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History of Architecture (AP313) | Essay | 2014

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Noida - development and architecture

Essay for History of Architecture (AP131)

Deepak Kumar Singh
Roll Number: 01616901611
Sushant School of Art and Architecture

The history of development of the present Noida can be traced as far back as 1972
when U.P. government noticing the increasing pressure of speculative land dealings
in this area, closely situated to Delhi having backward characteristics declared 50
villages of the erstwhile district of Bulandshahr as the Yamuna-Hindon-Delhi
border regulated area under U.P. Regulations of Building Operations Act, 1958.
The reasons for establishing an urban centre in close proximity of Delhi:
Decentralisation of economic activities from Delhi to prevent the in migration
to Delhi so as to help decongesting it.
To prevent speculative land dealings in the areas under the influence of the
metropolis giving rise to an unplanned & haphazard growth in the region.
Provide an alternative site for the small and medium size industries
functioning in the non-conforming areas in & around Delhi at much lower
price & at the same time at the doorstep of Delhi.
Provide a reasonably decent site for residential development within a
manageable distance from Delhi due to non-availability of land in Delhi on a
reasonable price.
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The draft master plan of Noida has been prepared taking into consideration the
major locational decisions of various land uses in relation to each other to enable
the township to be a self-supporting, self-contained, socially balanced & well-
designed new community for people to live, work, enjoy & worship in pleasant
The residential sectors are carefully planned in the natural settings, close to the
place of work, the community facilities & recreational areas required for healthy
living. The controlled density pattern provides a balanced distribution of population
throughout the town.
The work places are distributed in different parts of the town in terms of industrial,
commercial & govt. functions, so that the journey to the place of work & back to
residence is minimised.
A comprehensive circulation pattern has been achieved on hierarchical system of
roads which shall provide efficient accessibility to adjacent areas as well as to
different parts of the township & sectors & shall be able to cater to the expected
passenger and goods traffic volume.
The transport nagars located at the two different locations shall minimise the
through movement of the heavy vehicles.
The open spaces are uniformly distributed throughout the town at different levels in
the form of tot-lots, parks, & play-grounds at local, neighbourhood, & town level to
provide a pleasant & healthy environment for the residents.

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Proposed land use allocation(2001) as per master plan:
1. Residential 1870 49.2
2. Industrial 495 13
3. Commercial 230 6.1
4. Public & semi-public 365 9.6
5. Transportation 495 13
6. Organised open spaces 292 7.7
7. Unusable land water bodies 53 1.4
GRAND TOTAL 3800 100

It is proposed to be developed with 3 overall density patterns: high density i.e. 500
persons/hectare, medium density i.e. 350 persons/hectare, low density with 200
persons/hectare. High & medium densities are proposed to be located near the
industrial areas, wholesale commercial areas & the main work centres.

Plotted development
Group housing
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Residential sectors are proposed to be developed in an integrated manner suitable
to various socio-economic groups of the society. This will result into the desired
form i.e. mixed development.

An area of 495 hectares of the total organisable area has been earmarked for
industrial use, out of which 335 hectares in the north-west boundary of the
township, abutting the Delhi-U.P. border is earmarked for small scale industries.
There are 4,546 plots carved out having different sizes of plots & sheds. 1076
sheds of varying sizes have already been constructed by area of about
160 hectares is being developed near village Nagla Chandras on Dadri-Surajpur-
Chhalera road for large, medium & small scale industries. A total of 310 plots of
different sizes have been planned in this area.

An area of 230 hectares(6.1%) has been provided for the Town Centre & other major
commercial units. This will accommodate retail & wholesale trade & commerce,
entertainment & professional offices etc. the town centre is located almost in the
centre of the town. The 3 sub-district centres are located in such a way that they
are easily accessible from the arterial as well as primary roads & shall have 3
respective catchment areas which in turn will reduce the travel in the township.

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This land use accommodates social infrastructural facilities required in order to
make a settlement self-sufficient to the desired level. It includes institutional, govt.
& semi-govt., educational, health, community facilities, public utilities & police
lines etc. the high % of land in this category confirms that the master plan has
accommodated town level as well as neighbourhood level facilities in accordance
with the desirable norms & standards for a cross-section of population of a modern

Adequate measures have been taken to serve the inhabitants by providing
organised open spaces juxtapositioned at suitable and functional locations. For this
purpose, the following hierarchy of open spaces at various levels has been
proposed : town, neighbourhood, sector, local level.

