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The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-1


Symbols
Symbols used in Steam are defined within the chap-
ters. The following is a summary of those that are
commonly used. Specialized symbols are not repeated
here. Symbols for chemical elements appear in Appen-
dix 1, Table 3.3. The frequently used units are listed
for each parameter, for illustration purposes. Other
units used are defined in the chapter text.
a crack size, ft or in. (m or mm)
a inside radius, ft or in. (m or mm)
a major axis of an ellipsoid, ft or in. (m or mm)
a, b, c general coefficients
A area, cross-sectional area or surface area,
ft
2
(m
2
)
A mass number (total number of protons
plus neutrons)
A
n
cross-sectional area of nozzles, ft
2
(m
2
)
b minor axis of an ellipsoid, ft or in. (m or
mm)
b outside radius, ft or in. (m or mm)
B barometric pressure, in. Hg
B ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter,
dimensionless
B
w
moisture fraction, lb/lb (kg/kg)
c distance, ft (m)
c speed of light
c
p
specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/lb
F (J/kg K)
c
pa
specific heat of air, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
c
pg
specific heat of gas, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
c
v
specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb F
(J/kg K)
C crack geometry factor, dimensionless
C or c coefficient
C
a
concentration of specie at duct conditions,
lb/lb (kg/kg)
C
eff
collection/removal efficiency,
dimensionless or percent
C
f
cleanliness factor, dimensionless
C
i
concentration of specie in the impinger, lb/
lb (kg/kg)
C
in
concentration at inlet, lb/lb (kg/kg)
C
m
mass flow of specie, lb/h (kg/s)
C
out
concentration at outlet, lb/lb (kg/kg)
C
p
pitot tube correction factor, dimensionless
C
ppm,d
concentration of specie on a dry basis,
ppm
C
ppm,w
concentration of specie on a wet basis,
ppm
C
q
coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
C
s
concentration of specie at standard
conditions, lb/lb (kg/kg)
C
t
energy release rate (power) parameter, in.
lb/in.
2
h (J/m
2
s)
C
t
thermal capacitance, Btu/ft
3
F (J/m
3
K)
C
V
valve flow coefficient
d diameter, ft or in. (m or mm)
d
a
percent reduction in area
D diameter, ft or in. (m or mm)
D or d displacement, ft (m)
D
e
or D
H
equivalent or hydraulic diameter = 4A/
Per, ft or in. (m or mm)
D
i
internal stack diameter, ft
D
sm
diameter, Sauter mean
DL dead load, psi (Pa)
e available energy, Btu/lb (J/kg)
E emission rate, dry, at 0% O
2
, lb/h (kg/s)
E energy, Btu (J)
E weld joint efficiency or ligament efficiency,
dimensionless
E Youngs modulus of elasticity, psi (Pa)
E change in energy
E
b
blackbody emissive power, Btu/h ft
2
(W/m
2
)
Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
S-2 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations
EQ seismic loading, psi (Pa)
Eu Euler number = P/V
2
, dimensionless
f friction factor, dimensionless
f
x
body force
F geometry correction factor, dimensionless
F heat exchanger arrangement factor,
dimensionless
F peak stresses
F radiation configuration factor,
dimensionless
F total radiation exchange factor,
dimensionless
F
a
crossflow arrangement factor,
dimensionless
F
A
allowable axial compressive stress, psi (Pa)
F
d
F-factor, dry, at 0% O
2
, dimensionless
F
d
tube bundle depth factor, dimensionless
F
e
effectiveness factor, dimensionless
F
pp
fluid property factor
F
T
fluid temperature factor, dimensionless
FS factor of safety, dimensionless
FV future value
g acceleration of gravity, 32.17 ft/s
2
(9.8 m/s
2
)
g Gibbs free energy, Btu/lb (J/kg)
g
c
proportionality factor, 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s
2
(1 kg m/N s
2
)
G incident thermal radiation, Btu/h ft
2
(W/m
2
)
G mass flux or mass velocity, lb/h ft
2
(kg/m
2
s)
G
max
critical flow mass flux, lb/h ft
2
(kg/m
2
s)
Gr Grashof number
=
( )

