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---------------------------

DISSERTATION

THE EFFECT OF USING SMARTPHONE ON THE RESULT OF THE

STUDENT IN FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY BRANCH II (ANOVA)

Ho Chi Minh City April, 2014

List of members

No Full Name Student ID

1 Phm Th Hnh 1201017091

2 Nguyn Ngc Huy 1201017131

3 inh Tin Ph 1201017261

4 Trn Bch Phng 1201017283

5 Nguyn Ngc Thy Qunh 1201017300

6 Nguyn Th Bch Trm 1201017394

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

1. Introduction 1

2. Theory and research methodology 2

2.1. Theoretical basis and Analysis framework 2

2.2 Methods of data collection and model estimation technique 6

3. Results and discussion 7

3.1 Descriptive data 7

3.2 One-way ANOVA model 9

3.3 HSD (honest significant difference) test 11

4. Conclusion and Policy Implication 16

REFERENCE 18

Smartphone Effective Page 1

THE EFFECT OF USING SMARTPHONE ON THE RESULT OF THE

STUDENT IN FOREIGN TRADE UNIVERSITY BRANCH II (ANOVA)

ABSTRACT

In this digitization world, media is constantly improved day by day. From the

laptop to the cell phone, especially smart phone. Using modern technology to serve for

the purpose of learning is really a powerful tool. However, beside the good side, it still

has some downsides surround the use of phone. Almost the students use smart phone

more than 2 hours each day. Spending too much time using phone may be the reason

makes studentsscore feel lack of concentration, lacking of sleeping or even though it

can make student live in digital world and live far away from people around them. So

how about student of Foreign Trade University II? Using smart phone too much make

effect on learning outcomes? Isnt it? Thus, our group researched, reviewed and

analyzed the relationship between the time using smart phone of student at FTU2 in

Ho Chi Minh City and their learning outcomes. Purposes of researching is

understanding clearly the degree of influence of time using smart phone to the result of

learning and review that if spending lots of times on using smart phone, Will they

really effect to your learning outcomes? If yes, we will show some ways to surmount

this situation. Through the using of factor ANOVA variance methods from the direct

survey 238 students, we have a conclusion that using smart phone too much can effect

to students results. Finally, our group will expose some ways to restrict using smart

phone excessively and how to use efficiently to promote the learning outcomes of each

student.

KEY WORDS: Learning outcome, time of using, analysis of variance, Foreign Trade

University 2, students, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test

Smartphone Effective Page 2

1. Introduction

Nowadays, along with the evolution of Information Technology, telephones are

not only for texting and calling purposes, but they also help us to connect with each

other via social networks, email and other online services... These smartphones are

becoming more modern and helpful day after day. However, overusing smartphone

may cause many negative effects on everyone especially college students. These

effects include decline in health, waste of time and decrease in study result... The

decrease in study result is the most serious consequence when smartphones are getting

commoner among the students.

The phenomenon that smartphones are addictive and affect many respects of

life is no new problem. It has appeared so many times on the media. This is an

unsolvable problem for the students as well as a deep concern for the parents.

Therefore we decide to carry on the topic The effect of smartphone on the study

result of the student in Foreign Trade University branch II by analyzing One - factor

ANOVA. We find down how the percentage, scale and usage of smartphone of the

second-year student of Foreign Trade University branch II in HCMC change their

study result as well as propose some solution to overcome this worrying problem.

2. Theory and research methodology

2.1. Theoretical basis and Analysis framework

While the analysis of variance succeeded in the 20th century, antecedents

extend centuries into the past according to Stigler. These include hypothesis testing,

the partitioning of sums of squares, experimental techniques and the additive model.

Laplace was performing hypothesis testing in the 1770s. The development of least-

squares methods by Laplace and Gauss circa 1800 provided an improved method of

squares. By 1827, Laplace was using least squares methods to address ANOVA

problems regarding measurements of atmospheric tides.

Smartphone Effective Page 3

The phrase analysis of variance was coined by Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, a

statistician of the twentieth century, who defined it as the separation of variance

ascribable to one group of causes from the variance ascribable to the other groups.

Tests hypotheses are made about differences between two or more means. If

independent estimates of variance can be obtained from the data, ANOVA compares

the means of different groups by analyzing comparisons of variance estimates. There

are two models for ANOVA, the fixed effects model, and the random effects model (in

the latter, the treatments are not fixed).

The purpose of analysis of variance is to see if there is any difference between

groups on some variable. In research, analysis of variance is used as a way to consider

the effect of a cause factor to the results factor.

