.
7.
9.
11.
13.
15.
17.
19.
P
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
6.
7.
8.
10.
ANSWERS
Exercise 7.
2.
355
!.
(1  3*')*
(x +
2)>"
o
*  8*
1 *
10.
12.
14.
65.
 6
f2*=rp
2
(* +
2)*'
(2*^+3)*
26
IT? Bp
8*
(inri).
* 1
2*
'
6*'
5*'  10*
(3* +
*!?'
4*>(2a *)
(a*)
*
*
4* + 2
,1 _
4* + 4

71. Exercise 8.
4(2* + 6) ;  20(1  5*); (3* + 7)M.
(rip w*yrh
10*(*'4); 3*Vl^T';
n$_f
ix
 2* .12*'
(1 
2*ip'
vr^"^** Vi*
1
'
1 1 2
2\rV{*
+ l)
1
'
V?(Vi 
1)'"
 2*
+ 2
(*'*
+ l)
r
""Ti
20. "irfe+J^
J4^*)'
2(4*)'
(4*)
 2* * 1
(*' ~ 1)"
"(**l)' (1
+)'
* 1  1
(l
*)"'
VW
1 *)*>'
(1 + *)(i  *)'
1 * *'
. 2* *
*
(l+*)Vl*' 3(* +
1)1" *
Va
,
+ *
t '
(a* +
*)"
_ if
*~
*. T  4*(1  2*).
2Vlx + x*
v '
356
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
13. 12.
14.
15.
16.
18. 
(a'  *)
 3**  (l +x)
2(1 +
*)'
Vl + 2*

\x + 3 . 4*  r..'
2(2*' 8*
+~4)'
2\/l 
*
1 .
3(*+J)
(1
 x)Vl  *'
v'2* t
3'
 6* 
7y
Ix + 18v

*';y
y*x
 1
17.
19.
(i +
*)
' *Vi +
&'
2*(*'
+ y)  x
2v(* + y) + y
20.
<*>
=
 2* + 3
d*
=
2y t
4
=
i
at (1. 1).
Exercise 9.
p. 76.
1. *(3* 2); 2(3* 1); 6.
2 2bx
1
; 26(26

l)*"*; 26(26  1)(26  2)***'.
3 20*  9** + ix  1 ; 60*'  18* + 4; 120*  18.
4 60*  12*
1
+ 6; 200*  24*; 600*'  24.
6
6
J_
._
1 .3
*
v '2*'
4*''
8*''
, _! 
1
. j_
7

V2*
+
1'
V
/
(2* +TP" V^2* + EJ*"
B
2.6. 24
8
" ~ *' **'
( 1)'
1
(a + ?p*j*
10.
6; the lowest point on the curve.
ll! 7; 2; and
Y
12 * = 3, * = 2; 2
6'026 (the lowest point on the curve).
'
2"
{(
" *)"
*
sn
+
100.
Exercise 10.
1 ; ,
is positive
;
1.
d
l = 2* 
2 ;  4,  2. 0. 2. 4; *
""point is a minimum.
dy
dx
3. (1)
* =
i;
minimum. (2) * =
J;
maximum.
(3)
x
=
2; minimum. (4) * =
J;
minimum.
4. (1) Min. value 16, * = 2; max. value 4 16, *
(2) Max. value 6, * = 1 ; min. value 4, * = 2.
j.
"'
= 3
2*; 3, 1,
1,
3; l

5; negative; maximum.
 2.
ANSWERS
357
6.
6.
7.
10.
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
19.
f3) Max. value 12. * = 0; min. value 20, * = 4.
(4) Max. value 41, * = 2; min. value 9j, * =
J.
(5) Max. value 2, * = 3; min. value 
2, * *= 1.
Max. value 4, * = 0; min. value 0. * = 2.
Max. value 4. * =
\
; min. value 4, * =
J.
6. 6. 8. 529. 9. height = diameter.
252 ft. ; depth 126 ft. 1 1 s = 3 +
48<  16*' ; 66.
45. 13. 442 in. (approx.).
15 ft. deep. 06 ft. broad.
,li * = _ 3. (2) * = 2. (3) * = 
\.
Max. + 0385; min. = 0385; gradient =
L
* 0. 18. 225 ft. ; 32 sees.
Centre of beam.
1.
3.
5.
7.
9.
11.
13.
15.
17.
19.
21.
23.
25.
108.
3 cos *.
\
sin
Exercise II.
r
06 sec 06* tan 06*.
2(cos 2* sin 2*).
sec *(tan * + sec *).
\
sin j8 + J
cos
J9.
sin (3rc
*).
3 sin' * cos *.
6 cos* (2*) sin (2*).
 sec'^/l 
*)
2\/\  x
a sin *.

2 sin
(2*+
iy
2* + i
cos \x.
27. sin * + * cos *.
29.
31.
33.
35.
37.
39.
* sec' * + tan *.
* sec^ tan*
*'
'"
6* cos* (*') sin (**).
6 cosec* (5* + 1).
sin x
2\/cos
*'
0.
2. 3 cos 3*.
4. iec.i
6.
J
cosec  cot
fi
.
8. 3(cos 3* + sin 3*).
10. 4 cos 4* 5 sin 5*.
12. 2 cos (2* +
J.
14. \ cosec (a \x) cot (a
J*).
16. 3*' cos **.
18. 2* sec (*) tan (*).
20. n(a cos n* 6 sin nx).
22. sec'*.
24. 2 sec* 2* 2 tan * sec* *.
26. "sin".
** *
. sin * * cos *
sin' *
,n
tan * * sec* *
30

_
tan'*

32. 2 cos 2* + 8* cos (2*)'.
34. 2* tan * 4 *' sec' *.
36. 6 cot 3* cosec' 3*.
38. 2(cos 2* sin' 2*).
40. 4 sin * cos *.
S58
41.
43.
sin .t
(1 + cos
*$*"
sin * 2* cos x
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
2 sin x
42.
(T+cosi)*

2V* sin
**
._ 2*(cos 2* + x sin 2*)
*6

roe*
5*
'"
47.
49.
cos* 2*
2 sin* + * cos x
2Vsfii*
sec* *
(1
 tan
*)
p. 116.
1. Max., *
44. 2*( cos 2* * sin 2*).
46. sin x + cos x.
ta
sia x cos *(2 4 sin x)
"
(1 + sin

*)*
60. sec *(2 sec' * cosec* *).
Exercise 12.
7t
6
;min..*=
6
.
3. Max., * = .
2. Max., x =
4. Max., x
=
4'
ii
4'

6. Max., x = tan
1
2. 6. Max., x =
^
or sin"
1
J.
7. Max. 1"6V3 when * = jit; min. 16\/3 when * = Jn.
8. Max. when sin *
9. 33 42' (approx.).
f Vj ; min. when * =
Vj"
p. 123.
L (a)
Vl  16*''
2
W 77^=1:
10. Min.
Exercise 13.
(b)
1, when x =
g.
Va* *"
a
 4*
()

1
3. (a)
*. (*)/ sin' * +
Vi
*_^;
7 () *l
+
2* + 2
:
8. (a)
Vo
 x*'
(t)
irfep
pi
'
i
(a)
2(2  *)Vl 
*'
*V25* 1
!
(6)
2*tan*+l.
svhr
10. (a) i;
"#&=*
12
()
rip;
13 {a)
Va^,'
:
14. (a)
pip!
ANSWERS
(6)
jVr+^osec *.
S59
(6)
(6)
2\/?(l +
*)"
 1
VI

*"
 2
()
r7=
vT^r
tan*
15. (a) /(*)
= tan* +
1^^:
(*)
sec' * sin * +
^^
p. 136.
1. (a) 6e
B*.
2. (a)  2e\
3. (a) />".