g T T L
s

2 3
2
,
dimensionless
h heat transfer coefficient, Btu/h ft
2
F (W/m
2
K)
h thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)
h
ct
contact coefficient, Btu/h ft
2
F (W/m
2
K)
h
c
crossflow heat transfer coefficient, Btu/h
ft
2
F (W/m
2
K)
h
c
crossflow velocity and geometry factor
h
l
longitudinal heat transfer coefficient, Btu/
h ft
2
F (W/m
2
K)
h
l

longitudinal flow velocity and geometry


factor
H enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg)
H
f
enthalpy of saturated water, Btu/lb (J/kg)
H
fg
enthalpy of vaporization, Btu/lb (J/kg)
H
fw
enthalpy of feedwater, Btu/lb (J/kg)
H
g
enthalpy of saturated steam, Btu/lb (J/kg)
I electrical current, amperes
I intensity
I moment of inertia, in.
4
(m
4
)
J mechanical equivalent of heat, 778.17 ft
lbf/Btu (1 N m/J)
J radiosity, Btu/h ft
2
(W/m
2
)
JI J-integral, in. lb/in.
2
(J/m
2
)
JIC J-integral, critical, in. lb/in.
2
(J/m
2
)
JR material crack growth resistance, in. lb/
in.
2
(J/m
2
)
k coefficient or parameter
k specific heat ratio compressibility factor,
dimensionless
k thermal conductivity, Btu/h ft F (W/m K)
kc insulation thermal conductivity, Btu/h ft F
(W/m K)
kT isothermal compressibility
K discharge coefficient, dimensionless
K factor or coefficient
K thermal conductance, Btu/h F (W/K)
Keg equilibrium constant, dimensionless
KI stress intensity factor, ksi in.
1/2
(MPa m
1/2
)
KIC critical stress intensity factor or fracture
toughness, ksi in.
1/2
(MPa m
1/2
)
Kr stress intensity factor/toughness ratio,
dimensionless
Ky mass transfer coefficient, lb/ft
2
s (kg/m
2
s)
K stress intensity range
l

tube centerline spacing parallel to flow, ft (m)


l

tube centerline spacing transverse to flow,


ft (m)
l
e
equivalent plate thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)
L or l length or dimension, ft or in. (m or mm)
L
h
fin height, ft or in. (m or mm)
LMTD log mean temperature difference, F (C)
LS limestone consumption, lb/h (kg/s)
L
t
fin spacing, ft or in. (m or mm)
m mass, lb (kg)
m
mass flow rate, lb/h (kg/s)
m
s
mass of steam, lb (kg)
m
w
mass of water, lb (kg)
M moisture in steam sample, percent
M molecular weight, lb/lb-mole (kg/kg-mole)
M
d
molecular weight of gas, dry basis
M
o
redundant bending moment, lb ft (N m)
M
w
molecular weight of gas, wet basis
n parameter, coefficient or number of cycles
N coefficient, number of cycles or number of
concentric thermocouple shields
Nu Nusselt number = h L/k, dimensionless
N
v
or N number of velocity heads, dimensionless
p particle size, in. (mm)
pr partial pressure, atm
P parameter
P pressure or partial pressure, psi (Pa)
P primary stress
P temperature ratio for surface
arrangement factor, dimensionless
Pb primary bending stress
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-3
Pe Peclet number = RePr, dimensionless
Per perimeter, ft or in. (m or mm)
P
L
local primary membrane stress
PL furnace gas pressure loading, psi (Pa)
Pm pressure at meter, psi (Pa)
Pm general primary membrane stress
Pr Prandtl number =
c
k
p