The principal traffic generators in order of intensity are: industrial area, whole-sale
commercial areas located at 3 locations, town centre & transport nagars.
Keeping in view, the road pattern is proposed to be served by the following
hierarchy of roads:
Regional roads/Arterial roads
Primary roads
Secondary roads
Local roads
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Regional road in east shall connect nagla charandas industrial area with national
highway no. 24 & will give effective linkage to Ghaziabad & other towns of U.P. in
the east and Delhi in the west. Regional road in the south & it`s connection to chilla
regulator, NOIDA will be effectively linked with Delhi & bulandshahr. The link to
Mathura road through okhla-barrage-cum-bridge for Bombay via Faridabad. The
approach to NOIDA is through nizamuddin bridge from Delhi.
To meet the needs of intra city & intercity passenger traffic, a city/regional bus
station with workshop has been provided in sector 32.
For planning, controlling, & channelizing the movement of heavy goods vehicles, 2
transport nagars have been located at convenient locations. The transport nagar
campus will accommodate the functions of booking & forwarding of raw material &
finished goods, the repair & servicing of the vehicles & idle parking, transport
accommodation for all those who need them & are engaged in the transportation
Another factor, which is likely to have far reaching implications for the growth
potential of Noida is the development of Greater Noida and Yamuna Expressway
Industrial area townships on a contiguous territory east of the river Hindon. This
territory had become a hot bed of speculative activity in the eighties, when the
development of Noida had begun to take shape. The speculators had intensified
their activity in the area since they perceived that the area had a high development
potential in view of its close proximity to Delhi and also Noida, Ghaziabad,
Faridabad and Gurgaon. Besides, the area being situated on the periphery of a
fertile hinterland of Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh was certain to benefit from
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the ensuing prosperity. The Government of Uttar Pradesh, with a view to curb
haphazard developmental activities in this potential area, decided to acquire about
70,000 hectares of land for planned urban development. For this purpose, the State
Government created the Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority (GNIDA)
and later got a master plan prepared for the development of a new city, namely,
Greater Noida for a population of 300,000 to be achieved by the year 2001. Greater
Noida is also now planned for a population of 12 lakhs by 2021. This city is also
bound to expand in size with time, and being located in close proximity to Noida,
would surely influence the development of the city.

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Figure 1: Master plan NOIDA 2001
Ref: http://

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Figure 2: Master plan NOIDA 2011
Ref: http://
Figure 3: Master plan NOIDA 2021
Ref: http://
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figure 4: Master plan NOIDA 2031
Ref: http://

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Figure 5: Master plan NOIDA 2031(road andmetro network)
Ref: http://

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Noida Master Plan - 2031 has been prepared with the following objectives:
Within the framework of broad policies for the development of U.P. Sub-
region of NCR and taking into consideration the proposed strengthening of
the road and rail infrastructure and the development pressures due to the
creation and development of various activities in the adjoining area, Greater
Noida, Delhi, Ghaziabad etc., prepare a Master Plan for Noida 2031 for:
Achieving integrated development of Noida and its environs; and
Accommodating future growth of population up to the year 2031.
To capitalise on the areas high growth potential due to its proximity to the
metropolitan city of Delhi and public investment expenditure not only in the
area but also the environs.
To promote employment generating activities such as small scale industrial
work opportunities, offices spaces, institutions, commercial centres, IT parks,
etc., at places which are well suited for such activities and provide a
conducive environment for people to work and enjoy good quality of life.

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A Close analysis of the table reveals that whereas only 985 ha were proposed for
industrial use in the report of the Noida Plan-2011, out of which about 838 ha of
industrial area (85.0 percent of the proposal for the year 2011) had already been
developed by 1997. Whereas, a total of 3,672 ha of residential land were proposed
by 2011, it is found that only 45 percent of the allocation for residential use had
been developed till 1997. Similar reduction is observed in relation to areas for
commercial and public/semi-public uses. On the whole, it is found that very small
proportions of areas for commercial and recreational uses have been developed, the
figures being 30.6, and 32.6 per cent respectively of the allocations.

An Analysis of the status of land developed under various land use categories in the
year 2006 (Table 1.8), however, points towards commendable progress in achieving
targets. The analysis reveals continued emphasis on industrial development,
obviously so since as stated above the Authoritys focus was on supply of developed
industrial land. This is inferred from the fact that the Authority had committed as
much as 1,983.04 ha of industrial land by the year 2006, though this entire land for
Industrial use was not developed. It includes about 1000 hectare land allotted for
S.E.Z. . This is 201.32 percent of the original proposal for the year 2011. But what is
more commendable is that as much as 99.53 percent of the original allocation for
residential use had been developed till 2006. Similar progress, though relatively
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less significant, is observed in respect of areas for other uses. Up to 2006, as much
as 64.30 percent of the targeted allocations for commercial use area have been
achieved by 2006. Fast pace of development has also been achieved in recreational,
public and semi-public and transportation related use areas, pointing toward
successful implementation of the Master Plan of Noida for 2011.

