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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
I N D R A N I L M U T S U D D I
What Is Perception an!
What Is Perception an!
Wh" Is It I#portant$
Wh" Is It I#portant$

Peoples behavior is
Peoples behavior is
based on their
based on their
perception of what
perception of what
reality is, not on
reality is, not on
reality itself.
reality itself.

The world as it is
The world as it is
perceived is the world
perceived is the world
that is behaviorally
that is behaviorally
important.
important.
What the st%!" o& Perception is a''
What the st%!" o& Perception is a''
a(o%t$
a(o%t$
The st%!" o& perception is concerne! )ith
i!enti&"in* the processes thro%*h )hich )e
interpret an! or*ani+e sensor" in&or#ation to
pro!%ce o%r conscio%s e,perience o& o(-ects .
o(-ect re'ationships/
Sensation
Sensation
0 It is o%r a(i'it" to !etect sti#%'i in o%r i##e!iate
en1iron#ent/
0 Sensation is concerne! )ith the initia' contact
(2) or*anis#s . their ph"sica' en1iron#ent/
0 It a'so &oc%ses on !escri(in* the re'ationship (2)
1ario%s &or#s o& sensor" sti#%'ation . ho) these
inp%ts are re*istere! (" the sensor" or*ans/
0 Perception he'ps an in!i1i!%a' to e&&ecti1e'"
process . interpret the ra) sensor" inp%ts into
#eanin*&%' sensation/
Selection
Selection
0 It is the process %se! (" a person to e'i#inate
so#e o& the sti#%'i that ha1e (een sense! . to
retain others &or &%rther processin*/
0 Se'ection !epen!s on3
4 Ph"sica' 5haracteristics o& the sti#%'i3
0 Contrast 6!i&&erence (2) one sti#%'%s . s%rro%n!in*
sti#%'i that #a7es that sti#%'%s #ore 'i7e'" to (e se'ecte!8
0 Novelty 6)hen the sti#%'%s )e are sensin* !i&&ers &ro#
sti#%'i )e ha1e e,perience! in the past8/
0 Intensity
0 Change
0 Other Dimensions (&re9%enc" n%#(er o& senses
sti#%'ate! n%#(er o& sti#%'i etc8/
4 5haracteristics o& the percei1er
The Sub-processes Of Perception
External
Environment
Physical
Socio-cultural
BEHAVIO
!O"SE#$E"!ES
STI%$&$S O SIT$ATIO"
Confrontation
of specific
stimulus
PESO"
Interpretation
of stimulus
Registration
of stimulus
Feedback
for clarification
Behavior
(overt or
covert)
Consequence
(reinforcement,
punishment)
:actors
:actors
That
That
In&'%ence
In&'%ence
Perception
Perception
Factors influencing Perception
Factors influencing Perception
Situational factors:
0 Physical settings
0 Social settings
0 Organizational setting
Perceivers Characteristics:
0 Nees
0 !"periences
0 #alues $ %ttitues
0 Personality
Characteristics of the
perceive:
0 Nature
0 Size
0 %ppearance
0 &ocation
Iniviual
Perception
Perceptual Process
Perceptual Process
Stimuli
E,terna' . Interna' Sti#%'i
Organizing
Sti#%'i is recei1e! thro%*h
sensor" or*ans
Selective %ttention
!"ternal
Factors:
Nat%re
Location
Si+e
5ontrast
Mo1e#ent
Repetition
:a#i'iarit"
Internal
Factors:
Learnin*
Nee!s
A*e
Interest
Paranoi!
A#(i*%o%s &i*%res
:i*%re *ro%n!
Gro%pin*
5onstanc"
Interpreting
Percept%a' set
Attri(%tion
Stereot"pin*
Ha'o;e&&ect
De&ense . Pro-ection
'esponse
Covert:
Attit%!es
Moti1ation
:ee'in*
Overt:
Beha1ior
0 It is the process (" )hich peop'e *ro%p sti#%'i
into reco*ni+a('e patterns/
0 Se'ection *i1es )a" to or*ani+ation an! sti#%'i
se'ecte! &or attention then appears as a )ho'e/
0 :actors in&'%encin* <Percept%a' Or*ani+ation=3
; A#(i*%o%s :i*%res
; :i*%re Bac7*ro%n!