, dimensionless
Ps absolute pressure at duct, psi (Pa)
Ptotal total pressure, lb/ft
2
(N/m
2
)
Pv total vertical design load
PV present value
PVF present value factor
P pressure differential, psi (Pa)
Pl stack flow loss, in. of water
PSE stack effect driving pressure, lb/ft
2
(N/m
2
)
q heat flow rate, Btu/h (W)
q heat flux, Btu/h ft
2
(W/m
2
)
q
CHF
heat flux at CHF conditions, Btu/h ft
2
(W/m
2
)
q volumetric heat generation rate, Btu/h ft
3
(W/m
3
)
q
rel
heat release rate, Btu/h ft
3
(W/m
3
)
q
rev
reversible heat input per unit mass, Btu/
lb (J/kg)
Q or q heat input, Btu (J), or heat input per unit
mass, Btu/lb (J/kg)
Q gas flow rate, lb/h (kg/s)
Q heat absorption or heat added to system,
Btu (J)
Q secondary stresses
Q
ac
actual volumetric flow rate, ft
3
/h (m
3
/s)
Q
sd
dry volumetric flow rate at standard
conditions, ft
3
/h (m
3
/s)
r radius or inside radius, ft or in. (m or mm)
R constant or coefficient
R forcing function
R radius or outside radius, ft or in. (m or
mm)
R specific gas constant R/M, lbf ft/lbm R
(J/kg K)
R temperature ratio for surface
arrangement factor, dimensionless
R thermal resistance, h ft
2
F/Btu (m
2
K/W)
R universal gas constant, 1545 ft lb/lb-mole
R (8.3143 kJ/kg-mole K)
Ra Rayleigh number = GrPr, dimensionless
Re Reynolds number =


V L GL
= ,
dimensionless
R
f
fouling index bituminous ash
R
s
slagging index bituminous ash
R
s

slagging index lignitic ash


Rvs slagging index viscosity
s specific entropy, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
sf entropy of water, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
sfg entropy of evaporation, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
sg entropy of steam, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)
S allowable stress
S entropy, Btu/F (J/K)
S surface area, or total exposed surface area
for a finned surface, ft
2
(m
2
)
S general source term
S quantity of entropy, Btu/F (J/K)
S steam-water slip ratio, dimensionless
SE stack effect, in. wg/ft
Sf fin surface area; sides plus peripheral
area, ft
2
(m
2
)
SL longitudinal (parallel) spacing, ft or in. (m
or mm)
Sm allowable stress intensity, psi (Pa)
Sr applied stress/net section plastic collapse
stress ratio, dimensionless
ST transverse (side) spacing, ft (m)
St Stanton number = Nu/(RePr),
dimensionless
Su material tensile strength, psi (Pa)
Sy material yield strength, psi (Pa)
SPVF series present value factor
t thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)
t time, h or s
t
c
current wall thickness, in. (mm)
t
e
time at end of life
t
p
present time
T temperature, F or R (C or K)
T
cv
temperature at critical viscosity, F (C)
T
sat
saturation temperature, F (C)
T
w
wall temperature, F (C)
T
250
temperature at 250 poise viscosity, F
T
o
temperature at initial time, F (C)
T
o
sink temperature, F or R (C or K)
TD terminal temperature difference, F (C)
TS tensile strength at temperature, psi (Pa)
t time interval, h or s
T temperature difference, F (C)
T
LMTD
log mean temperature difference, F (C)
T
sat
T
sat
T
w
, F (C)
u internal stored energy, Btu/lb (J/kg)
u, v, w velocity in x, y, z coordinates respectively,
ft/s (m/s)
U overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/h ft
2
F (W/m
2
K)
specific volume, ft
3
/lb (m
3
/kg)
v
a
specific volume, air

