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Symbols

Symbols used in Steam are defined within the chap-

ters. The following is a summary of those that are

commonly used. Specialized symbols are not repeated

here. Symbols for chemical elements appear in Appen-

dix 1, Table 3.3. The frequently used units are listed

for each parameter, for illustration purposes. Other

units used are defined in the chapter text.

a crack size, ft or in. (m or mm)

a inside radius, ft or in. (m or mm)

a major axis of an ellipsoid, ft or in. (m or mm)

a, b, c general coefficients

A area, cross-sectional area or surface area,

ft

2

(m

2

)

A mass number (total number of protons

plus neutrons)

A

n

cross-sectional area of nozzles, ft

2

(m

2

)

b minor axis of an ellipsoid, ft or in. (m or

mm)

b outside radius, ft or in. (m or mm)

B barometric pressure, in. Hg

B ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter,

dimensionless

B

w

moisture fraction, lb/lb (kg/kg)

c distance, ft (m)

c speed of light

c

p

specific heat at constant pressure, Btu/lb

F (J/kg K)

c

pa

specific heat of air, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

c

pg

specific heat of gas, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

c

v

specific heat at constant volume, Btu/lb F

(J/kg K)

C crack geometry factor, dimensionless

C or c coefficient

C

a

concentration of specie at duct conditions,

lb/lb (kg/kg)

C

eff

collection/removal efficiency,

dimensionless or percent

C

f

cleanliness factor, dimensionless

C

i

concentration of specie in the impinger, lb/

lb (kg/kg)

C

in

concentration at inlet, lb/lb (kg/kg)

C

m

mass flow of specie, lb/h (kg/s)

C

out

concentration at outlet, lb/lb (kg/kg)

C

p

pitot tube correction factor, dimensionless

C

ppm,d

concentration of specie on a dry basis,

ppm

C

ppm,w

concentration of specie on a wet basis,

ppm

C

q

coefficient of discharge, dimensionless

C

s

concentration of specie at standard

conditions, lb/lb (kg/kg)

C

t

energy release rate (power) parameter, in.

lb/in.

2

h (J/m

2

s)

C

t

thermal capacitance, Btu/ft

3

F (J/m

3

K)

C

V

valve flow coefficient

d diameter, ft or in. (m or mm)

d

a

percent reduction in area

D diameter, ft or in. (m or mm)

D or d displacement, ft (m)

D

e

or D

H

equivalent or hydraulic diameter = 4A/

Per, ft or in. (m or mm)

D

i

internal stack diameter, ft

D

sm

diameter, Sauter mean

DL dead load, psi (Pa)

e available energy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

E emission rate, dry, at 0% O

2

, lb/h (kg/s)

E energy, Btu (J)

E weld joint efficiency or ligament efficiency,

dimensionless

E Youngs modulus of elasticity, psi (Pa)

E change in energy

E

b

blackbody emissive power, Btu/h ft

2

(W/m

2

)

Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

S-2 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations

EQ seismic loading, psi (Pa)

Eu Euler number = P/V

2

, dimensionless

f friction factor, dimensionless

f

x

body force

F geometry correction factor, dimensionless

F heat exchanger arrangement factor,

dimensionless

F peak stresses

F radiation configuration factor,

dimensionless

F total radiation exchange factor,

dimensionless

F

a

crossflow arrangement factor,

dimensionless

F

A

allowable axial compressive stress, psi (Pa)

F

d

F-factor, dry, at 0% O

2

, dimensionless

F

d

tube bundle depth factor, dimensionless

F

e

effectiveness factor, dimensionless

F

pp

fluid property factor

F

T

fluid temperature factor, dimensionless

FS factor of safety, dimensionless

FV future value

g acceleration of gravity, 32.17 ft/s

2

(9.8 m/s

2

)

g Gibbs free energy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

g

c

proportionality factor, 32.17 lbm ft/lbf s

2

(1 kg m/N s

2

)

G incident thermal radiation, Btu/h ft

2

(W/m

2

)