Exercise 14.
(6) A
(b)
*"'
(6)
J<*
2
lb) (1
 *)*.
(&) e*(sin* + cos*).
... 2 X
10*
(6)
04343
4. (a)
6. (a) (* + l)C.
6. (a) (* + 6).
7. (a) 2* log. 2.
8. (a) *a"(rt + * log a),
(c)
sin * . e".
9. la) 2fc*a
ta*
log a.
(e) a''sec
1
*.
10. (a)
i.
11. (a)
J.
12. (a) 1 + log *.
13. (a) cot*.
*
a^'
(e)  2
(e) a*"*.
(c) 2*<f\
;
C) r(

*).
(c) lOe*.
(c) cos* x e"".
{b) 2a
u* 1
\oga.
(b) (o + by log (a + b).
(b)
sin *
2a* + b
ax* + bx +
"
*^
(6)
tan *.
(6)
2uT^)
w
?!i?*__i}
w
2*1
j6o
17. <)
18. ()
19. (a)
20. ()
21. M
22. (")
23. (a)
24.
(6)
to
25. (")
26. (o)
()
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
[b) ake
 **
(sin ft* cos ft*). 2**"(1 + 2*).
e~l2a*
 1)
2*
"
'
*(l + log*).
1
r+>
Va_
Vila  *)'
<&x . a'" log a.
1
*\?f^~(I6g~*)"
(6)
J
cot x.
(b)
sV*
1"
(6) cos* (1 + log sin *).
(6)
*
sin *(2 cos * + a sin *).
W
r*
\/l  *"
e"\a cos (6* + c)
6 sin (bx + c)}.
<**{a cos 3* + 3 sin 3*}.

,{l
sin
(, +
J
 ic cos
( +
*)
}.
w
^;,
p. 149.
1. (a)
2. (a)
H
3. (a)
4. )
M
6. (a)
6. (a)
7. (a)
w
8. (a)
9. (a)
10. (a)
a
*V
7
a
,=
^**'
a'e, a'e", o
4
~, a"***.
o<",  ae
, a*e
,
( l)a"e
.
1 1x2 1 X 2 x 3 ( I)*'*
l I
" *
~x*~
'
~
X'
Exercise 15.
(6) 2 cosh 2*. (e)
J
sinh
^.
*
\ cosh
2
.
a sech* ax.
a(cosh ax + sinh ax).
(b)
J
sech*;.
i
cosh .
** *
(6) sinh 2*.
M
a cosh {ax + b).
na sinh"
1
ax cosh ax.
cosh 2*. (6) 2 sinh 2*.
2
. , . (6) * cosh *.
sinh 2x
'
'
Zx* sinh 3* +
3** cosh 3*.
cosh *e
,lnl".
""fr*
(6) 2.
2Vsinh*
1
V*
T
+~i"
sec*. (6) sech*.
(c) 3 cosh* * sinh *.
4* sinh 2**.
(c) 2 tanh * sech* *.
(c) tanh *.
(6) 1.
(e) sech"
**">'.
(
C)
~,
2
,
fl + *)V2(1 +
*')
(c) sec *.
11. (a) sech*.
12. (a)
ANSWERS
(6) sec,.
S'
! (u
2
,
V2x'(ix + i) Vi +
3"
3
 w
rr*
(6) isecx
IC)
*(* +
2)
(c) 1 sech *.
* + V*
1
, , /* + Vx>  1
14.
(a)log{*yf
+
*}. (.og{<
}
> *{*
+ v*r+
}.
(.) IO
g{
3
* + v^e?}.
16. (a) ; / .. (6)
7
. (e)
,
"
,.
V** + o
l
'
Vx^^a*
y
' a'  x*
p. 160. Exercise 16.
In order to save space the constant of integration is not
shown in the following answers after the first twelve.
1. 9*'
+ C. 2. $* + C.
4. 008 *
+ C. 5. ix* + C.
7.
J* + C. 8. 6 + C.
10. * 
6*'
+ C. 11. g* 
J, + C
12. \x* + ix* + C. 13. ix*
 9*. 14. * + S* 12*.
3. \x* + C.
6. 6r + C.
9.
A*

J*
+ * + C.
15.

1
16. 
1
17. 
18. *.
21. * +
2*.
24.
^*
 10*'.
27. it*.
30. log (* + 3).
33. log (* + 4).
36.
i*
 7 log .
39.
J(2*
+ 3).
42.  8VT^"#.
45.
J
log (*  1).
04*
04
'
19. Vx. 20. j*. .
22. * + * +
3**. 23. 
^.
25. gt. 26. 
^
1
+
;J
+
log**.
28. * 
J*'
 *. 29. 14 log*.
31. hog (a* + 6). 32. log
g
~
Jj.
34.  4 log (3
 2*). 35. * + 3 log *.
37. log*+'' 38.
,
2
(a* + 6).
2*'
43. ^(a* + 6)'.
46. log (1 + cos a*).
3a'
41.
2
Va* +T.
44
1'+^
+
^+
M
'
2
+
3
+
4
+
5'
3
6i TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
47.
J
log (e* + 6).
49. y
= ix* + C,x + C,.
J*.
+ 2* 
y. 61.
y
63.
y
3*  6*
+ 4* + 4.
48.
i
log (2* + sin 2*).
60. y
= 2* + 3.
62. y
= 2x* &x + 6.
64. s =
J<*
+ 8< + 10.
1.
3.
6.
7.
9.
11.
13.
15.
17.
19.
21.
23.
25.
27.
29.
31.
33.
36.
164.
i(e*
**)
+ 2x.
J(" + a
u
log. *).
J10>Mog
10
.
j cos 3*.
Exercise 17.
2.
!**>.
4. (!(' .
1
,
(
+
3
2 cos
3 cos Ix.
1
1 i
sm ax
i
cos a*.
5
*
!sin 3*
f
3 cos =.
sin *.
J
log sec ax + . log sin bx. 26. log (1
f
sin* a).
J
sinh 2*.
6.
*(*
+ *).
8. 2'1or, .
10. (a*  a*)log..
12.
<".
14.
I
sin 5.r.
16. isin (2* + a).
18.
J
cos (a 3x).
20.
g
cos 2a*.
22. log (* + sin *),
24. >".
J
log cosh 3*.
*
<.
+ ie' it"
3 tan?.
log(l + tan*).
168.
28.