f
specific volume, water

fg
specific volume, evaporation

g
specific volume, steam
V electrical voltage, volts
V velocity, ft/s (m/s)
V volume, ft
3
(m
3
)
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
S-4 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Vd dry gas volume, ft
3
(m
3
)
Vm dry gas volume at meter conditions, ft
3
(m
3
)
Vn sample gas velocity through the nozzle,
ft/s (m/s)
Vo redundant shear force, psi (Pa)
Vs velocity of the flue gas, ft/s (m/s)
w work per unit mass, ft-lb/lbm (J/kg)
wrev reversible work per unit mass, ft-lb/lbm
(J/kg)
W width, ft or in. (m or mm)
W work, ft-lb (J)
W1 leakage flow rate, lb/h (kg/s)
WL wind loading, psi (Pa)
x dimension, ft or in. (m or mm)
x steam quality, mass fraction steam
x
CHF
steam quality at CHF conditions, mass
fraction steam
x, y, z dimensions in Cartesian coordinate
system, ft or in. (m or mm)
x change in length, ft or in. (m or mm)
X weight fraction, dimensionless
Y compressibility factor, dimensionless
Y Schmidt fin geometry factor,
dimensionless
Yg concentration in bulk fluid, lb/lb (kg/kg)
Yi concentration at condensate interface,
lb/lb (kg/kg)
Z or z elevation or length, ft or in. (m or mm)
Z atomic number (number of protons in the
nucleus)
Z Schmidt fin geometry factor,
dimensionless
Greek symbols
absorptivity, dimensionless
angle, deg (rad)
coefficient of thermal expansion, ft/ft (m/m)
thermal diffusivity = k/cp, ft
2
/s (m
2
/s)
void fraction, dimensionless
deflection or rotation influence coefficients
volume coefficient of expansion, 1/R (1/K)
effective diffusion coefficient
diameter

or film thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)
emissivity, dimensionless
roughness, in. (mm)
strain, ft/ft (m/m)
efficiency as a fraction or percentage
Schmidt fin efficiency, dimensionless
net net efficiency, dimensionless
th thermal efficiency, dimensionless
angle, deg (rad)
dynamic viscosity, lbm/ft s (kg/m s)
Poissons ratio, dimensionless
kinetic viscosity, ft
2
/s (m
2
/s)
3.1415926
density, lb/ft
3
(kg/m
3
)
reflectivity, dimensionless

d
average downcomer density, lb/ft
3
(kg/m
3
)

hom
homogenous density, lb/ft
3
(kg/m
3
)

(z)
local density, lb/ft
3
(kg/m
3
)
atomic cross-section, barns
standard deviation
Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 0.1713 x 10
-8
Btu/h ft
2
R
4
(5.669 x 10
-8
W/m
2
K
4
)
stress, psi (Pa)

a
allowable alternating stress, psi (Pa)

r
,
t
,
z
radial, tangential and axial stress, psi (Pa)

t
thermal stress, psi (Pa)

y.p.
yield point stress, psi (Pa)

1
longitudinal stress, psi (Pa)