G mass flux or mass velocity, lb/h ft

2

(kg/m

2

s)

G

max

critical flow mass flux, lb/h ft

2

(kg/m

2

s)

Gr Grashof number

=

( )

g T T L

s

2 3

2

,

dimensionless

h heat transfer coefficient, Btu/h ft

2

F (W/m

2

K)

h thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)

h

ct

contact coefficient, Btu/h ft

2

F (W/m

2

K)

h

c

crossflow heat transfer coefficient, Btu/h

ft

2

F (W/m

2

K)

h

c

crossflow velocity and geometry factor

h

l

longitudinal heat transfer coefficient, Btu/

h ft

2

F (W/m

2

K)

h

l

factor

H enthalpy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

H

f

enthalpy of saturated water, Btu/lb (J/kg)

H

fg

enthalpy of vaporization, Btu/lb (J/kg)

H

fw

enthalpy of feedwater, Btu/lb (J/kg)

H

g

enthalpy of saturated steam, Btu/lb (J/kg)

I electrical current, amperes

I intensity

I moment of inertia, in.

4

(m

4

)

J mechanical equivalent of heat, 778.17 ft

lbf/Btu (1 N m/J)

J radiosity, Btu/h ft

2

(W/m

2

)

JI J-integral, in. lb/in.

2

(J/m

2

)

JIC J-integral, critical, in. lb/in.

2

(J/m

2

)

JR material crack growth resistance, in. lb/

in.

2

(J/m

2

)

k coefficient or parameter

k specific heat ratio compressibility factor,

dimensionless

k thermal conductivity, Btu/h ft F (W/m K)

kc insulation thermal conductivity, Btu/h ft F

(W/m K)

kT isothermal compressibility

K discharge coefficient, dimensionless

K factor or coefficient

K thermal conductance, Btu/h F (W/K)

Keg equilibrium constant, dimensionless

KI stress intensity factor, ksi in.

1/2

(MPa m

1/2

)

KIC critical stress intensity factor or fracture

toughness, ksi in.

1/2

(MPa m

1/2

)

Kr stress intensity factor/toughness ratio,

dimensionless

Ky mass transfer coefficient, lb/ft

2

s (kg/m

2

s)

K stress intensity range

l

l

ft (m)

l

e

equivalent plate thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)

L or l length or dimension, ft or in. (m or mm)

L

h

fin height, ft or in. (m or mm)

LMTD log mean temperature difference, F (C)

LS limestone consumption, lb/h (kg/s)

L

t

fin spacing, ft or in. (m or mm)

m mass, lb (kg)

m

mass flow rate, lb/h (kg/s)

m

s

mass of steam, lb (kg)

m

w

mass of water, lb (kg)

M moisture in steam sample, percent

M molecular weight, lb/lb-mole (kg/kg-mole)

M

d

molecular weight of gas, dry basis

M

o

redundant bending moment, lb ft (N m)

M

w

molecular weight of gas, wet basis

n parameter, coefficient or number of cycles

N coefficient, number of cycles or number of

concentric thermocouple shields

Nu Nusselt number = h L/k, dimensionless

N

v

or N number of velocity heads, dimensionless

p particle size, in. (mm)

pr partial pressure, atm

P parameter

P pressure or partial pressure, psi (Pa)

P primary stress

P temperature ratio for surface

arrangement factor, dimensionless

Pb primary bending stress

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-3

Pe Peclet number = RePr, dimensionless

Per perimeter, ft or in. (m or mm)

P

L

local primary membrane stress

PL furnace gas pressure loading, psi (Pa)

Pm pressure at meter, psi (Pa)

Pm general primary membrane stress

Pr Prandtl number =

c

k

p

, dimensionless

Ps absolute pressure at duct, psi (Pa)

Ptotal total pressure, lb/ft

2

(N/m

2

)

Pv total vertical design load

PV present value

PVF present value factor

P pressure differential, psi (Pa)

