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B

747-400
Advanced Operations Tutorial
L uf t ha ns a F l i g ht 4 5 4 : F r a nk f ur t S a n F r a nc i s c o
by olger Seil!
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Table of Contents
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.TOC TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1.10 PEFACE
"ntroduction############################################################################################# 4
$e%uire&ents######################################################################################### '
(ockpit Overvie)################################################################################### *
Setting +p The Si&ulator####################################################################### ,,
1.1.1! "#SPATC$ OFF#CE
Flightplan################################################################################################ ,5
-eather################################################################################################# ,.
Alternates############################################################################################### //
Aircraft State########################################################################################## /0
Fuel 1lanning######################################################################################### /4
2eparture 1lanning################################################################################ /3
Takeoff 2ata########################################################################################### /.
1.1.%0 FL#&$T AN" COC'P#T PEPAAT#ON
4oarding 5 67terior "nspection################################################################ 0/
1reli&inary (ockpit 1reparation############################################################# 04
(8,5/ (ockpit 1reparation#################################################################### 03
Final (ockpit 1reparation####################################################################### 4.
1.1.(0 EN&#NE STAT#N&
4efore Start############################################################################################ 54
Auto&atic 6ngine Start########################################################################## 5'
After Start############################################################################################### 5*
1.1.)0 TA*# AN" TA'EOFF
Ta7i######################################################################################################## 3,
Takeoff################################################################################################### 34
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Table of Contents
1.1.!0 CL#+B AN" C,#SE
(li&b###################################################################################################### 3*
(ruise##################################################################################################### '4
(enter 1u&ps Off################################################################################## '3
First Step (li&b##################################################################################### '*
Fuel Tank To 6ngine############################################################################## '.
Second Step (li&b################################################################################ *,
1.1.-0 "ESCENT AN" LAN"#N&
2escent 4riefing#################################################################################### *0
2escent 1reparations############################################################################ *3
Approach############################################################################################### .5
Landing################################################################################################## ..
1.1..0 AFTE LAN"#N& AN" PA'#N&
After Landing######################################################################################### ,90
1arking################################################################################################## ,95
Leaving Airplane#################################################################################### ,9*
1.1./0 "EB#EF#N&
2ebriefing############################################################################################### ,9.
Final :otes############################################################################################# ,,/
Copyright 2006 by Holger Seilz. All other rights reserved.
This document has been created and eported to !"# $ith %pen%&&ice.org.
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.()C * P#+e ,
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Preface
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.10 Preface
#NTO",CT#ON
#ebruary 'th( )'6' * +verett( ,ashington( -SA: The first 4oeing '4';,99 ta7ies
slo)ly onto the run)ay# "t is ,,:04# <N7470, cleared for takeoff, runway
16.< 4oeing test pilot -addell advances the thrust levers and the ne)ly designed
1ratt = -hitney >T.2 engines )ind up to takeoff po)er# <Eighty knots<
<Checked!< ; <V1!<; <otate!< The largest passenger aircraft ever built is airborne
for the first ti&e# >ournalists )atching the spectacle are si&ply over)hel&ed by it?s
si!e# The na&e <>u&bo >et< is born#
8ore than 09 years later@ the '4' has beco&e one of the &ost )idely recogni!ed
transport aircraft# 6verybody can identify the uni%ue shape of a >u&bo at a single
glance# :early all global players in the airline industry operate a si!able fleet of '4's ;
not only as the backbone of their transcontinental route syste&@ but also as a sy&bol
for the success of &odern air travel#
"ntroduced in ,.**@ the '4';499@ or A2ash 499B version &arks a significant step
for)ard in the develop&ent of this aircraft fa&ily# -ith an i&pressive@ &odern t)o;
&an cockpit@ derived fro& the '5'5'3';series@ a selection of po)erful yet &ore fuel
efficient engines and subtle aerodyna&ic i&prove&ents such as )inglets@ &ost
airlines have upgraded their old '4' fleets to this version#
8ean)hile ho)ever@ &ore co&ple7 and &ore technologically advanced airplanes
have been designed by both 4oeing and Airbus# And )ith the rollout of the huge
A0*9 this year@ the '4' is no longer a class of it?s o)n# Still@ the >u&bo >et is a
bench&ark by )hich all ne) co&petitors )ill be &easured### for good reasons#
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Training Manual Preface
ABO,T T$E S#+,LAT#ON
-hen 1recision 8anuals announced the release of a high;%uality '4';499 for
8icrosoft Flight Si&ulator /994@ a lot of e7cite&ent gre) a&ong the cro)d of
flightsi&&ers@ e7pecting a &aCor %uantu& leap in aircraft design# On the release
date@ August /nd /995@ the run for the ne) 182D bird )as &assive enough to
co&pletely crash both the developer?s )ebsite and the biggest flightsi& co&&unity
site on the )eb ; AES"8# -ith such a ferocious start@ one )ould e7pect an
outstanding piece of si&ulated aviation#
And it looks like )e haven?t been disappointed##
Together )ith recent releases fro& Level;2@
2rea&fleet@ and a fe) others@ the 182D '4'
&arks the top ,9F of add;ons@ transfor&ing a
G59 ga&e such as Flight Si&ulator into a T$+6
si&ulation# Fro& &y point of vie) ; and &any
had a chance to prove that ; so&eone )ith
flightsi& proficiency )ill be able to operate the
real aircraft as )ell# :ote that " don?t say FLH
the real aircraft@ as this )ould be a bold clai&
and a bit of an insult to all airline pilots )ho had
e7tensive flight training and practice# 4ut for
syste&s; and procedure training )e no) have
access to a degree of perfection )hich allo)s
desktop pilots to e7perience the fun and
e7cite&ent of real )orld operations ; )ithout
real )orld Cet lag#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Preface
0$1 A T,TO#AL2
aving seen a lot of discussions on various foru&s@ it is obvious that &ost nor&al
users can?t handle a co&ple7 si&ulation such as the 182D'4' )ithout e7tensive
studying of the &anual# o)ever@ not all virtual pilots do this ; either they don?t have
the ti&e or si&ply the patience for reading all the docu&ents I. mysel& belong to both
groupsJ# They start co&plaining about bugs and )rong behaviors )hich are in fact
often their o)n pilot errors#
That?s )here the need for a co&prehensive tutorial arises# A tutorial is a )onderful
)ay of learning technical syste&s because it directly sho)s the practical
conse%uences of one?s actions# "t is a bit disappointing@ ho)ever@ that &ost tutorials
are )ritten in a brief style and only provide you )ith a chain of actions $ithout
actually giving you the story behind it# There?s a lot &ore to flying an airplane than
Cust s)itch;flipping# So " decided to use &y little kno)ledge and )rite one ; based on
actual airline procedures@ but )ritten in a &ore fluid@ hopefully readable style#
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Training Manual Preface
E3,#E+ENTS
"n this tutorial@ )e?re going to si&ulate a long;haul@ transatlantic flight fro& Frankfurt
to San Francisco@ (A# " picked this flight because it is a typical e7a&ple of a '4' city
pair and has an interesting near;polar;routing to offer as )ell# "t is one of Lufthansa?s
&ain connections to :orth A&erica@ departing fro& Der&any?s busiest airport# +p to
0.9 passengers per day e7pect a safe and pleasant trip to their destination#
For you as the si&ulator captain@ there are a fe) re%uire&ents for this tutorial:
Hou should already have a good kno)ledge about Flight Si&ulator and a .#i/
0%o1le2+e #.o"$ 3l&i%+ $r#%4or$-/#$e+or& #ir/r#3$# "deally@ you have
co&pleted Flight Si&ulator?s AT1L training course# As for the 182D'4'@ you
should kno) ho) to access different parts of the panel# Ter&s such as <overhead<@
<primary &light display< and <mode control panel< should be no total strangers to
you# Obviously you don?t need to kno) details about various syste&s#
"t takes at least '2 5o"r to co&plete this flight i& you $ant to accomplish it in real
time# Of course you )ouldn?t )ant to stare at the screen the )hole ti&e ; Cust set
the stop)atch at takeoff and &ake sure you?re #v#il#.le #$ $5e 4e/i3ie2 $i!e
during cruise# $eal pilots have their rest@ too# Acco&plishing the cruise phase of
this flight )ith $i!e #//eler#$io% "4 $o 46 is possible@ depending on your
co&puter# This cuts flight ti&e do)n to 4 ; 5 hours#
" assu&e that you have a stable installation of Flight Si&ulator /994 and the
182D '4' )ith Servi/e 742#$e '.'0 and the PMDG 8"3$5#%# liver& Iboth
do)nloadable fro& http:55)))#precision&anuals#co&5ht&l5do)nloads#ht&J# The
ne) '4' Freighter upgrade is optional of course#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Preface
COC'P#T O4E4#E0
Panel S5itc6er
Available fro& )ithin the /2;cockpit@ this tool provides instant access to all functions:
Captain7s Panel
Sche&atic overvie) of your office# Hou can s)itch bet)een nor&al and e7panded;
display vie) by clicking the (A1T button on the panel s)itcher#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Preface
Over6ead Panel 8above9
Sche&atic overvie) of the &ain areas#
F+C Control "ispla: ,nit 8ri;6t9
Access a page by clicking the corresponding
function key@ enter data into the scratchpad
using the alphanu&eric keys and transfer it
into the co&puter by clicking the respective
Line Select Keys#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Preface
ABO,T T$#S "OC,+ENT
" hope that " have kept all the instructions clear and precise# "f you get stuck
so&e)here@ read the respective section again# 8ake sure you haven?t overlooked
any s&all detail# This tutorial does :OT tell you every &ouse click you have to &ake
Ie#g# e7actly )hen to close a certain subpanelJ# A bit of co&&on sense can be
e7pected fro& any pilot@ virtual or real# The layout of this docu&ent is derived fro& an
actual Operations 8anual# All instructions in bold font@ for e7a&ple
Par<in; Bra<e.................................................................................................... SET
)ere adopted fro& the operations &anual# :o difference is &ade bet)een
S6TT":D a knob or a lever or (6(K":D it# >ust &ake sure that the respective
condition is &et# An indented e7planatory te7t or picture is provided by &e after
&ost ite&s@ such as this one#
Other for&ats include:
:!4or#%$ i%3or!#$io% or /o%2i$io% ; tells you -6: or -AT to do
DISPLAY AND FMC TEXT ; for in; and outputs on various instru&ents
!"C#s or $ilot#s %oice ; for clearances@ callouts@ briefings etc#
LF8( 4uttonM or =+CP Button> ; points out a certain knob or s)itch
One very last note: This tutorial is designed as R;AD $5e% D)# 6specially during
high;)orkload phases such as takeoff and approach5landing you )ill be too busy to
keep pace )ith your aircraft if you read the section for the first ti&e# Do through the
)hole docu&ent@ understand it and T6: go flying# Hour Cob )ill be &uch easier ;
but still@ feel free to use the pause &ode )henever necessary# +se the advantage of
a si&ulation###
<o1 i$= $i!e $o .e+i% 1i$5 4re3li+5$ #/$io% 3or o"r $ri4 $o "%%& C#li3or%i#.
: 5o4e &o"=ll e%>o& $5e 3li+5$ #%2 +e$ #/?"#i%$e2 1i$5 $5i +re#$ #ir/r#3$@
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Preface
SETT#N& ,P T$E S#+
P+"& Load +ana;er................................................................................. A"?,ST
The first step is to load our virtual aircraft )ith passengers and cargo@ utili!ing the
182D load &anager tool# "t can be found under Start */ !rograms */ !M"0
Simulations */ !M"0 121*200 %perating Manuals */ !M"0 121*200 3oad
Manager# Hou )ill be presented )ith the follo)ing screen:
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Preface
Select a <Tri@class Confi;< in the upper right corner for a Lufthansa seating layout#
Then click <Full PaA< to &ake the full load of 0.9 virtual passengers to board our
aircraft# eBove 1- of t6e ;reen car;o containers as sho)n in the picture to bring
our )eight )ithin acceptable levels# Finally@ select <';s< as units I" hope that the
A&erican readers )ill accept that )e?re flying for a 6uropean carrier@ and therefore
)orking in &etric unitsJ#
Eerify a !ero fuel )eight of %(C 00! <ilo;raBs I/0. tonsJ# This is our target NF- for
this flight@ so click <Save to File< and e7it the Load 8anager soft)are#
Tutorial Files................................................................................................... COP1
This tutorial ca&e packed in a N"1 archive@ also including several needed files@
such as the flightplan@ a saved panel state and t)o scenario files# 8ake sure you
copy the& to their correct locations before starting the si&ulator:
; DLH454.rte Ithe F8( flightplanJ goes to:
<flightsim folder>\PMDG\Flightplans
; LH454 Tutorial Flight.sav Ipanel stateJ goes to:
<flightsim folder>\PMDG\747400\PanelState
; LH454 Tutorial Flight.lt and LH454 Tutorial Flight.!" go to:
<my documents>\Flight Simulator Files
The Flightsi& folder is often located at !\Program Files\Microsoft
Games\Flight Simulator "# The <8y docu&ents< folder can be
accessed fro& the desktop#
Fli;6t SiBulator............................................................................................... LOA"
Fire up Flight Si&ulator /994 no)# 8ake sure your startup scenario includes a
(essna or any other 8icrosoft default aircraft 5it6 en;ines runnin;# "f the
<Create a #light< screen sho)s the standard (essna ,'/ at Seattle scenario@
you can proceed# "f not@ click <Select a #light< ;O <%ther< ;O <"e&ault #light<@
check <Ma4e this the de&ault &light<@ select <#ly no$< and then restart the
progra&# This &ay see& a little over;cautious@ but it can definitely avoid so&e
nasty trouble )ith &ore co&ple7 add;on aircraft such as the 182D '4'#
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Training Manual Preface
Fli;6t SiB Settin;s..................................................................... C$EC' D A"?,ST
; "n the <&eneral< sub&enu@ &ake sure <Sho$ coc4pit tooltips5 is active#
; AdCust the <"ispla:< sub&enu as necessary for your co&puter to allo) a
s&ooth@ stutter;free flight# 6ye;candy is not everything# Hou should lock the
PTarget fra&e rateA so&e)here bet)een /9 09 F1S#
; Select <Metric 6altimeter in &eet7< in the <#nternational< sub&enu#
; AdCust <Air Traffic Control< and <Traffic< as you desire# -e )on?t use
8icrosoft?s AT( any)ay#
; For the <ealisB< &enu@ " reco&&end <Current realism settings8< ; <Hard<@ so
)e can enCoy 182D?s e7cellent flight dyna&ics# 8ake sure <Autorudder< has
been selected if you don?t have rudder pedals or a t)istable Coystick#
; Also check the <0eat6er< &enu and adCust the slider <9ate at $hich $eather
changes over time< to <:one<# This is i&portant for the purpose of this tutorial
Ito keep the )eather predictableJ#
-e?re done here# Of course " assu&e that you have calibrated your Coystick 5 yoke
and all sensitivities and assign&ents have been set according to your preferences#

Do to the <Select a #light< &enu no) and pick the category <My saved &lights<# <3H
2;2 Tutorial #light< should appear# (lick <#ly no$< and )ait for the scenario to be
loaded#
P+"& +enu....................... C$EC' D A"?,ST
Once the si&ulator is running@ you?ll find
yourself in the ?cold and dark? cockpit of a
Lufthansa 4oeing '4';409@ parked at gate 4//
in Frankfurt# Select various vie) &odes and
take a look at the situation# 4efore )e can
continue@ )e need to open the 182D settings
&enu and &ake a fe) a adCust&ents# Access
the &enu bar and select 182D ;O Deneral ;O
Options#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Preface
For this tutorial@ )e?d like to have the follo)ing settings enabled:
PF" @ N" +enu................................................................................... SET D C$EC'
; "isplay Type: ($T
; !#" * #light "irector: 1itch;$oll;(ue
!#" * %ptionals: Sho) $ising $)y
; :" * Clip #light !lan "ata@ A9!T sho$ run$ays longer than 6000&t
AF"S +enu......................................................................................... SET D C$EC'
; T%<0A 9oll Mode: -ings Level
; #light Management System: 1ause at Top of 2escent
I+seful if so&e real life factors distract you fro& flyingJ
#S +enu............................................................................................. SET D C$EC'
; Time re=uired &or &ull alignment: $eal ti&e I,9 8inutesJ
IShouldn?t be too &uch of a factor for an ,, hour flight###J
Sounds +enu...................................................................................... SET D C$EC'
; 6verything should be enabled and volu&e set to a convenient level
Leave Fuel unc6an;ed. T6e aircraft s6ould alread: be fueled. $e&e&ber@
though@ that the desired fuel level should al)ays be set fro& this &enu# +sing the
nor&al Flight Si&ulator tool can cause proble&s since 182D co&pletely bypassed
8icrosoft?s fuel logic#
4arious +enu...................................................................................... SET D C$EC'
; ,eight .ndicators: -eight in KDs
I4er: iBportant@ other)ise our perfor&ance figures )on?t )orkJ
Select %> to close the &enu# Open !M"0 */ 0eneral */ "isplay #rame 9ate
Tuning# Select a refresh rate that suits your syste& perfor&ance# Anything fro& ,5 to
/9 F1S can be considered fluent enough for precise instru&ent flying#
That co&pletes soft)are preparations# -e have loaded the aircraft@ created our
Flight Si&ulator environ&ent and set up a Lufthansa;confor&al panel layout# Of
course " also assu&e that you have not activated any sort of rando& or predefined
failures for this flight#
P#"e $5e i! %o1 and read the net chapter &irst.