2
hoop stress, psi (Pa)
shear stress, psi (Pa)
transmissivity, dimensionless

LO
2
two-phase friction multiplier, all fluid as a
liquid, dimensionless
general dependent variable
two-phase multiplier for a steam-water
separator, dimensionless
Subscripts
1 initial or inlet condition
2 final or outlet condition
a air
amb ambient
aux auxiliary component or system
b bulk fluid
c contact or conduction
cg convection, gas-side
cv convection
clean unfouled or clean condition
e node point east
econ economizer
eq or e equivalent
f fluid, fin or saturated water
g gas or saturated steam
i inside or ith parameter or initial condition
in entering a system
j jth parameter
l liquid
max maximum
min minimum
o outside or final condition
out leaving a system
p node point under evaluation
P products
r radiation
ref reference
rg radiation, gas-side
R reactants
s steam
sg surface-to-gas
SE stack effect
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-5
t thermal
w node point west
w wall
liquid film surface (gas liquid interface)
Acronyms and Abbreviations
AA atomic absorption
ABMA American Boiler Manufacturers
Association
abs absolute
ABS American Bureau of Shipping
A/C air/cloth
AC alternating current
ACF actual cubic feet
ACFM actual cubic feet per minute
ADS air density separator
AE acoustic emissions
AEC Atomic Energy Commission, U.S.
AECL Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
AFBC atmospheric pressure fluidized-bed
combustion
AFS atomic fluorescence spectroscopy
AFW auxiliary feedwater
AGR advanced gas-cooled reactor
AH air heater
AIB auxiliary input burner
AIG ammonia injection grid
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
ALARA as low as reasonably achievable
amb ambient
AMU atomic mass units
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
approx approximate
ARIS Automated Reactor Inspection System
ARTS Anticipatory Reactor Trip System
ASD allowable stress design
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
attemp attemperator
atm atmosphere
ATOG abnormal transient operating guidelines
avg average
AVT all-volatile treatment
AZS air zone swirler
B/A base-to-acid ratio
B&W The Babcock & Wilcox Company
BAC boiler as calorimeter
BACT best available control technology
BAT best available technology
bbl barrel
BCC body-centered cubic
BCCW boiler chemical cleaning waste
BCM boiler condenser mode
BCT body-centered tetragonal
BCTMP bleached chemical thermomechanical pulp
BFB bubbling fluidized bed
BFP boiler feed pump
BFW boiler feed water
BGC British Gas Corporation
BH baghouse
bit or
bitum bituminous
BLESS Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation
System
BLG black liquor gasification
BLRBAC Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Advisory
Committee
BOF basic oxygen furnace
BOL beginning of life
BOOS burners out of service
BPVC Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME)
BRC below regulatory concern
BSW bottom sediment and water
Btu British thermal unit
BWCC Babcock & Wilcox Construction Co., Inc.
BWR boiling water reactor
BWST borated water storage tank
C Celsius or centigrade degrees
CAA Clean Air Act, U.S.
CAD computer-assisted design/drafting
CANDU Canada Deuterium Uranium
CAP curved arm primary
CBI curved backward inclined
CBK carbon burnout kinetic
cc cubic centimeter
CC combined cycle
CCZ Controlled Combustion Zone
CE collecting electrode
CEMS continuous emissions monitoring system
CFB circulating fluidized bed
CFCC continuous fiber ceramic composite
CFD computational fluid dynamics
cfm cubic feet per minute
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CGA crack growth analysis
CHF critical heat flux
CHP combined heat and power
CII Construction Industry Institute
C.I.S. Confederation of Independent States
cm centimeter
CNC computer numerical control
CNCG concentrated noncondensable gas
CNSG consolidated nuclear steam generator
COE Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army
coef coefficient
col column
cond condenser
COG coke oven gas
cP centipoise
CRDM control rod drive mechanism
CVD chemical vapor deposition
CWA Clean Water Act
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
S-6 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations
d day
DAF dry ash-free
dB decibels
DC direct current
DC drain cooler
DCS distributed control system
DCS digital control system
DE destructive examination
DE discharge electrode
deg degree
DESAH dual economizer steam air heater
DGV sampled dry gas volume
DHRS decay heat removal system
DNB departure from nucleate boiling
DNBR DNB ratio
DNC distributed numerical control
DNCG dilute noncondensable gas
DOD Department of Defense, U.S.