Pl stack flow loss, in. of water

PSE stack effect driving pressure, lb/ft

2

(N/m

2

)

q heat flow rate, Btu/h (W)

q heat flux, Btu/h ft

2

(W/m

2

)

q

CHF

heat flux at CHF conditions, Btu/h ft

2

(W/m

2

)

q volumetric heat generation rate, Btu/h ft

3

(W/m

3

)

q

rel

heat release rate, Btu/h ft

3

(W/m

3

)

q

rev

reversible heat input per unit mass, Btu/

lb (J/kg)

Q or q heat input, Btu (J), or heat input per unit

mass, Btu/lb (J/kg)

Q gas flow rate, lb/h (kg/s)

Q heat absorption or heat added to system,

Btu (J)

Q secondary stresses

Q

ac

actual volumetric flow rate, ft

3

/h (m

3

/s)

Q

sd

dry volumetric flow rate at standard

conditions, ft

3

/h (m

3

/s)

r radius or inside radius, ft or in. (m or mm)

R constant or coefficient

R forcing function

R radius or outside radius, ft or in. (m or

mm)

R specific gas constant R/M, lbf ft/lbm R

(J/kg K)

R temperature ratio for surface

arrangement factor, dimensionless

R thermal resistance, h ft

2

F/Btu (m

2

K/W)

R universal gas constant, 1545 ft lb/lb-mole

R (8.3143 kJ/kg-mole K)

Ra Rayleigh number = GrPr, dimensionless

Re Reynolds number =

V L GL

= ,

dimensionless

R

f

fouling index bituminous ash

R

s

slagging index bituminous ash

R

s

Rvs slagging index viscosity

s specific entropy, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

sf entropy of water, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

sfg entropy of evaporation, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

sg entropy of steam, Btu/lb F (J/kg K)

S allowable stress

S entropy, Btu/F (J/K)

S surface area, or total exposed surface area

for a finned surface, ft

2

(m

2

)

S general source term

S quantity of entropy, Btu/F (J/K)

S steam-water slip ratio, dimensionless

SE stack effect, in. wg/ft

Sf fin surface area; sides plus peripheral

area, ft

2

(m

2

)

SL longitudinal (parallel) spacing, ft or in. (m

or mm)

Sm allowable stress intensity, psi (Pa)

Sr applied stress/net section plastic collapse

stress ratio, dimensionless

ST transverse (side) spacing, ft (m)

St Stanton number = Nu/(RePr),

dimensionless

Su material tensile strength, psi (Pa)

Sy material yield strength, psi (Pa)

SPVF series present value factor

t thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)

t time, h or s

t

c

current wall thickness, in. (mm)

t

e

time at end of life

t

p

present time

T temperature, F or R (C or K)

T

cv

temperature at critical viscosity, F (C)

T

sat

saturation temperature, F (C)

T

w

wall temperature, F (C)

T

250

temperature at 250 poise viscosity, F

T

o

temperature at initial time, F (C)

T

o

sink temperature, F or R (C or K)

TD terminal temperature difference, F (C)

TS tensile strength at temperature, psi (Pa)

t time interval, h or s

T temperature difference, F (C)

T

LMTD

log mean temperature difference, F (C)

T

sat

T

sat

T

w

, F (C)

u internal stored energy, Btu/lb (J/kg)

u, v, w velocity in x, y, z coordinates respectively,

ft/s (m/s)

U overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/h ft

2

F (W/m

2

K)

specific volume, ft

3

/lb (m

3

/kg)

v

a

specific volume, air

f

specific volume, water

fg

specific volume, evaporation

g

specific volume, steam

V electrical voltage, volts

V velocity, ft/s (m/s)

V volume, ft

3

(m

3

)

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

S-4 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations

Vd dry gas volume, ft

3

(m

3

)

Vm dry gas volume at meter conditions, ft

3

(m

3

)

Vn sample gas velocity through the nozzle,

ft/s (m/s)

Vo redundant shear force, psi (Pa)

Vs velocity of the flue gas, ft/s (m/s)

w work per unit mass, ft-lb/lbm (J/kg)

wrev reversible work per unit mass, ft-lb/lbm

(J/kg)