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "ispatc6 Office
1.1.1! "ispatc6 Office
"t is *:99 in the &orning on a sunny August day# -e have Cust arrived at Lufthansa?s
cre) center in the base&ent of their head%uarters@ 599 &eters a)ay fro& Ter&inal
,# After collecting several sheets of paper and speaking to the guys fro& dispatch
office@ )e can sit do)n at the nearest desk and have a look at )hat a)aits us#
First@ let?s revie) our basic flight data# -e?re on fli;6t )!) today@ leaving Frankfurt
at 10E00 local fro& Ter&inal ,@ gate B%%# Arrival in San Francisco is scheduled for
1%E0! pacific tiBe@ )hich is 11 6ours and ! Binutes later# -e )ill be passing no
less than ' ti&e !ones# 2on?t even think about the &eaning of the )ord ACet lagBQ
FL#&$TPLAN
Fresh out of the printer co&es our flightplan for today:
EDDF BIBOS5N.BIBOS UZ28 SPY UL7 SUM UM125 SIDER G11 MY G3 KEF
5E72 YFB N554C YYQ J530 GTF J7 FMG.GOLDN4 KSFO
; or@ in the e7tra long edition ;
Na#e T$%e Latitu&e Lo'gitu&e Fre( Air!a$ Course Dist Ma)h*Alt
##################################################################################################
$DDF %P& '0(0) 0*+*4++ $00,) -4+.*++ Direct or S/D 0 0 00-10
2/23S Fi4 '0(0) (1+(1++ $007) .*+-.++ 56*, -.7 7( 7,40F8-.0
D/SM3 Fi4 '0(.) *4+-4++ $001) 4(+01++ 56*, -*7 -- 7,40F8-.0
'%PS/ Fi4 '0(.) (.+."++ $001) 0.+.7++ 56*, -.( -, 7,40F8-.0
9$'D/ Fi4 '0(*) 0-+4*++ $00() 40+-"++ 56*, -.4 ., 7,40F8-.0
SP: ;39 '0(*) -*+*(++ $004) (.+.4++ ..-7-0 56*,<587 -.- 4* 7,40F8-.0
83'%M Fi4 '0(-) (0+*0++ $00-) (1+.(++ 587 --7 ,( 7,40F8-.0
;$'%S Fi4 '0(4) .,+*0++ $00-) -"+0,++ 587 --" -0 7,40F8-.0
G38;3 Fi4 '0(4) *4+4.++ $00-) -(+0,++ 587 --( 7 7,40F8-.0
P$8$& Fi4 '0(4) -"+.*++ $00-) *(+(*++ 587 -4( .( 7,40F8-.0
%S=%M Fi4 '0(4) (7+47++ $00-) .-+(0++ 587 --, *0 7,40F8-.0
5&$8 Fi4 '0(() (-+0"++ $00*) **+*,++ 587 --* 1- 7,40F8-.0
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "ispatc6 Office
3DM/> Fi4 '0(1) (,+.*++ $00.) *,+0-++ 587 --( 7* 7,40F8-.0
F39&: Fi4 '0(7) (7+00++ $000) -(+4(++ 587 --( 1( 7,40F8-.0
S5M ;39 '0(") (*+44++ ?00.) .7+.*++ ..77-( 587<5M.*( --4 .-0 7,40F8-.0
S/D$9 Fi4 '01.) 00+00++ ?00() 0,+47++ 5M.*(<G.. -0* .-- 7,40F8-.0
%2 'D2 '01.) *-+4-++ ?001) 40+(*++ -,.700 G.. *"" (0 7,40F8-.0
M: 'D2 '01*) 01+*(++ ?007) -(+.1++ --7700 G..<G- -*" (0 7,40F8-.0
8/'D% Fi4 '01*) -7+.,++ ?0.0) 00+00++ G- *"1 74 7,40F8-(0
93S&/ Fi4 '01-) *4+*-++ ?0.4) 01+44++ G- *"( .*. 7,40F8-(0
/'G ;39 '01-) 4,+..++ ?0.1) -,+.7++ ..*740 G- *". 7. 7,40F8-(0
M/=8% Fi4 '01-) (0+(4++ ?0.7) -4+*7++ G- *77 *( 7,40F8-(0
S=%9D Fi4 '01-) (1+-4++ ?0*0) .*+.,++ G- *71 70 7,40F8-(0
M$&/8 Fi4 '01-) (,+."++ ?0*.) -.+-4++ G- *7- -( 7,40F8-(0
=$F ;39 '01-) ("+.-++ ?0**) -1+(*++ ..*700 G-<($7* *7* *" 7,40F8-(0
G/M8/ Fi4 '014) -,+*4++ ?0*1) (,+4*++ ($7* *". .*0 7,40F8-(0
D% 'D2 '01() -4+.4++ ?0-7) .*+*(++ -77700 ($7* *,7 *14 7,40F8-(0
SF 'D2 '011) (,+0-++ ?0(0) (1+-0++ -,*700 ($7* *"0 -4. 7,40F8-(0
:F2 ;39 '01-) 44+-0++ ?01,) *,+*4++ ..7740 ($7*<'((4 *(4 477 7,40F8-(0
23D9% Fi4 '01*) .1+(,++ ?0,0) 00+00++ '((4 *10 -*( 7,40F8-(0
::@ ;39 '0(,) 44+-0++ ?0"4) 0,+07++ ..47.0 '((4<A(-0 *4" 417 7,40F8-(0
:&B ;39 '0(() 4,+40++ ?0"7) 4"+-.++ ..*7"0 A(-0 *.1 *.- 7,40F8-"0
:@D ;39 '0(-) (,+*(++ ?.0.) 0(+10++ ..-710 A(-0 **7 .(, 7,40F8-"0
:35'G Fi4 '0(.) (.+.,++ ?.0() 01+*4++ A(-0 *-0 ."- 7,40F8-"0
::' ;39 '0(0) .7+(0++ ?.07) 4.+*7++ ..7740 A(-0 **7 .-( 7,40F8-"0
GG92/ Fi4 '04") 00+00++ ?.0") *7+*"++ A(-0 *** .04 7,40F8-"0
G&F ;39 '047) *1+10++ ?...) *4+44++ ..(7.0 A(-0<A7 **. .*. 7,40F8-"0
8=& ;39 '04() 0.+.7++ ?..4) 0(+0-++ ..-7(0 A7 *., .,- 7,40F8-"0
23/ ;39 '04-) --+.0++ ?..1) ..+-*++ ..-7-0 A7 **1 .*1 7,40F8-"0
9$3 ;39 '04*) -(+*1++ ?..7) (*+0(++ ..*7(0 A7 *-* "- 7,40F8-"0
G%SS/ Fi4 '040) -4+.,++ ?..") 04+01++ A7 *0( .-- 7,40F8-"0
FMG ;39 '0-") -.+(-++ ?..") -"+**++ ..77"0 A7 *04 1, 7,40F8-"0
=SF3 %P& '0-7) -7+01++ ?.**) *.+-.++ Direct or S&%9 **" .7. 00.0
#################################################################################################
AI+AC C$)le use& , -5-.
Nu#/er o !a$%oi'ts , 40
Total &ista')e , 5-40'#
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To get the Abig pictureB@ let?s take a look at a north;atlantic area planning chart first#
2ispatch has already plotted t)o lines on the &ap# The )hite arc represents the
direct great circle route@ )hich )ould result in &ini&u& distance and flight ti&e
Iassu&ing rather unrealistic !ero;)ind conditionsJ# To take geographical@
&eteorologic and AT( restrictions into account@ )e )ill fly along the green track
line@ representing our filed flightplan on the high;altitude air)ay syste&# As you can
see@ the difference is relatively &arginal on this route#
:o) let?s take a closer look at the route# The first )aypoint is so&e *9 &iles
north)est of the airport# +sing a standard instru&ent departure or S"2@ the initial
cli&b takes us along the scenic part of the $hine valley@ passing (ologne# -e should
have reached our cruising altitude )hen )e fly over the :etherlands# The route then
takes us out on the :orth Sea and along the eastern coast of 6ngland and Scotland#
-e fly bet)een Orkney and Shetland islands and turn to a &ore )esterly heading to
reach "celand# -e then head for the &ountains and glaciers of Dreenland@ )here )e
)ill touch the polar circle at 3'R north latitude over Sondrestro& FCord# The second
half of the flight takes us do)n to (anada@ passing 4affin "sland and udson 4ay
before overflying the plains of Saskatche)an# -e enter +#S# airspace over the $ocky
8ountains via 8ontana and "daho#
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$oughly ,9 hours after takeoff )e?ll get busy )ith arrival preparations so&e)here
over "daho or :evada# (alifornia )elco&es us over Lake Tahoe@ )here )e )ill begin
our standard arrival route ISTA$J@ leading us south to San Francisco international
airport along the beautiful 1acific coast# Our &ain alternate airport is Oakland@ Cust a
hop over the bay#
Also note the total distance of slightly &ore than 5999 nautical &iles or .999
kilo&eters# Our available cruise altitudes on a )estbound course are 0,999@ 05999
and 0.999 feet@ adhering to standard "(AO rules# I-e?re ignoring $ES8 and special
:AT $ES8 rules for this flight@ for &ore on this &ildly e7citing subCect@ consult
appropriate docu&ents#J Since our takeoff )eight )ill be %uite heavy today@ )e sill
cli&b to 0,999 initially and then co&&ence gentle 4999 feet step;cli&bs )henever
the aircraft is light enough#
Last thing to revie) here is the (ost "nde7 I("J@ )hich is i&portant for F8(
perfor&ance calculations@ and ulti&ately@ the effective cost of this flight for the
operator# -e?ll use the standard value of '9 here IAuthor?s note: the actual )ay to
deter&ine (" adCust&ents is beyond &y kno)ledge and subCect to intensive
discussions on various foru&s# 4ut let?s not get too pedantic hereJ# 2uring cruise@
)e?ll input a <co&pany speed< of 8ach #*4 any)ay@ so this figure only affects cli&b
and descent#
4elieve &e@ due to the nice and sunny )eather@ you could enCoy so&e breathtaking
vie)s on this great route### if you )ere not that busy )ith guiding a 4oeing '4'
through the airQ
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0EAT$E
:e7t ite& on our table is another huge sheet of paper@ called significant )eather Ior
S"D -SJ chart# :or&ally you )ould find all sorts of &ore or less nasty pheno&ena
listed here@ such as thunderstor&s@ turbulence areas@ Cetsrea&s and )eather fronts#
1heno&ena that )ould &ake us reconsider the routing# 8uch to our surprise though@
there?s nothing of conse%uence on it@ so )e ; and &ore i&portantly the passengers ;
can e7pect a s&ooth ride# Stable high pressure areas along the )ay#
Above is an eample &or a S.0 ,? chart 6:%T @A3." #%9 T%"AABS #3.0HT7. A &lightsimmerBs valuable
source &or current charts is the -.S. Air #orceBs ecellent public $eather $ebsite at
https8<<a&$eather.a&$a.a&.mil<met<metChome.html
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aving checked that@ )e should take a look at the high altitude )ind forecast chart#
Since )e?re traveling so far north for a trip to the +#S# )est coast@ )e don?t have to
deal )ith the usual strong Atlantic Cetstrea&s in the opposing direction# Dood for us@
because these )inds affect flight ti&e and fuel re%uire&ents significantly#
2ispatch office )ould have had a look at each single )ind vector along our route and
then co&pute an average )ind co&ponent# "n this case )e have set up Flight
Si&ulator to give us 009 degrees )ith /9 knots# "n other )ords: An average 1! <nots
of 6ead5ind all the )ay fro& Frankfurt to San Francisco# ,5 knots is a rough
esti&ation@ because only one half of the route )ill e7pose us to direct head)ind# The
)ind co&ponent )ill pri&arily aid us in fuel planning#
This is a typical high altitude $ind &orecast chart &or +urope 6A0A.:8 :%T @A3." #%9 %-9 #3.0HT7. These
can also be obtained &rom the previously mentioned -.S. Air #orce public $eather site.
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:o) that )e have the big picture@ )e should take a look at departure and destination
)eather# For that purpose )e consult 86TA$s I8eteorological Aviation $outine
-eather $eportsJ as a representation of the current )eather and TAFs ITer&inal
Area ForecastsJ as a look into the future# 86TA$s are issued for every &aCor airfield
and are usually updated every 09 &inutes or so# ere is our current 86TA$ string
for Frankfurt airport:
EDDF 07020Z 27005KT C!"OK 20#11 Q1018 NOSIG
Or in a decoded for&:
EDDF # FranCfurt+s /%3 code7
-1-.2-3 # 9eport issued on the 7th at 1!*0 Dulu#time< eEuating ,!*0 local7
21--54T # ?ind direction *70F at ( Cnots7
CA564 # eiling %nd ;isiGility 3= # clear Glue sCies in other Hords7
2-*77 # &emperature *0F elsius< deHpoint ..F #> relatiIe humidity J (0K7
87-79 # %ltimeter setting L@'BM .0., hPa7
N6SI: # 'o significant changes e4pected7
Looks like a great day for flyingQ Te&perature and pressure are )ell )ithin
perfor&ance li&its and the )inds are al&ost negligible# The TAF for San Francisco
indicates that )e can e7pect si&ilar )eather over there on the 1acific coast# 4ut )e?ll
check that once )e?re airborne and closer to our destination# -hat )e can say for
sure no)@ is that Frankfurt has it?s parallel run5a:s %! left and ri;6t active for
takeoff and landing operations# As &entioned above@ )e?ll Coin a standard instru&ent
departure that vectors us in a )ide southerly turn around the noise sensitive areas
directly )est of the airport#
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ALTENATES
The 4oeing '4' as a four engine airplane is )ell suited for flying long distances over
re&ote terrain Iand obviously@ it doesn?t get &uch &ore re&ote than the polar
regionJ# 8ost syste&s are four;ti&es redundant and should )e loose an engine@ )e
still have '5F of the total thrust left# So )hy do )e need to )orry about enroute
alternate airportsT "&agine t)o si&ple scenarios:
)7 * more li4ely * A passenger gets sic4 and needs immediate medical attention. %&
course $e could ignore it and continue to our destination( but that $ould lead to
some very bad headlines in the ne$spapers the net day...
27 * less li4ely * ,e suddenly detect a cabin pressurization problem and have to
descend to )0000 &eet or even lo$er. #uel burn increases massively and $eBre no
longer able to reach San #rancisco. Dut... are $e able to return to #ran4&urtE -h*oh(
very poor planning( captainF And again( bad headlines...
So@ in short: -e?re al)ays prepared for the )orst@ )hich in this case &eans@ )e have
selected five enroute alternate airports# As the &ap reveals@ they?re either directly on
the planned track or in close distance:
EGP$ % E&'()*+,-. S/0123(&
BIKF % K45236'7. I/423(&
BGSF % S0(&+481+09 F:0+&. G+44(23(&
CYYQ % C-*+/-'22. C3(3&3
KGTF % G+431 F3228. US!