cosh**.
30.
b
{sin (a
6*)
cos {a + bx)).
32.  log sec
J.
34. log (1 + )
36. (sin*)'.
Exercise 18.
(a) sin
*
;
(6) cosh' ? or log {* + V*
1"^
9).
(e) sinh
1
1
or log {* + V** + 9).
(a)
J
tan
j.
(6) J
tanh

or  log

(c) icoth or
ilogJ
8. (a) sin"
4"
(W
J
tanh
J
or
J
log
J*.
ANSWERS
4. (a) cosh"
1
^
or log {* + V*'
16).
(6) icoth'orJlog^.
6. (o) sinh"
1
^
or log {* + V*' + 16).
6. (a) i8in>^.
(6) j
cosh"
1
~ or
J
log (3*
+ V
/
9* 
26).
(e)
1
sinh"
1
3
g
T
or
J
log (3* + y/9x* + 26).
3*3
(6) J
tan' f
.?*
7. (a)
J
tan
".
(b)
J
tanh S or ^ log *
2* 9x_1
& 4X
(c)
JcothJorAlogTS
8. (a)
J
tan
^. (6)
J
sinh"'
^
or  log {3*
+ V* + 4).
(e)
J
cosh
y
or
i
log {3* + Vft**

*)
9. (a)
}
sinh"
1
If or * log {7* + JiVx
1
+ 25).
1
6
j
(6) ^=
sinh"'
vl  * or
^
log {x\/2 + V2*
1
+ 5).
10. (a) sin
V5
(6) J
sin in '
2*
V?
11. (a)
i
sinh"
1
^g
or
J
log {2* + /fi + 4^').
(b)
J
tanh??.
12. (a)
^7=
sinh"
1 30*
or
^j
log (y/7*
+ V
7*'
+ 36).
(6)  cosech * or

log
jl^L'l.
13. (a) isecf
"
(6)
 cosech"
1
f
or 
J
log
j
2
_+^T4}.
14. (a) 
J
sech
1
J
or 
 log t*S@EBl.
(6) cosh ?
+ J
sec
?
p. 172.
1. J(*sin*).
3. 2tan?*.
Exercise 19.
2.
J(*
+ sin*).
4.
J
jy
+sin2*
+ Jsin 4*1.
364
6.
7.
9.
11.
13.
10.
16.
17.
19.
21.
23.
P
1.
3.
6.
6.
7.
9.
10.
12.
14.
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
i
/?? sin 2*
+ J
sin 4*1 6. (\ cot 2* + x).
J*
J
sin 4*. 8.
J* + A
sin 6*.
1
4a'
\x + /
sin 2(ax + b). 10.  jcos*+
A
cos 3*.
12. J(sin x
i
sin 5*).
14. i(cos 2*
+ J
cos 6*).
tS
sin 3* + }
sin *.
i(sin 2* + i
sin 4*).
 ^TTcos g + icos
2 J.
. fcos (a + b)x , cos (a 6)*1

*\ a + b +a"^5 J"

J
cos 20. 18. Hx

i
sin 4*).
tan x
cot *. 20. 2 tan x x.
J
tan
1
* log sec*. 22. 
Ali
sin' 2*  * + Jsin 4*).
2\/2 sin
*
24. tan * + i
tan* *.
2
Exercise 20.
fV9

183.
J
sin'* +
i
sin
'
2* +
g
VTI*
1
.
o .. i
* . *V25
*'
2.
V
Sin" 5+
2
~
4.
J
Sin 5 +
f
VT
"**'
1
*v*.25 V
iog*
+ ^;
25
.
J*V*' + 49 +
V
si
*"1 * 8 i*V*'T6 +
jsinh'
^g.
I
sinh'
j + i*%/26*'
+ 16. .
. ? x V 1 **
J.rV**
 3 

cosh
^
. 1 1 . 
v
Vb
i*Vl +
** 
i
sinh' *
a'* '
13. sinh
1
*
16.
16
17.
19.
21.
23.
vs
vr^r
Vi + 3
*
sin"
1
x.
\ T* (see formula. Trigonometry, 83).
2 log tan*. 18. 2 log tan
g
+
J)
J
log tan
3*
20. log tan *.
22. tan * sec *.
*
tan^
tan * + sec *. 24. log
p_
1
sin*
26.
ANSWERS
J
tan"' U tan Y 26. } tan"
1
(2
tan *)
.
365
27. itanh'(tan*,).
p. 187.
1.
J
sin*'.
3. VV+ **.
6.2 cos y/x.
7.
J
log
2. ilog
1
_
2_tl
. (Algebra, p. 211.)
4.  jVZ 6*.
6. JV1 +
'*.
8.
J
(log*)'.
9.
11.
13.
15.
17.
18.
19.
21.
22.
23.
25.
27.
29.
10. tan'*'.
12. log (* + i) +
2(
4
;^.
14.
A(3* + 2)(*
 1<.
16.
i(*
+ 2)V*'
 1.
1 t 2 cos
*"
i(6
+ *).
h(x  2)(6* + 2).
i(* f 2)V*~^I.

V5
 *'.
A(*~ 2)(2* + 3).
(2* +
3*'
+ 6* 
11) + log (*

1).
A(3* + 4)(*

2),. 20. 2(V* + 3 log (V*

3)).
2{J*

V* + log (V* + 1)>.
2{
X
^*t
+ ^*log(Vx+l)}.
J
cos' *
i
cos' *. 24.
i
sin' *
f
cos* *
+
sin'*.
!(*
 3)(* + 1)1. 26.
i; 
\
+ J
log (* 
2).
A (1 + 2*")(3*  1).

(1

*')'
3i
28. 
30. (1 + log*)'.
193.
1.
3.
4.
6.
8.
10.
Exercise 22.
sin * * cos *. 2. J
sin 3* 3* cos 3*.
(**
2) sin * + 2* cos *. ,_i
*(*
6) sin * + 3(*'
2) cos *. 5.
2
(!og *
J).
^(log**. 7.
(log*
J).
* (log x _
). 9. **(* 
1).
*(*' 2* + 2). n. _.(?+!).
3
66 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
12. J(cos 2* + 2 sin 2*).
14. *ton>* Jlog(l f
*).
16.
J**
(sin* cos*).
18.
J*
cos 2*
+ }
sin 2*.
20. * cosh * sinh x.
22.
{(log*)'
J
log * + J)}.
13. * cos> * Vl x*.
15.
J(*
+ 1) tan'*
}*.
17.
J**
J*
sin 2x
i
cos 2*.
19. * tan * log sec x.
Vl *'. 21. shv'* +
*'
I
10.
11.
12.
195. Exercise 23.
*  2 log (* + 2). 2. 
{* + log (1

*)}.
p{a + bx  olog (a + 6*)}. 4. * + 2 log (*

1).
*
f
2 log (* + 1). 6. * 2 log (2* + 3).
!*  2* + 4 log (* + 2). 8.  * 
ix*
 log (1

*).
i{^ + * + ilog(3*l)}.
{(a
+ M*
 2a(a + 6*) + a' log (a + 6*)}.
3<i**
+ 4*  8 log (* + 2)}.
J** + i** + * + log (*

1).
;>. 200. Exercise 24.
Lftkf^
2.
J
log {^.
, ii
2* 3
4
 A
lo
8
2T+3
i
x 2
6. 3 log
(* + 2)
 2 log (* + 4).
6. 2 log (* + 3) + log \x 
2).
7. log [2* + 6) + 3 log (*

7).
8. flogfc* 1) A
log (3* + 2).
2
0. 3 log (* + 1)

} log (4*

1). 10. log (1

*) + j^j.
11. 2 log (* + 2) +
JjLj 12.
J
log (2* + 3) 4^^.
13. * + 2 log (x 
4)
 log (* + 3).
14. * + i
log (*