W width, ft or in. (m or mm)

W work, ft-lb (J)

W1 leakage flow rate, lb/h (kg/s)

WL wind loading, psi (Pa)

x dimension, ft or in. (m or mm)

x steam quality, mass fraction steam

x

CHF

steam quality at CHF conditions, mass

fraction steam

x, y, z dimensions in Cartesian coordinate

system, ft or in. (m or mm)

x change in length, ft or in. (m or mm)

X weight fraction, dimensionless

Y compressibility factor, dimensionless

Y Schmidt fin geometry factor,

dimensionless

Yg concentration in bulk fluid, lb/lb (kg/kg)

Yi concentration at condensate interface,

lb/lb (kg/kg)

Z or z elevation or length, ft or in. (m or mm)

Z atomic number (number of protons in the

nucleus)

Z Schmidt fin geometry factor,

dimensionless

Greek symbols

absorptivity, dimensionless

angle, deg (rad)

coefficient of thermal expansion, ft/ft (m/m)

thermal diffusivity = k/cp, ft

2

/s (m

2

/s)

void fraction, dimensionless

deflection or rotation influence coefficients

volume coefficient of expansion, 1/R (1/K)

effective diffusion coefficient

diameter

or film thickness, ft or in. (m or mm)

emissivity, dimensionless

roughness, in. (mm)

strain, ft/ft (m/m)

efficiency as a fraction or percentage

Schmidt fin efficiency, dimensionless

net net efficiency, dimensionless

th thermal efficiency, dimensionless

angle, deg (rad)

dynamic viscosity, lbm/ft s (kg/m s)

Poissons ratio, dimensionless

kinetic viscosity, ft

2

/s (m

2

/s)

3.1415926

density, lb/ft

3

(kg/m

3

)

reflectivity, dimensionless

d

average downcomer density, lb/ft

3

(kg/m

3

)

hom

homogenous density, lb/ft

3

(kg/m

3

)

(z)

local density, lb/ft

3

(kg/m

3

)

atomic cross-section, barns

standard deviation

Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 0.1713 x 10

-8

Btu/h ft

2

R

4

(5.669 x 10

-8

W/m

2

K

4

)

stress, psi (Pa)

a

allowable alternating stress, psi (Pa)

r

,

t

,

z

radial, tangential and axial stress, psi (Pa)

t

thermal stress, psi (Pa)

y.p.

yield point stress, psi (Pa)

1

longitudinal stress, psi (Pa)

2

hoop stress, psi (Pa)

shear stress, psi (Pa)

transmissivity, dimensionless

LO

2

two-phase friction multiplier, all fluid as a

liquid, dimensionless

general dependent variable

two-phase multiplier for a steam-water

separator, dimensionless

Subscripts

1 initial or inlet condition

2 final or outlet condition

a air

amb ambient

aux auxiliary component or system

b bulk fluid

c contact or conduction

cg convection, gas-side

cv convection

clean unfouled or clean condition

e node point east

econ economizer

eq or e equivalent

f fluid, fin or saturated water

g gas or saturated steam

i inside or ith parameter or initial condition

in entering a system

j jth parameter

l liquid

max maximum

min minimum

o outside or final condition

out leaving a system

p node point under evaluation

P products

r radiation

ref reference

rg radiation, gas-side

R reactants

s steam

sg surface-to-gas

SE stack effect

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-5

t thermal

w node point west

w wall

liquid film surface (gas liquid interface)

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AA atomic absorption

ABMA American Boiler Manufacturers

Association

abs absolute

ABS American Bureau of Shipping

A/C air/cloth

AC alternating current

ACF actual cubic feet

ACFM actual cubic feet per minute

ADS air density separator

AE acoustic emissions

AEC Atomic Energy Commission, U.S.