DOE Department of Energy, U.S.
DPFAD deformation plasticity failure assessment
diagram
DRB dual register burner
DRE destruction and removal efficiency
DSCF(M) dry standard cubic feet (per minute)
DSCM dry standard cubic meter
EAR estimated additional resources
EBW electron beam welding
EC European Community
ECCS emergency core cooling system
ECON economizer
ECP electrochemical potential
ECS environmental control systems
ECT eddy current testing
EDC eddy dissipation concept model
EDM eddy dissipation combustion model
EDM electrical discharge machining
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
eff efficiency
EI enhanced ignition (burner)
EIA Energy Information Administration
EMAT electromagnetic acoustic transducer
emf electromotive force
EMF electromagnetic filter
EOR enhanced oil recovery
EPA Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.
EPFM elastic-plastic fracture mechanics
EPRI Electric Power Research Institute
ERW electric resistance welded
ESP electrostatic precipitator
ESS enhanced service structure
ESW electroslag welding
EU European Union
evap evaporation
F Fahrenheit degrees
FAC flow accelerated corrosion
FB firebrick
FBC fluidized-bed combustion
FBR fast breeder reactor
FC feedwater control subsystem
FC fixed carbon
FC/VM fixed carbon/volatile matter ratio
FCAW flux core arc welding
FCC face-centered cubic
FCC fluid catalytic cracking
FD forced draft
FEA finite element analysis
FEGT furnace exit gas temperature
FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FES finite element system
FGD flue gas desulfurization
FGR flue gas recirculation
FHyNES furnace hydrogen damage nondestructive
examination system
FIV flow-induced vibration
FMB marine package boilers
FMEC failure mode evaluation chart
FOSAR foreign object search and retrieval
FPS Fossil Power Systems
FRP fiberglass reinforced plastic
FS factor of safety
FSS flame safety system
FST-GAGEFast-Scanning Thickness Gage
FSU former Soviet Union
ft foot/feet
FT fluid temperature
FURNIS furnace inspection system
FW field weld
g gram
Ga gauge
gal gallon
GCR gas-cooled reactor
gen generator
GGH gas-to-gas heaters
GJ giga joule
GMAW gas metal arc welding
GPM gallons per minute
gr grains
GR gas recirculation
GT gas turbine
GTAW gas tungsten arc welding
GTCC gas turbine combined cycle
h hour
HAP hazardous air pollutant
HAZ heat-affected zone
HCGE high capacity gas element
HFRW high frequency resistance welding
HFT hot function testing
HGI Hardgrove Grindability Index
HHV higher heating value
HLW high level waste
hp horsepower
HP high pressure (turbine)
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-7
HPI high pressure injection
HRSG heat recovery steam generator
HT hemispherical temperature
HTM Heat Transfer Manager
HTW high temperature Winkler
HV high volatile
HVOF high-velocity oxy-fuel
HVT high velocity thermocouple
HZP hot zero power
IAPS International Association for the
Properties of Steam
IAWPS International Association of Wood
Products Societies
IC Instrument and Controls
IC ion chromatography
ICPAES inductive coupled plasma atomic emission
spectrometric (analysis)
ICR Information Collection Request
ICS integrated control system
ID induced draft
ID inside diameter
ID initial deformation (temperature)
IEOTSG integral economizer once-through steam
generator (nuclear)
IFGR induced flue gas recirculation
IGA intergranular attack
IGCC integrated gasification combined cycle
IGSCC intergranular stress corrosion cracking
IMC integrated master control subsystem
in. inch
in. Hg inches of mercury
in. wg inches water gauge
INPO Institute of Nuclear Power Operations
IP intermediate pressure (turbine)
IPP independent power producer
IR infrared radiation
IR-CFB internal recirculation circulating
fluidized-bed
ISO International Standards Organization
ISP intermediate size particles
IT initial deformation temperature
J joule
K Kelvin degrees
kcal kilocalories
kg kilogram
kHz kilohertz
kJ kilojoule
km kilometer
kmole or
kg-mole kilogram-mole
kPa kilopascal
ksi 1000 pounds per square inch
kV kilovolt
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatt hour
l liter
LAER lowest achievable emission rate
LAF laboratory ashing furnace
lb pound
LBBA leak before break analysis
lbf pound force
LBLOCA large break loss of coolant accident
lbm pound mass
lb-mole pound-mole
LBW laser beam welding
LEA low excess air
LEFM linear elastic fracture mechanics
LEL lower explosion limit
LFA life fraction analysis
LFE life fraction expended
L/G liquid to gas ratio (FGD)
LHV lower heating value
LLW low level waste
LMP Larson-Miller parameter
LMTD log mean temperature difference
LNB low NOx burner
LNCB low NOx cell