-e &ake sure that the )eather looks fine )ith a perfectly clear sky and slight
)esterly )ind on all these places# -e )ould also check :OTA8s for each alternate#
"t )ould not be a very funny e7perience to find out that one of those airports is out of
service ;; after you?ve landed there@ of course# <This e7plains )hy there?s no fire
brigade here@ taking care of &y burning engine#< eadlines@ (aptain@ headlines###
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-e already kno) that our pri&ary destination alternate )ill be 'OA' @ Oa<land@
)hich is only ,9 &iles a)ay fro& KSFO# "n case )e need to divert further for )eather
or other reasons@ 'S+F SacraBento@ '5 &iles a)ay@ )ould be the ne7t best choice#
-e?ll include the alternate that is further a)ay in our fuel planning# "f the )eather
conditions )ere really bad for the )hole northern (alifornia area@ )e )ould even
consider Los Angeles or Las Eegas as an alternate# Fortunately@ not todayQ
A#CAFT STATE
-e?ve also received aircraft;specific infor&ation# Our type rating %ualifies us for a
'4';499@ but no) )e kno) specifically that it?s going to be "@AB4A ;; Eictor Alpha@
na&ed after the capital city of 4erlin# <2;< indicates the plane is registered in
Der&any@ <A< is for all aircraft over /9 tons &a7# takeoff )eight I)e?ll e7ceed that
slightly###J @ <4< is the Lufthansa code for a 4oeing aircraft and <EA< is the actual
identifier#
:ice to kno)@ but here?s so&e &ore vital data: -e?ll take a total of (C0 passen;ers
Ithe full loadJ and ,/ cabin cre) &e&bers on our trip to (alifornia# That gives us a
Fero Fuel 0ei;6t 8FF09 of %(C tons# -e anticipate that our re%uired fuel today )ill
be so&e)here around ,09 tons@ leading to a &ross 0ei;6t 8&09 of (.0 tons@ not
too far a)ay fro& the 8a7i&u& Takeoff -eight I8TO-J of 0.4@3 tons#
Then )e also need to check the aircraft?s open &aintenance ite&s that can affect our
flight@ found in the technical logbook# Assu&ing that our si&ulated airrcraft has been
treated )ith a full overhaul lately@ there?s nothing that could catch our attention#
o)ever@ nor&ally you )ould find any <handicap ite&s< such as non;)orking
instru&ents or cabin e%uip&ent here# -e )ould then have to consult a book called
8ini&u& 6%uip&ent List or 86L@ aiding us in our decision )hether )e can safely fly
or not and )hat operational restrictions )e could e7pect#
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F,EL PLANN#N&
Fuel planning should be done very carefully on every flight@ but on ultra;longhaul
polar routes like this@ i&proper fuel planning can lead to a disaster# 2oes that sound
dra&atic enoughT On the other hand@ taking too &uch reserve fuel is not a very good
idea either@ since )e )ant to keep our total )eight as far fro& &a7i&u& as possible
for perfor&ance reasons# "t?s a balancing act# 4ecause the )hole topic is covered
very )ell in the 182D '4';499 operating &anual@ section /@ )e?ll go through it rather
%uickly:
The first figure )e need is our actual Nero Fuel -eight IG#,J@ obtained fro& the
loadsheet Ior the 182D Load 8anager in this case###J# -e then )ork our )ay
<back)ards< fro& destination to departure# -e add the legally re%uired &ini&u& fuel
level IM.:J@ )hich includes a last safety &argin for unforeseen enroute fuel burn
changes I)ind changes etc#J# :e7t )e add the fuel necessary to reach our farthest
alternate airport IA3TJ# Then )e include contingency fuel IC:TJ@ sufficient for 45
&inutes of holding patterns at lo) altitude# Once )e have added ta7i fuel IT?2J for
our destination )e can dra) a line and have a look at the outco&e# This figure is our
Landing -eight I3,J@ should everything )ork as planned# :o) )e have to add the
biggest chunk@ the actual fuel re%uired to get us fro& A to 4 or fro& 622F to KSFO
in this case# -e can?t si&ply use flight plan distance for this calculation due to the
fact that )e have a ,5 knots head)ind co&ponent@ lengthening our route by so&e
/99 &iles# +sing the for&ula
FLI:HTPLAN DISTANCE ; <TIME EN+6=TE > ?IND C6MP6NENT@
)e can obtain our :autical Air 8iles I:A8sJ# -e then look up the re%uired fuel on a
chart in the aircraft perfor&ance &anual@ giving us the final enroute figure I+:9J#
aving added this@ )e can obtain our Takeoff -eight IT%,J# One last thing to
include in the planning is departure ta7i fuel IT?)J@ depending on the traffic volu&e of
the airport# -ith all these things added@ )e can see our Dross -eight I0,J# "f )e
no) ### subtract Iyou didn?t e7pect this@ ehTJ the Nero Fuel -eight again@ )e?ll get our
re%uired Fuel On 4oard I#%DJ at long last#
4elo) is a &ore syste&atical approach to this:
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F7;8 8)AD SCH;MA(:C
B747-400 D-ABAA
D8H4-4 ;DDF-BSF)
&'( )*+ 000 kgs <## our total Height Hithout a single drop of fuel
N M/' .0 000 Cgs <## reEuired minimum< .0 tons is a sensiGle figure
N %8& - (00 Cgs <## fuel reEuired for a 7( miles diIersion to Sacramento
N '& 1 000 Cgs <## eEuals 4( minutes airtime L. hour J " 000 CgsM
N &>* (00 Cgs <## sufficient for SF3< relatiIely short ta4i distances
###########
O L? 25A --- Bgs <## planned landing Height< for speed calculations
N $'9 ..* 000 Cgs <## Gased on '%M distance< slightly more than (*00 miles
###########
O T6? 017 --- Bgs <## taCeoff Height< for perfomance calculations
N &>. . 000 Cgs <## standard figure for ta4i#out on most airports
###########
O G? -7* 000 Cgs <## gross Height Gefore engine start
# 6F? *-" 000 Cgs <## already CnoHn
C F6D 700 --- Bgs EFF this !hat our uel gauge shoul& rea& i'itiall$
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"EPAT,E PLANN#N&
Already having looked at the flight plan itself@ the ne7t step is to revie) the departure
routing# -e start on the ground )ith our esti&ated ta7i clearance# Uuite easy for
Frankfurt: After pushback fro& gate 4// )e?ll &ove out via DOLF to the outer
ta7i)ay AL1A@ leading us to the eastern&ost holding position 26LTA for run)ay /5
right@ )here )e?ll )ait for takeoff clearance#
The run)ay itself is 4999 &eters long and 39 &eters )ide@ giving us sufficient
stopping distances# The calibrated heading is /5,R degrees@ threshold altitude is 0'9
feet# -e?ll use these figures to %uickly check our instru&ents once aligned )ith the
run)ay# "n other )ords: >ust before setting takeoff thrust@ )e )ant to see a co&pass
heading of /5, and an alti&eter readout of about 0'9 feet#
As already &entioned@ )e?ll be departing via the 4"4OS F"E6 :OE6846$ S"2@
taking us around the densely populated $hine;8ain area cities for noise and traffic
separation reasons# ere is the co&plete procedure in a te7tual for&:
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OK captain@ )e?ll do things a bit differently here# This particular S"2 &ight not be part
of the Flight 8anage&ent (o&puter?s database@ )hich &eans that )e?ll have to feed
the co&puters &anually# This is not a si&ple straight;out departure# -e )ill ho)ever
&ake full use of the &illion;dollar glass cockpit navigation e%uip&ent that can provide
us )ith unprecedented situational a)areness@ if )e set it up correctly# 4ut first let?s go
through the procedure step by step:
After rotation )e cli&b straight ahead for so&e 09 seconds until )e?re 4#5 &iles a)ay
fro& the FF8 radio beacon# At e7actly 4#5@ )e turn L6FT to a heading of ,*5
degrees Icontinuing our cli&b@ of courseJ# -e follo) heading ,*5 for another &inute
or so until )e intercept radial //0 of the FF8 beacon# Once intercepted@ )e turn
$"DT to follo) this radial on heading //0R# Fro& that point on@ the autoflight
director?s <L:AE< &ode )ill take over@ guiding us through the rest of the S"2#
Autopilot can also be engaged there@ if you desire to do so#
At ,4 &iles distance fro& FF8@ )e turn right again@ this ti&e intercepting $"2 radial
09/ until ,3 &iles a)ay fro& this EO$ station# -e then continue using the predifined
)aypoints 8AS"$@ $AEK"@ 2"TA8@ A4ASA and eventually 4"4OS@ )here )e should
have reached a co&fortable altitude of at least /5999 feet before entering the air)ay
syste& in our flightplan#
Talking about altitudes@ our BiniBuB safe altitude for t6is sector is )(00 feet# -e
should :OT level off belo) this altitude for any reason# This keeps us a)ay fro& the
Taunus &ountains north of the airport# Transition altitude Ithe point )here )e s)itch
fro& local alti&eter setting to standard settingJ is 5999 feet@ as usual for Der&any#
Our first level;off can be e7pected at '999 feet# -e should then receive clearance to
cli&b to our initial cruise altitude of 0,999 feet#
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And that co&pletes our departure# ere?s the appropriate chart:
The second half of the procedure briefing Ifor the actual arrival at SFOJ )ill be
conducted airborne@ usually half an hour before descent phase is initiated# This
allo)s us to reassess the )eather situation over there and include possible changes
in our briefing# Should nothing une7pected happen@ it is very likely that AT( )ill
assign us the <Dolden Date< arrival route for a visual or "LS approach onto one of the
)estbound run)ays#
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TA'EOFF "ATA
2eparture ti&e is getting closer and closer@ but )e have to discuss one &ore point:
takeoff and initial cli&b perfor&ance# The hotter it is@ the &ore the aircraft )eighs and
the less run)ay you have available@ the &ore critical beco&es proper perfor&ance
calculation# Since )e?re %uite heavy today@ )e should have a good look at so&e
charts and tables to deter&ine our critical speeds# Again@ these procedures are
covered intensively in the 182D operating &anual Ichapter 9,J@ so )e?ll go directly
to practical application#
Let?s sort out so&e basics first: -ith a )eight of 0'9 tons@ it &akes sense to use
Flaps /9 for takeoff@ especially because )e don?t have to )orry about terrain or
obstacle clearance I4ehind the )estbound run)ays is Cust a lot of )ood@ so&e s&all
villages and a che&ical fabrication plant# ### +h@ disregard the last oneJ Denerally
speaking@ a flap;setting of /9 degrees shortens your takeoff roll@ but also reduces
your initial cli&b perfor&ance due to the increased drag# Eice;versa )ith Flaps ,9#
Apart fro& flaps )e also have to discuss the use of air conditioning packs#
1erfor&ance;)ise it is reco&&ended to s)itch one or t)o of the& off for takeoff@
since you loose a s&all a&ount of thrust due to bleed air e7traction fro& the engines#
4ut for the sake of )orkload reduction and keeping in &ind that )e only have to cli&b
over that fabrication plant@ )e?ll leave the& on# One less ite& for you to take care of
during the critical phase after takeoff#
Additionally )e?ll discuss )hether or not )e can use reduced thrust for takeoff# Airline
standard procedures dictate the use of reduced thrust@ %uote@ <)henever possible< to
increase engine life and reduce fuel burn Iand also to stop the aircraft fro&
perfor&ing like a Saturn E rocket at light )eightsJ# -e have t)o &ethods to decrease
the po)er output on these Deneral 6lectric (F3 engines# 8ethod , uses a <fi7ed
derate< of 5F or ,5F for both takeoff and cli&b thrust# This is %uick and dirty@ but
precise enough for &ost purposes# 2ue to our )eight@ a 5F derate )ould be the only
reasonable choice# A si&ilar derate can also applied to cli&b thrust@ but )ill be
re&oved once )e have reached ,5999 feet#
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The /nd &ethod is &ore co&plicated and utili!es an <assu&ed te&perature<@ &aking
the engine <think< that it?s hotter out there than it actually is@ thus reducing the
&a7i&u& po)er setting# OK@ it?s rather the 6lectronic 6ngine (ontrol that thinks for
us than the engine itself### 4ut )e still have to feed the F8( )ith a te&perature
figure# :o)@ every airline has very sophisticated &eans of deter&ining the
appropriate assu&ed te&perature@ using huge tables )ith custo&i!ed data for every
single run)ay they operate fro&# 4ut again@ let?s not be pedantic and Cust use the
Afi7ed derateB &ethod#
The altitude at )hich )e reduce fro& takeoff to cli&b po)er )ill be ,599 feet above
ground level# Si&ultaneously )e?ll lo)er the nose a bit Ias co&&anded by the flight
director syste&J to gain speed and retract the flaps step by step# ,599 5 ,599 for
these t)o altitudes is the standard Lufthansa procedure for Der&any@ already
including noise abate&ent rules# 0999 5 ,999 )ould result in a better initial
perfor&ance but also in so&e angry phone calls fro& the residents belo)###
Finally )e?ll take a look at the <Flaps /9 ; 5F 2erated Thrust< chart in the 182D
operating &anual Ichapter ,@ page 'J to deter&ine our takeoff speeds# For 0'9 tons@
the decision speed is ,5, kts@ rotation should begin at ,35 kts )ith a target pitch
attitude of ,0R@ and the safe cli&b speed is ,'3 kts# Looks like )e?ll eat up a good
portion of the run)ayQ
P6e5G t6at ver: Buc6 coBpletes t6e prefli;6t briefin; for toda:7s fli;6t to San
Francisco. #t is no5 alBost 0CE00 and 5e s6ould 6ead out for t6e aircraft. A
cre) bus )ill bring us to the Ter&inal# -hile getting there@ let?s su&&ari!e )hat )e
have collected by no):
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.'- * P#+e ,0
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "ispatc6 Office
DASIC FLI:HT DATA
# Flight! DLH 454 F+A FG SF6
# Departure! .0!00 L-9--3M
# %rriIal! .*!0( L7A-53M
# $stimated time enroute! 77,-5
FLI:HTPLAN
# 9outing! checCed
# Distance! 5---'#
# Flight leIels! 07-H 05-H 0A-
# ost inde4! 1-
?EATHE+
# Sig ?>! nothing reported
# &urGulence! none reported
# ?inds! aIerage component 02-*7-
# M$&%9! ()70,0-, C!V./, )00,
1N2 1013
ALTE+NATES
# $nroute! E:PHH DI4FH D:SFH
CYY8H 4:TF
# Destination! 46A4H 4SMF
AI+C+AFT
# 9egistration! DFAD5A
# Model! 141F40-
# Passengers! 0A-
# 6F?! 20A to's
# M&3?! 0A4H. to's
F=EL PLANNIN:
# F32! 700 to's
# &3?! 017 to's
# 8?! 25A to's
DEPA+T=+E
# 9unHay! 25+H 4---#
# S/D! DID6S 5N
# Procedure! 4.-45E ''5 , 6E'"
"7N 248 13- 9 ''5 ))*,14 9 :4
*0),16 9 5!;: 9 !V/: 9 4:"!5 9
!<!=! 9 <:<.;
# MS%! 40--I
# &ransition! 5---I
# .st leIeloff! 1---I
TA4E6FF DATA
# Flaps! 2-
# PacCs! 3n
# &hrust! (K derate LT6F7H CLDF7M
# 9ed70%cc7 %lt! 75--*75--
# ;.< ;r< ;*! 757H 7.5H 71.
# &arget Pitch! 70J
MAINTENANCE L6:
# no handica$ ite>s
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.%0 Fli;6t and Coc<pit Preparation
BOA"#N& T$E A#CAFT
About half an hour before before
the first passengers board the
aircraft@ )e?re on our )ay across
the apron to receive our '4';499@
2;A4EA and begin )ith preflight
preparations# -e?ve already
tea&ed up )ith the cabin cre) and
briefed the& about route@ )eather
and any special aspects to
consider# +nder the observation of
a ra&p agent@ the aircraft is being
loaded )ith everything it s)allo)s:
baggage@ catering and fuel pri&arily#
-hile the flight attendants are already busy )ith preparing the cabin@ )e?re occupying
our front office to begin )aking the aircraft up fro& sleep#
And here co&es the point )here you should s5itc6 bac< to Fli;6t SiBulator )ith
&y cold;and;dark situation paused# 8ake sure the si&ulator ti&e is round about .:/9
local# This should give us &ore than enough ti&e to go through all the procedures#
Let?s try to be punctual@ the passengers )ill love itQ
One last si&ulator note: " reco&&end using the /2 panels for setting up the aircraft#
For that purpose@ keep the s&all panel s)itcher visible all the ti&es ; you )ill need itQ
The virtual cockpit provides a better overvie) for all the )ide;spread s)itches and
gauges@ but it can be hard to reach and identify the& properly Iunless you use Active
(a&era or Track"$@ of courseJ#
%>( unpause the sim no$ * letBs get busyF
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
E*TE#O SAFET1 #NSPECT#ON
Hou can use outside vie) for a virtual <)alkaround< if you desire# Keep the li&ited
abilities of Flight Si&ulator in &ind if you can?t find the )heel chocks### The follo)ing
safety ite&s need to be checked first:
06eel C6oc<s........................................................................................... #N PLACE
Landin; &ear "oors..................................................................................... C$EC'
Fli;6t Control Surface Areas........................................................................ CLEA
(heck the follo)ing co&ponents for visual )ear and da&age:
; engine in;5outlets and struts
; nose gear )heels and tires
; &ain gear )heels and tires
; pitot tubes and static ports
A general overlook of the aircraft?s parking position is helpful to deter&ine safety
aspects such as:
; danger of foreign obCect da&age at parking position
; obstructions )ithin initial ta7i areas
; progress of fueling and loading
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
COC'P#T SAFET1 #NSPECT#ON
:o) let?s take our seat in /2 cockpit vie)# $ather dark and %uiet in here# 4ut before
)e can establish additional electrical po)er@ the follo)ing cockpit safety ite&s &ust
be perfor&ed on the overhead and &ain panel:
Batter: S5itc6 8Over6ead9............................................................... ON
The cover should already be raised@ so left;click the button and verify OFF
light e7tinguished# Hou have no) po)ered the hot battery bus#
Standb: Po5er Selector 8Over6ead9........................................... A,TO
4rings the &ain displays and alert syste&s to life#
$:draulic "E+AN" PuBp Selectors 8) of t6eBG Over6ead9........ OFF
To &ake sure that no hydraulic syste& is currently po)ered@ thus
avoiding inadvertend &ove&ent of the control surfaces#
The follo)ing ite&s can be found on the &ain panel:
Alternate Flaps Selector................................................................. OFF
Landin; &ear Lever.................................................................... "O0N
Flap Position #ndication and Flap Lever.................................. A&EE
Flap lever on the throttle console in the <up< position@ flap position
indicator on the 6"(AS screen AupB as )ell or not visible at all#
PEL#+#NA1 COC'P#T PEPAAT#ON
aving checked that our office is in nor&al condition@ )e can no) &ove on and set
things up for the flight# 6ven )ith the &ost po)erful battery@ )e need to find an
alternate source for the electrics# For that purpose@ open t6e over6ead panel a;ain#
Electrical Po5er.................................................................................... ESTABL#S$
A( and 2( po)er as )ell as bleed air for conditioning and engine start can be
supplied fro& the au7iliary po)er unit IA1+J in the back of the aircraft# To bring
this co&pact turbine online@ all )e need to do is:
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
AP, Selector........................................................................... STATG t6en ON
The s)itch is spring;loaded@ so right;click on it t)o ti&es and then let go#
This initiates the auto&atic startup procedure# 1F2 = :2 )ill go blank
&onentarily# >ust be patient for 49 seconds until startup is co&pleted# Then:
@ Notice AP, &enerator 1 and % A4A#L li;6ts illuBinated.