AECL Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

AFBC atmospheric pressure fluidized-bed

combustion

AFS atomic fluorescence spectroscopy

AFW auxiliary feedwater

AGR advanced gas-cooled reactor

AH air heater

AIB auxiliary input burner

AIG ammonia injection grid

AISC American Institute of Steel Construction

ALARA as low as reasonably achievable

amb ambient

AMU atomic mass units

ANSI American National Standards Institute

API American Petroleum Institute

approx approximate

ARIS Automated Reactor Inspection System

ARTS Anticipatory Reactor Trip System

ASD allowable stress design

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

attemp attemperator

atm atmosphere

ATOG abnormal transient operating guidelines

avg average

AVT all-volatile treatment

AZS air zone swirler

B/A base-to-acid ratio

B&W The Babcock & Wilcox Company

BAC boiler as calorimeter

BACT best available control technology

BAT best available technology

bbl barrel

BCC body-centered cubic

BCCW boiler chemical cleaning waste

BCM boiler condenser mode

BCT body-centered tetragonal

BCTMP bleached chemical thermomechanical pulp

BFB bubbling fluidized bed

BFP boiler feed pump

BFW boiler feed water

BGC British Gas Corporation

BH baghouse

bit or

bitum bituminous

BLESS Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation

System

BLG black liquor gasification

BLRBAC Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Advisory

Committee

BOF basic oxygen furnace

BOL beginning of life

BOOS burners out of service

BPVC Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME)

BRC below regulatory concern

BSW bottom sediment and water

Btu British thermal unit

BWCC Babcock & Wilcox Construction Co., Inc.

BWR boiling water reactor

BWST borated water storage tank

C Celsius or centigrade degrees

CAA Clean Air Act, U.S.

CAD computer-assisted design/drafting

CANDU Canada Deuterium Uranium

CAP curved arm primary

CBI curved backward inclined

CBK carbon burnout kinetic

cc cubic centimeter

CC combined cycle

CCZ Controlled Combustion Zone

CE collecting electrode

CEMS continuous emissions monitoring system

CFB circulating fluidized bed

CFCC continuous fiber ceramic composite

CFD computational fluid dynamics

cfm cubic feet per minute

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CGA crack growth analysis

CHF critical heat flux

CHP combined heat and power

CII Construction Industry Institute

C.I.S. Confederation of Independent States

cm centimeter

CNC computer numerical control

CNCG concentrated noncondensable gas

CNSG consolidated nuclear steam generator

COE Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army

coef coefficient

col column

cond condenser

COG coke oven gas

cP centipoise

CRDM control rod drive mechanism

CVD chemical vapor deposition

CWA Clean Water Act

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

S-6 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations

d day

DAF dry ash-free

dB decibels

DC direct current

DC drain cooler

DCS distributed control system

DCS digital control system

DE destructive examination

DE discharge electrode

deg degree

DESAH dual economizer steam air heater

DGV sampled dry gas volume

DHRS decay heat removal system

DNB departure from nucleate boiling

DNBR DNB ratio

DNC distributed numerical control

DNCG dilute noncondensable gas

DOD Department of Defense, U.S.

DOE Department of Energy, U.S.

DPFAD deformation plasticity failure assessment

diagram

DRB dual register burner

DRE destruction and removal efficiency

DSCF(M) dry standard cubic feet (per minute)

DSCM dry standard cubic meter

EAR estimated additional resources

EBW electron beam welding

EC European Community

ECCS emergency core cooling system

ECON economizer

ECP electrochemical potential

ECS environmental control systems

ECT eddy current testing

EDC eddy dissipation concept model

EDM eddy dissipation combustion model

EDM electrical discharge machining

EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

eff efficiency

EI enhanced ignition (burner)

EIA Energy Information Administration

EMAT electromagnetic acoustic transducer

emf electromotive force

EMF electromagnetic filter

EOR enhanced oil recovery

EPA Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.

