Chapter 1

1.1 Motivation
As rapidly development and progress of Internet and cellular network, it is a tendency to
combine different wireless technologies, e.g. IEEE 802.11 and CDMA, with diverse net-
work services. Among many mobile communication systems, Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN) covers small areas with limited mobility and supports high bandwidth. On the
other hand, 3
Generation (3G) cellular systems provide quality support, wide coverage,
and high mobility. Because of the complimentary nature of the two wireless systems, people
have tried to integrate them actively in recent years.
3G core network comprises circuit-switching and packet-switching networks. In addi-
tion to traditional voice service, high-speed packet data services will consume a great amount
of energy. The same problem also occurs in WLAN and the interworking environment. Due
to limited battery lifetime, mobile devices must keep low energy consumption to prolong
active time. This document discusses two mechanisms to conserve mobile devices’ power
under 3G and WLAN integrating network construct by 3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP) TS 23.234 [1]. The fisrt one is RObust Header Compression (ROHC) [2], and the
second one is WLAN paging via 3GPP core network.
1.1. Motivation
ROHC is used to compress packet header over radio. Mobile terminals compress origi-
nal packet header before sending the packet to the air interface, and decompress compressed
packet header after receiving the packet from lower layer. ROHC is implemented between
IP layer and MAC layer in WLAN and resides in Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
layer [3] in 3GPP as shown in Figure 1.1 [4]. With increase of incoming/outgoing packet
bits, energy draining will grow up through air interface in wireless systems. For instance,
the Lucent IEEE 802.11 WaveLAN card consumes 1.65 W, 1.4 W and 1.15 W in transmit,
receive and idle modes, respectively, when it awakes. In the doze state, WaveLAN consumes
0.045W [5]. Reducing packet header size helps to shorten transmission time and cut down
power consumption. So eliminating packet header size brings benefits of not only radio
bandwidth conservation, but also power saving.
Figure 1.1: 3GPP user-plane protocol stack between mobile and GGSN
WLAN User Equipment (WLAN UE) [1] enters to sleep mode after a period that no
packets transmitted to/from it in both 3GPP and WLAN network. Without changing paging
1.2. Related Work
scheme in 3GPP network, this document proposes a paging method to page WLAN UE in
sleep mode under WLAN coverage. Because WLAN itself is a distributed system without
centralizing control, mobile terminal’s location management is hard to be achieved. Now
we can do this in the integrating environment by 3GPP core network interworking with
WLAN [1]. No matter where WLAN UE is, it can go to sleep mode to save power. If
someone wants to communicate with WLAN UE, core network entitites are responsible to
page WLAN UE depending upon location information and then WLAN UE wakes up to
process the communication.
1.2 Related Work
1.2.1 Header Compression
In TCP/IP model, packet header depicts characteristics of the datagram to which the packet
belongs. General speaking, many fields of header are always the same in every packet of the
same session flow, for example, source/destination IP and port. However, even some field
changes with each packet, the field must be changed by following some rule. Take identifi-
cation field of IP header for example, this field identifies the fragments of one datagram and
distinguishes the fragments from those of another datagram by increasing 1 every time a new
fragmentation sent out. The purpose of header compression is to reduce such redundancy of
header transmission over last link of sender/receiver.
The basic idea of all header compression methods is to keep previous packets informa-
tion of the same session flow in context memories of sender and receiver to reduce the trans-
mission of the following packets. RFC 2508 Compressing IP/UDP/RTP Headers (CRTP) [6]
focuses on general compression framework to compress IP, UDP, and RTP headers in the
same packet. RFC 2507 IP Header Compression (IPHC) [7] guides a way to compress
IP/UDP and IP/TCP packets. RFC 3095 RObust Header Compression (ROHC) [2] supports
1.2.2. Paging
IP/UDP, IP/UDP/RTP, and IP/ESP compression profiles. In IP header part, all of them sup-
port to process both IPv4 and IPv6 header format including encapsulated IPv4 and IPv6
In CRTP and IPHC, features of the supported protocol stack layers are analyzed to
supply suitable compression protocol and procedures. Some concepts of them are inherited
in ROHC which is designed to enhance the robustness of compression schemes. Under the
assumption of un-reliability of last link, such as wireless link, many header repair algorithms
are designed to against packet lost. Therefore, the current trend is towards to compress
other protocol headers base on ROHC. In 3GPP PDCP layer, both IPHC and ROHC are
implemented to compress packet headers with various profiles.