burner
LNG liquefied natural gas
LOCA loss of coolant accident
LP low pressure (turbine)
LPG liquefied petroleum gas
LPI low pressure injection
LPMS loose parts monitoring system
LSD Lagrangian stochastic deterministic (model)
LVS limited vertical sweep
LWR light water reactor
m meter
MA mill-annealed
MACT maximum achievable control technology
MAF moisture and ash free
MARAD Maritime Administration, U.S.
MAWP maximum allowable working pressure
max maximum
MCR maximum continuous rating
MD mass defect
MDC multi-cyclone dust collector
med medium
MeV million electron volts
MFR mass flow rate
MFT master fuel trip
mg milligram
MHVT multiple shield high velocity thermocouple
mi mile
MIC microbial induced corrosion
MIG metal inert gas
min minimum or minute
MIST multiple loop integral systems test
MJ megajoule
ml milliliter
MLR multi-lead ribbed
mm millimeter
MMP managed maintenance program
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
S-8 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations
MMT minimum metal temperature
mol molecular
MOV motor operated valve
mPa millipascal
MPa megapascal
mph miles per hour
MRPC motorized rotating pancake coil
MRS monitored retrievable storage
MSDS material safety data sheets
MSW municipal solid waste
MT magnetic particle testing
MTD mean temperature difference
mV millivolt
MV medium volatile
MW megawatt, megawatts-electric
MWd megawatt-day
MWt megawatts-thermal
S microSiemens
N Newton
N2a atmospheric nitrogen
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAPAP National Acid Precipitation Assessment
Program
NBIC National Board Inspection Code
NC numerical control
NCG noncondensable gas
NDE nondestructive examination
NDTT nil-ductility transition temperature
NEI National Emissions Inventory
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NIST National Institute of Science &
Technology
Nm
3
Normal cubic meter
NMVOC nonmethane volatile organic compounds
NNI non-nuclear instrumentation
NOTIS nondestructive oxide thickness inspection
system
NPD nuclear power demonstration
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System
NPHR net plant heat rate
NPSH net positive suction head
NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S.
N.S. nuclear ship
NSAC Nuclear Safety Analysis Center
NSCW nuclear service cooling water
NSFO Navy special fuel oil
NSPS New Source Performance Standards
NSR New Source Review
NSSS nuclear steam supply system
NTU net transfer unit
NUG nonutility generator
NWMS nuclear waste management system
NWPA Nuclear Waste Policy Act
O/G oil and gas
OBW oversize bulky waste
OD outside diameter
ODE ordinary differential equations
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OFA overfire air
OMLR optimized multi-lead ribbed
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries
OSHA Occupational Safety & Health
Administration
OT oxygen treatment
OTSG once-through steam generator
oz ounce
Pa pascal
PA primary air
PA/PC primary air and pulverized coal mixture
PAC powdered activated carbon
PAW plasma arc welding
PAX primary air exchange (burner)
PC pulverized coal
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
PCDD polychlorinated dibenzoparadioxin
PCDF polychlorinated dibenzofurans
PCFAD computer-based failure analysis diagram
PDE partial differential equations
PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela South America
PFBC pressurized fluidized-bed combustion
PFI Power for Industry (boiler)
PFM Power for Manufacturing (boiler)
PFT Power for Turbine (boiler)
pH negative log of hydrogen ion
concentration
PHWR pressurized heavy water reactor
P&ID process and instrumentation diagram
PIP peak impact pressure
PM particulate matter
POHC principal organic hazardous constituent
PORV power (pilot) operated relief valve
ppb parts per billion (mass)
ppm parts per million (mass)
ppmv parts per million by volume
PPS polyphenylene sulfide
PR process recovery
PRB Powder River Basin
press. pressure
pri primary
prox proximate
PRV pressure reducing valve
PSD prevention of significant deterioration
PSDF Power Systems Development Facility
PSH primary superheater
psi pounds per square inch (absolute or
difference)
psia pounds per square inch absolute