EPFM elastic-plastic fracture mechanics

EPRI Electric Power Research Institute

ERW electric resistance welded

ESP electrostatic precipitator

ESS enhanced service structure

ESW electroslag welding

EU European Union

evap evaporation

F Fahrenheit degrees

FAC flow accelerated corrosion

FB firebrick

FBC fluidized-bed combustion

FBR fast breeder reactor

FC feedwater control subsystem

FC fixed carbon

FC/VM fixed carbon/volatile matter ratio

FCAW flux core arc welding

FCC face-centered cubic

FCC fluid catalytic cracking

FD forced draft

FEA finite element analysis

FEGT furnace exit gas temperature

FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

FES finite element system

FGD flue gas desulfurization

FGR flue gas recirculation

FHyNES furnace hydrogen damage nondestructive

examination system

FIV flow-induced vibration

FMB marine package boilers

FMEC failure mode evaluation chart

FOSAR foreign object search and retrieval

FPS Fossil Power Systems

FRP fiberglass reinforced plastic

FS factor of safety

FSS flame safety system

FST-GAGEFast-Scanning Thickness Gage

FSU former Soviet Union

ft foot/feet

FT fluid temperature

FURNIS furnace inspection system

FW field weld

g gram

Ga gauge

gal gallon

GCR gas-cooled reactor

gen generator

GGH gas-to-gas heaters

GJ giga joule

GMAW gas metal arc welding

GPM gallons per minute

gr grains

GR gas recirculation

GT gas turbine

GTAW gas tungsten arc welding

GTCC gas turbine combined cycle

h hour

HAP hazardous air pollutant

HAZ heat-affected zone

HCGE high capacity gas element

HFRW high frequency resistance welding

HFT hot function testing

HGI Hardgrove Grindability Index

HHV higher heating value

HLW high level waste

hp horsepower

HP high pressure (turbine)

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-7

HPI high pressure injection

HRSG heat recovery steam generator

HT hemispherical temperature

HTM Heat Transfer Manager

HTW high temperature Winkler

HV high volatile

HVOF high-velocity oxy-fuel

HVT high velocity thermocouple

HZP hot zero power

IAPS International Association for the

Properties of Steam

IAWPS International Association of Wood

Products Societies

IC Instrument and Controls

IC ion chromatography

ICPAES inductive coupled plasma atomic emission

spectrometric (analysis)

ICR Information Collection Request

ICS integrated control system

ID induced draft

ID inside diameter

ID initial deformation (temperature)

IEOTSG integral economizer once-through steam

generator (nuclear)

IFGR induced flue gas recirculation

IGA intergranular attack

IGCC integrated gasification combined cycle

IGSCC intergranular stress corrosion cracking

IMC integrated master control subsystem

in. inch

in. Hg inches of mercury

in. wg inches water gauge

INPO Institute of Nuclear Power Operations

IP intermediate pressure (turbine)

IPP independent power producer

IR infrared radiation

IR-CFB internal recirculation circulating

fluidized-bed

ISO International Standards Organization

ISP intermediate size particles

IT initial deformation temperature

J joule

K Kelvin degrees

kcal kilocalories

kg kilogram

kHz kilohertz

kJ kilojoule

km kilometer

kmole or

kg-mole kilogram-mole

kPa kilopascal

ksi 1000 pounds per square inch

kV kilovolt

kW kilowatt

kWh kilowatt hour

l liter

LAER lowest achievable emission rate

LAF laboratory ashing furnace

lb pound

LBBA leak before break analysis

lbf pound force

LBLOCA large break loss of coolant accident

lbm pound mass

lb-mole pound-mole

LBW laser beam welding

LEA low excess air

LEFM linear elastic fracture mechanics

LEL lower explosion limit

LFA life fraction analysis

LFE life fraction expended

L/G liquid to gas ratio (FGD)

LHV lower heating value

LLW low level waste

LMP Larson-Miller parameter

LMTD log mean temperature difference

LNB low NOx burner

LNCB low NOx cell

burner

LNG liquefied natural gas

LOCA loss of coolant accident

LP low pressure (turbine)

LPG liquefied petroleum gas

LPI low pressure injection

LPMS loose parts monitoring system

LSD Lagrangian stochastic deterministic (model)

LVS limited vertical sweep

LWR light water reactor

m meter

MA mill-annealed

MACT maximum achievable control technology

MAF moisture and ash free

MARAD Maritime Administration, U.S.