The method contains:

Supposing we have k groups 1, 2, 3 k (may be different from size). Calling

1,2,3.k

Xij: observation j of group i

Group 1 Group 2 Group k

x

11

x

12

x

1n1

x

21

x

22

x

2n2

x

k1

x

k2

x

knk

Hypothesis: Ho 1=2=k

H1: 1differnt 2different k

Smartphone Effective Page 4

Step 1 :Find the average each group : =

Find the average each group:): =

Step 2 :Find total sum of squares

SSW- Within groups sum of squares:

SSW=SS1+SS2+SSK=

SSG Between group sum of squares

SSG=

Total sum of squares SST=SSW+SSG=

Step 3: Find variances

MSW (mean square within): MSW=

MSB (mean square between): MSB=

Step 4:One-way ANOVA Table

Source of

variation

SS

(sum of

square)

Df

(degrees of

freedom)

MS

(mean of

square)

F ratio

Between

Samples

SSB k-1

MSB=

F=

Smartphone Effective Page 5

Within

Samples

SSW n-k MSW=

Total SST n-1

In: k number of populations

N Sum of the sample size from all populations

df Degrees of freedom

HSD (honest significant difference) test

The purpose of the analysis of variance is to test the hypothesis H0 that the

overall average is equal. After the analysis and conclusions, there are two cases which

can occur: H0 hypothesis is accepted or rejected .If the hypothesis H0 is accepted,

analysis will end. If the hypothesis H0 is rejected, the overall average is not equal. So

the next further issue is to analyze and identify that any group is different from other

groups, the average of groups is greater or smaller.

There are many methods to calculate when hypothesis H0 is rejected. We use

Tukey method. The content of this method is to compare pairs of the average groups at

a significance level for all possible tested pairs to detect the different groups .

Example:

Research byU.S.scientistsatKent State UniversityofOhiofound thatstudents-students

usingsmart phonetoomuchcan lead toanxietyandlearning outcomedecline. The

researcher surveyed 500 students on daily smartphone usage , lifestyle analysis and

Smartphone Effective Page 6

academic scores for the purpose of considering whether smartphones can help improve

their lives or not.

The result shows that using smartphone too much has scores of disadvantage. Students

who use too much have the worst score but they are at the highest level of anxiety.

The teamreportedin the journalComputersinHumanBehaviormajors: "When the

frequency ofmobile phoneuseis toohigh, the degree of successinlearning

andinlifefellcomfortable. Statistical modelingsuggests thatsuchrelationshipsareclear.

Research of Dr. Karla Murdock at Washington Lee (USA) University has the same

result. This research shows that students who send a lot of message usually less sleep

and more stress than others.

Based on that, we decide to use analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD test to

survey whether using smartphone affects to the study result of the second-year student

of FTU II or not.

2.2 Methods of data collection and model estimation technique

The data used in this research is collected from the researchers questionnaires.

Because of time and resources restriction, the researchers only carry survey on 238

people. Therefore, the result cannot generalize for the whole set because each

individual surveyed has their own features and cannot represent for the whole set.

We had to choose the one factor ANOVA to analyze. Compare the average of

many populations based on the average of models. Consider the effect of one factor

reason to result factor.

Smartphone Effective Page 7

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Descriptive data

Below is the data collected from 238 people, questioned about how many hours

the sophomore of FTU II use smartphone and their study result / average mark? Base

on their using hour, we divided them into 4 groups (as shown in the table). The unit of

measure is hour.