@ Pus6 t6e s5itc6es one at a tiBe 5it6 a little dela: to prevent
;earboA daBa;e.
@ C6ec< ON li;6t illuBinates.
The A1+ is no) supplying the &ain
electrical bus and the battery is being
recharged# Hou can also hear the
cockpit cooling fans )orking no)#
On the real aircraft )e )ould no) check circuit breakers and &aintenance s)itches
located on the upper overhead# Since this is irrelevant for a si&ulation@ )e can skip it#
8ore vital for your ho&e cockpit are the follo)ing ite&s@ hopefully found under every
avid flightsi&&er?s desk# Hour fa&ily )ill love itQ
EBer;enc: EHuipBent................................................................................. C$EC'
(heck follo)ing e%uip&ent is in place:
; Fire e7tinguisher ; veri&y bottle pressure in green band
; S&oke hood
; Flashlight
; (rash a7e
; Live vests
; 6&ergency e7it devices ; sto$ed
; (re) rest co&part&ent ; seat belt and live vest at each bun4
S6ips Papers................................................................................................ C$EC'
(heck all relevant docu&ents and navigation charts are on board IOur airline
)ould provide us )ith chart packages@ covering airspace and airports along the
entire routeJ# On our flight today@ this is assured by using the tutorial in front of
your noseQ
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.20 * P#+e ,-
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
COC'P#T PEPAAT#ON
As you &ight notice@ the follo)ing ite&s are co&pleted in syste&atical flo) on the
various panels# Start at the top and )ork your )ay do)n the left&ost colu&n#
1roceed )ith the colu&n to the right# And so on###
O4E$EA" PANEL
Elec En; Control +ode S5itc6es................................................................. NO+
Eerify no ALT: lights visible# This clever electronic
control prevents us fro& &elting the engines by
applying too &uch thrust#
#S +ode Selectors....................................................................... OFFG T$EN NA4
$ight;click on each selector once# This spools up
and aligns the precision laser gyroscopes for
inertial navigation# This process takes up to ,9
&inutes@ depending on current latitude#
Electrical Panel.................................................................................................. SET
+tility 1o)er S)itches##################################################################################### O:
Denerator (ontrol S)itches ID6: (O:TJ###################################################### O:
(heck all s)itches in the <on<;position@
verify OFF and 2$"E6 lights illu&inated#
The generators )ill co&e online once the
engines are running#
$:draulic Panel.................................................................................................. SET
2e&and 1u&ps######################################### OFF
6ngine 1u&ps############################################# O:
:or&ally@ the engine pu&ps re&ain on all
the ti&e# They )ill also kick in auto&atically
once the engines are started# For no)@
verify SHS FA+LT I)hich is not actually a failure at this stageJ and 1$6SS
lights are illu&inated#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
First colu&n co&pleted@ let?s &ove to the ne7t one# On the upper left corner of the
center colu&n you should find a tiny round s)itch )ith a )hite circle:
FireDOver6eat Test.................................................................................. PEFO+
Fire5Overheat Test s)itch########################################################################## 1+S
The )hole test takes only a fe) seconds@ but try to observe the follo)ing:
; Fire bell sounds
; 6%verhead7 6ngine fire s)itches I4J illu&inate
; 6%verhead7 A1+ fire s)itch illu&inates
; 6%verhead7 (argo fire F-2 and AFT lights illu&inate
; 6Throttle console7 Fuel control s)itch fire lights I4J illu&inate
; 6Main panel7 8aster )arning light illu&inates
; 6Main panel7 6"(AS )arning &essage F"$6 T6ST ": 1$OD$6SS and
several seconds later F"$6 T6ST 1ASS displayed#
This is our life insurance in case of an engine fire@ so )e check the syste& prior
to each flight### :o) back to the overhead panel:
EBer;enc: Li;6ts S5itc6.......................................................................... A+E"
"t is the guarded s)itch labeled )ith OFF@ A$862 and O: located
on the center top of the overhead# -hen A$862@ close the guard
)ith a right click#
Fire Control Panel....................................................................................... C$EC'
6ngine Fire S)itches####################################################################################### ":
4TL A 2"S( and 4TL 4 2"S( lights#################################### 6ST":D+"S62
A1+ 4TL 2"S( light############################################################### 6ST":D+"S62
(argo Fire 2"S( light############################################################# 6ST":D+"S62
(argo Fire A$862 S)itches####################################################################### OFF
Eerify F-2@ AFT lights e7tinguished#
All fire e7tinguisher agent bottles are full and
ready to use# There are t)o bottles for each
engine and one for the A1+#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
En;ine Start Panel............................................................................................ SET
Start S)itches########################################################## ":@ L"DT 6ST":D+"S62
Standby "gnition Selector IST4HJ############################################################# :O$8
(ontinuous "gnition S)itch I(O:J################################################################ OFF
Auto "gnition Selector IA+TOJ################################################################ S":DL6
Autostart S)itch############################################################################################# O:
This is a nor&al configuration for the engine start
panel# ST4H and A+TO ignition s)itches )ould
only be used in case of abnor&alities#
Fuel ?ettison Panel............................................................................................ SET
Fuel >ettison (ontrol Selector############################################## OFF
Fuel >ettison :o!!le Ealve S)itches################################### OFF
Obviously it?s undesirable to Cettison fuel )hile standing on
the ground# (heck EALE6 lights are not visible#
Fuel Panel........................................................................................................... SET
All Fuel 1u&p S)itches################################################################################# OFF
; (heck &ain / aft pu&p 1$6SS
light e7tinguished if A1+ is running#
The A1+ is currently using this pu&p
to feed itself#
; (heck override IOE$2J / and 0 and
stabili!er ISTA4J pu&p 1$6SS lights e7tinguished#
Anti@#ce Panel..................................................................................................... SET
:acelle Anti;"ce S)itches############################################################################## OFF
-ing Anti;"ce S)itch##################################################################################### OFF
6ven in free!ing conditions@ the earliest point to s)itch
the& on )ould be after engine start# :ote: Actually )e
)ould s)itch to the <A+TO< position here@ )hich is a
custo&er option@ not IyetTJ si&ulated in the 182D'4'#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
0inds6ield Protection Panel............................................................................ SET
-indo) eat S)itches################################################################################## O:
eating the flight deck )indo)s &akes the& &ore
resistant to i&pact da&age at high altitude and
ensures for)ard visibility in all )eather conditions#
8ove on to the last colu&n on the right side#
Passen;er OA:;en S5itc6.......................................................... &,A" CLOSE"
1a5 "aBper S5itc6es....................................................................................... ON
":O1 light re&ain illu&inated if the "$S gyroscopes are still
being aligned# Ha) da&pers co&pensate un)anted lateral
&otion and apply sufficient rudder for coordinated turns once
the aircraft is airborne#
PressuriIation Panel......................................................................................... SET
Outflo) Ealves############################################################################# E6$"FH O16:
(heck needles pointing to the top IO1J#
The cabin is not pressuri!ed yet@ so
full airflo) through these valves is
desired# They )ill progressively close
)hile pressuri!ing#
Landing Altitude S)itch############################################################################## A+TO
8anual Left and $ight S)itches################################################################### OFF
Auto Select S)itch#################################################################################### :O$8
ECS 8Air Conditionin;9 Panel........................................................................... SET
1assenger Te&perature Selector###################### A+TO
Keeps the te&perature at a pleasant //R(#
Flight 2eck Te&perature Selector##################### A+TO
Tri& Air S)itch####################################################### O:
1rovides &ore effective cooling 5 heating#
+1$5L-$ $ecirculation Fan S)itches################### O:
1rovides better airflo) in the cabin#
None SHS FA+LT light############################################################## 6ST":D+"S62
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
Aft (argo eat S)itch################################################################################### OFF
6%uip&ent (ooling Selector###################################################################### :O$8
igh Flo) S)itch########################################################################################### OFF
Bleed Air Panel.................................................................................................. SET
1ack $ST S)itch SHS FA+LT light########################################### 6ST":D+"S62
1ack (ontrol Selectors############################################################################## :O$8
$ight;click all three pack selectors to put the& in the <:O$8< position#
Fro& no) on@ air conditioning is )orking#
Left and $ight "solation Ealve S)itches######### O:
Eerify EALE6 lights e7tinguished and
t)o )hite bars visible#
A1+ 4leed Air S)itch##################################### O:
1rovides airflo) to the air conditioning packs#
6ngine 4leed Air S)itches############################# O:
-e?ve al&ost covered the entire overhead panel no)# 67cept the botto& ro):
EAterior Li;6ts.................................................................................. AS E3,#E"
-e?ll s)itch on :AE I;igationJ and LODO lights for no)#
That co&pletes the overhead preparation# -e have verified the correct operation of
electrics@ hydraulics@ engine start and fire protection@ fuel syste&@ air conditioning and
pressuri!ation#
&LAES$#EL" PANEL
EF#S Control Panel.................................................. SET
; (heck 1A scale is active on the upper right knob
and set the local pressure of ,9,* Iright;clicks on the
selector knobJ@ using the readout on the lo)er right
corner of the pri&ary flight display#
; Eerify lo)er left knob IP(T$AJ is in 8A1 &ode
; Eerify lo)er right knob IPTF(AJ set to ,9 &ile scale
; Select EO$ L and $ s)itches +1 Ileft clickJ
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
AF"S +ode Control Panel................................................................................ SET
Flight 2irector S)itch###################################################################################### O:
:or&ally re&ains on until after landing#
Autothrottle Ar& S)itch################################################################################# OFF
To prevent inadvertent thrust application on ra&p and ta7i)ay#
4ank Li&it Selector##################################################################################### A+TO
eading######################################################################################################### S6T
:or&ally )e )ould set our departure run)ay heading of /5,R here@ but
keeping in &ind our S"2@ )e?ll dial in 795J for the initial left turn#
Altitude########################################################################################################## S6T
Set to the first leveloff 5 restriction altitude during departure# -e?ll dial in
1--- eet#
A1 2isengage 4ar########################################################################################### +1
The )hite block &ust be in the up position@ or )e )on?t be able to engage
the autopilot#
CONTOL "#SPLA1 ,N#T
Fli;6t +ana;eBent S:steB........................................................ C$EC' AN" SET
#N#T EF @ #"ENT pa;e.......................................................................... C$EC'
Open the (2+ display and select <F8(< in the &enu# 1ress L(L$M to re&ove
any &essages in the scratchpad# Hou should be presented )ith the IDENT
page# 1ossible soft)are errors can be detected here by verifying basic data:
; 8odel
141F4-- At least $eBre sitting in the right aircra&t...
; 6ngines
0eneral +lectrics CF.F9-C2D5 Aes( $e are pedantic here...
; Active :AE 2ata 4ase
Eerify current A"$A( loaded# 9593 )as used for this tutorial#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
; 2rag 5 Fuel Flo) Factor
;-.- for both figures# :o e7ternal addons fitted )hich )ould case drag#
; Select P6S INIT G
#N#T EF @ POS #N#T pa;e............................................................ C$EC' D SET
; Eerify :PS P6S# This should be
the &ost accurate &ethod to feed
the inertial navigation syste& )ith
our current position# And indeed@
the figures represent our e7act
coordinates on gate 4//#
(lick the button on the right side
and transfer the D1S coordinates
into the blank SET I+S P6S field
belo)# Yo" !#& 5#ve $o 2o $5i $1i/e i3 $5e ;<(;R :RS P)S !e#+e
#44e#r #+#i%. (lear the ne) &essage first I(L$ keyJ@ then copy it again#
; :ote =TC<:PS@ ti&e# (an be considered accurate#
; Select +6=TE G
TE 1 pa;e................................................................................... C$EC' D SET
; 6nter EDDF for Frankfurt in the 6+I:N field#
; 6nter 4SF6 for San Francisco in the DEST field#
; 6nter DLH454 in the FLT N6. field#
<2L< &eans 2eutsche Lufthansa and is our airline identifier#
; 6nter DLH454 in the C6 +6=TE field as )ell#
This should auto&atically load our flightplan if you have copied the #rte
file supplied )ith this tutorial# 7i%+ $5e NEXT PA:E 0e& - $i!e, /5e/0
$5e lo#2e2 3li+5$4l#% #+#i%$ o"r 5#r2/o4&# Hou &ay notice that so&e
departure )aypoints for the <4"4OS 5:< S"2 have already been inserted#
; Eerify 25+ auto&atically appeared in the $+:-AH field#
; Select ACTI5ATE G
; 1ress the =E*EC> key#
This takes a fe) seconds# 2on?t )orry ; you haven?t crashed the F8(
co&puter# Keep in &ind that this bo7 )orks )ith the average speed of
a 4*3 5 00 8! processor#
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-e have no) e7ecuted the &odifications and and created an active
flightplan@ )hich enables us to use L:AE for lateral guidance along the
route# Since )e?d also like to have vertical guidance IE:AEJ@ )e need
to tell the F8( so&e basic perfor&ance figures# To do so@
; Select PE+F INIT G
PEF #N#T pa;e............................................................................................ SET
; Skip the NF- field for no) and enter 0.5 in the +ESE+5ES field#
This figure e%uals our alternate fuel of 0@5 tons# A )arning )ill be
triggered once )e reach that level@ )hich )ould be the ver& l#$ sign
for us to land as soon as possible#
; 6nter 1- in the C6ST INDEX field# As described during preflight briefing@
this is the standard value for a L'4'#
; 6nter 07--- in the C+K ALT field# This tells the F8( our initial cruise
altitude# "t )ill auto&atically co&pute 4999 feet "(AO step cli&bs for us#
; Select :AE $A2 page using the button on the keypad#
NA4 A"#O pa;e........................................................................................ SET
-e?ll no) set up navigation aids for our departure# Ti&e to recapitulate
procedure briefing### After the initial left turn )e?re supposed to follo) FF8
EO$@ radial //0 outbound#
; 6nter FFM in the 56+ L field# "t )ill auto&atically insert the right fre%uency#
; 6nter 220 in the C+S field belo)#
This should dra) a line on the navigation display@ )hich )ill help us
follo)ing the radial#
Then follo)s a right turn to intercept $"2 EO$@ radial 09/#
; 6nter +ID in the 56+ + field#
; 6nter 0-2 in the C+S field belo)#
Hou should see the useful results on the navigation display# 4ut ho) do )e
easily deter&ine the point to co&&ence the initial left turn at 4#5 &iles fro&
FF8T -e?ll use a little bit of electronic help for that#
; 1ress the F"S button on the keypad#
; 6nter FFM in the FIX field#
+nfortunately@ there are t)o stations called FF8 on this navigational
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
database# Select the appropriate one I,,4#/9 is the correct fre%J#
; 6nter *4.5 I)ith the leading slashJ in the +AD*DIS field#
Take a look at the nav display again# (an you see )hat )e?re up toT 6ntering
this station as a F"S I)hich is essentially Cust an electronic &ap reference
pointJ together )ith a distance figure created a circle )ith 4#5 &iles radius#
Advanced geo&etry continues: as soon as our airplane sy&bol Ithe top of
the )hite triangleJ )ill reach this circle@ )e?ll press the heading select knob on
the glareshield and follo) heading ,*5 until intersecting the other green line
Irepresenting FF85//0 radialJ# At that point )e can engage L:AE )hich
guides us through the rest of the S"2 using the predefined )aypoints#
S&art@ huhT -ell@ by fully using your electronic navigation e%uip&ent@ you
can crack the &ost co&plicated procedure no)adays#
T)o &ore things to be done on the F8( for no): 1ress the E:AE button#
4NA4 CLB Pa;e........................................................................... C$EC' D SET
; Eerify SPD*T+ANS field sho)s /595,9999#
+nfortunately )e )on?t be able to co&ply )ith the /59 knots belo)
,9999 rule due to our heavy gross )eight# E:AE )ill ho)ever select
the lo)est appropriate cli&b speed IEref V ,99 knotsJ belo) ,9999
feet@ )hich is about /'9 knots today#
; 6nter 5--- in the T+ANS ALT field#
,*999 feet is the standard baro&etric transition altitude in the +nited
States@ but )e need the local setting for departure#
LE&S Pa;e.................................................................................. C$EC' D SET
; 1ress the L6DS button# Hou should be presented )ith a list of )aypoints
)ith their respective speed and altitude predictions# Any constraints for
departure could be entered here as )ell Ispeed li&its@ &ini&u& altitudes
etc#J# L6DS is essentially Cust an elongated version of the $O+T6 page@
listing every single )aypoint#
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Training Manual Fli;6tdec< Preparation
(urrently@ the route goes directly fro&
run)ay /5$ to the first )aypoint IFF89,J#
Since )e )ant to intercept it at a predefined
heading Iradial //0R outbound FF8J )e
can specify an intercept course to &ake
life a bit easier for us# To do so:
; (lick the line select key to the left of
FF89, t)o ti&es
; INTC C+S field appears on the lo)er
right of the screen# 6nter 220 into the
scratchpad and transfer it to the course pro&pt#
; :otice that a dashed track line appears on the navigation display# 1ress
=E*EC> to activate these changes# The ne) track line turns &agenta#
F8( setup is al&ost co&plete@ )e?ll co&e back once &ore in a fe) &inutes#
+A#N #NST,+ENT PANEL
C6ronoBeter 8JC$K button on panel s5itc6er9............................................ SET
"t should sho) current si&ulator ti&e in D8T# ILocal &inus / hours for FrankfurtJ
"t &ight be prudent to leave the clock visible until takeoff to keep a)are of the
ti&ing#
CT "ispla: Select Panel 8+ain panel9............................................................ SET
"nboard ($T Selector################################################## :O$8
Lo)er ($T Selector##################################################### :O$8
PriBar: Fli;6t "ispla:................................ C$EC'
; Eerify no )arning flags displayed
; LN6 5 SPDL is displayed
Flight 8ode Annunciation####################### (6(K
* @eri&y authtrottle mode blan4
* @eri&y roll mode T%<0A
* @eri&y pitch mode T%<0A
* @eri&y auto&light status is #"
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Track IT$KJ################################################################################################# 8AD
This ensures &agnetic reference is used instead of geographic <true north<#
Alti&eter################################################################## (6(K F"6L2 6L6EAT"O:
"ndication should be round about 0'9 feet#
Navi;ation "ispla:............................. C$EC'
; Eerify no )arning flags displayed#
; (o&pare heading )ith pri&ary co&pass
Ion 1F2J and standby co&pass Itop right
corner 5 &ain panelJ# Should read W ,9.R
8AD I&agneticJ.