MAWP maximum allowable working pressure

max maximum

MCR maximum continuous rating

MD mass defect

MDC multi-cyclone dust collector

med medium

MeV million electron volts

MFR mass flow rate

MFT master fuel trip

mg milligram

MHVT multiple shield high velocity thermocouple

mi mile

MIC microbial induced corrosion

MIG metal inert gas

min minimum or minute

MIST multiple loop integral systems test

MJ megajoule

ml milliliter

MLR multi-lead ribbed

mm millimeter

MMP managed maintenance program

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

S-8 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations

MMT minimum metal temperature

mol molecular

MOV motor operated valve

mPa millipascal

MPa megapascal

mph miles per hour

MRPC motorized rotating pancake coil

MRS monitored retrievable storage

MSDS material safety data sheets

MSW municipal solid waste

MT magnetic particle testing

MTD mean temperature difference

mV millivolt

MV medium volatile

MW megawatt, megawatts-electric

MWd megawatt-day

MWt megawatts-thermal

S microSiemens

N Newton

N2a atmospheric nitrogen

NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards

NAPAP National Acid Precipitation Assessment

Program

NBIC National Board Inspection Code

NC numerical control

NCG noncondensable gas

NDE nondestructive examination

NDTT nil-ductility transition temperature

NEI National Emissions Inventory

NFPA National Fire Protection Association

NIST National Institute of Science &

Technology

Nm

3

Normal cubic meter

NMVOC nonmethane volatile organic compounds

NNI non-nuclear instrumentation

NOTIS nondestructive oxide thickness inspection

system

NPD nuclear power demonstration

NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

System

NPHR net plant heat rate

NPSH net positive suction head

NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S.

N.S. nuclear ship

NSAC Nuclear Safety Analysis Center

NSCW nuclear service cooling water

NSFO Navy special fuel oil

NSPS New Source Performance Standards

NSR New Source Review

NSSS nuclear steam supply system

NTU net transfer unit

NUG nonutility generator

NWMS nuclear waste management system

NWPA Nuclear Waste Policy Act

O/G oil and gas

OBW oversize bulky waste

OD outside diameter

ODE ordinary differential equations

OEM original equipment manufacturer

OFA overfire air

OMLR optimized multi-lead ribbed

OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting

Countries

OSHA Occupational Safety & Health

Administration

OT oxygen treatment

OTSG once-through steam generator

oz ounce

Pa pascal

PA primary air

PA/PC primary air and pulverized coal mixture

PAC powdered activated carbon

PAW plasma arc welding

PAX primary air exchange (burner)

PC pulverized coal

PCB polychlorinated biphenyl

PCDD polychlorinated dibenzoparadioxin

PCDF polychlorinated dibenzofurans

PCFAD computer-based failure analysis diagram

PDE partial differential equations

PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela South America

PFBC pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

PFI Power for Industry (boiler)

PFM Power for Manufacturing (boiler)

PFT Power for Turbine (boiler)

pH negative log of hydrogen ion

concentration

PHWR pressurized heavy water reactor

P&ID process and instrumentation diagram

PIP peak impact pressure

PM particulate matter

POHC principal organic hazardous constituent

PORV power (pilot) operated relief valve

ppb parts per billion (mass)

ppm parts per million (mass)

ppmv parts per million by volume

PPS polyphenylene sulfide

PR process recovery

PRB Powder River Basin

press. pressure

pri primary

prox proximate

PRV pressure reducing valve

PSD prevention of significant deterioration

PSDF Power Systems Development Facility

PSH primary superheater

psi pounds per square inch (absolute or

difference)

psia pounds per square inch absolute

psig pounds per square inch gauge

P/T pressure/temperature

PT penetrant testing (liquid/dye)