Groups of factor

from 0h to 2h >2h to 4h >4h to 6h >6h

8,88 7,20 7,90 7,11

8,12 8,17 8,00 7,90

7,90 8,04 7,00 7,80

8,79 8,30 7,80 7,00

8,00 8,00 6,00 8,79

7,80 7,60 5,70 7,20

7,00 8,07 6,70 8,79

8,40 7,80 6,80 5,60

8,90 8,00 7,60 8,00

7,50 8,40 7,00 6,80

9,00 7,60 7,80 6,40

8,50 8,00 7,80 6,90

8,70 8,70 7,00 6,60

9,20 8,40 8,20 7,20

8,90 8,30 7,00 7,30

8,00 8,00 7,90 6,70

7,90 7,60 7,80 6,80

8,20 7,90 8,46 7,00

Smartphone Effective Page 8

8,50 7,80 7,20 5,80

7,80 8,00 6,20 8,00

8,00 7,80 8,20 6,80

8,50 7,40 8,40 7,00

8,90 6,70 8,50 7,20

8,00 8,60 8,10 7,60

7,00 8,00 8,30 6,00

8,70 9,10 7,50 7,10

6,80 7,90 6,60 8,00

9,00 7,00 7,70 5,80

7,80 9,03 8,80 7,00

7,60 8,00 8,60 7,12

7,60 7,90 8,00 7,12

7,30 7,70 7,00 5,00

8,20 8,80 7,00 7,12

7,50 7,70 7,00 7,12

7,90 9,00 7,40 6,19

8,00 6,90 7,40 6,95

7,80 7,70 7,90 6,95

8,80 8,00 8,00 5,54

7,60 7,85 7,44 6,68

8,20 7,00 7,67 6,68

8,50 8,50 7,12 6,34

7,00 8,60 7,32 5,00

8,00 7,40 7,32 6,45

7,80 8,30 7,67 6,45

8,30 8,29 7,55 5,54

8,29 8,50 7,12 5,62

6,80 6,00 7,12 5,62

Smartphone Effective Page 9

7,00 7,83 7,44 5,14

8,16 7,00 6,95 7,80

7,60 7,46 7,85 7,00

8,23 8,20 7,67 4,00

6,50 7,60 6,00 7,90

6,50 8,19 7,80 5,00

7,58 8,15 6,86

6,80 5,00

8,16 6,00

8,87 7,50

8,45

8,45

8,45

8,89

8,90

8,45

7,40

7,60

7,90

7,30

9,12

8,80

9,27

8,34

8,50

6,50

8,00

Smartphone Effective Page 10

3.2 One-way ANOVA model

Hypothesis:

Ho: There is no different in the average monthly food cost between 4 group. (1 =

2 = 3 = 4)

H1: The average monthly food cost of them are not equal.

Table 1:Anova: Single Factor by Excel

SUMMARY

Groups Count Sum Average Variance

from 0h to

2h 74 595,6 8,048648649 0,485674861

>2h to 4h 54 427,98 7,925555556 0,354579874

>4h to 6h 57 421,66 7,39754386 0,569683145

>6h 53 356,52 6,726792453 0,961922206

ANOVA

Source of

Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit

Between

Groups 63,15854893 3 21,05284964 36,17827298 3,02055E-19 2,64318

Within

Groups 136,1692091 234 0,581919697

Total 199,327758 237

Smartphone Effective Page 11

If F > F crit, we reject the null hypothesis. As we can see in the table above:

36.178273 > 2.6432. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis. The means of the four

populations are not all equal. At least one of the means is different. Therefore, we can

say that the hour for using smart phone does affect how much to the result / average

mark of students.

3.3 HSD (honest significant difference) test

Because the null hypothesis has been rejected, the result / average mark of four

groups are not equal. However, in order to find out how they differ from each other,

we need to do Tukeys HSD (honest significant difference) test and compare each

couple of group.

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances

From 0h to 2h and >2h to 4h

Hypothesis:

Ho: 1 - 2 =0

Table 2: Tukeys HSD test (from 0h to 2h and >2h to 4h) by Excel

from 0h to 2h >2h to 4h

Mean 8,048648649 7,925555556

Variance 0,485674861 0,354579874

Observations 74 54

Pooled Variance 0,430531732

Hypothesized Mean

Difference 0

Df 126

t Stat 1,048187211

Smartphone Effective Page 12

P(T<=t) one-tail 0,14827941

t Critical one-tail 1,657036982

P(T<=t) two-tail 0,296558819

t Critical two-tail 1,978970602

In this table: -1.978970602 < 1.048187211 < 1.978970602 . Therefore, 1 - 2 = 0 ,

the result / average mark of the two groups are equal.

From 0h to 2h and >4h to 6h

Hypothesis:

Ho: 1 - 3 = 0

Table 3: Tukeys HSD test (from 0h to 2h and >4h to 6h) by Excel

from 0h to 2h >4h to 6h

Mean 8,048648649 7,39754386

Variance 0,485674861 0,569683145

Observations 74 57

Pooled Variance 0,522143574

Hypothesized Mean

Difference 0

Df 129

t Stat 5,112973725

P(T<=t) one-tail 5,58858E-07

t Critical one-tail 1,656751594

P(T<=t) two-tail 1,11772E-06

t Critical two-tail 1,978524491

Smartphone Effective Page 13

If t Stat < -t Critical two-tail or t Stat > t Critical two-tail, we reject the null

hypothesis. In this table: 5.112973725 > 1.978524491. Therefore, 1 3 , the result /

average mark of the two groups are different.

From 0h to 2h and >6h

Hypothesis:

Ho: 1 - 4 = 0

Table 4: Tukeys HSD test (from 0h to 2h and >6h) by Excel

from 0h to 2h >6h

Mean 8,048648649 6,726792453

Variance 0,485674861 0,961922206

Observations 74 53

Pooled Variance 0,683793757

Hypothesized Mean

Difference 0

Df 125

t Stat 8,883284671

P(T<=t) one-tail 2,94495E-15

t Critical one-tail 1,657135178

P(T<=t) two-tail 5,88989E-15

t Critical two-tail 1,979124109

If t Stat < -t Critical two-tail or t Stat > t Critical two-tail, we reject the null

hypothesis. In this table: 8.883284671 >1.979124109. Therefore, 1 4 , the result /

average mark of the two groups are different.