CENTE #NST,+ENT PANEL
E#CAS Control Panel.......................................................................................... SET
6"+ Selector################################################################## A+TO
eading $eference S)itch########################################### :O$8
F8( 8aster S)itch#########################@############################## L6FT
Standb: #nstruBents.................................................. C$EC'
Eerify attitude indicator sho)s )ings level@ airspeed
indicator reads !ero# Set standby alti&eter to ,9,* &b
local pressure using the knob#
Secondar: E#CAS "ispla:........................................................ SET
Open <6"(AS< subpanel on the panel s)itcher and press the
H2 button on the selector panel Iright side of the glareshieldJ#
ydraulic Uuantity##################################### $F :OT 2"S1LAH62
ydraulic oil %uantity I8TYJ belo) the displayed synoptic
should read &ore than -.A for all engines# Other)ise $F for refill )ould be
displayed# andicap ite&Q
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T$OTTLE CONSOLE
IAlso accessed via panel s)itcher@ PT$A buttonJ
Speedbra<e Lever........................ "O0N
Par<in; Bra<e.................................. SET
The gray lever on the lo)er left side
should be up@ together )ith flight
si&ulator?s parking brake &essage
visible on screen#
everse T6rust Levers............... "O0N
The four s&all handles above the
actual throttle should be sto)ed#
T6rottles................................... CLOSE"
(onfir& by physically retarding thrust control on your flight yoke 5 Coystick@
if you use one# "f not@ Cust press =F1>#
Fuel Control S5itc6es............................................................................... C,TOFF
Eerify all four s)itches are in the lo)er cutoff position to prevent fuel feed#
StabiliIer TriB Cutout S5itc6es.............................................. &,A"S CLOSE"
StabiliIer TriB OFF fla;.................................................................... NOT 4#S#BLE
CENTE PE"ESTAL D CO++,N#CAT#ONS PANEL
IP(O8A button on the panel s)itcherJ
adio Tunin; Panels......................................................................................... SET
:or&ally EF L is used for AT( co&&unications# -e
)ould no) preselect our ground and to)er fre%uencies@
but for today@ this tutorial )ill provide you )ith AT(###
Audio Panel........................................................................................................ SET
:othing i&portant to do here for us# "f you )ant to hear
approach beacons@ push A11 knob and &ove selector
to the 8K$ position Iright;clicksJ#
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Autobra<es Selector......................................................................................... TO
Set to $TO position@ )hich stands for reHected ta4eo&& and &eans
that the brakes )ill auto&atically kick in )ith &a7i&u& po)er if )e
close the throttles during takeoff run#
Passen;er Si;ns................................................................................................. ON
4oth :o S&oking and Seatbelt Signs selectors to O:# All
Lufthansa long;haul flights are designated non;s&oking#
Transponder Panel............................................................................................ SET
(ontrol Selector################################################################ T6ST
(heck that T(AS indications appear on 1F2 and :2# Hou
should also hear a callout ?"C!; syste> test ./?
(ontrol Selector################################################################ ST4H
-e )ould also set a transponder code assigned by AT( no)#
As you &ay notice@ )e have no) )orked our )ay through all relevant panel areas#
Although the sheer &ass of ite&s to be checked &ay see& a little over)hel&ing at
first@ there?s a clear and logical pattern@ a so;called Aflo)B behind it# After the 0
rd
or 4
th
ti&e@ you )ill no longer have to think about )hich button is ne7t#
Oh@ and don?t think )e?re done yetQ
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F#NAL COC'P#T PEPAAT#ON
Status +essa;es........................................................................................ E4#E0
4ring up the 6"(AS subpanel again and check the STAT page for any )hite
status &essages# :o ite&s should be there# Leave 6"(AS visible@ but shift your
attention to the &ain engine screen and 4re $5e CA<C ."$$o% on the control
panel until all yello) caution ite&s have been canceled# They are not relevant
before engine start. Hou should no) see the follo)ing )hite status &essages:
F AP= +=NNIN:
F PA+4 D+A4E SET
F PASS SI:NS 6N
F A=T6D+A4ES +T6
Fuel 3uantit:................................................................................................ C$EC'
T6TAL F=EL Ilo)er right of the screenJ should read bet)een
,00#4 and ,0/#. tons@ depending on A1+ fuel burn# (heck
%uantity in agree&ent )ith ordered flightplan fuel#
Fuel Panel.......................................................................................................... SET
4ack to the overhead panel again#
"t?s ti&e to set up the fuel syste& for
engine start# Fur that purpose@ the
follo)ing '4 3"el 4"!4 &ust be
s)itched on Icheck all P+ESS lights
e7tinguish after selectionJ:
8A": V OE$2 ,@ /@ 0@ 4 F-2 and AFT pu&ps############################################# O:
The &ain pu&ps for the outer )ing tanks re&ain on all the ti&e#
(T$ L and $ pu&ps###################################################################################### O:
(enter tank pu&ps re&ain on as long as there is fuel in the center tank#
They are t)o ti&es &ore po)erful than the other pu&ps so that center fuel
)ill be burned first# Once this tank is e&pty@ )e?ll s)itch the& off#
Fuel S;Feed ,@ /@ 0@ 4#################################################################################### O:
(rossfeed valves ensure fuel distribution fro& the central &anifold to all
engines# This is the right configuration for full or nearly full tanks#
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Also be prepared to s)itch STA4 L and $ stabili!er pu&ps on )hen re%uired#
This )ill be indicated by an 6"(AS caution &essage# A bit &ore on fuel
&anage&ent and different configurations once )e?re airborne#
(lose the overhead@ and let?s do our first checklistQ
COC'P#T C$EC'L#ST
&ear Pins................................................................................................ E+O4E"
Pitot D Static............................................................................................. C$EC'E"
These t)o ite&s refer to the e7terior inspection#
OA:;en.................................................................................................... C$EC'E"
:ot possible in this si&ulation#
AltiBeters................................................................................................ LLLLG LLLL
; (aptain announces baro&etric setting and altitude#
; F5O announces baro&etric setting and altitude to verify correct setting and
indication
?1013, *70 feet.? ?1013, *70 feet 9 set and crosschecked.?
Autobra<es................................................................................. A,TOBA'E TO
$ead 6"(AS display &e&o &essage#
Fuel....................................................................................................... LLLLL TONS
$ead 6"(AS display indication Ilo)er rightJ
Fuel Control................................................................................................ C,TOFF
Passen;er Si;ns.......................................................................... PASS S#&NS ON
$ead 6"(AS &e&o &essage#
A general note8 Chec4lists are not do*lists. They are used to veri&y only the most
essential items a&ter a certain phase o& coc4pit action is complete.
(ockpit checklist co&plete# Let?s finish F8( perfor&ance calculations by entering
final takeoff data@ such as our !ero fuel )eight# This is done as shortly before
departure as possible@ because there are al)ays s&all changes to the planned
)eight:
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Load S6eet.................................................................................. C$EC' AN" S#&N
:or&ally@ )e )ould receive our loadsheet at this point@ so that possible last;
&inute changes in passenger 5 baggage )eight could be included# -e?ve already
talked about that during preflight briefing@ so )e kno) our final )eight#
Actual FF0G TO0 and +AC................................................................. ANNO,NCE
?&'( )*+ tons, ".( *71 tons, 5!C )1@? I8A( is our center of gravity
in percent# This is i&portant for proper takeoff tri&J
TDO PerforBance Calculation........................... CO+PLETE AN" COSSC$EC'
:o changes to preflight briefing# Flaps /9@ 5F derated takeoff )ith packs on#
Fli;6t +ana;eBent S:steB........................................................ SET AN" C$EC'
#N#T EF D PEF #N#T Pa;e............................................................ ENTE FF0
; Open F8(@ 1ress ":"T $6F buttton and enter 20A.- in the NF- field#
; Select T+H=ST LIM O
#N#T EF D T$,ST L#+ Pa;e............................................... SET AN" C$EC'
; Select T6 7 on the left side and CLDF7 on the right# This selects 5 ar&s
5F reduced takeoff 5 cli&b thrust# Also notice the S6L field in the top
left# This )ould be used for the assu&ed te&perature &ethod )e talked
about earlier# Leave blank for this flight# Eerify T6 7 N7 7-0.1M Ior up to
,94#0FJ displayed#
; Select TA4E6FF O
,PPE E#CAS...................................... COSSC$EC'
On top of the engine indications@ it should read <TO
,< )ith a thrust li&it of about ,94F Ivaries )ith
si&ulator soft)are version and outside conditionsJ
in green font belo)#
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#N#T EF D TA'EOFF EF Pa;e........................................... SET AN" C$EC'
; Flap Setting 5 Acceleration eight################################################### 6:T6$
6nter 2-*75-- in the FLAPS field#
; 65O Acceleration eight################################################################## 6:T6$
6nter 7--- in the E*6 ACCEL HT field# This should be the lo)est safe
altitude for obstacle clearance in case of an engine failure#
; Thrust $eduction eight################################################################## 6:T6$
6nter 75-- in the TH+ +ED=CTI6N field# "t should no) read 75--t
CLD 7# At that altitude@ engine thrust )ill be reduced#
; -ind 5 Slope#################################################################################### 6:T6$
6nter H-5 in the ?IND*SL6PE field# This infor&s the F8( about the 5
knots of head)ind during takeoff run@ used for speed adCust&ent#
Tail)inds )ould be entered )ith a leading T# Since sloped run)ays are
not si&ulated in FS@ )e don?t need to enter a figure for that#
; Takeoff Speeds################################################################################ 6:T6$
:otice the E;speeds on the right side have been auto&atically
co&puted# -e could confir& the& by si&ply clicking on each button#
o)ever@ )e )ill only use these as a backup to verify our o)n figures#
As you can see@ the F8( calculations are a bit &ore opti&istic# V, knot
for E, and Er# Let?s over)rite the& )ith our previously deter&ined
speeds:
; 6nter 752 in the +EF 57 field#
; 6nter 7.5 in the +EF 5+ field#
; 6nter 71. in the +EF 52 field#
:otice <57 752< displayed in green near the speed tape on the 1F2#
; 8A(################################################################################################# 6:T6$
(onfir& 27M G by clicking on the button to the right# The F8(
suggests a takeoff stabili!er tri& of 3#9 units#
Eery )ell@ this co&pletes F8( preflight setup# -e can no) &ake full use of the
lateral and vertical guidance &odes# 1ress the F8(?s E:AE button to open
5NA5 EC6N CLD page@ but close the F8( panel for no)#
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AF"S +CP.......................................................................................................... SET
E/################################################################################################################## S6T
2ial the E/ speed of ,'3 knots into the "AS58A( )indo)# This &arks our
lo)est safe cli&b speed that )e )ill have to &aintain initially#
8(1 E:AE s)itch###################################################################################### 1+S
To preselect vertical navigation &ode# "t )ill acco&plish several useful things
for us after takeoff:
* lo$er the nose &or acceleration at );00 &eet.
* simultaneously select climb thrust.
* command a &lap*dependent climb speed and pitch*attitude.
* initiate a levelo&& at the &irst restriction altitude o& 1000 &eet.
:or&ally@ )e )ould also preselect L:AE at this point# Since )e )ant to fly the
initial S"2 turn )ith 2D S6L &ode today@ )e don?t need it yet# :o) verify 8(1
settings again:
* .AS<MACH '76 6sa&e climb speed7
* H"0 '8- 6initial le&t turn7
* A3T 7000 6&irst levelo&&7
Also confir& autoflight &ode readouts on the 1F2:
Dood )ork so far# Hou have checked and set all relevant flight deck ite&s no)# The
aircraft is fully prepared for engine start# -hile you have been busy )ith s)itch;
flipping@ our passengers have boarded the airplane# The cabin purser infor&s us that
everyone is on board and that the cabin cre) is ready for gate departure# Let?s risk a
look at the )atch: "t should be shortly before ,9 o?clock local I9*99 D8TJ#
Aou can ta4e a short brea4 and rela a bit until 18;;z.
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Training Manual En;ine Startin;
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.(0 En;ine Startin;
A fe) &inutes before planned departure I':55!J@ )e contact Frankfurt delivery for our
clearance:
A6ufthansa 4-4 on <ra%o )), guten 5orgen. Bou are cleared to
;an 'rancisco as filed %ia <iCos 'i%e No%e>Cer de$arture.