psig pounds per square inch gauge
P/T pressure/temperature
PT penetrant testing (liquid/dye)
PTC Performance Test Code
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-9
PUC Public Utilities Commission
pulv pulverizer
PURPA Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act
PVC polyvinyl chloride
PWHT post weld heat treatment
PWR pressurized water reactor
PWSCC primary water stress corrosion cracking
R Rankine degrees
R&D research and development
rad radian
RAR reasonably assured resources
RB Radiant boiler
RBC Radiant boiler Carolina-type
RBE Radiant boiler El Paso-type
RBT Radiant boiler Tower-type
RBW Radiant boiler W-type
RC reactor coolant
RCM reliability centered maintenance
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RCS reactor coolant system
RDF refuse-derived fuel
recirc recirculation
red. reducing atmosphere
rem roentgen equivalent man
rev revolutions
RH reheater
RHAS radiant heat absorbing surface
RHSH reheat superheater
RH-TRU remote handled transuranic waste
RO reverse osmosis
ROTSG replacement once-through steam
generator
rpm revolutions per minute
RPS reactor protection system
RRSG replacement recirculating steam generator
RSG recirculating steam generator
RT radiography testing
RVCH reactor vessel closure head
RWP radiation work permit
s second(s)
SA secondary air
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
sat. saturated
SAW submerged arc welding
SBLOCA small break loss of coolant accident
SBW steam by weight
SCC stress corrosion cracking
SCC submerged chain conveyor
SCFM standard cubic feet per minute
SCR selective catalytic reduction
SD stack draft
SDA spray dryer absorber
SE stack effect
sec second(s)
SFAS safety features actuation system
SFS Saybolt Furol Seconds
SG steam generator
SGTR steam generator tube rupture
SH superheater
SI international system of units
SIP state implementation plan
SLR single-lead ribbed
SMAW shielded metal arc welding
SMD Sauter mean diameter
SNAME Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers
SNCR selective non-catalytic reduction
SNG synthetic natural gas
SOG stripper off gas
SPB Stirling power boiler
sp gr specific gravity
SR stoichiometric ratio
SS stainless steel
S.S. steam ship
SSH secondary superheater
ST softening temperature
subbitumsubbituminous
SUS Saybolt Universal Seconds
SWUP spiral wound Universal Pressure (boiler)
t ton (English units)
tm metric ton
T250 viscosity at 250 centipoise
TBS turbine bypass system
TC thermocouple
TD terminal temperature difference
TDF tire-derived fuel
TDFM time dependent fracture mechanics
TDS total dissolved solids
TEG turbine exhaust gas
temp temperature
theo theoretical
TIG tungsten inert gas
thk thick
TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter
TOC total organic carbon
TOFD time of flight defraction
TR set transformer rectifier set
TRC total residual chlorine
TRS total reduced sulfur
TRU transuranic
TS tensile strength
TSC two-stage combustion
TSP total suspended particulate
TSP tube support plates
TSS total suspended solids
TSV turbine stop valve
TTT time-temperature-transformation
TTV turbine throttle valve
typ typical
UBC Uniform Building Code
UBC unburned carbon
UBCL unburned carbon loss
The Babcock & Wilcox Company
S-10 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations
UCL unburned carbon loss
UEL upper explosion limit
UGA undergrate air
UIC uncompensated ion chamber counter
U.K. United Kingdom
ULD unit load demand subsystem
UP Universal Pressure (boiler)
UPC Universal Pressure Carolina-type (boiler)
UPC Universal Pressure coal-fired (boiler)
U.S. United States
USCG United States Coast Guard
USD United States dollar
U.S.S. United States ship
UT ultrasonic testing
UTT ultrasonic thickness testing
UV ultraviolet
V volts
VAC volts alternating current
VIV variable inlet vanes
VM volatile matter
VOC volatile organic compounds
vol volume
vs versus
VSS vertical steam separator
W watt
WCT water collecting tank
WESP wet electrostatic precipitator
WFGD wet flue gas desulfurization
wg water gauge
WHRB waste heat recovery boiler
WPS welding procedure specifications
WRC Welding Research Council
wt weight
WTE waste-to-energy boiler
YP yield point
yr year
YS yield strength