; Gro%pin*
; 5onstanc"
Perceptual Organization
Perceptual Organization
Principle of Similarity in Perception
Principle of Similarity in Perception
0 It is e,e#p'i&ie! )hen o(-ects o& si#i'ar shape
si+e or co'or ten! to (e *ro%pe! to*ether
Principle of Pro"imity in Perception
0 It %n!er'ines the ten!enc" to percei1e sti#%'i
)hich are near to one another as (e'on*in*
to*ether/
Principle of Closure in Perception
0 It states that a person has a ten!enc" to percei1e
a )ho'e )hen none e,ists/ The percept%a'
process )i'' c'ose the *aps )hich are %n&i''e! &ro#
the sensor" inp%ts/
Principle of Continuity in Perception
0 It is the ten!enc" to percei1e o(-ects as
contin%in* patterns/ It is c'ose'" re'ate! to the
princip'e o& c'os%re/
0 5'os%re s%pp'ies the #issin* sti#%'i> )hereas the
contin%it" princip'e !epicts that a person )o%'!
ten! to percei1e contin%o%s 'ines or patterns/
Perceptual Constancy
Perceptual Constancy
0 Percept%a' 5onstanc" is o%r a(i'it" to percei1e
certain characteristics o& an o(-ect as re#ainin*
constant !espite 1ariations in the sti#%'i that
pro1i!e %s )ith con&'ictin* in&or#ation/
0 Percept%a' 5onstanc" is o& the &o''o)in* t"pes3
; Shape 5onstanc"
; Si+e 5onstanc"
; 5o'or 5onstanc"
The !ontrast Principle Of Perception
Process of Interpreting
Process of Interpreting
The process o& interpretation !epen!s on se1era'
&actors na#e'"3
0 Percept%a' Set
0 Attri(%tion
0 Stereot"pin*
0 Pri#ac"2Recenc" E&&ects
0 Ha'o e&&ect
0 Percept%a' conte,t
0 Percept%a' !e&ense
0 I#p'icit Persona'it" theor"
0 Pro-ection
The ole That &earnin' Plays In Perception
Person Perception3 Ma7in*
Person Perception3 Ma7in*
?%!*#ents A(o%t Others
?%!*#ents A(o%t Others
Distinctiveness sho!s different behaviors in different situations"
Consensus response is the same as others to same situation"
Consistenc# responds in the same !a# over time"
Perceptual Set
Perceptual Set
When pre1io%s'" he'! (e'ie&s a(o%t o(-ects
in&'%ence an in!i1i!%a'@s perceptions o& si#i'ar
o(-ects it is re&erre! to as <Percept%a' Set=
%ttri(ution
It re&ers to the process (" )hich the in!i1i!%a'