Contact ground for $ushCack and start. ;Duawk -410.E
-e?ll do as advised once )e?re ready# This is also a good ti&e for you as the captain
to &ake a public announce&ent to introduce yourself and reveal so&e fascinating
details about the route@ the )eather and the aircraft itself# Hou kno) the drill### but try
not to be as boring as &ost pilots are )hen they speak to PciviliansA in the back###
4efore )e can finally leave the gate@ )e need to )ork our )ay through a fe) ite&s
and t)o &ore checklists#
BEFOE STAT
SeatG Seat BeltsG $arnessesG udder Pedals........................................... A"?,ST
8ake sure your ho&e cockpit is set up as convenient as possible for you# On the
real aircraft@ )e )ould pri&arily adCust our seat for a correct eye position# This
can be %uite i&portant )hen sitting 5 &eters above the groundQ
Before en;ine startG t6e follo5in; iteBs s6all be perforBed on t6e captain7s
coBBand JBEFOE STAT #TE+SKE
$:draulic Clearance................................................................................. ECE#4E
+sing the interphone syste&@ )e )ould get in touch )ith ground personnel and
ask the& for clearance to pressuri!e the hydraulic syste&# They )ill confir& that
all flight control surface areas are free of obstructions Iincluding other ground
people and vehicles###J
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"eBand PuBp Selectors ) D (G %G 1..................................................... A,* D A,TO
Ti&e to visit the overhead panel again: S)itch
nu&ber one@ t)o and three 268A:2 pu&p
selectors to the A+TO position# :u&ber four
should go to A+S for no) Iavoids un)anted hydraulic transferJ
Pac< Control Selectors................................................................... AS E3,#E"
T)o or all air conditioning packs should be off
for engine start# -e?ll 1i$/5 o33 %"!.er ' C ,#
2oing so )ill provide the starter syste& )ith
sufficient bleed air#
Beacon.................................................................................................. ON
Found )ithin the lo)er ro) of light s)itches# The red beacon light )ill
alert the ground cre) that )e?re about to &ove and start engines#
Par<in; Bra<e.................................................................................................... SET
Secondar: En;ine "ispla:............................................................................... SET
(lose the overhead and display the secondary 6"(AS panel# 1ress the 6:D
button and notice additional engine instru&entation such as :/ Ico&pressor
$18J@ oil pressure and oil te&perature# These are vital for &onitoring the
startup procedure@ so leave the& visible#
TriB.................................................................. LL ,N#TSG 0G 0
; Stabili!er Tri&################################################### XX +:"TS
Open throttle console and set the elevator tri& using
your keyboard?s nu&pad , and ' keys or &ouse
buttons# Target value is 3 units@ )hich is )ell
)ithin the Pgreen bandA@ indicating nor&al tri&#
; Aileron and $udder Tri&###################### N6$O
Found on the center console@ ho)ever )e
haven?t touched lateral tri&@ so nothing
should be changed here# 6specially rudder
tri& is nor&ally only used during an engine
failure to reduce rudder pressure#
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BEFOE STAT C$EC'L#ST
"eBand PuBps.................................................................................... A,* D A,TO
Autostart S5itc6.................................................................................................. ON
Beacon............................................................................................................ BOT$
Pac<s............................................................................................................. LLLLLL
(aptain reads appropriate 6"(AS &essage# Should be P1A(KS , V 0 OFFA
Par<in; Bra<e.................................................................................................... SET
Ta<eoff Speeds................................................................................. LLL G LLL G LLL
(aptain reads E,@ Er and E/ fro& F8( TAK6OFF $6F page# I,5/@ ,35@ ,'3J
TriB.................................................................................................... LL ,N#TSG 0G 0
+obile................................................................................................................. OFF
Hes@ cellphones are no)adays part of a checklist#
$eady for pushbackQ Once again@ check the clock# -e )ould
like to leave at ,9:99 local 5 9*:99 D8T sharp#
-e?ll no) utili!e 182D?s o)n pushback tool@ found on the lo)er co&&unications
panel# $ight;click the $ST button and set --2 in the 2"ST field@ +A- in the 26D field
Iright;clicks for $;valuesJ# This is %uite a precise setting for correct pushback fro&
4//# :o) left;click the $ST button and listen to the ground;cre)# -hen you hear
Aelease $arking Crake, $lase!E@ do as
advised and note the ti&e again# 1ushback )ill
start i&&ediately#
(all out A.ff the Clocks at Fero eight Fero one!E for a departure ti&e of
,9:9, 5 9*:9, D8T# This is the Pblock;offA ti&e@ i&portant for logbook entries Iand
ulti&ately for your paycheck Y;J
4ye;bye FrankfurtQ :othing can stop us no)# -ell### e7cept that )e don?t have any
engine thrust yet# -ait until pushback is co&plete I)hen they )ant us to set the
parking brake again and )ish a good flightJ# The aircraft is no) facing the open
apron#
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A,TO+AT#C EN&#NE STAT
The na&e suggests a fully auto&atic procedure@ )hich is not %uite true# o)ever@ the
autostart &echanis& of this 4oeing '4' )ill take care of any abnor&al condition@
such as incorrect fuel flo)@ Phung startA or even Phot startA Ithat is in fact the fastest
)ay too literally &elt &illion;dollar e%uip&ent### Cust )atch the te&perature rising and
rising ; at &ore than .99R (elsius the engine is )ell doneJ# Autostart )ill cutoff the
fuel early enough and atte&pt it once &ore if appropriate#
For an engine start fro& the /2 cockpit you?ll need the follo)ing panels Iin
se%uenceJ: Overhead@ throttle console@ secondary 6"(AS# A %uite po)erful A1+
allo)s us to start t)o engines at a ti&e# 4 #%2 , +o 3ir$@ then@ once they are
stabili!ed@ 2 #%2 ' 1ill 3ollo1# Open the overhead no) and locate the four black
engine start s)itches#
Start S5itc6es ) and (....................................... P,LL
ILeft;clickJ Ar&s the starter &otor and allo)s A1+
bleed air to reach the engine# (lose the overhead@
open the throttle console no)# 4elo) you see a
convenient setup for the )hole process:
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Fuel Control S5itc6es ) and (...................................................................... OPEN
As soon as you open the fuel control s)itches@ the actual startup procedure
begins# Focus on the t)o 6"(AS screens no)#
En;ine instruBents................................................................................. +ON#TO
; Isec# 6"(ASJ Observe oil pressure and :/ increase
; Isec# 6"(ASJ A$ 20D <2@ fuel flo) should start
; Ipri# 6"(ASJ (heck ;G( rii%+ Ibut not above the li&it lineJ@ :, rising
; Isec# 6"(ASJ A$ -0D <2@ notice starter cutout I<click< soundJ
That co&pletes startup for these t)o engines# They should be stable at W /5F :,@
6DT so&e)here around 499R (elsius#
epeat t6e t6ree steps above 5it6 en;ines % and 1# Again@ select the start
s)itches on the overhead panel first# Once all engines are running@ there?s so&e
&ore overhead )ork to do:
AFTE STAT
After en;ine startG t6e follo5in; iteBs s6all be perforBed on t6e captain7s
coBBand MAFTE STAT #TE+SME
AP, Selector 8Over6ead9................................................................................... OFF
Since the engines are no) providing us )ith electrics and bleed air@ )e can
s)itch it off# A1+ spooldo)n takes a )hile but is fully auto&ated#
"eBand PuBp Selector No. )........................................................................ A,TO
All four de&and pu&p s)itches should be in the A+TO position no)@ engine
pu&ps O:@ no 1$6SS lights illu&inated#
Nacelle Anti@#ce S5itc6es................................................................ AS E3,#E"
Obviously not necessary today@ leave OFF#
Aft Car;o $eat.................................................................................. AS E3,#E"
(an stay off@ no living ani&als in the belly today Iat least not that )e kno) of##J
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Pac< Control Selectors.................................................................................. NO+
1lace all three selectors to the :O$8 position# They )ill stay there for the rest of
the flight today# (lose the overhead panel#
ecall S5itc6.......................................................................... P,S$
ISec# 6"(AS control panelJ (heck that no yello) caution
&essages are left on the pri&ary 6"(AS display# 4efore engine
start@ these &essages are irrelevant@ but if )e sa) the& no)@ )e
)ould have to cope )ith possible failures#
STAT S5itc6........................................................................... P,S$
ISec# 6"(AS control panelJ To display flight control status#
:o)@ that the hydraulic syste& is fully po)ered )e?ll do another <life insurance< ite&
before )e set out on our Courney ; control surface checkQ
Fli;6t Controls............................................................................................. C$EC'
Hou can check control surface position
by &onitoring the synoptic on the STAT
page# 8ove your flight yoke or Coystick to
the 3"ll le3$ position# Eerify:
* 3e&t side8 aileron up( spoiler up
* 9ight side8 aileron do$n
Eice versa for 3"ll ri+5$ position#

(enter the yoke 5 stick and observe that
all indications return to nor&al#
8ove yoke 5 stick 3"ll #3$ and 3"ll 3or1#r2# Eerify:
* +levators &ull up < &ull do$n.
8ove r"22er 4e2#l Iif you have the&J 3"ll le3$ and 3"ll ri+5$# Observe rudder
indication full left 5 full right and return to center#
(heck for free and easy &ove&ent in all directions#
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STAT S5itc6................................................................................................... P,S$
4lanks lo)er 6"(AS to avoid distraction fro& pri&ary instru&ents# Hou can leave
this display invisible for the rest of the flight@ unless you )ant to check or &onitor
certain syste&s#
TaAi Clearance.......................................................................................... ECE#4E
-e contact Frankfurt ground and tell the& that )e?re ready for ta7i#
?6ufthansa 4-4, roger. "aGi %ia 8.6' and !6H2! to holding
$oint 4E6"! for runway )- right.?
### the trigger for us to go through the ne7t checklist:
AFTE STAT C$EC'L#ST
Anti@#ce.............................................................................................................. LLLL
ecall....................................................................................................... C$EC'E"
Fli;6t Controls........................................................................................ C$EC'E"
This is the &o&ent &ost passengers have been eagerly a)aiting# -e have
configured all airplane syste&s for ta7i;out@ so ECAS( )FF@E
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Training Manual TaAi@out And Ta<eoff
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.)0 TaAi out and Ta<eoff
TA*#
After receiving ta7i clearance and prior to initiating the ta7i checklist@ the follo)ing
tasks are acco&plished to ensure proper configuration of the aircraft for takeoff#
&round Cre5 Clearance........................................................................... ECE#4E
All ground personell have cleared the surrounding area@ steering pin and
connection cables have been re&oved#
TaAi Area Clear............................................................................................. 4E#F1
4oth captain and first officer verify that the ta7i area in their vie) is free of
obstructions# EClear left!I ; EClear right!I
Par<in; Bra<e.......................................................................................... ELEASE
TaAi.......................................................................................................... PEFO+
"t takes a bit of thrust to get 0'9 tons &oving@ so #2v#%/e $5e $5ro$$le
!oo$5l& $o #.o"$ 40D <'# Once you reach a co&fortable ta7i speed of ,/ ; ,5
knots ground speed Idisplayed on the top left corner of the navigation displayJ
reduce thrust slightly to about 0*F to &aintain this speed#
Other general notes:
* Appropriate speed &or turns is I * )2 4nots. Aou need to add a bit o& thrust
during sharp turns. -se eternal or map vie$ &or better a$areness.
* :ever let the aircra&t stop during turns. A lot o& thrust is necessary to get it
moving again.
* Avoid riding the bra4es( as heat buildup could become ecessive. The last
thing $e $ant &or a possible reHected ta4eo&& are overheated bra4es. !lan
ahead and 4eep engine spoolup and *do$n times in mind.
ere?s our ta7i routing displayed on a &ap:
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Training Manual TaAi@out And Ta<eoff
Fro& current position
straight ahead until
intersecting the outer
ta7i)ay# Turn left and follo)
this ta7i)ay# aving
reached the beginning of
run)ay /5$@ turn right and
stop at holding point
26LTA#
-hile ta7iing out@ the
follo)ing ite&s should be
co&pleted:
Flaps................................................................................................. SET
1ress =F.> four ti&es to e7tend the flaps to /9# (onfir& flap setting
on upper 6"(AS# </9< should be displayed in green# :ote that it
takes al&ost a &inute to lo)er these huge flaps and slats#
Cabin eport........................................................................... ECE#4E
The purser infor&s us that the cabin has been prepared for takeoff#
Seatbelts fastened and baggage co&part&ents secured#
TA*# C$EC'L#ST
Flaps................................................................................................................ LLLLL
$ead 6"(AS indication#
Cabin eport........................................................................................... ECE#4E"
1roceed to the holding point and co&e to a stop at the double line# -e?ll )ait for
takeoff clearance here# AT( has already infor&ed us that )e?re nu&ber three in the
line@ so don?t e7pect too &uch delay### -hile )aiting@ let?s revie) our departure again:
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TDO evie5............................................................................................... PEFO+
Should include all nor&al procedures and special aspects of the departure:
?"his is going to Ce a standard left9hand seat takeoff for
'rankfurt#s runway )-, followed Cy a <iCos 'i%e No%e>Cer ;:4. .nce
aligned with the runway, :#ll set full takeoff thrust. Bou will %erify
?"akeoff $ower set? and call out ?30 knots?, ?8o? and ?otate?. (e
cli>C straight ahead to 4.- 45E, indicated Cy the green circle on the
N4. (e then turn left to a heading of 13-0 using 248 ;E6 >ode. (e
interce$t ''5 V. radial ))* and engage 6N!V, which will then guide us
through the rest of the $rocedure. 4e$arture way$oints ha%e Ceen
$rogra>>ed and %erified. ''5 is set and identified on the left V.
recei%er, :4 on the right. "here are no altitude restrictions on this
;:4, howe%er our 5;! is 4*00 feet to kee$ us clear of the hills.
"ransition altitude is -000 feet, as set in the '5C. 'irst le%eloff
altitude is 7000 feet, as set on the 5CH. ;$eed control )-0 knots Celow
10.000 feet unless !"C clears us any faster. (eather is no factor today
and the aircraft is fully ser%iceaCle.?
TO Briefin;............................................................................................ PEFO+
(overs possible e&ergencies and failures:
?4uring takeoff roll, Cefore 30 knots we#ll sto$ for any syste> failure
triggering a caution alert on the E:C!;. !fter 30 knots we#ll only sto$
for se%ere $roCle>s, engine, !H7 or cargo fire, engine failure or loss
of control. !fter V1 we will not sto$.
"o aCort the takeoff, : will close the thrust le%ers and de$loy
s$eedCrakes. !utoCrakes are set to "., so you should %erify Craking
action. (e will use re%erse thrust and co>e to a hold Cefore the end of
the runway. :f it#s an engine fire, we will i>>ediately initiate caCin
e%acuation.
:n case of a se%ere failure after V1, we will fly the aircraft to a
safe >ini>u> altitude, reassess the failure, take a$$ro$riate actions
according to the non9nor>al checklist, talk to !"C and $ro$aCly co>e
Cack for a landing on runway )- left or right, which would >ake a fuel
du>$ to >aGi>u> landing weight necessary.?
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Training Manual TaAi@out And Ta<eoff
$ight on ti&e@ Frankfurt to)er calls in and clears us to occupy the run)ay:
?6ufthansa 4-4, line u$ and wait, runway )- right.?
4efore )e can do that@ so&e final actions need to be perfor&ed:
TA'EOFF
Before ta<eoffG t6e follo5in; iteBs s6all be perforBed on t6e captain7s
coBBandE MTA'EOFF #TE+SME
Autot6rottle ArB S5itc6...................................................... A+
6MC!7 Ar&s autothrottle syste&@ )hich enables us to use
<TO5DA< thrust &ode Isets predefined t5o po)erJ# Autothrottle
nor&ally re&ains on until approach 5 landing#
Pac< Control Selectors................................................................... AS E3,#E"
6%verhead7 "f a packless T5O )as to be perfor&ed@ )e )ould s)itch the& off
no)# For this flight@ Cust confir& they?re all :O$8#
Stobe Li;6ts........................................................................................ ON
6%verhead( light panel7 Strobe lights indicate that the aircraft is about
to &ove onto the active run)ay# They re&ain on for the )hole flight#
Landin; Li;6ts.................................................................................... ON
6%verhead( light panel7 S)itch only the ":4OA$2
landing lights on for a bright day like this one#
Transponder....................................................... TADA
6Comm. panel7 S)itch transponder &ode selector fro&
ST4H to TA5$A# This activates transponder and T(AS
Itra&&ic collision avoidance systemJ# Also press the TF(
knob on the glareshield to display traffic on the nav display#
Ta<eoff "ata.............................................................................................. CONF#+
Eerify that planned perfor&ance data is still valid Ie.g. no signi&icant $ind <
pressure < temperature < run$ay changes.
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TA'EOFF C$EC'L#ST
Pac<s................................................................................................................. LLLL
$ead 6"(AS &essage Iif s)itched offJ or confir& <1acks O:<
Autot6rottle.................................................................................................. A+E"
TDO "ata............................................................................................... CONF#+E"
Ta7i slo)ly onto the active run)ay I,9 knots &a7#J and align the aircraft?s nose# The
centerline should be fi7ed bet)een your knees# (o&e to a final@ short stop@ hold the
brakes# (heck flap setting@ check co&pass heading W /5, degrees@ check alti&eter W
0'9 feet# All setQ 8ake sure you?ve read the ne7t part 46FO$6 you do it#
?6ufthansa 4-4, wind )70 at -, cleared for takeoff runway )-.?
The follo)ing steps )ill be over in less than .9 seconds@ but still@ it is the &ost critical
phase of an ,,;hour flight# Those )ho are afraid of flying hate it@ those )ho travel
often don?t even look up fro& their ne)spapers and so&e Cust can?t get enough of it###
E(AB;)FF@E
Bra<es........................................................................... ELEASE
Cloc<.................................................................................. STAT
F"i/0l& o4e% $5e /lo/0 #%2 ri+5$-/li/0 $5e lo1er le3$ ."$$o%
$o $#r$ # $i!er, re/or2i%+ o"r $o$#l $i!e #ir.or%e.
"irectional Control................................................................................... +A#NTA#N
1ush the elevator do)n a little bit until )e reach *9 knots# For a cross)ind
takeoff@ )e )ould also turn the aileron slightly into the )ind# 4e prepared to
&aintain run)ay direction by using rudder# Left hand stays on the control
colu&n@ right hand goes to the throttle#
T6rottles................................................................................................... A"4ANCE
Advance the thrust levers s&oothly to appro7i&ately '9F :, Ihalf;)ay for)ardJ
and notice continuous spool;up of all engines on 6"(AS# -hen they?re
stabili!ed ###
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Training Manual TaAi@out And Ta<eoff
TOD&A S5itc6............................................................................. P,S$
(lick the s&all scre) to the left of the autothrottle s)itch on the
8(1# 6"onBt $orry( on the real aircra&t they donBt push scre$s...
thereBs a s$itch located on the throttle7 This )ill activate autothrust
and &ove the throttles for)ard to their predefined takeoff setting@ faster and
&ore precise than in &anual operation# (all out ?"akeoff $ower set!? and
enCoy the &ighty sound of four D6s@ each providing 39#999 pounds of thrust#
Fli;6t D En;ine #nstruBents.................... C$EC'
This is )hy they call it a <high )orkload phase<#
Apart fro& keeping the aircraft on the run)ay@
you should also &onitor pri&ary instru&ents#
(heck TH+ +EF IJ re&erence thrustJ is
displayed on the upper left corner of the 1F2#
(heck airspeed increases and fro& the corner
of your eye@ notice engine indications are
)ithin li&its as )ell#
Airspeed #ndications.................. COSSC$EC'
As soon as you hear the ?Eighty.? callout@
verify that your airspeed indicator also reads
eighty knots and confir& )ith ?Checked!?