2)

i
log (* + 1).
15. *
+ 2 log (* + 2)  log (* 
3).
16.
J*
 2x + 2 log (* + 1)
 log (*

1).
203. Exercise 25.
1.  log *
+ i
log (* + 1) + J
log (*

1).
2. *{log(* + 2)log*>
i.
ANSWERS
3. 
j log*
+ log (*

1)

J
log (* + 2).
4.
i
log (* 
1) + i
log (* 
2) + A
log (* + 3).
6. 
A
log (* + 2) +
ft
log (*

3)

^
7

zy
6 
2
j~r:
1}
+ Jflog (*  1)  log (* + 1)}.
7. log* + 21og(*l)
i
4
1

(
_r
L_
i
.
8. log * 
J
log (** + 1).
9. iJlog (*

2)

i
log (* + 1)}
_
 ton"' *.
10. Aflog
(* + 4)
 2 log (* + 1)} + i
tan>
*
11. ftflog
(* + 4)  2 log (1 
*))

i
ton'
J
36?
12.
J
(log (*+!)+
log (*

1)
 log (* + 1)) +
"*.
13. i(log(* 1) lo
14. fog * + 2 ton"
1
*.
p. 209.
log (* + 1)) + 4 tan *.
Exercise 26.
2.
1
h
^nvn
2Vl3
6
(* + 3) + Vl3'
4.Ltonx?li
Vl3
5. 
J
log (3* + 4* + 2) +
A
ton"'
?5_+.
2
.
7. log (* + 4* +
5) + ton"' (* + 2).
Vl3
'
. log
1 . , 2x  1
rr: tan' og (* + 1)

i
log (**
+ 1) +
^
tan _.
9. *  2 log (* + 2* + 2) + 3 ton
1
(* + 1).
10. 
I
log (1
 2*  *) +2^2 log
ffijjtg
.
11. ilog(3*. +
* + 3) +
3
f
r5
ton.^i.
12. ! log (* + 1) + J
log (***+!) +
_J
a
tan' fcjl.
p. 213. Exercise 27.
1. sinh"' (* + 3) or log ((* + 3) + V** + 6* + 10).
2. sinh'^p log ((* + 1) + VFT^Tl}.
368 TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
* 2 , .
3. cosh
1
: /7)
or log l(x
 2) + Vx*  4* + 2).
i
^. St a
V2
4.sin
l2
*+ l
.
6. sm> j.
8. V** + 1 + sinh
1
*.
6. 5 cosh"
1
j
.
7. V* + 1.
9. V**
 1 + cosh"
1
*.
10.
v'
r=r
* + 1 + i
sinh*
2
*/^
11. 2V*
1
2* + 6 sinh
1
*"" !
.
12. 3 sin
1
*t
2
8V
4* *,
V 7 o, , i
13. 2v/*' + * + 1 + 2 sinh
1
^
14 V*
1
+ 2*

~l + cosh"
1 *
"tJ.
p. 215. Exercise 28.
1. Vx*
=4 + 2 cosh
1
\.
2. iV4x*
9
+ J
cosh'
2
\
3. \/*(* + 3)

 cosh
1 **
3
.
6.
J*
t*\/**
1 + i
cosh"
1
*.
6. 'sinn
*,+ l
.
VlO *
"(^
2
)
8. cosh(
2* +1
).
9. sin'jJ* 1.

I. n
M*+
UV2J
vr+~it _
1
12.

Vi +
*
10. cosech* or log
f^
*^
~
*}
ii. vr+~V" + log
13. log (x + vr+x') 
^f
x
\
14. fcrVFM*

1 logj* + Vl +V). ^^+2 _
1
15.  j(x + 2)Vl 16. log ^jj.
17. log
yw + i 
1
Vx + 1 +
1'
p. 224.
ANSWERS
Exercise 29.
3*9
3"'  1
''
n + 1
' 2.
4J.
3.
1J.
4. 9. 6. 2925. 6.
V.
7.
V. 8.
i
9. 0.
10. 11. 216 (approx.).
12. 2(  1) = 3436 (approx.). 13. Jw.
14.
'.
15.
J^
 .*,. ,6.
}
17. log V2. 18. 1. 19. 
J.
81. "I.
20.
J.
26. 4  2 log 3. 27. .
29.
*
30. 1.
32. 9379. 33. 5 1,
3S
24.
f (7v"7

8). 25. ,
22.

J
log 2.
35. sin"
1
J
sin"
1
J.
p. 232.
36. n.
Exercise 30.
28. ;.
4a
31. log (2 + V3).
34. 1 
*
37. 
tig.
Note.The omission of an answer indicates that no finite
value of the integral exists.
2.
k
7.
J.
13. K,
18. 2.
3.
j
4.
J
log 3. 6. 1.
9. 1 log 2. 10. log 2
J.
12.
*
14. 
J.
16. 2. 17.  1.
20. 0.
Exercise 31.
2. 36}.
3. 4047 (approx.).
6. 4n.
8. I2n.
p. 258.
1.
152J.
4. \. 6. 25
7. 6 199 and 3628 (both approx.).
9. 4982. 10. 4 log 2.
12. e*  1. 13. 4.
15.
f
log 2.
16. Between 2 and 0. area = 5
J
; between and 3 area = 151.
17. 34
H.
18.
J.
19. 23504.
20. 40. 21. &.
11. A.
14. 555.
37
p. 265.
3na>
2
3
1.
4.
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Exercise 32.
2. ira; 4. 3. Ja; 2.
4a*
5. , (for the integral see Example 19).
. 597t
p. 267.
1. 0637 (approx.).
4
I
7.*
p. 272.
1. 260 sq. ins.
4. 1426 sq. ins.
p. 280.
1. V5 + i
log (2 + V5).
3. W.
V61
Exercise 33.
2. OS.
<
8.
2v
'.
Exercise 34.
2. 624 sq. ins.
6. 735 sq. units.
Exercise 35.
3. 0256.
6.
4
r.Vi
3. 607 sq. ins.
6. (V6V2)+log^^_
2. 2\/5 + log (2 + V^5).
M(H>
7. 2rta. 8. 6la.
0. a{(VE V2) + log (1 + V2)
 log
1
J
^
6
}.
p. 294.
1 , s
243*
i.
w
5
;
Exercise 36.
(6) 8ji.
3.
r
_ 64*
6.3. 6. 32te.
2 (a)
2
f
: (6)
'J*.
7. fica'.
11.
3
?
(2)