PTC Performance Test Code

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations S-9

PUC Public Utilities Commission

pulv pulverizer

PURPA Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act

PVC polyvinyl chloride

PWHT post weld heat treatment

PWR pressurized water reactor

PWSCC primary water stress corrosion cracking

R Rankine degrees

R&D research and development

rad radian

RAR reasonably assured resources

RB Radiant boiler

RBC Radiant boiler Carolina-type

RBE Radiant boiler El Paso-type

RBT Radiant boiler Tower-type

RBW Radiant boiler W-type

RC reactor coolant

RCM reliability centered maintenance

RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

RCS reactor coolant system

RDF refuse-derived fuel

recirc recirculation

red. reducing atmosphere

rem roentgen equivalent man

rev revolutions

RH reheater

RHAS radiant heat absorbing surface

RHSH reheat superheater

RH-TRU remote handled transuranic waste

RO reverse osmosis

ROTSG replacement once-through steam

generator

rpm revolutions per minute

RPS reactor protection system

RRSG replacement recirculating steam generator

RSG recirculating steam generator

RT radiography testing

RVCH reactor vessel closure head

RWP radiation work permit

s second(s)

SA secondary air

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

sat. saturated

SAW submerged arc welding

SBLOCA small break loss of coolant accident

SBW steam by weight

SCC stress corrosion cracking

SCC submerged chain conveyor

SCFM standard cubic feet per minute

SCR selective catalytic reduction

SD stack draft

SDA spray dryer absorber

SE stack effect

sec second(s)

SFAS safety features actuation system

SFS Saybolt Furol Seconds

SG steam generator

SGTR steam generator tube rupture

SH superheater

SI international system of units

SIP state implementation plan

SLR single-lead ribbed

SMAW shielded metal arc welding

SMD Sauter mean diameter

SNAME Society of Naval Architects and Marine

Engineers

SNCR selective non-catalytic reduction

SNG synthetic natural gas

SOG stripper off gas

SPB Stirling power boiler

sp gr specific gravity

SR stoichiometric ratio

SS stainless steel

S.S. steam ship

SSH secondary superheater

ST softening temperature

subbitumsubbituminous

SUS Saybolt Universal Seconds

SWUP spiral wound Universal Pressure (boiler)

t ton (English units)

tm metric ton

T250 viscosity at 250 centipoise

TBS turbine bypass system

TC thermocouple

TD terminal temperature difference

TDF tire-derived fuel

TDFM time dependent fracture mechanics

TDS total dissolved solids

TEG turbine exhaust gas

temp temperature

theo theoretical

TIG tungsten inert gas

thk thick

TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter

TOC total organic carbon

TOFD time of flight defraction

TR set transformer rectifier set

TRC total residual chlorine

TRS total reduced sulfur

TRU transuranic

TS tensile strength

TSC two-stage combustion

TSP total suspended particulate

TSP tube support plates

TSS total suspended solids

TSV turbine stop valve

TTT time-temperature-transformation

TTV turbine throttle valve

typ typical

UBC Uniform Building Code

UBC unburned carbon

UBCL unburned carbon loss

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

S-10 Steam 41 / Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations

UCL unburned carbon loss

UEL upper explosion limit

UGA undergrate air

UIC uncompensated ion chamber counter

U.K. United Kingdom

ULD unit load demand subsystem

UP Universal Pressure (boiler)

UPC Universal Pressure Carolina-type (boiler)

UPC Universal Pressure coal-fired (boiler)

U.S. United States

USCG United States Coast Guard

USD United States dollar

U.S.S. United States ship

UT ultrasonic testing

UTT ultrasonic thickness testing

UV ultraviolet

V volts

VAC volts alternating current

VIV variable inlet vanes

VM volatile matter

VOC volatile organic compounds

vol volume

vs versus

VSS vertical steam separator

W watt

WCT water collecting tank

WESP wet electrostatic precipitator

WFGD wet flue gas desulfurization

wg water gauge

WHRB waste heat recovery boiler

WPS welding procedure specifications

WRC Welding Research Council

wt weight

WTE waste-to-energy boiler

YP yield point

yr year

YS yield strength

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