assi*ns ca%ses to the (eha1ior he or she
concei1es/
Stereotyping
It is the ten!enc" to assi*n attri(%tes to so#eone
so'e'" on the (asis o& a cate*or" o& peop'e to
)hich that person (e'on*s/
%ttri(ution )heory
%ttri(ution )heory
0 5ontri(%te! (" :rit+ Hei!er . H/H/ Ae''"/
0 The theor" s%**ests that )e o(ser1e (eha1ior .
then attri(%te ca%ses to it/
0 The process o& attri(%tion is (ase! on perceptions
o& rea'it" an! these perceptions #a" 1ar" )i!e'"
a#on* in!i1i!%a's/
0 The theor" a'so !epicts that the (eha1ior o&
others can (e e,a#ine! on the (asis o& its3
; Distincti1eness
; 5onsistenc"
; 5onsens%s

%ttri(ution Process
%ttri(ution Process
O(servation of
*ehavior
Distinctiveness
(+igh or &o,-
Consistency
(+igh or &o,-
Consensus
(+igh or &o,-
%ttri(ution of
causes
Internal or !"ternal
'ules of %ttri(ution
'ules of %ttri(ution
Distinctiveness:
Does this person (eha1e
in this #anner in other
Sit%ations$
Consistency:
Does this person (eha1e
in this sa#e #anner
other ti#es$
Consensus:
Do other persons (eha1e
in this sa#e #anner$
.es
&o, Distinctiveness
No
+igh Distinctiveness
.es
+igh Consistency
No
&o, Consistency
No
&o, Consensus
.es
+igh Consensus
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Attri(%tion
Attri(%tion
Theor"
Theor"
(elly)s %o*el Of Attribution
Example of Or'ani+ational Behavior
Type of Information,
Observation
Attribution
%a*e
$igh consensus
%o! consistenc#
$igh distinctiveness
&'ternal
(situational or
environmental
factors)
Co!orkers are also performing
poorl# on this task
(he subordinate does not do
!ell on this task during onl#
one time period
(he subordinate does !ell on
other tasks, but not this one
$igh consistenc#
%o! distinctiveness
%o! consensus
Internal
(personal
factors)
Co!orkers are performing
ver# !ell on this task
(he subordinate does not do
!ell on this task at an# time
(he subordinate does
poorl# on other tasks as
!ell as this one
*iases %ffecting perception
*iases %ffecting perception
P!'C!P)ION
Frame of
'eference
Stereotypes
!"pectations
Pro/ections
Interests
Selective
!"posure
Errors an! Biases in
Errors an! Biases in
Attri(%tions
Attri(%tions
Errors an! Biases in
Errors an! Biases in
Attri(%tions 6cont@!8
Attri(%tions 6cont@!8
:re9%ent'" Use! Shortc%ts
:re9%ent'" Use! Shortc%ts
in ?%!*in* Others
in ?%!*in* Others
It re&ers to the !isproportionate'" hi*h )ei*ht
*i1en to the &irst in&or#ation o(taine! a(o%t a
sti#%'%s/
Primacy !ffect
It re&ers to the !isproportionate'" hi*h )ei*ht
*i1en to the 'ast in&or#ation o(taine! a(o%t a
sti#%'%s/
/
'ecency !ffect
Perceptual Conte"t
It re&ers to the conte,t in )hich an o(-ect is
p'ace! in&'%ences perception/ The or*ani+ationa'
c%'t%re . str%ct%re pro1i!e the pri#ar" conte,t in
)hich )or7ers an! #ana*ers !o their percei1in*
:re9%ent'" Use! Shortc%ts in ?%!*in*
:re9%ent'" Use! Shortc%ts in ?%!*in*
Others
Others
Fre0uently 1se Shortcuts in 2uging
Fre0uently 1se Shortcuts in 2uging
Others
Others
Speci&ic App'ications in
Speci&ic App'ications in
Or*ani+ations
Or*ani+ations
0 E#p'o"#ent Inter1ie)
4 Percept%a' (iases a&&ect the acc%rac" o& inter1ie)ers@
-%!*#ents o& app'icants/
0 Per&or#ance E,pectations
4 Se'&;&%'&i''in* prophec" 6pygmalion effect83 The 'o)er or
hi*her per&or#ance o& e#p'o"ees re&'ects preconcei1e!
'ea!er e,pectations a(o%t e#p'o"ee capa(i'ities/
0 Per&or#ance E1a'%ations
4 Appraisa's are s%(-ecti1e perceptions o& per&or#ance/
0 E#p'o"ee E&&ort
4 Assess#ent o& in!i1i!%a' e&&ort is a s%(-ecti1e -%!*#ent
s%(-ect to percept%a' !istortion an! (ias/
The Lin7 Bet)een Perceptions an!
The Lin7 Bet)een Perceptions an!