Noida is a fast growing town. Its development during last one decade indicates that
the pace of development is more than what was expected in earlier Master Plans. A
detail analysis of land development based on the latest satellite images indicates
that total land of approximately 9211 hectares have been developed in different
land uses by January 2010 and approximately 1000 hectares land was in the
process of development. It indicates that the development of Noida has been more
than what was provisionally envisaged in Noida Master Plan 2011. The Noida Master
Plan 2011 was revised in 2006 for the perspective year of 2021. A total of 14964
hectare land was proposed for the development of urban activities. A comparative
analysis of land use development with reference to proposed land use in Noida
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Master Plan, 2021 reveals that about 61.61% of total proposed land has already
been developed.

The Proposed land use distribution for the year 2031 follows a distinct hierarchical
order. The total proposed organisable area of about 15280 hectares has been
divided into sectors and facilities have been distributed almost in all the areas of
the town. It is observed that by the year 2031 when the town population is
expected to reach 25 lakhs, the overall density of the town will be about 164
persons per hectare, which is well within the general density standards as envisaged
in the NCR Plan-2021. The area for residential development has been increased to
5656.14 hectare that is about 37% of the total proposed organisable area. There is
a marginal increase in the commercial area which is 581.33 hectare and about 3.80
percent of the total proposed organisable area. Area under Institutional and public /
semi- public facilities and services has been increased both in absolute and in
percentage. About 1377.97 hectare land that is about 9.01 percent is proposed for
city level Institutional, public &semi-public facilities and services. The area devoted
to recreational use also has been increased substantially to about 15.92 percent of
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the total proposed organisable area. This will further be supplemented by area
under agriculture use and area under water bodies leading to effective green area
provision of about 20 percent. More than 5000 hectares land is in the river front
development area which will be broadly open and green in nature and would be
utilized for either agriculture, horticulture, floriculture or recreational activities
without any permanent building structures.

New connections over river Yamuna or widening of Okhla barrage road
assuming that the trends of increasing interaction between Noida and Delhi
would be allowed to persist or enlarge.
Appropriate rail linkages, both for passenger and goods traffic. There is no
railway connection or easy access to railway station.
Planning strategies to reduce the flow of traffic linkage of Noida with Delhi
and increase it more with adjoining areas of U.P and Haryana to make Noida
a comparatively more self-contained city.
Traffic management programmes for the city encompassing traffic
segregation strategies, provision of cycle tracks/paths, parking control,
pavement marking, road signage, enforcement and intersection control.
Need to formulate appropriate parking policy, which could incorporate
strategies and programmes for on-street and off-street parking, parking
norms/standards, parking pricing and parking management.
An environmentally friendly integrated transport system for the city.

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it, business & media hub:
To make Noida an aspiring world class city, an integrated development approach
has been adopted. The result is seen in the throbbing industrial, institutional and
commercial activities taking place with amazing speed. Home to some of the top
industrial houses, Noida also has countrys prominent and best educational
Noida is now internationally known as an IT hub where some of the worlds top IT &
ITES companies have their corporate offices and R&D centres. Film City is unique to
Noida that houses some of the nations top TV & Radio channels, business parks
and media schools.
IT, Business & Media Hub
IT Giants & IT Parks
Factories & Business Parks
Film City- TV Channels & Media schools

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Hospitality, Entertainment & Shopping:
Indian hospitality is legendary. A guest in Noida can experience its warmth amidst
luxurious and stylish surroundings by choosing one of the several staying options
available in the city. While staying here, one can experience a great time. From the
seediest watering holes to sophisticated lounge and sports bars, the citys nightlife
is intoxicating. Noida can easily flaunt its credentials as a culinary haven. Eating
options are limitless, night or day.
Part of Noidas appeal also lies in its extensively vibrant shopping environment. The
allure of an all-under-one-roof experience of both shopping and window-shopping
is strong in the city. Shoppers flock to the various glitzy malls that offer a
glamorous, convenient and comfortable shopping experience.
Hospitality, Entertainment & Shopping
B& B Options- Budget To 5-star
Multi-Cuisine Restaurants& Classy Bars
World of Wonders & EOD
Luxury Brands & Multi-level Malls
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Dream Homes & Townships:
In Noida many have found their dream homes. The city has not only made the
dream of owning a house a reality for all strata of the society, it has also given its
residents a good quality of life. Penthouses, expandable villas, condominiums,
luxurious apartments- all are here. Palatial independent bungalows abound in the
citys posh sectors while countrys many prestigious builders are actively here with
their mega housing projects. To have a property in Noida, is a matter of status now.
People from all over the country are investing in property here which has resulted in
growth and financial success of the city.
Dream Homes & Townships
Luxury Apartments
Villas & Bungalows