384
8 
7
.
12.
96*
5
'
p. 299.
. 135n
'" "16
, 208*
3

TT*
6. ^(Viooo i).
ANSWERS
Exercise 37.
2. 2iti\/2 + log (V2 + 1)}.
371
1.
12Tia
6. 2rcrA.
p. 306.
1. x= !6; y
= 0.
3. *
J
! v *
Exercise 38.
2. *
4. x
= 3;
= 8; y
=
= j\/io.
6.
q
from the centre along the middle radius.
7. from centre along radius at right angles to diameter.
2r 2r _ , r sin a
; y = . 9.
f
. 8. x =
10. JA.
12. * =
13. x =
re
11. x
a
4a
ba
3n'
y
ib
3n'
log 6 log a
25; y = 0.
; V
k*(b a)
2 a& (Tog b logo}"
14. \b from 0.
p. 310.
1. MP;
4. UCP.
6. A.Mr.
9. ?A/6*.
V3
p. 315.
1. i,MaK
3. (1) &Ma\
4. {Ma'.
7. Afa.
Exercise 39.
2. Mo*. 3.
IMA
6. (1) iMA'; (2) jtfi*.
7. JMr. 8. J.Wa".
10. \Mr*\ rV\.
Exercise 40.
2. \Ma\
(2) rVMa; (3) \
9
tMaK
5. ^("3'
+
)
6. Jlfo>.
8. &M(r + 4A). 9. iM(a + 6).
a'6*
10. (1) V6*: (2) i/^i: (3) V6(a +
&).
57*
P
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
10.
12.
14.
16.
18.
327.
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
Exercise 41.
yx'~
x
; **log *.
 1x sin (* + y*) ; 2y sin (*
+ y).
1
*
x* +
y' x* +
y*'
3*
+ 6xy + 6y ; 3* + 12*y + 6y.
1 . y
0.
9.
Vy*

**'
yvV

**'
a lax
y
i
~
y
2[ax + by)dx + 2(6* 4 cy)dy.
{2xy +
y*)dx
+
(* + Zxy')dy. 13. e*[ydx + xdy).
a* (log "dx + dy). 15. 040 (approx.).
dV = dt
k
'dp. 17. Each equals 6**.
2x; 4y. 19. 150tt8 cu. ins. per sec.
x
i
+y
f
x>~+y*
yd*  xdy
y*
11.
y
dx + log xdy.
334. Exercise 42.
1.
x* . x*
(a) sin a + * cos a
g sin a
T
. cos a + . . .
~X* X*
(b) cos a * sin a _ cos a +  sin a + . . .
,(
l+4+ '; +
.'; + ...).
3
V xh* 1  3*' h* ,
tan * +
r+
j,

(J +
;
t)l

M
+#IJ
3

+
*  1*' + * 
* * *
1
"
g
+
S
"
6
+
x + ix* + ,V + .
v
log 2 + J* + ix'

+
n
COS
2"
192
x>_(Joga) **_(log )
1  A*
+
ft** ft'*
+
8. 1 + x log a +

J.
10.
11.
:;
1
+*+T8+
1 J.
*"
4.
5*'
J.
0U'
4.
1
+
I*
+
g
+
^
+
ANSWERS
373
* ** x*
12
'
2
+
12
+
45
+
T , X*
'+2 +
3
x* 3*'
13
 * +
6
+
40
+
14. ( + 5 + ...).
^ ** *'
15
*
+
l
s
+
:
+ 7
+ '
16. +
*+
:3
"
Tg
"
A
,7. , ,,.+",*,*_ . . .
2.
y
p. 339.
I. y

J+
*
4. (1 +
y)(l  *)
6. sec x = c sec y.
8. (1 + y*)d +
**) = '
10. ;
.
"?*?
= e tan *.
1 y
12. y
=
***.
r
l
v* v*
14.
2
+ log*$
Exercise 43.
3. y
= car.
7. *
+ y* *y = 0.
9. log x*y
y
= e.
11. (1 +
y')(l + **) ex*.
13. V** ^n

Vy*
1 .
16. *y

p. 342.
l. y + l
3.
y
cx>.
15. y
c
Exercise 44.
2. x
4. y
= ca x + 1 +
.
6
' =
a+l+"~"
6. y sec * = log (sec * + tan *) + c.
2. x* + 2xy = o.
*
+ L
7. y
= ex* +
1
 a
9. ye* = x + e.
11. y
= tan* 1 + ce"
p. 345.
1. x> + 2xy = o.
8.
y + 1 e sin x.
10. y
j_  1
4
12. xy 4 log x e.
Exercise 45.
2.
y
= x(lg * + ")
3. log Vi + V
 tan ? = c. 4.  = log^
,
x
y
374
TEACH YOURSELF CALCULUS
6. **
y
%
= ex.
7. xy(x
y)
= e.
I
0. at ce*.
11. *
+ 3*y 4y
p. 349.
1. x* + 2xy + 4>' = c.
3. 2*y x* = .
5. **y xy
x
+
**
+
y* = e.
7. y *(* + <).
9. log*
+ lg
= .
v*
1 1. log xy ^ =
e.
'