In!i1i!%a' Decision Ma7in*
In!i1i!%a' Decision Ma7in*
Perceptions
of the
*ecision
ma-er
Outcomes
Ass%#ptions o& the Rationa'
Ass%#ptions o& the Rationa'
Decision;Ma7in* Mo!e'
Decision;Ma7in* Mo!e'
./ Problem clarity
0/ (no1n options
2/ !lear preferences
3/ !onstant
preferences
4/ "o time or cost
constraints
5/ %aximum payoff
0 Here an in!i1i!%a' is 'i7e'" to p%t %p a !e&ense
)hen con&ronte! )ith con&'ictin* %naccepta('e or
threatenin* sti#%'i/
0 It co%'! (e in the &or# o& o%tri*ht !enia'
#o!i&ication o& the !ata recei1e! chan*e in
perception (%t re&%sa' to chan*e . chan*e in the
perception itse'&/
Perceptual Defense
Implicit Personality )heory
Whi'e -%!*in* . #a7in* in&erences a(o%t others
an in!i1i!%a'@s perceptions are in&'%ence! (" his
(e'ie& that certain h%#an traits are associate!
)ith one another 6e*3 honest" . har!)or7in*8/
Impression %ana'ement Strate'ies
6emotion-
Preventative
Strate'y
Accounts Apolo'ies
6isassoci-
ation
Promotion-
Enhancin'
Strate'y
Entitlements
Enhancements
Obstacle
*isclosures
Association
!"pectancy !ffect
!"pectancy !ffect
It occ%rs )hen peop'e percei1e sti#%'i in )a"s
that )i'' con&ir# their e,pectations
Pygmalion !ffect (Self3fulfilling
prophecy-
It occ%rs )hen peop'e %nconscio%s'" a!-%st their
(eha1iors to re&'ect their e,pectations in a
partic%'ar sit%ation/
4anaging the Perception process
4anaging the Perception process
0 Ha1e a hi*h 'e1e' o& se'&;a)areness
0 See7 in&or#ation &ro# 1ario%s so%rces to con&ir#
or !iscon&ir# persona' i#pressions o& a !ecision
sit%ation/
0 Be e#pathetic;that is (e a('e to see a sit%ation
as it is percei1e! (" other peop'e/
0 In&'%ence perceptions o& other peop'e )hen the"
are !ra)in* incorrect or inco#p'ete i#pressions
o& e1ents in the )or7 settin*s/
0 A1oi! co##on percept%a' !istortions that (ias
o%r 1ie)s o& peop'e . sit%ations/
0 A1oi! inappropriate attri(%tions
0 Di1ersit" #ana*e#ent pro*ra#s
0 Ano)in* "o%rse'&2onese'& 6Se'&;Perceptions8/
4anaging the Perception process
4anaging the Perception process
Self3Perceptions: )he 2ohari
Self3Perceptions: )he 2ohari
5ino,
5ino,
?ohari Win!o) is an e&&ecti1e )a" to
concept%a'i+e the possi('e co#(inations o& )hat
one in!i1i!%a' 7no)s a(o%t hi#se'&2herse'& .
)hat others 7no) a(o%t hi#2her/
)he 2ohari 5ino,
)he 2ohari 5ino,
0 De1e'ope! (" ?oseph L%&t . Harr" In*ha# 6Th%s the
na#e ?ohari Win!o)8 this #o!e' is %se&%' &or
ana'"+in* the ca%ses &or inter;persona' con&'ict/
0 The #o!e' is (ase! on t)o ass%#ptions3
; De*ree to )hich the person 7no)s a(o%t hi#se'&
or herse'&/
; De*ree to )hich the person is 7no)n to others/
0 The (asic p'at&or# o& this #o!e' is that persona' .
pro&essiona' re'ationships o& peop'e in or*ani+ations
can (e *reat'" i#pro1e! 6con&'ict e'i#inate!8 thro%*h
%n!erstan!in* others/
Open %rea *lin %rea
+ien %rea 1n6no,n %rea
D
i
s
c
l
o
s
u
r
e
7no,n to
Others
7no,n to
Self
Not 7no,n to
Self
Fee(ac6
Not 7no,n
to Others
)he 2ohari 5ino,
)he 2ohari 5ino,
Social Perception
Social Perception
It is the process o& co#(inin* inte*ratin* an!
interpretin* in&or#ation a(o%t others to *ain an
acc%rate %n!erstan!in* o& the#/