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1.What is a transistor (BJT)?

Transistor is a three terminal device whose output current, voltage and /or power is controlled by input
52.What are the terminals present in a transistor?
Three terminals: emitter, base, collector.
53.What is FT?
FET is abbreviated for field effect transistor. It is a three terminal device with its outputcharacteristics
controlled by input voltage.
5!.Wh" FT is #alle$ %olta&e #ontrolle$ $e%i#e?
The output characteristics of FET is controlled by its input voltage thus it is voltage controlled.
55.What are the t'o main t"pes o( FT?
1. FET !. "#$FET.
5)* What are the terminals a%aila+le in FT?
1%. &rain, !%.$ource and '%. (ate
5,.What is JFT?
FET) unction Field Effect Transistor.
5-.What are the t"pes o( JFT?
*) +hannel FET and ,) +hannel FET
5.* What are the t'o important #hara#teristi#s o( JFT?
1. &rain characteristics !. Transfer characteristics.
)/.What is trans#on$0#tan#e in JFT?
It is the ratio of small change in drain current to the corresponding change in drain to source voltage.
)1.What is ampli(i#ation (a#tor in JFT?
It is the ratio of small change in drain to source voltage to the corresponding change in (ate tosource
)2* Wh" $o 'e #hoose 1 point at the #enter o( the loa$line?
The operating point of a transistor is -ept fi.ed usually at the center of the active region in order thatthe
input signal is well amplified. If the point is fi.ed in the saturation region or the cut off region
the positive and negative half cycle gets clipped off respectively.
)3.2ist o0t the $i((erent t"pes o( +iasin&*
./ 0oltage divider bias, 1ase bias, Emitter feed bac- bias, +ollector feedbac- bias, Emitter bias
)! What $o "o0 meant +" thermal r0n'a"?
&ue to the self heating at the collector 2unction, the collector current rises. This causes damage to
thedevice. This phenomenon is called thermal runway.
)5* Wh" is the transistor #alle$ a #0rrent #ontrolle$ $e%i#e?
The output characteristics of the transistor depend on the input current. $o thtransistor is called acurrent
controlled device.
))* 3e(ine #0rrent ampli(i#ation (a#tor?
It is defined as the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current at constant.
),* What are the re10irements (or +iasin& #ir#0its?
3 The 4 point must be ta-en at the +entre of the active region of the output characteristics. $tabili5e the
collector current against the temperature variations. "a-e the 4 point independent of the transistor
parameters. 6hen the transistor is replaced, it must be of same type.
)-.When $oes a transistor a#t as a s'it#h?
The transistor acts as a switch when it is operated at either cutoff region or saturation region
)..What is +iasin&?
To use the transistor in any application it is necessary to provide sufficient voltage and current
tooperate the transistor. This is called biasing.
,/* What is sta+ilit" (a#tor?
$tability factor is defined as the rate of change of collector current with respect to the rate of changeof
reverse saturation current.
,1.4plain a+o0t the %ario0s re&ions in a transistor?
The three regions are active region saturation region cutoff region.
,2.4plain a+o0t the #hara#teristi#s o( a transistor?
Input characteristics: it is drawn between input voltage 7 input current while -eeping output voltageas
constant. #utput characteristics: It is drawn between the output voltage 7output current while-eeping
input current as constant.
1) mar5s67ints
,3* 4plain the #onstr0#tion8 operation8 %olt ampere #hara#teristi#s8 an$ appli#ationo( S9R8 also e4plain its t'o
transistor mo$el*
"a.imum mar- for this 4uestion: 18 mar-s+onstruction 9!mar-s%E4uivalent circuit and two transistor
model 9!mar-s%#peration 9:mar-s%0olt ampere characteristics 9:mar-s%;pplication 9!mar-s%
,!* 4plain the #onstr0#tion8 operation8 e10i%alent #ir#0it8 %olt ampere#hara#teristi#s8 an$ appli#ation o( :JT*
"a.imum mar- for this 4uestion: 18 mar-s+onstruction 9:mar-s%E4uivalent circuit 9!mar-s%#peration
9:mar-s%0olt ampere characteristics 9:mar-s%;pplication 9!mar-s%
,5* 4plain the #onstr0#tion8 operation8 e10i%alent #ir#0it8 %olt ampere#hara#teristi#s8 an$ appli#ation o( 3IA9*
"a.imum mar- for this 4uestion: 18 mar-s+onstruction 9:mar-s%E4uivalent circuit 9!mar-s%#peration
9:mar-s%0olt ampere characteristics 9:mar-s%;pplication 9!mar-s%
,)* 4plain the #onstr0#tion8 operation8 e10i%alent #ir#0it8 %olt ampere#hara#teristi#s8 an$ appli#ation o( TRIA9
"a.imum mar- for this 4uestion: 18 mar-s
+onstruction 9:mar-s%E4uivalent circuit 9!mar-s%#peration 9:mar-s%0olt ampere characteristics
:NIT ;
S<9IA2 S=I9ON3:9TOR 3;I9S
,-* What is a TRIA9?
T<I;+ is a three terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. It can conduct in both
thedirections for any desired period. In operation it is e4uivalent to two $+<=s connected in
,.* >i%e the appli#ation o( TRIA9*
1. >eater control!. "otor speed control'. ,hase control:. $tatic switches
-/* What are the $i((erent operatin& mo$es o( TRIA9?
1. ?eeping "T! and ( positive!. ?eeping "T! and ( negative.'. ?eeping "T! positive and (
negative.:. ?eeping "T! negative and ( positive.
-1* What are the re&ions in the ;I #hara#teristi#s o( :JT?
1. +ut)off region!. *egative resistance region.'. $aturation region
-2* What is meant +" ne&ati%e resistan#e re&ion o( :JT?