67cessive deviation )ould be a reason to abort the takeoff# Hou have no)
entered the high;speed regi&e of the takeoff run#
M&OM...................................................................................................... ANNO,NCE
"n this si&ulation@ you )ill hear a ?V1? call at ,59 knots# $e&ove your hands
fro& the throttle to back up the decision %o$ $o re>e/$ $#0eo33 #%&!ore.
MOTATEM............................................................................................. ANNO,NCE
otation................................................................................................... PEFO+
S&oothly pull back on the stick and establish
the target pitch attitude of ,0R# $otation should
occur at 2 - ,G 4er e/o%2# "f you do it right@
the )hole rotation fro& 9 to ,0 degrees nose up
is a s&ooth and continuous process that takes
about 4 to 5 seconds#
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Lift;off should occur at appro7# *R and the aircraft starts cli&bing# Tail;strike can
occur at ,/#5R@ so &ake sure you?re airborne )hen reaching this attitude#
Landin; &ear.................................................................... ETACT
As soon as you notice positive rate of cli&b on the vertical speed
indicator A:2 increasing alti&eter readout@ call for ?8ear 7H!?
and press =&> to retract it#
A2>"$ 4i$/5 li+5$l& $o !#i%$#i% #% i%i$i#l 4ee2 o3 A2 H '0 0%o$ ('86 0%o$, #
4er 3li+5$ 2ire/$or /o!!#%2).
Autopilot........................................................................................... AS E3,#E"
As soon as )e?re airborne@ engage the autopilot by clicking
the L =C+"> button# Also verify CMD displayed in green on
the 1F2#
A general rule is that )e &ake sure 6E6$H action )e?ve conducted on the
glareshield Ie#g# A1 &ode changeJ is also confir&ed on the 1F2# Auto&atics
can be e7tre&ely helpful@ but only if they?re doing )hat they?re supposed to do###
-hy the left autopilotT Lufthansa rule: L for even flight nu&ber@ ( for odd flight
nu&ber and $ )henever the first officer handles the aircraft# All three syste&s
are identical@ and pri&arily installed for redundancy#
-e?re safely cli&bing a)ay no)@ but the critical phase is not over yet###
<6ufthansa 4-4, radar contact, continue de$arture and cli>C to
flightle%el 70 initially.?
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Training Manual CliBb And Cruise
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.!0 CliBb and Cruise
CL#+B AN" C,#SE
-e have established a straight cli&bout fro& run)ay /5 using autopilot guidance# At
499 feet above the ground@ the previously <ar&ed< E:AE &ode kicks in and
co&&ands a cli&b speed of E/ V ,9 knots# E:AE S12 &eans that the autopilot
changes pitch to &aintain a constant speed and thrust setting# -e?re also
approaching the 4#5 &ile range circle fro& FF8@ the &arker for our initial left turn#
-hen over this circle@ /li/0 $5e =SEL> 0%o. o% $5e +l#re5iel2.
A left turn is no) co&&anded to the target heading@ displayed as the dashed
&agenta line on the :2# 2uring this turn@ )e )ill also &ost likely pass ,599 feet
above ground level ; our acceleration and thrust reduction height#
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CliBb N1....................................................................................................... C$EC'
At about ,.99 feet@ e7pect to see CLD 7 displayed# A thrust reduction can be
heard and visually confir&ed on the 6"(AS# Also notice that the co&&anded
speed cursor changes fro& E/V,9 to the current flap li&it speed of appro7# //5
knots ; resulting in an attitude reduction and slo) acceleration#
Flaps......................................................................................................... ETACT
1assing through Flap ,9 &aneuver speed@ indicated by a green <,9< on the 1F2@
select flaps ,9 by pressing =F-># For the ne7t period of the cli&b@ apart fro& flying
the procedure@ )atch for the &aneuver speeds to pass by and retract the flaps
to the indicated nu&ber@ all the )ay to +1# 6specially the transition fro& 5 to ,
takes a )hile@ but it is good practice not to select the ne7t the ne7t flap level until
&ove&ent is co&plete Igreen flap indicator on the 6"(ASY &agenta &eans ?in
transition?J# E:AE )ill not overshoot the li&it speeds#
&ear.................................................................................................................... OFF
1lace the gear lever on the &ain panel to the <OFF< position by left;clicking
belo) the handle# This is done to depressuri!e the undercarriage hydraulic
syste& for the rest of the flight@ thus avoiding fluid loss in case of a leakage#
Pac< Control S5itc6es................................................................................. NO+
After thrust reduction@ )hen &a7# available po)er is no longer re%uired@ )e
)ould s)itch all packs back on# Already set in this case#
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8ean)hile@ )e are established inbound to)ards FF8 radial //0# S5or$l& .e3ore
i%$ere/$i%+ $5e !#+e%$# li%e@ push the =LNA4> button on the 8(1# The aircraft )ill
capture it?s predefined track line and )e?ll end up in a direct course to)ards FF89,
)aypoint# "n conCunction )ith E:AE@ )e have no) established fully auto&ated 02;
:avigation# Also &ove the heading )indo) on the 8(1 to //0 degrees by right;
clicking the selector knob#
2uring this phase of the flight@ it is &ost i&portant that you )atch
for a safe cli&b speed and s&ooth@ li&ited pitch and bank
changes# :o turns steeper than /9R# -e?re flying on the lo)er edge
of the perfor&ance envelope here# Also )atch out for possible
traffic conflicts# +sually )e?d only deviate fro& our lateral path
)hen things get really tight or AT( )ants us to@ but it is co&&on to
adCust cli&b speed in order to avoid alu&inu&;rich air# Traffic contacts )ould be
displayed as Adia&ondsB on the nav display# -hen they turn yello)@ e7ercise caution#
A%2 2o%=$ 3or+e$ $o .ri%+ $5oe 3l#4 "4 o% /5e2"le@
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Take a look at ho) L:AE )orks: Once )e
have passed FF89,@ the sy&bol on the
nav display turns )hite and the ne7t
)aypoint@ $"29,@ beco&es &agenta and
therefore the currently active one#
-e could fly the )hole procedure )ithout
autopilot@ Cust follo)ing the flight director
bars# "n fact@ &any pilots prefer to keep
their ?stick;and;rudder? skills by flying
cli&b@ descent and final approach
&anually# For this tutorial ho)ever@ the
autopilot is a very )elco&e )orkload
reduction@ allo)ing us to focus on other tasks#
8ean)hile )e?re approaching transition altitude:
AltiBeters.................................................................. SET AN" *@C$EC'
A$ -000@ left;click IpushJ the ST2 knob on the glareshield# This resets
the alti&eter to "(AO standard pressure setting ,9,0 h1a or /.#./
inches# (ross;check the readout )ith the first;officer?s instru&ent#
At about 3999 feet@ )e can hear an ?altitude alert?@ signaling us that )e?re close to our
target altitude# As the pilot@ also call out A1000 to go!B to increase situational
a)areness# 5NA5 ALT )ill kick in as the active &ode and initiate a s&ooth leveloff#
Once straight and level #$ 7000 feet@ AT( gives us further clearance:
?6ufthansa 4-4, recleared flight le%el *10 initially, no s$eed
restriction.?
67cellent ; instead of giving us several inter&ediate altitudes@ they clear us all the
)ay up to cruise level A:2 allo) us to fly a speed of our choice# -e )ill re&ove the
F8( speed restriction first@ thus allo)ing the aircraft to accelerate to 6(O: speed#
6(O: stands for ?econo&ic? and is the co&puted &ost effective cli&b speed@ taking
cost inde7 and environ&ent conditions into account#
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)4e% FMC )ith ACT EC6N CLD page
displayed Iif not@ press the LE:AEM keyJ#
SPD*T+ANS field displays 25-*7----#
1ress L26LM and click they key ne7t to the
SPD*T+ANS line in order to re&ove it# 1ress
L6S6(M and notice co&&anded speed
cursor increases to about 049 knots#
:o) )e?ll initiate a further cli&b to FL0,9# Di#l ,'000 into the 8(1
altitude )indo) and le3$-/li/0 (4"5) $5e ."$$o% .elo1 i$#
-henever you?re in E:AE &ode and push this button@ an altitude
change )ith 5NA5 SPD )ill be initiated#
Eertical &odes revert to TH+ +EF I&a7i&u&
reference thrust@ (L4;, in this caseJ and
5NA5 SPD Ispeed dependent cli&bJ# The
engines )ind up and here )e go again###
4y the )ay@ looking to the right@ )e can see
the t)o state capitals -iesbaden and 8ain!
under the )ings ; )e have nicely circu&vented the&# The $hine valley should be
straight ahead or already belo) us# -e?re about to fly over the Taunus &ountains
and proceed north)est@ direction (ologne 5 4onn#
Approaching '0.000 3ee$@ this is the trigger for us to acco&plish a fe) &ore things:
Landin; Li;6ts D Lo;o Li;6ts....................................................... OFF
6%verhead panel7 4oth drain a considerable a&ount of po)er and
are no longer necessary to identify us at these altitudes@ any)ay#
Seatbelt Si;ns......................................................................... A,TO
6Comm. panel7 "f conditions per&it Ie#g# no turbulence@ s&ooth
airJ@ flight attendants &ay start serving cold drinks no)# (heersQ
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+anuall: selected Navaids........................................................................ "ELETE
4ecause )e are flying in L:AE@ )e no longer need the departure EO$ stations#
4y <deleting< the&@ the F8( )ill auto&atically tune various radio beacons in the
vicinity to update it?s position# 2oing a si&ple cross;bearing Iradial V radial Z
intersection Z current positionJ@ increases "$S accuracy# Of course@ this &ethod
only )orks in areas )ith good EO$ coverage# That?s )hy recent '4's Isuch as
this si&ulationJ have been e%uipped )ith additional D1S receivers#
To delete our t)o hard;tuned EO$s FF8
and $"2@ o4e% FMC #%2 4re $5e <AA
RAD 0e&# Then press L26LM and select
the respective fre%uency on the left side#
$epeat on the right#
:otice that the letter <8< )ill be replaced
)ith an <A< for <auto;tuned<#
6ngine $18 has been slo)ly but continuously increased during cli&b@ and at ,5999
feet@ (L4;, )ill be auto&atically replaced by full (L4 thrust@ as seen on the 6"(AS#
For i&proved situational a)areness@ )e should also increase
the navigation display &ap scale a bit# For departure@ it is &ost
i&portant to have a detailed and precise vie) of the routing#
:o) )e certainly prefer a )ider picture@ allo)ing us to see
)hat?s ahead enroute#
7i%+ $5e !#4 /#le 0%o. o% $5e +l#re5iel2, set *9 or ,39
&ile range Iconvenient for this phaseJ and take a look at the :2
no)# (urrently active )aypoints and the route in &agenta color@
nothing ne) here# 4ut there?s also a green dot so&e 39 &iles
ahead@ labeled PT5(A# This is the co&puted top of cli&b# There?s
a green arc@ ALSO representing this point# They are indicating
differently at the &o&ent@ because the green arc uses the
currently &lo$n vertical speed to predict target altitude# The PT5(A point also takes
altitude;dependent perfor&ance factors into account IF8( Pkno)sA that the vertical
speed )ill decreaseJ@ leading to a &ore realistic prediction#
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%0 +#N,TES AFTE TA'EOFF
Our heavy bird finally approaches 0,999 feet# -e have already
passed (ologne and are no) heading for the :etherlands and
open ocean# As soon as )e have leveled off@
several &ode changes occur: SPD@ LNA5 and
5NA5 PTH are no) active on the 1F2# SPD is
the standard autothrottle &ode@ )hich selects
engine thrust depending on )hat the 8(1 speed )indo) reads or )hat E:AE
co&&ands IEC6N speed in this caseJ# 5NA5 PTH either &aintains cruise altitude or
follo)s a descent path@ taking altitude and speed restrictions into account# Also notice
C+K IcruiseJ thrust li&it displayed on the 6"(AS# 6ngines should run s&oothly at
about .0F :,#
As for the navigation display@ i%/re#e MAP /#le to ,39 or 0/9 &iles
no)# "t is also considered good practice to follo) all enroute turns )ith
the 8(1 heading selector Cust turn the selector knob to the heading on
top of the co&pass rose# Although navigation is auto&ated@ a rough idea of )here
you?re currently going is helpful especially if )e need to disconnect L:AE for any
reason#
Cruise "ata......................................................................................................... SET
:o) that )e are stabili!ed at FL0,9@ )e?ll set the cruise speed as specified by
our flightplan Ialthough difference fro& econ# speed is only &arginal in this
caseJ# )4e% FMC, ele/$ A<AA 4#+e and notice ACT EC6N C+K page
displayed# 6nter .94 into the scratchpad I)ith the leading dotJ and transfer it to
the EC6N SPD line# 1ress L6S6(M and verify ACT M.94- C+K displayed above#
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(o&&anded speed changes to this 8ach
nu&ber# Ti&e and fuel predictions )ill be
updated as )ell#
Additional ite&s to check on this F8( page
include co&puted step cli&bs ISTEP T6
FL05-J )ith appro7i&ate ti&e 5 distance to go@
ti&e 5 fuel predictions for our destination I4SF6
ETA*F=ELJ and opti&u& vs# &a7i&u& altitude
for the current )eight# This is our pri&ary
reference page during cruise phase and )ill be kept visible on the captain?s F8(#
(! +#N,TES AFTE TA'EOFF
-e?re approaching the coastline of the
:etherlands and )ill be Pfeet )etA for the ne7t
/ hours until reaching "celand# This &ight be a
good ti&e to think about alternate airports# -e
)ill enter the t)o closest alternates as fi7es to
have a %uick indication )here to go in case of
a diversion# )% $5e FMC, 4re $5e F:I
."$$o% and select EE+ASE FIX first# 6nter E:PH for 6dinburgh@ Scotland at the FIX
line# 6nter *0-- belo) at the +AD*DIS line# This )ill generate a 099;&ile circle
around the airfield on the nav display# 1ress L:6ST 1AD6M and repeat the sa&e
steps for Keflavik# 6nter DI4F@ *0--# Subse%uently@ you should update the F"S
pages during cruise to keep the t)o closest enroute alternates Pin the bo7A#
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01E(0 AFTE TA'EOFF
-hen overflying Su&burgh EO$ on the
Shetland islands@ )e have already burned
,'#999 kgs of fuel# Fuel has been fed to the
engines fro& center tank only@ )hich is
al&ost e&pty no)# Thus )e should s)itch
the center fuel pu&ps off as )ell#
)4e% ;:CAS ".4#%el and select LF+6LM
page# (enter tank indicates a %uantity of
less than ,#999 kgs# The respective fuel
pu&ps are displayed in yello)@ indicating
lo) pressure on the pu&ps# A//e $5e over5e#2# (T$ L V $ pu&ps have the L6?