1.2.2 Paging
In order to successfully page sleeping mobile node, location management is tight-coupled
with mobility management performed in special network entities. In cellular network, signal
and data traffics are transferred over different channels. When mobile node goes to sleep
mode, data channel is not maintained and only signal channel is still hold between it and
Radio Access Network (RAN) of core network. Location update and paging messages are
transported over signal channel. On the other hand, both signal and data traffics are trans-
ported over the same channel between mobile node and Access Point (AP) under WLAN
system. Therefore, sleeping mobile node has to periodically wake up to receive signal pack-
ets. This document shows the mechanism to add WLAN paging protocols to 3GPP/WLAN
integrated networks and the original 3GPP paging protocols are adopt when under 3G RAN
All Mobile IP [8], Cellular IP [4], and HAWAII (Handoff-Aware Wireless Access In-
ternet Infrastructure) [4] provide functionalities to support WLAN paging. Both mobile node
and location managing entities have to maintain a timer to determine whether mobile node
1.3. Organization of the Thesis
goes to sleep or not. Sleeping mobile node performs location update less frequently but
should be enough to bound paging area.
A set of paging extensions are proposed in P-MIP to extended Mobile IP to support
Paging as show in figure 1.2 [4]. A Foreign Agent (FA) is required in each subnet. Home
Agent (HA) maintains mobile node’s location information in the accuracy of subnet when
mobile node is in active. FA with which mobile node last performs MIP registration is called
Registered FA. Both Registered FA and mobile node maintain an Active Timer which is
refreshed to a predefined value every time a packet is transmitted to/from WLAN UE and
decreases with time goes by. As long as Active Timer is expired, WLAN UE goes to sleep.
Paging Area is composed of several FAs. Paging Area Identifier (PAI) is resided in
Mobile IP Agent Advertisement message and periodically advertised by FA. Sleeping mobile
node does not performMobile IP registration when handoffs between FAs in the same Paging
Area. If HA receive packets with destination to sleeping mobile node’s home address, HA
tunnels the packets to Registered FA. Registered FA unicasts Paging Request to other FAs
in the same Paging Area and FAs will broadcast Paging Request over local network. After
mobile node receives Paging Request, it will wake up to perform Mobile IP registration in
order to receive the data packets.
Cellular IP and HAWAI are very similar in several concepts. Table 1.1 shows the sim-
ilarity and difference between them. Because Cellular IP and HAWAI only provide micro-
mobility and the routing protocol is not the same as that used in internet, similar ideas of
P-MIP are reused to design WLAN paging that is suitable for integrated network architec-
ture proposed by 3GPP.
1.3 Organization of the Thesis
The reset of the thesis is organized as follows.
• Chapter 2 describes the implementation of ROHC.
1.3. Organization of the Thesis
Cellular IP HAWAII
Packet Delivery Host-specific route Host-specific route
Routing Similar to Transparent Bridging Regular IP routing protocol.
Protocol (IEEE 802.1D). Network topology Network topology need not loop
must be loop free. free.
Mobile node periodically sends:
(1) Routing-update packet: Mobile node periodically sends
Location Updates other nodes’ routing cache location-update packets to update
Management during active. other nodes’ routing cache and
(Over ICMP) (2) Paging-update packet paging cache.
(less frequent than (1)):
Updates other nodes’ paging cache
during active and idle.
Inter-domain Macro-mobility Macro-mobility
handoff (such as Mobile IP)
Intra-domain (1) Hard handoff (1) Forwarding Path Setup
handoff (2) Semi-soft handoff (2) Non-forwarding Path Setup
Paging area is composed of several Paging area is composed of several
Paging Area BSs BSs and is identified by IP
Multicast Group Address (MGA).
Paging Dynamically select a node on mobile
initiator Gateway Router latest paging route and generally
results in mobile’s last known BS.
If a valid paging cache entry exists, According to paging entry, paging
Paging route paging request is transferred over initiator multicasts paging request
recorded paging route. Otherwise, to all nodes in the MGA.
broadcast it to paging area.
Records address of the next-hop (1) MGA of the paging area where
Paging entry node on mobile host-specific route. mobile node is resided currently.
(2) Outgoing interface of paging
message to mobile node.
Table 1.1: Cellular IP and HAWAII
1.3. Organization of the Thesis
Primergy Primergy
Foreign Foreign
mobile’s home address
Packets addressed to
Packets are tunneled
to mobile’s Registered FA
Paging Request Paging Request
Paging Request Paging Request Paging Request
Agent 1
Agent 2
Agent 3
Paging Area
Figure 1.2: Paging in Mobile IP
• Chapter 3 describes the implementation of paging WLAN UE in WLAN via 3GPP
core network interworking with WLAN.
• After all, Chapter 4 summarizes this thesis.

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