In a @T when the emitter voltage reaches the pea- point voltage, emitter current starts flowing.;fter
the pea- point any effort to increase in emitter voltage further leads to sudden increase in theemitter
current with corresponding decrease in emitter voltage, e.hibiting negative resistance. Thista-es place
until the valley point is reached. This region between the pea- point and valley point iscalled negative
resistance region.
-3* =ention the appli#ations o( :JT*
1. It is used in timing circuits!. It is used in switching circuits'. It is used in phase control circuits
:. It can be used as trigger device for $+< and triac.A. It is used in saw tooth generator.8. It is used
for pulse generation.
-!* What is a 3IA9?
&I;+ is a two terminal bidirectional semiconductor switching device. . It can conduct in
either direction depending upon the polarity of the voltage applied across its main terminals. In
operation&I;+ is e4uivalent to two : layer diodes connected in antiparallel.
-5* >i%e some appli#ations o( 3IA9*
To trigger T<I;+!. "otor speed control'. >eat control:. Bight dimmer circuits
-,* What is a S9R?
; silicon controller rectifier 9$+<% is a three terminal, three 2unction semiconductor device that actsas a
true electronic switch. It is a unidirectional device. It converts alternating current into directcurrent and
controls the amount of power fed to the load.
--* 3e(ine +rea5 o%er %olta&e o( S9R*
1rea- over voltage is defined as the minimum forward voltage with gate open at which the $+< starts
conducting heavily.
-.*Wh" S9R #annot +e 0se$ as a +i$ire#tional s'it#h*
$+< can do conduction only when anode is positive with respect to cathode with proper gatecurrent.
Therefore, $+< operates only in one direction and cannot be used as bidirectional switch.
./* 7o' t0rnin& on o( S9R is $one?
1y increasing the voltage across $+< above forward brea- over voltage.!. 1y applying a small positive
voltage at gate.'. 1y rapidly increasing the anode to cathode voltage.:. 1y irradiating $+< with light.
.1* 7o' t0rnin& o(( o( S9R is $one?
1y reversing the polarity of anode to cathode voltage.!. 1y reducing the current through the $+<
below holding current.'.1y interrupting anode current by means of momentarily series or parallel
.2* 3e(ine hol$in& #0rrent in a S9R*
>olding current is defined as the minimum value of anode current to -eep the $+< #*.
.3* 2ist the a$%anta&es o( S9R*
$+< can handle and control large currents.!. Its switching speed is very high'. It has no moving parts,
therefore it gives noiseless operation.:. Its operating efficiency is high.
.!* 2ist the appli#ation o( S9R*
It can be used as a speed controller in &+ and ;+ motors.!. It can be used as an inverter.'. It can be
used as a converter :. It is used in battery chargers.A. It is used for phase control and heater control.8. It
is used in light dimming control circuits.
.5* What is meant +" lat#hin&*
The ability of $+< to remain conducting even when the gate signal is removed is called as latching.
.)* 3e(ine (or'ar$ #0rrent ratin& o( a S9R
Forward current rating of a $+< is the ma.imum anode current that it can handle withoutdestruction.
.,* 2ist the important ratin&s o( S9R*
Forward brea- over voltage!. >olding current'. (ate trigger current:. ;verage forward currentA.
<everse brea- down voltage.
.-* 9ompare S9R 'ith TRIA9*
1. unidirectional current 1. bidirectional current triggered by positive pulse at gate
!. triggered by pulse of positive or negativeat gate
'. fast turn off time ',. Bonger turn off time
:. large current ratings :. lower current ratings
..* 3i((erentiate BJT an$ :JT*
1. It has two ,* 2unctions 1. It has only one ,* 2unctions
!. three terminals present !. three terminals present are emitter,are emitter, base,collector base1,base!
'. basically a amplifying device '. basically a switching device
1//* What is Sho#5le" $io$e (<N<N $io$e)?
$hoc-ley diode is a four layered ,*,* silicon diode. It is a low) current $+< without a gate.
Thisdevice is switched #* when the anode to cathode voltage is increased to forward
switchingvoltage0$ which is e4uivalent to $+< forward brea- over voltage.
1/1* What is a th"ristor?
Thyristor is a semiconductor device having three or more 2unctions .$uch a device acts as a
switchwithout any bias and can be fabricated to have voltage ratings of severalhundred volts and
currentratings from a few amperes to almost thousand amperes
1/2* What are the t"pes o( th"ristors?
1. @nidirectional thyristors!. 1idirectional thyristors'. Bow)power thyristors
1/3* >i%e the %ario0s tri&&erin& $e%i#es (or th"ristors*
1. $+< !. @T'. &I;+:. T<I;+
1/!* 'hat is +a#5'ar$ $io$e?
The bac-ward diode is a diode in which the doping level is moderate. The forward current in thiscase is
very small, very much similar to that of the reverse current in the conventional diode.
1/5* 'hat is a photo $io$e?
The photo diode is a diode in which the current sensitivity to radiation can be made much larger bythe
use of the reverse biased ,* 2unction. Thus this diode conducts heavily in the reverse bias whenthere is
some radiaton allowed to fall on the ,* 2unction.
1/)* What is a 23?
; ,* 2unction diode which emits light when forward biased is -nown as Bight emitting diode9BE&%.
1/,* What is a t0nnel $io$e?
The tunnel diode is a pn 2unction diode in which the impurity concentration is greatly increasedabout
1CCC times higher than a conventional ,* 2unction diode thus yielding a very thin depletionlayer. This
diode utili5es a phenomenon called tunneling and hence the diode is referred as tunneldiode.
1/-* What is t0nnelin& phenomenon?
The phenomenon of penetration of the charge carriers directly though the potential barrier instead
of climbing over it is called as tunneling