J
= *.
8. xy* = e(* + 2y).
10. *y
Exercise 46.
c(x + 2y).
2. x
%
+ xy +y*+ xy.
4. **
+
y* Zxy = c
.
2* e.
8. log xy \y* =
10. *
+
y  cy
c.
0.
CIRCULAR MEASURE OF ANGLES
1
0*
Ridnns
6
12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42'
OI333
48'
54
ooooo 00175 00349 00514 00698 00873 01047 01396 01571
l* o'745 oioio 01094 03309 01443 02618 "01793 01067 03141 'OJJ'6
9
03491 03665 03840! 04014 04189 04363! 04538 04711] TJ48S7 05061
8 05136 054" 05585 05760 05934 06'OQJ 06183 06458 06631 06807]
V 06981 x>7'5* 07330 ^7505 07679I 07854 0&039 08103 0837! 085JI
6' 08737 08001 09076 09150 ^94*5 59599 9774 00948] iot*3 io*97
e* 10473 10647 10811 10006 11170 11345 H5'9 11694 11862 143
7* mv, 13391 1566 1374
1
13915 13090 13*65 3439 36'< 13788
B" 59*3 14137 U3'i 14486 14661 '4835 15010 15184 '5359 15533
9* 1570J 15881 16057 16331 16406 16581 '6755 16930] 17104 17379
10"
'75? 17*18 17801 "7977 18151 18336 18500 18675 18850 190*4
il 19'99 '9373 19548 19733 ''9807I 300711 30146
10430J
10595 10769]
ly 10944
13689
1III8 11393 11468 11643 1181; 11991 13166 1*340 11515
18* ll86 33038 13313 1338; 135** 13736 1391
1
14086 14360
14"
144J5
14609 14784 14958 *5'JJ >537 1548*
15656J
15831 16005
16* 16180 *6354 165*9 16704 16878 17053 17137 17401 17576 *7751
ie 379*5 18100 18174 18449 18633 1879* 18973 19147 193** *949&
17* *9*7' 19845
'30010 30194 303*9 30543 30718 30S9* 31067 "31*41
18 31416 31590 3'7*5 31940 in14 331891 3*463 3*638 3*8x 3*987
IB* JJ'*' 3333* 335>o 336S5 3j8j<. 34034 34*08
3438J 34558 3473*]
30* 349o; 35081 35156 35430 35605 35779 35954
36118 36303 3*477
21" 3665a 36836) 37001 37'7* 37350 375*5 37699 37874,
38048 38**3
33"
3839' 38573 38746 38931 30095 39370 39444 39619 39794 39968
23
4"43
40317 4049a 40606 40841 41015 41100 41364 41539 4'713
34' 418S8 43061 4**37 43411 43586 43761 4*935 43o 43*84 43459
25'
4J6J3 4J808 4398 44'57 4433' 44506 44680 44855 450*9
45*04
36
45379 45551 457*8 4590*1 46077 46351 464*6 46600 46775 46949
37"
47' 4 47*98 47473 47*47 47831 47997 48171 48346 48520 48695
38" 48869 49044 49118 49393 49567 4974* 40916 50091 50165 50440
28*
50615 50789 50964 51138 J'3'3 5>487 51661 51836 53011 51185
30* 513*0 5*534 5*700, 5*88, 53058 53*33 53407 53581 33756 "5393 1
BI 54 '05 S4*8o 54454 54639 54S03 5497' 5515* 553*7 5550I 55676
BS' 555' 56015 '56300 56374 56549 56733 56898 5707* 57*47 "574a'
33
5759* 57770 57945
5S119 58194 58469 58643 58818 58993 59167
34'
5934' 59516 59690 59865 60039 60314 60388 60563 60737 6091*
36" fin*; 61361 614J6
61610 617S5 61959 63134 61308 61483 63657
38" 61833 63006 63181
6J355 63530 63705 63879 64054 64*18 64403
37 *457; 6475*
640161 05101 65*75 6545' 65634 65799 *5973 66148
38 66333 66,97 6667* 66846 67011 67195 67370 67544 *77i9 *7893
39 68068 6834I 6S417 68591 68766 68941 69115 69*90 69464 6*39
40 69813 609S8 70163 70337 7051
1
70686 70860 735 71*09 71384
41"
7'5S 7'733 71908 71081 73357 7*43' 73606 7*780 7*955 73*9
4ST 7J304 7)47* 73*5J 73837 74003 74'76 14351 745*6 74700 74875
43" 75"4? 75114 75398 75573 75747 759** 76096 76*71 76445 76630
44* 7*794 7*9*9 77'44 773'8 77493 77667 77843 78016 78191 78365
DlfforonooB
V
2 3' 4' 5'
28 68 87 118 146
375
CIRCULAR MEASURE OF ANGLES
RuSuu
16*
18'
47'
18
48
Kr
61
BV
63'
64
w
BO
1
BT
68
eo
ei
ea
63"
64
85
M
67
68
69
70
71"
79
,
73
7*
76*
7ff
77
78"
78"
GO
BI
82>
83
84
88'
86"
87
88
89
82030
377
655a
l7
M
690!
907571
9350^
fl404f
0'
78714
80460
82205
S3950
85696
8744'
459186
0093a
9H"
96168
*97913
90650
12'
78S89
80634
823804
84135
85870
87616
89361
91106
9385a
94597
m
9773*
99484
IOT3?9 101/04
103974 103149
104730 104894
I 06465 1006401
108310 108385
1*09956 i'i0X3O
111701 x'ii8t6
113446 1136a!
11519s 115366
11693 117113
ii868 118857
I 3043) I30D03
133173 123348
I33918 1*34093
135664 II5838
137409 I3754
1*39154 139339
130900 1*31074
I 33645 1*33830
34390 1*345*5
i*36t3< 1*36310
137881 1*38056
130636 1*39801
14137: 1*41546
143117 r43o3
144863 145037
14660* 146783
I48353 1485*8
1*50091 i*5<73
151844 i'53oi8
153589 I53764
155334 '55509
18'
79063
24'
89535
*giaSi
93036
9477*
96343 96517
98088 *o8363
99833 100007
1*01578 1*01753
1*03333 103498
i<o5o6a 1*05343
1 06814 I06989
80809
82554
84*8!
86045
87790 87965
7923*
S09S3
83739
84474
86319
108559
1*10303
1*12050
113795
11554
1*17286
1*19031
1*30777
1*33533
124367
1*36013
1*37758
1*29503
1*31349
132994
'34739
136485
1*38230
39975
141731
145211
'46957
1 '48702
1*52193
153938
'55633
1*08734
1*10479
12335
1 13970
115715
117461
1*19206
130951
1*32697
1*34443
1*36187
127933
1*39678
'343
i*33i6g
'*3494
1*36659
138405
89710
91455
93301
9494'
9669.
98437
100182
10192'
1036731
1*05418
107163
1*08909
1*10654
30' 36'
J
1412 79587
156 *8i332
83903 83078
84646 84833
86394
88139
SgMt
91630
93375
95x3c
gStW
98611
1*00356
1 03102
1*03847
103592
5$
I '10626
1*12390. 1*13574
114145 1x43x9
XX589C 1*16064
1*17635 117810
119381 119555
13H36 1*31300
133871 1*33046
1*24617 1*24791
126362 1 3653c
1*38107 138383
139852 130037
1*31598 1*31773 1*31947
'33343 '335'8 '3369'
13308s 135363 135438
136834 137008 1 37 '83
138579 13875
140150 140334
141895
143466 1*43641
x*453S6
1*47131
1 48877
150447 1 50622
1*52367
'54 "3
'55858
86568
883x4
90059
91804
*93550
95
'95
42' 48'
79762
81507
83253
84998
86743
90234
*9'979
93724
95470
97040 *973'5
98786 oSofio
1*00531 1*00706
1*02276
1*04023
x05707
i*075'2
!c,'5.S
X'XIOOJ
113748
''4494
116239
117984
119730
'2X475
133330
X 24966]
1*36711
1*28456
I 3020a
i*4049C
1 420701 1*42244] I 42419
'43815 I43990 '*44'04
1*45560 1*45735 '459'Oj
147306 147480 147655
149051 149226 I494OO
150796 150971 151146
152543 152716 152
I38938
1*40674
64'
X 03451
1*04196
1*0594'
107687
X09432
111x77
1x3933
XI4668
116413
1x8159
lX994
I31649
1*23395
79936
81681
83427
85172
86917
88663
90408
92153
93899
9J644
97389
99'35
[MHO
.02635
104371
1*061 16
107861
109607
1IU52
113097
1x484}
116580
11B333
1 200791
fai8*M
23569
1*251401 125315
1*36885 1 37060
. 153065 .
154387 1*54462 154636 1548" 154955
1*56032 1*56307 156383 156556 ''5673'
1*38631
130376
1*33131
133867
X35613
x "37357
1 39103
1*40848
143593
1*44339
1*46084
1*49575
1*38805
130551
133296^
13404'
'3578
7
'37532
39*77
141023
143768
4453
146259
1 '47829 148004
80111
81856
83601
85347
8709
88837
905831
92328
*94073{
938'!
97564
99309
1 01055
1*02800
*04545
10629!
1*08036
1*09781
1*11537
113371
JISOIJ
116763
118508
120353
'31999
x *33744
1*35489
127335
128980
1 30723
132470
134216
13596'
137706
x 39452
1*41107
1*43942
X44&88
X46433
1*48178
1*51330 I5I495
x49749 '49924
151669
1*53340 1*53414
1*55160
1
56905
DifforonceB