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Education, Art & Culture:
At Noida, the growth on the institutional front has kept pace with the commercial
and industrial development. International-level institutions in the field of
engineering, research and development, medicine and management are here to give
their students the best. Even Government colleges are here to cater to higher
educational needs.
To promote art, the new Kiran Nadar Museum of Art (KNMA) has come up which
includes modern and contemporary masterpieces. The Museum houses some of the
most famous works of Raja Ravi Verma, F N Souza, M F Husain, V S Gaitonde, Tyeb
Mehta, Akbar Padamsee & Arpita Singh. Noida also has a contemporary art scene
one that's best appreciated by visiting some of its smaller, more intimate galleries.
Premier Institutes & Academies
Amity University
Kiran Nadar Museum of Art
Art galleries

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City's Many Moods:
Noida is exciting in terms of existing contrasts. Its a city where the new
complements the old, modernity alternates with the rustic, silence follows in the
footstep of commotion, and a cosmopolitan spirit walks side by side with
provinciality. Its a city that loves to celebrate whether its seasons, fairs or festivals.
On these and several other grounds, Noida deserves to be explored which has been
chosen by some of the most prominent and distinguished people, as their home.
City of Faith
City on the Move
City of Contrasts
Distinguished Residents

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Architects: ArchohmStudio
Location: Noida
Project team: Sourabh Gupta, Anindya Ghosh, Sanjay Rawat, Shiv Dutt Sharma
Project Year: 2012
Project Area: 2,400 sqm
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c 28c, is the design studio Archohms Head office in India. Often labeled as a
design fort, the design of the studio reflects the mad and fun design philosophy of
Archomites. The site is located in an extremely dense suburban area within the
vicinity of the NCR With a built up area of 4,000 sq meters. Amidst theurban city
conditions, the triangulated plot is flanked by, the Jama mosque on one side,
industrial factories on the other and a large slum development on the third.
Standing tall at a height of 10m, Archohms Corten steel entrance door creates an
intimidating first impression. Its revolving nature and access through a ramp, gives
the building its character and symbolizing the continuity of the outer street into this
square, the atrium for visitors. A moat augments the medieval modern dialogue
with a revolving bridge thatconnects the main studio tothe front garden. Red
Sandstone clads the boundary wall, with etchings that depict the focus areas of the
The main building is divided into five components, each of which are defined and
exaggerated by the use of distinct materials; concrete, glass, brick, stone and
metal. Each component has been designed keeping in mind climatic, contextual and
functional requirements.

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Corporate Office for India Glycols / Morphogenesis:
Architects: Morphogenesis
Location: GreaterNoida, India
Projectarea: 391,741sqf
Projectyear: 2009
Photographs: Courtesy of Morphogenesis

The office design for the corporate office for India Glycols embodies the issues
concerning the workplace today, and explores the paradigm of the office space as a
social activity. Sited in a non-contextual suburban area of Delhi, the setting, led to
the development of an introverted scheme that would address environmental and
socio-economic issues from first principles.
As is the nature of most custom designed corporate developments, the building had
to exemplify the identity and corporate ideology of equity and transparency in the
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workplace as an integral part of the architectural vocabulary. Conceived as a solid
perimeter scheme with a more fluid interior, the morphology blurs the interface
between the inside and outside. The site surroundings and context along with an
optimum enclosed square volume enabled a built form with minimum exposed
surface area. The built form configured of 8m wide office bays optimizes the
natural day lighting and helps to define the programmatic requirements of the
office. A stacking system is used to generate a variety of open spaces; courtyards,
verandahs, terraces, green roofs etc. that help to structure the office spaces. A
central spine traversing the built volume serves as the common activity zone, with
other departments branching out. The designs conceptual strength comes from the
spatial organization which creates overlaps between the exterior and the interior
and between the various programmatic requirements, hence creating a vibrant and
creative work environment.
The underlying principle was that The work place should manifest itself as a more
flexible and integral part of an employees life rather than a separate entity of
specified hours of confinement. Rhythmic articulation of volumes and spaces
generates a scheme that is a radical departure from the structured differentiated
spaces of the traditional office and the monotony of the open plan halls that have
dominated office planning. The IGL campus makes a cultural statement through the
importance and relevance of energy conscious design within the contemporary
Indian work culture paradigm.

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"Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and
above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-
"Article view". 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
The uneven growth in NCR. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
The Tribune, Chandigarh, India Delhi and neighbourhood
Digg India's Modern Architectural Wonders
Noida Community Portal | "Almost" Official News,
Reviews, Comments, And Discussion Space For Noida & NCR Region

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