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Pharmaceutical Biology 2007, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 176–181

Antimicrobial Screening of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants
Mustafa Oskay and Dilek Sarı Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey

Abstract
Ethanol extracts of 19 Turkish medicinal plants, used in the traditional system of medicine, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against 14 pathogenic bacterial species and a yeast, Candida albicans, using the agar well diffusion method. Anticandidal activity was detected in 10 plant extracts. Extracts of Eucalyptus camuldulensis (leaves), Rosmarinus officinalis (leaves), Ecballium elaterium (leaves, fruits; 2:1, v=v), Liquidambar orientalis (leaves), Cornus sanguinea (leaves, flowers, stems; 2:1:1, v=v=v), Vitis vinifera (leaves, raw fruits, young branches; 2:1:1, v=v=v), Inula viscosa (leaves), Hypericum perforatum (leaves, flowers, stems; 2:1:1, v=v=v), and Punica granatum (leaves, flowers; (2:1, v=v) showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 4 to 34 mm. The most resistant organisms were Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6683, and Enterobacter faecalis ATCC 29212, and the most susceptible species were Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6997, Salmonella typhimurium CCM 5445, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, and Serratia marcescens CCM 583, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for the seven highly active plants that showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 95047 (MRSA), E. coli, and C. albicans. The MICs of active extracts ranged from 8 to 14.2 mg=mL while the MBCs were 14.2 to 24.4 mg=mL. Keywords: Antimicrobial, drug resistant, medicinal plants, MRSA, Turkish. plants constitute an important component of flora and are widely distributed in different floristic regions of Turkey because of its geographic location, climate, and the presence of nearly 10,000 natural plant species ˘ (Baytop, 1999; Ates & Erdogrul, 2003). ¸ Human infections, particularly those involving the skin and mucosal surface, constitute a serious problem, especially in tropical and subtropical developing countries (Falahatı et al., 2005); methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans being the most frequent pathogens. MRSA gained much attention in the past decade, as it is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. The drug-resistant bacteria and the fungal pathogen have further complicated the treatment of infectious diseases in immunocompromised, AIDS, and cancer patients. In the current scenario of emergence of multiple drug resistance to human pathogenic organisms, this has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants (Ahmad & Beg, 2001). It is expected that plant extracts showing target sites other than those used by antibiotics will be active against drug-resistant microbial pathogens. The use of medicinal plants still plays a vital role to cover the basic health needs in developing countries. In this connection, plants continue to be a rich source of therapeutic agents. The active principles of many drugs are found in plants or are produced as secondary metabolites. The remarkable contribution of plants to the drug industry was possible because of the large number of phytochemical and biological studies all over the world. Herbal remedies used in folk medicine provide an interesting and still largely unexplored source for the creation and development of potentially new drugs for chemotherapy, which might help overcome the growing problem of resistance and also the toxicity of the currently available commercial antibiotics. Therefore, it is of great interest to carry out

Introduction
Turkey has an extraordinarily rich flora and a wide knowledge of its indigenous medicinal plants. Medicinal

Accepted: October 18, 2006. Address correspondence to: Mustafa Oskay, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Celal Bayar University, Campus of Muradiye, 45030 Manisa, Turkey. Tel.: +90 236 2412151-122; Fax: +90 236 2412158; E-mail: mustafa.oskay@bayar.edu.tr DOI: 10.1080/13880200701213047 # 2007 Informa Healthcare

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