r
3
S* *
6'
29 68 87  lie 140
376
HYPERBOLIC LOGARITHMS
No.
Third iigni6cant figure
Dillcicncc for 41b rugni
Scant figure.
123456788
io
li
1fl
13
14
IT.
1fl
1*7
1*8
1P
20
2 1
M
23
M
H
20
27
rtfl
2
30
3'1
32
33
31
35
3rt
37
H6
39
40
41
42
4*3
44
M
46
47
46
49
50
61
62
63
64
00000
00953
0*1833
1044
1900
3624 17003776385
10802960392
U33 1333 I I*
I99;20703I51
2J292'
0*3365
3436J35073577p646
418714253^318
4834148864947
. .
5<2358ib535
05878 5933
5986o45[
4055
04700
(.131
763
05306 5365
>47'
6981
10 ig 1053
1346 1378
10986
II5I4
11631
939
1*3336 13673396
.663
135J8
13809
1*3083
'3350
13630
3"
337
1635
:3TO
3 M
I4XIO
"435'
l'34
(375
14816
1*5041
15361
1*5476
1*5686
X5893
1*6094
16393
x6487
16677
1*6864
S063
06419
06931
07419
rfttj
08339 13
0*8755
0*91631930319243
09555 9594
0*9933 W&9
1*0396 J333 03670403W43J 0473
1*0647 36830716075010784 0818
1694
X969 3000 303306t
23363355
563585
37 3865
103137
3376 3403
'37
403
3661
14586 (609 4633 4656^679
5085
53835304
5497
5707
59'3
6114
53 '2
5933
>34
io86
(
ni9
141011443
725756
36132641
38933920)
3'64,3<9
343934551
3686371
39'3S93J9**
4 5941834207
4830486148844907
4398 M 444' 4469 4493
s'orjxs
5953
55'8 553*5560 558
5728 57485769 5790
5974
6154,6174
63326351637
550665356544
S696
5883
6563 6583 "3*3p*2' .
671567346752 677I
6ooi69ig693S 6956
0488 15830677
1398
2231
300
37'6
433
484
3311
075
5008 10685
_3'48
378413853..
45"rt57
5138(518
S65357'oft766
630663596313
67296780,6831
72277375
770i:7747
)!5
4
Rio8
7793
82431
8671
9002J9042
9083
8544 358718639
XntSi inm'nA2iiH
8400^43994789517
97836821,98580895
0152,018SlOaS(0260
050805430578)0613
>852^>S86 0919 0953
4231
4703
4939
29.5151
5336J347 5369 5390 54
M 1*63
..[07
15701655
239024692546
33221
1x51
1474
1787
2090
3384
3669
3947
3318
3481
3737
3987I40124036U06
123466789
1740
2546
3293
39203988
746*37
88 5347
5823
3O3M
6881
324 7372
19 39 38 48
J7 67 76 86
7S39
S2h1
8713
9133
5994
6l94(52'4*63336333
6390
6845
7o9
7>.',j
81624
613
in
6
5
5
5
5
4
lu
32 40 48 56 04
37
35
1936 32
18
'7
16
'5
IOI5 20
10jl4ig
9>3'S
913 17
8 13 16
8
8
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5
2 5
5
4
4
I
1
* 4
4
4
4
4
4
4
13
7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6 7
[361
52 :5
4'
19 45
30 364:
39 34
14b
.'.'.
Ill
J1
48,55
70I78
73
&
8 '55
40,6151
3843*49
36,41 46
34 39
3743
!>&3'34
(3933
S32
73'
3326
1 71202325
Wig 23
>J19'2I
I8*2I
151183033
15173033
4171933
14 17 19 31
I4I161S31
'3'6
J'
S
f3:'5
'35
1314
1J14
J2I4
n
u
1113
11
13
11
13
1820
i8
44
16 19
16 18
l8
16 18
ti/jU.Htny type iodtcate* chingc of rhmocriitic.
377
HYPERBOLIC LOGARITHMS
No.
65
68
67
5
69
60
ei
62
63
64
85
ee
87
e
69
70
71
72
73
74
76
76
77
78
70
BO
81
as
83
84
86
86
87
8fl
89
90
91
fra
98
94
96
98
97
98
99
'7047
17228
W66
7'4
7405 74"
17579
1 7750
1 7918
18083
18245
7263^281 7299] 73'7 17334 735' 737o<7387
744017457 7475 749' 75"9 75*7 7544 750'
759617613 7630 7647 7664 768"
7*99i77'6 7733
7766778378007817 7834 785 "7867.7
88*79
01
7934
fagg
5362
18405 3421
WS
'9459
19601
'974'
19879
20015
20149
20281
204x2
2054'
20669
20794
10919
21041
21163
21282
11401
21518
21633
Third u'gniScant figure.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9128468789
70847102712071381156717471927210 2
1412
1529
1645
11748 1759
21861 1872
iijij 5*3
12618 1618
795' 79*7 7984 8001 8oi7Bo34g050go66
81168132S148 8165 8181 ?T07J82i3pi29
8278 82948310 8326 8342 8358.8374B390
. 843784538469 8485 85oo5i653aB547
18563 J579 8594B6108625 8641 8656S672p6$7S743
18718 3733874987648779 8795 88ioS825884o8856
18871 3886 8901 8916 8931 8946 J961
19021 3036905190669081 9095 31101912519140)9155
19169 3184 9199 92139228 9242 9257^272^286)9301

3330934403599373 9387
9402"
'
1473 9488 9502 9516 9530 9544
9615 9629 9643 9657 9*7' J6859699j973
1755 97O9M82790 98io 38249838*851
38929906992099339947 6iS974988,
0028
J0042 00550065 0082 DO96k>i09k>i22k>i36
5162:017601890202 0215
3229J0242(0255!0268
)295o30oio321 0334 0347
1425^438045104640477
554^50705800592 0605 3618)0631^6430656
o68io6940707 07i9 0732 0744^757*07690782
D807W19 2832 0844 0857 0869 08820894 0006
O93'P943
o
95
60
9
68 ^ "W" '005 '017
1054 1066I1078 1090 1102 1114 1126U 138
1175 11871199 1211 1223 I235]i247i258
1294 130611318133011342 1353 1365 1377
1424 1436 1448 1459 1471I1483 I494
54' '552 1564 1576 1587.1599 1610
16561668 1670 1691 17021713)172.
1770 1783 1793 1804 i8i5Ji827
l
(
i83;
1883 1894 1905 '9'7 '928:1939 '950
11972I1983 1994 >oo6 2017 2028
1039J2050I2061
3094210521162127 2138 12083 #y4..ji" j/
22192 1203 2214I22252235 2*46 57]226B
21300 1311 2323)3332 1343 35j4 36
*C
3
Z?
21407 1418
2638
2172111732 mm
11814 3834
2844I:
22923 2935 :
4^'
M29tol4210255'026S
'35P373P3
860399
5490105030516(0528
Difference (01 4th ligni
ficant figure.
2 3 5
3 i
' 3
' 3 4
4
'5
9 10 12 13
8 9
log. 10 33026.
tog. 100  4652.
log, xooo 60078.
log, toooo  si103.
378
HYPERBOLIC
FUNCTIONS
00
01
oa
03
01
05
00
07
03
09
10
11
12
13
u
15
IB
17
18
19
20
21
;>>.
23
M
SB
23
27
no
31
.'13
33
31
a
3d
37
33
40
*l
43
<a
4*
<M
40
11
48
49
10000
lOXOI
10203
10305
10408
10515
lo6lS
10725
0833
10942
11052
11163
11275,
11388
1503
11618
735
853
11072
11092
13214
11337
11461
11586
117ti
11840
1969
13100
13131
3364
3499
13634
13771
13910
14049
14191
'43J3
'4477
14623
4770
491S
15068
15220
5373
5527
15683
15841
16000
16161
10323
10000
9900
9802
9704
9608
9511
9418
9324
9231
9U9
9048
8958
8869
8781
8694
8607
8511
*437
8353
6170
8187
8106
8025
7945
7866
7788
77"
7634
7558
7483
7408
7334
7261
7189
7118
7047
977
97
6839
6771
6703
15637
6570
6505
6440
6379
6313
6250
6188
6126
sinh x
oioo
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0701
oSoi
0901
1002
1102
1203
1304
1405
1506
1607
1708
'1810
1911
1013
1115
1218
1320
14*3
1526
1629
2837
1941
3045
3150
3255
3360
3466
357
3678
3785
3892
'4000
48
4116
432s
4434
4543
4653
4764
4875
49*6
5098
cosh
10000
loool
I 0001
10005
10008
10013
10018
10015
10031
10041
10050
1 0061
10072
100S5
10098
IOI1J
10128
10145
10161
10181
10201
T022I
IO243
IO266
IO289
IOJI4
10340
IO367
IO395
10423
1D453
IO484
10516
IO549
I0584
10619
IO655
I0692
IO73I
10770
SOSlI
I0852
10895
I0939
IO984
11030
IIO77
11125
""74
11225
60
61
63
63
64
86
68
67
68
69
60
81
62
83
64
86
68
87
68
69
70
71
753
78
75
78
77
78
^79
80
1
82
83
84
85
80
87
8
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
1O487
0653
16820
0989
17160
7333
'7507
17683
7860
18040
18221
18404
I8589
I8776
18965
9>55
'^348
19542
9739
'9937
20138
10340
0544
10751
19959
11170
1383
11598
11815
11034
l?55
11479
11705
11933
13184
3396
3632
3869
4109
1435'
4596
443
5093
'5345
13600
5857
16117
10379
10645
10912

