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WING

Hi everyone. My name is Sebastian and today together with Andrei and Daniel we're
going to present you the most important omponent o! any !lying vehile" the wing.
We've divided our tal# into !our parts. $he !irst part gives a de!inition o! a wing% the
seond o!!ers some e&amples o! wing designs% the third part omes with the answer at
the 'uestion (what is an air!oil)( and the !ourth part mentions wing omponents . *ur
tal# will last around +, minutes.

Now let's move to the !irst part o! our tal#% whih is about o!!ering a de!inition o! a
wing. A wing is a type o! !in with a sur!ae that produes aerodynami !ore !or !light
or propulsion through the atmosphere% or through another gaseous or li'uid !luid.
$here are some things we have to onsider involving a wing. -irstly% the wing is the
most important part o! any !lying vehile and this results not only !rom its atual
purpose but also !rom the !at that the wing shares about +. to +/0 o! the airplanes
weight and up to ,10 o! the total drag. Seondly% wing design is constantly evolving.
If you were to compare the wing of the Wright Flyer with that of a modern aircraft,
such as the Boeing 787 , the difference is remarkable. he number of lifting surfaces,
shape, si!e and materials used all contribute to an aircraft"s performance.
Before a wing is designed, its mission has to be determined. What type of aircraft will
this wing be attached to# Will it need to operate at high altitudes with thin
atmospheres# Will it have to carry heavy loads# Will it need space to mount the
engines# $ow much fuel will we want to store inside# $ow fast or agile will the
aircraft need to be# he list of potential specifications is long and highly comple%.
Having ended the !irst part o! our tal#% let's move to the seond one where we'll tal#
about wing designs. As with everything in li!e there are ompromises and this is no
di!!erent with wing design. While eah design wor#s well% they all have limitation or
restritions ma#ing them suitable only !or ertain tas#s.
&ectangular Wing:
he rectangular wing is sometimes referred to as the '$ershey Bar( wing. It can carry
a reasonable load and fly at a reasonable speed, but does nothing superbly well.
It is ideal for personal aircraft as it is easy to control in the air as well as ine%pensive
to build and maintain.
)lliptical Wing*
he elliptical wing is similar to the rectangular wing and was common on tail+wheel
aircraft produced in the ,-./s and 0/s. It e%cels however in use on gliders, where its
long wingspan can capture the wind currents easily, providing lift without the need for
a lot of forward momentum, or airspeed.
1wept Wing
he swept wing is the 'go to( wing for 2et powered aircraft. It needs more forward
speed to produce lift than the rectangular wing, but produces much less drag in the
process, meaning that the aircraft can fly faster. It also works well at the higher
altitudes, which is where most 2et airra!t !ly.
3elta Wing*
he delta wing advances the swept wing concept, pulling the wings even further back
and creating even less drag. he downside to this however is that the aircraft has to
fly e%tremely fast for this wing to be effective. his is why it"s only found on
supersonic aircraft 4aircraft that fly faster than the speed of sound5 such as fighter
2ets and the 1pace 1huttle orbiter. here were also two commercial passenger 2ets
that used this wing design, the &ussian 6+,00 and 7oncorde , both of which could
cruise at supersonic speeds.
$hat is all about the seond part.
Now we're going to the third part o! the presentaion as#ing ourselves (what is an
air!oil) Well% an airplane wing has a speial shape alled an air!oil. As a wing moves
through air% the air is split and passes above and below the wing. $he wing3s upper
sur!ae is shaped so the air rushing over the top speeds up and strethes out. $his
dereases the air pressure above the wing. $he air !lowing below the wing moves in a
straighter line% so its speed and air pressure remain the same. Sine high air pressure
always moves toward low air pressure% the air below the wing pushes upward toward
the air above the wing. $he wing is in the middle% and the whole wing is 4li!ted.5 $he
!aster an airplane moves% the more li!t there is. And when the !ore o! li!t is greater
than the !ore o! gravity% the airplane is able to !ly.
666Moving !orward to the !ourth part o! our presentation I would li#e to !ous on the
main omponents o! a wing.666
he earliest wings were designed mostly through trial and error, using drawings and
small scale models to test theories. oday though, we can precisely calculate a
wing"s performance before it ever leaves the ground. Below are some terms related
to wings and the mathematics behind wing design.
Skin:
he outer surface of the wing. 8riginally made of fabric, modern aircraft use
aluminum or composite materials due to their lightweight and rust+resistant
properties.

Ribs & Stringers
hese make up the inner skeleton of the wing, providing rigidity and strength. While
strength is necessary, it is also important that the wing can fle% slightly while it flies.
his fle%ibility allows it to absorb the stress caused by turbulence and hard landings.
Spar
he main center beam of the wing, designed to carry the structural loads and transfer
them by attachment to the fuselage, or body, of the aircraft.
Fuel Tank
7ommonly located in the wing, fuel can either be housed in its own tank or allowed to
fill the cavities between the ribs. In addition to powering the engines, the fuel adds
rigidity to the wing.
Flaps
9re a 'high lift : high drag( device. ;ot only do they improve the lifting ability of the
wing at slower speeds by changing the camber, or curvature of the wing, they also
create more drag, meaning an aircraft can descend, or lose altitude faster, without
gaining airspeed in the process.
Wing Tip
he wing tip is furthest from the fuselage and is typically where the navigation lights
are mounted 4a red light on the left, a green light on the right5.
9ileron
An aileron is a flight control surface usually attached to the trailing edge of each wing
Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll
Camber:
he name given to the curvature of the upper or lower surfaces of the wing. 9 higher
camber, or more curved surface, results in an aircraft that can fly at slower speeds
while still generating sufficient lift for flight.
Chord Line
he theoretical line running from the leading edge of the wing to the trailing edge.
Leading Edge
he front edge of an aircraft"s wing.
Trailing Edge
he rear edge of an aircraft"s wing.
<<<<<&ight, that ends the last part of our talk and now I would like to end by
emphasising the main points.
+9 wing is a special surface that produces aerodynamic forces for flight or
propulsion through the atmosphere or other gaseous or li=uid fluid.

+he wing shares about ,> to ,?@ of the airplanes total weight and about A/@ of
its drag.

+here are numerous types of wings, commonly met*
+rectangular,
+delta,
+swept and elliptical.

+he wing not only produces aerodynamic forces but it also has other duties*
+carry the fuel,
+carry power plants,
+carry the landing gear or bombs4military aircrafts5.

he conclusion that comes out is that the wing has a critical role in making a vehicle
to fly, being the main characteristic in making a difference between a terrestrial
vehicle like a train or a car and an airplane or a helicopter. <<<<<<