Smartphone Effective Page 14

>2h to 4h and >4h to 6h

Hypothesis:

Ho: 2 - 3 = 0

Table 5: Tukeys HSD test (>2h to 4h and >4h to 6h) by Excel

>2h to 4h >4h to 6h

Mean 7,925555556 7,39754386

Variance 0,354579874 0,569683145

Observations 54 57

Pooled Variance 0,465091647

Hypothesized Mean

Difference 0

Df 109

t Stat 4,077059893

P(T<=t) one-tail 4,34777E-05

t Critical one-tail 1,658953458

P(T<=t) two-tail 8,69554E-05

t Critical two-tail 1,98196749

If t Stat < -t Critical two-tail or t Stat > t Critical two-tail, we reject the null

hypothesis. In this table: 4.077059893>1.98196749. Therefore, 2 3 , the result /

average mark of the two groups are different.

>2h to 4h and >6h

Hypothesis:

Ho: 2 - 4 = 0

Smartphone Effective Page 15

Table 6: Tukeys HSD test (>2h to 4h and >6h) by Excel

>2h to 4h >6h

Mean 7,925555556 6,726792453

Variance 0,354579874 0,961922206

Observations 54 53

Pooled Variance 0,655358934

Hypothesized Mean

Difference 0

Df 105

t Stat 7,65837593

P(T<=t) one-tail 4,86251E-12

t Critical one-tail 1,659495383

P(T<=t) two-tail 9,72502E-12

t Critical two-tail 1,982815274

If t Stat < -t Critical two-tail or t Stat > t Critical two-tail, we reject the null

hypothesis. In this table: 7.65837593 >1.982815274. Therefore, 2 4, the result /

average mark of the two groups are different.

>4h to 6h and >6h

Hypothesis:

Ho: 3 - 4 = 0

Table 7: Tukeys HSD test (>4h to 6h and >6h) by Excel

>4h to 6h >6h

Mean 7,39754386 6,726792453

Smartphone Effective Page 16

Variance 0,569683145 0,961922206

Observations 57 53

Pooled Variance 0,758538989

Hypothesized Mean

Difference 0

Df 108

t Stat 4,03600465

P(T<=t) one-tail 5,09091E-05

t Critical one-tail 1,659085144

P(T<=t) two-tail 0,000101818

t Critical two-tail 1,982173483

If t Stat < -t Critical two-tail or t Stat > t Critical two-tail, we reject the null

hypothesis. In this table: 4.03600465 >1.982173483. Therefore, 3 4, the result /

average mark of the two groups are different.

Through the analyzing process above, we can say that the result / average mark differs

significantly as the hour for using smart phone change, except the case of From 0h to

2h and >2h to 4h, cause the difference in the hour for using smart phone between

them is not big enough.

4. Conclusion and Policy Implication

After researching influences of using smartphones on the study results of Foreign

Trade University II students, we can know that the time of using smartphones plays an

important role in their study results.

Although study results depend on many impacts such as intelligence, hard-

working, study method and so on, time for studying is also a very essential one. The

more time students spend on using smartphones, the less time they spend on studying.

Smartphone Effective Page 17

When a student spend more time on learning, his or her study results will be certain

better and vice versa. It is very clear that screen time right before bed is bad for sleep.

And using your smartphone late at night also makes you feel depleted in the morning,

thereby making you less focused and engaged at studying.

To have a good study result, a student need know how to arrange study time and

reasonable entertainment. Time for using smartphones should be within a certain limit.

It will be better for students health as well as study results if they do not use

smartphone after 9 pm. Smartphones only brings much benefit and convenience when

students know how to use them reasonably.

Smartphone Effective Page 18

REFERENCE:

1. David F.G., Patrick W.S., Phillip C.F. and Kent D.S. (2010), Business Statistics

8th edition, Pearson.

2. Fisher .Ronald Aylmer ,sir (1890-1962) -The analysis of variance with various

binomial transformations.

3. Fisher, Ronald Aylmer, Sir, 1890-1962-Answer to query 114 on the effect of

errors of grouping in an analysis of variance

4. Hoang Tran Van and Van Le Hong (2013), Principles of Statistics, Vietnam

National University-Ho Chi Minh City Press, Ho Chi Minh City.

5. Landau S, Everitt BS. A Handbook of Statistical Analyses Using SPSS,

Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2004.

6. Wikipedia, Articles about Tukeys HSD test.

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