6065
0005
5945
jSN
5827
57*9
37"
S655
5599
5543
3488
5434
'5379
3326
5173
5220
3169
3117
5066
3016
4966
4916
4868
4819
w
4714
4677
4630
4584
4538
4493
4449
4404
4360
4317
4274
4131
4190
4M
4107
4066
4023
3985
3946
3906
3867
3829
3791
3753
376
tint) x
5311
3324
3438
5551
5666
5782
3S97
0014
0131
6248
0367
6483
0605
6725
6846
6967
7090
73
7336
7461
7586
$38
7966
8094
8223
8353
8484
861}
874.8
8881
9015
9150
0286
9413
9561
9700
9840
9981
1012a
11065
10409
'0554
10700
10847
0993
11144
11294
11446
11598
cosh X
11276
1 1329
11383
11438
494
ITS51
11609
11669
11730
11792
11855
11919
11984
11051
in19
1118S
11258
11330
11402
11476
11552
11628
11706
11785
11865
'2947
13030
13114
13199
13286
337
344
3555
347
374
3835
13932
14029
14128
14229
433i
,
4434
4539
4645
4733
14862
4973
13083
5i99
53M
379
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
ft f
4*
sinh < cosh r X * "
sinh 1 coh 1
100
17183
18577
3679 11751 543' 3*80
S3"'S 0301 '6*543
16573
17,11
18 313
19150
10lj6
105
3499 "539 1 6038 300 34*8'
3
O187 '7391
110 3 0041
33 19 13356 166S5 3eo 36*598 0173 18185
9.
n,
20 111
116
190
31581
33101
3166
30 11
1*4108
'5095
' 717,
16107
368
3*70
3*475
40 ,,7
OI60
0147
126
34903 1865 16019 1 SliS, 376 41*51' OI33 111,9
"*H9
11171
11361
0 507
14711
5 977
130
136
140
36*93 7i5 1*084 19709 3*80
4 701 0124
1*574 1591 799> i5S 385
46993 Oil] 13*86
<>S5' 1466 '9043 a 1509
3*90
,9 ,01 OlOl 14 691
146 41631 1346 1*0143 14 81! 396
3 '935 0193 2595*
150
168
160
44*7 ] 1193 1514 400 54*598 0183 17 190
17 J08
18707
30 178
31725
33 35'
47"S 1111 1*1406 '4619 4*06
57397 017, 18690
4"9330 1019 3756 5773 410 60340 0166 30 161
166
S70 loio
*57S 6095 4*16
63 434 0158 3'709
170
54739 1817 16456 1S183 430 66*686
0150 33*336
176
1*0
5754* 173* 7904 1964J 498
70 I0J 0143 350,6 33060
36*57
3*76
73l
,1*819
60,96
1653 19,11 3 '075
4*30
73700 0136 368,3
185 *159* 1571 1*1013 35*3 435 77478 olio,
3*733
40719
180 6859 1496 31681
J 4"77
4*40 81451 0113
196 70187 14IJ 3 4431 3'58iS
446 85617 0.17 ,1*08
800
n* 333 3*6169 3 761a 460 90*017 0111 45003
45 01,
7*3
49 7,7
Sl97
}97*
a05 7
;<,") .ik
7
3*8196
394*1 488 04631 0106
7 3"
I9 7J7
910 8 1661
858,9
IMS 4XMI9
4 >443
100
99484 Olol
216 116] 41345
4
'3307 4*68
10459 00956 511S8
no
90150 108
4 4571 *5679
4*70
10995 00910
4, 069
825
94*77 1054 469I3 479*6
4*75
11558 00865
57 7* 57 796
60759
6385,
8*0 9974' IO03 49370 5*0371 480 111*51 0081
j 60751
238 10486 0954 3'95 3 1905 466
an* 00783 61866
240 11013 0907 54661 55570
4*90
'34 19 007,5 67 111 67 l,g
70 591
246 11388 0863
37So 5*373
4*66 14117 00708
7S
1 '
2L.O iiiM otii 6*0501 61313 5O0 148*41 7 7 ">)
78*008
7, 1.0
7*01,
8loi
855 11*807 0781 *3645 64416 fi06 156*01 00641
260
MB
13464 0743 66947 67690 610 16,01 XW610 81008
4'54 0707 747 71 113 818 171*43 00580 86113
90*633
86119
0oi9
270 14880 067a 74063 74735 890 181*17 00551
S76
5*4J 0639 77*94 7*513
6*26
'9057 00515 951*0 95
280 '6445 0608 81919 8*1517 6*30
10034 00499 100*17 100 1}
105 )l
110 71
11638
2UB 17188 057* 86150 8*6718 6*36 H0*6l 00475 105 30
300 18174 0550 9*0596 9 11,6 8*40 111 1t 00,51 11070
mb
19106 0513 9*5168 9*579 646 13176 00,30 16 38
300 0*086 0498 IO*ol8 10068 6*60
14469 00,09 m*3< 111*35
12801
305 tITIS 0474 o*534 10581 5*66
15714 00389 1 1861
310 11198 0450 11076 Illll 860
17043 10170 13511 13 "
41
1]
1,9 .
316 3T3 0419 11647 11689 6*68
1*419 00351 1,2 1,
320
>4J33
0408 11146 11*187 570
108*87 00335 '49 43
325
15790 0388 ttC** 11*915 576
3'4 '9 00318 57*09 157 IO
330 1711] 0369 '353* '3*575
680
J3030 00303 '65 15 165 15
MB 18503 0351 434 14*169
585
347^J
00188
17361
18151
I7l6l
81
51
191 is
340 19964 0334 4*965 '4999
690
36504 0017,
348 31500 0317
5734 5766
666
3*373 00161 19188
8*00
j
,03*43 001,8 10171 101 71
380