P+ESS lights illu&inated# P"5 .o$5 /e%$er 4"!4 ."$$o% to turn the& off# S)itch
your attention to the 6"(AS fuel page again# (enter pu&ps are displayed in )hite
no)# Additionally@ a green arro) can be seen the so;called scavenger pu&p
transfers the re&aining fuel fro& center to left &ain tank# Of course )e?re not )asting
a single drop of precious >6T A kerosene# :e) condition: The inner &ain tanks / and
0 are no) feeding all engines# Outer tanks , and 4 have their fuel pu&ps running as
)ell as a backup@ but no fuel )ill reach the engines@ since they are Poverpo)eredA by
the eight inner pu&ps#
0%E(! AFTE TA'EOFF
"celand appears do)n belo)# "t?s ti&e for so&e &ore F8( checks to &ake sure that
everything is progressing as planned# )4e% FMC, ele/$ PR)G 4#+e to access
DLH454 P+6:+ESS# A lot of useful infor&ation is displayed on various subpages:
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The first page gives us an indication of the last
and the ne7t t)o )aypoints as )ell as
destination and ne7t step cli&b@ coupled )ith
distance to go@ e7pected ti&e of arrival and
fuel predictions# (heck that arrival ti&e and
fuel reserves for KSFO are in rough agree&ent
)ith our planned figures#
Pre <;I( PAG;# At the top ro)@ head; and
cross)ind;co&ponents as )ell as the total
)ind vector are displayed# 4elo) that )e can
find calculated lateral IXT4 E++6+J and
vertical I5T4 DE5J deviation fro& our planned
track# Eertical deviation is of course only a
factor during descents# 4elo) that )e have
another indication of our true airspeed Irepeated on the top left of the nav# displayJ#
-hile )e nor&ally )ork )ith indicated airspeed I"ASJ as the direct readout fro& the
pitot tube@ true airspeed ITASJ also takes instru&ent error and altitude;dependant
correction factors into account# On the right side )e have an indication for the static
air te&perature ISATJ# (o&pare this to the total air te&perature ITATJ indication
displayed on the 6"(AS# 2ue to the speed at )hich )e?re traveling through the air@
the fuselage at the nose section of the aircraft heats up slightly resulting in a 09R(
difference at 8ach #*4# Finally@ there are indications for the total fuel used@ the fuel
consu&ption for each engine and at the botto& ro) &easured IT6TALIKE+J vs#
calculated fuel %uantity# Since fuel %uantity indicators are &ore or less inaccurate on
all aircraft@ these readouts should be checked fro& ti&e to ti&e#
Pre PR;A PAG; to return and $5e% ele/$ P6S +EFG# This page displays our
e7act D1S; vs# "$S;position and calculated speed over ground IDSJ# 2ifference
should be &arginal# :ot so long ago@ the inertial reference syste& readout )as the
only &eans of navigation over the :orth Atlantic@ so the three independent "$S;+nits
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I"$+sJ are electronically co&pared in order to
derive an average@ &ore or less accurate
position IATriple MiingBJ# :o)adays D1S
provides us )ith highly accurate navigational
data# :evertheless@ let?s select D+:*DISTG to
be able to check "$S drift relative to our true
position#
That co&pletes our F8( progress check# P"5 $5e A<AA 0e& to return to cruise
page# 8ean)hile )e?re approaching our first step cli&b###
0(E10 AFTE TA'EOFF
-e have already left "celand and are headed for the polar region# Take a
look at the navigation display# :ear the )aypoint 0.M3.@ a green circle@
labeled S*C is being displayed# Opti&u& altitude continuously increased
and the aircraft is no) light enough to co&&ence a step cli&b#
-hen overflying the S5( point@ o4e% FMC )ith E:AE cruise page displayed# :otice
that it reads STEP T6 FL05-, N6? and that opti&u& altitude IFL00,J is &ore than
/999 feet higher than our current altitude# "n order to co&&ence the step cli&b@ all
)e have to do is ele/$ ,-000 3ee$ o% $5e MCP #l$i$"2e 1i%2o1# 1ush the button
belo) it to transfer it to the F8( :otice page title changes to ACT M.94- C+K
CLD# 6ngine thrust li&it does not change# TH+ +EF and 5NA5 SPD beco&e active
again@ the engines spool up
to cruise thrust li&it and
)e?re gently cli&bing a)ay#
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0(E)0 AFTE TA'EOFF
-e?re overflying the &ountains of Dreenland approaching 3'R north
latitude# So close to the polar circle@ )e can no longer rely on &agnetic
heading reference I4eep in mind that the magnetic north pole is
some$here in northern CanadaJ Therefore@ )e can select the 2D s)itch
above the engine instru&ents to T$+6# (o&pass roses on 1F2 and :2 change to
true north reference# :otice the huge &agnetic variation of &ore than 09R# 2on?t
forget to s)itch back to 8AD once )e have left the polar region#
0-E%0 AFTE TA'EOFF
Our flight is progressing nicely and )e have already covered &ore than half of the
route@ crossing northern (anada right no)# aving burned &ore than *9 tons of fuel@
it?s ti&e to s)itch our fuel syste& to the ne7t configuration@ called tank to engine#
Fuel E#CAS +essa;es............................................................................. OBSE4E
F=EL TAN4*EN: is no) displayed in yello)# Open
6"(AS subpanel@ select LF+6LM page# :otice that the
fuel level of both the inner tanks / V 0 and the outer
tanks , V 4 have no) reached roughly the sa&e level
IW ,/#5 tons eachJ#
So@ here?s )hat )e need to do: )4e%
$5e over5e#2 4#%el# First@ )e?re going
to close crossfeed valves ,V4# This )ill
physically disconnect the inner tanks
fro& the outer engines#
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Pre .o$5 F7;8 I F;;D ' #%2 4 ."$$o%#
:e7t@ )e )ill s)itch off the au7iliary pu&ps for
tanks / V 0@ )hich are no longer needed#
Pre $5e )ARD FJD #%2 AF( 3"el 4"!4 .$%
for both tanks / and 0 I4 buttons in totalJ# (lose
the overhead@ take a look at 6"(AS F+6L again.
As you can see on the synoptic@ the outer tanks
are totally independent no)# The t)o inner tanks pressuri!e the central &anifold Ithe
long green lineJ and pri&arily feed their respective engines# This is the final tank
configuration )henever there?s less than 59 tons of fuel onboard#
After s)itching to tank;to;engine configuration@ you &ay on so&e occasions
encounter a yelo) caution &essage on 6"(AS:
"n this conte7t@ it is an indication for a slight fuel
i&balance bet)een the inner tanks / and 0@ not
having any negative effect at this stage#
o)ever@ )e &ight )ant to do so&ething about
it# The si&ple solution is to feed the engines
te&porarily fro& tank / only@ until it?s fuel level
e%uals that of tank 0@ 4#5 tons#
Access the overhead@ first 1i$/5 o% .o$5 K2 FJD #%2 AF( )ARD 4"!4@ then
1i$/5 o33 K, FJD #%2 AF( MA:< 4"!4# "n su&&ary: Four pu&ps active on tank
/@ no pu&ps at all on tank 0# Eerify the process on 6"(AS F+6L page# Once [/ and
0 fuel levels are e%ual again@ re;establish tank;to;engine configuration by s)itching
on [0 8A": pu&ps first@ then s)itching off [/ OE$2 pu&ps# A te7tbook
de&onstration of in;flight fuel &anage&ent###
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0/E%! AFTE TA'EOFF
$oughly ,99 &iles before entering +#S# airspace@ it?s ti&e for the final
step cli&b to FL0.9# Once again@ )hen overflying the green S*C circle on
the nav display@ ele/$ ,9000 o% $5e MCP altitude )indo) and 4"5
$5e ."$$o% .elo1# -hen levelled off@ notice ho) close the
overspeed5lo)speed regi&es are displayed on the 1F2# -e have only
very s&all perfor&ance &argins so close to &a7i&u& altitude#
:o) it &ight also be a good ti&e to introduce you
to another si&ulator;specific feature: (usto& key
assign&ents# On the real airplane@ there are
conveniently located s)itches for disengaging
autopilot and autothrottle# They are found on both
control colu&ns and on the throttles respectively ;
only a fingertip a)ay fro& the pilot?s hands#

"n the si&ulator@ by assigning a key co&bination for these features@ )e can easily
revert to &anual flight )ithout having to search for &ouse clickspots# This )ill be
useful lateron# -hich key co&bo to chooseT Anything you )ant@ but ideally it
shouldn?t be used by Flight Si&ulator for other tasks# " use TA4VU and TA4V-
because they?re rather conveniently located on the keyboard#
Access the si&ulator?s &enu and select
!M"0 */ 0eneral */ >eyboard Commands#
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A ne) &enu appears# "n KCommand
CategoryK@ select KAo4eK fro& the list#
Select EYo0e - Pre AP Di/o%E fro&
belo) and then click KChange
AssignmentK# :o) press the key
co&bination of your choice@ for e7a&ple
=TAB> and =3> si&ultaneously# "f you?re
happy )ith the assigned co&bo@ select
OK#
The sa&e procedure applies for the
autothrottle# Select KMC!K fro& the
KCommand CategoryK list# Scroll do)n all
the )ay and select EMCP A.or$ () *
Di/o% A(E I:ote that there?s actually no
such s)itch on the 8(1J# (lick KChange
assignmentK@ press =TAB> V =0> for
e7a&ple and select %>.
Let?s close the &enu# -e?ll use our ne) custo& keys laterQ
8e $5#% $5ree 5o"r "%$il 1e re#/5 o"r 2e$i%#$io% L $o re2"/e 1or0lo#2, 1e
1ill .e+i% 1i$5 2e/e%$ 4l#%%i%+ 2"ri%+ $5e 3i%#l 4#r$ o3 /r"ie 45#e.
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1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1.-0 "escent and Landin;
"ESCENT D APPOAC$
9 5o"r #%2 ,- !i%"$e #3$er $#0eo33@ )e?re overflying 4oisse@ "daho at 0.999 feet#
Slightly &ore than an hour to go# J5e% over3l&i%+ B): 1#&4oi%$@ it?s ti&e to set up
the F8( and other aircraft syste&s for the final flight phase and fa&iliari!e ourselves
)ith the approach procedure#
Landin; #nforBation................................................................................. ECE#4E
On the real aircraft )e )ould no) utili!e a syste& called A(A$S IAircra&t
Communications Addressing and 9eporting SystemJ to find out about )eather
and run)ay;in;use at our destination airport# Although the 182D'4' &odels
A(A$S to so&e degree@ Flight Si&ulator sets a li&itation here# Any)ay@ here is
the current 86TA$ string for San Francisco:
KSFO 071730Z 27005KT C!"OK 25#12 !300 NOSIG
Si&ilar conditions as in Frankfurt: clear skies and light )inds fro& the )est# This
leads us to the conclusion that the t)o parallel run)ay /*L and $ )ill be in use#
A(A$S confir&s this# Our arrival route )ill be the Dolden Date Four STA$
beginning at F8D EO$# Approaching the field fro& the north)est )e )ould &ost
likely be vectored in by air traffic control for an "LS approach on run)ay /*L#
Since precise AT( instructions are not available to us in Flight Si&ulator@ )e )ill
define our o)n procedure instead@ using the advanced area navigation
capabilities of the F8(#
4efore )e can feed the F8( )ith )aypoints@ )e )ill study the corresponding
approach charts# Our flight path has been highlighted in blue@ i&portant infor&ation in
yello)#
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Let?s go through the infor&ation the charts provide us )ith@ step;by;step: Fro& #M0
EO$ Icurrently our last )aypointJ via :8A( ;<: and PY; EO$s to 8)M:( intersection@
continue inbound D7IBY and finally SF)@ )hich is the airport beacon# "t is &ost
likely though@ that )e )ill receive a direct clearance fro& #M0 to 3%G.T as a
shortcut# -e descend as necessary to cross 8)M:( #$ ''000 feet and )ait for further
descent instructions by AT( Iread: by this tutorialJ#
Fro& over the airport beacon )e )ill enter a 4ro/e2"re $"r% ; essentially a loop@
entered /9R offset to the reciprocal run)ay heading# -e have chosen $A8:2
intersection as our initial approach fi7# (rossing RAM<D #$ ,200 3ee$@ configured for
approach Iflaps setJ )e )ill intercept the "LS locali!er on a /*,R approach course
and descend on the glidepath@ beginning at H;MA<# Final )aypoint and "LS outer
&arker is )BD7;@ )hich )e )ill cross at a /5e/0 5ei+5$ o3 '800 feet# 2ecision
altitude for this (AT " Icategory oneJ "LS;approach is 2', 3ee$ I/99 feet above T2N6@
touchdo$n zone elevation ,0ftJ# "n case )e?re not fully stabili!ed and configured or
)e can?t see the run)ay at this altitude due to bad visibility@ a go;around has to be
perfor&ed#
For a go;around )e )ould depress the T%<0A s)itch Ithe sa&e as used for takeoff
earlierJ@ retract gear@ then flaps to /9@ re;select L:AE and E:AE@ cli&b to 0999 feet
and enter a holding pattern over %3AMM intersection#
A final note for our descent: 8ini&u& sector altitude is 5,99 feet for initial descent
and 0599 feet for final approach Idue to the hills )est of the airportJ#
F+S Approac6 and Landin; "ata.......................................................... PEPAE
:o) )e )ill translate this infor&ation into F8( language and feed Pthe bo7A:
Open F8( and select LL6DSM page# All enroute )aypoints and their speed 5
altitude constraints are listed here# Last )aypoint on this list should be FM:#
6nter ILA on the line belo) FM:# Select the appropriate station I,,4#4J#
2o :OT press the illu&inated L6S6(M button yet#
6nter ENI belo)@ then PYE N #rom no$ on( !ress L:6ST 1AD6M
$henever you need to enter additional $aypoints on a ne$ page.
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6nter L6KIT belo)# 6nter 77---
to the right of it# This )ill generate
an altitude constraint for E:AE to
co&pute the appropriate descent#
6nter D=XDY@ then SF6
To progra& our procedure turn@
enter the follo)ing )aypoints:
SF6727*7. creates a $aypoint )6 miles &rom S#% on radial )2)L
SF6777*79 this $ill be the Mape5 $aypoint &or the turn
+AMND $hich e=uals S#%)0)<)6 N and the turn is complete
Those custo& )aypoints )ill be auto&atically na&ed SF6-7@ SF6-2
etc# 6nter 02-- to the right of +AMND# This is our target altitude for the initial
approach fi7#
To finali!e our "LS approach@ add the follo)ing )ayppoints@ )hich are
located on the e7tended centerline of run)ay /*L:
HEMAN enter 7.-*02-- to the right N glideslope intercept point
64D=E enter 75-*79-- to the right N at this point( $eBre already
stabilized at approach speed 6roughly );0 4nots7
:e7t )aypoint )ill be the run)ay?s threshold itself:
1ress L2615A$$M key@ select 4SF6 A++G
1ress L:6ST 1AD6M four ti&es until
29L beco&es available I:OT ILS29L
or any other approach@ )e?ve
progra&&ed that &anuallyJ
Select 29L@ leave +?Y EXT blank#
1ress LL6DSM again@ then go to last page# :e) final )aypoint should
be +?29L# Also notice glidepath of W 0R@ Cust as a backup for the "LS#
After this )aypoint@ enter 6LYMM on the left and 0--- on the right as
the go;around )aypoint@ )ith 0999 feet as target altitude#
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And that?s it# The co&plete procedure fro& cruise level do)n to the threshold#
<o1 4re N;I;CO@ check that the &odifications beco&e active I&agenta
colored track line on the navigation displayJ#

Finally@ )e )ill set up a holding pattern at
%3AMM for a go;around To do so@ press
the LOL2M key@ press L:6ST 1AD6M until
%3AMM appears on the list and then
select it# The page that appears no)
allo)s us to define a holding pattern# 8ost
of the preset values are in agree&ent )ith
)hat?s specified by the charts# (heck inbound heading 2I)L( right turns( )
minute legs. 1attern legs can either be defined by ti&e or by distance# 6nter
20-*0--- and transfer it to the SPD*T:T ALT line# /09 knots is our calculated
opti&u& speed for longest endurance@ as can be seen on the lo)er right# :o)
press L6S6(M again the hold beco&es part of the active route#
To verify our settings@ )e )ill s)itch the nav display to planning &ode and cycle
through all )aypoints# "t should look like this:
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Select display &ode to 1LA: on the 6F"S control panel
Select range /9 &iles
On the F8(@ press LL6DSM again and select STEPG# 6ach )aypoint )ill
be centered on a north;oriented &ap Inav displayJ
(ycle through all )aypoints and verify our progra&&ed approach# -hen
done@ s)itch back to 8A1 &ode and select a convenient range II0( 20(
then 20 miles as $e are coming closer to our destinationJ
:o) )e )ill set up our E:AE descent#
1ress LE:AEM on the F8( and then
L:6ST 1AD6M to reach EC6N DES
descent planning page# E*D AT, .0
+?29L indicates that a descent path has
been co&puted do)n to 59 feet above the
run)ay I30 feetJ# EC6N SPD is the &ost
efficient descent speed for idle thrust# -e could enter any speed to override this
setting# SPD*T+ANS, 24-*FL7-- )ill &ake E:AE adhere to the /59 knots
belo) ,9999? rule I&inus ,9 knots as a bufferJ# +sing SPD*+EST )e could enter
additional speed restrictions for any altitude in the sa&e for&# AT L6KIT,
FL77- indicates the first altitude restriction )hich affects the top of descent #
Select F6+ECASTG# T)o factors affect our
co&puted descent path: )ind and the use
of ther&al anti ice ITA.J on the engines#
This page allo)s us to feed E:AE )ith all
necessary data for a correction# Tail)inds
)ould push us along the ground faster@
therefore the descent path has to be
shallo)er# Eice versa for head)inds# 4y entering )ind co&ponents for various
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altitudes@ E:AE can co&pute their i&pact on our descent# 6nter 0A--- on the
left side belo) ALT# To the right of that@ enter 02-*7- or )hatever the )ind
indicator on the nav display currently reads assu&ing )inds )on?t change
significantly until )e start our descent# Additionally@ )e kno) that )e can e7pect
)esterly )inds at 5 knots fro& ground to ,999 feet at our destination# 6nter
7--- belo) and 21-*5 on the right side# This )ill give the F8( a basis to )ork
)ith the &ore you enter here Ifor e7a&ple if you use an add;on )eather
generator )hich provides you )ith )inds aloft for &any altitudesJ@ the &ore
accurate )ill the result be# Skip the TAI*6N ALT field )e )on?t use anti;ice#
TA" increases the engine?s idle thrust a bit@ so again the descent path needs to
be slightly shallo)er# TA"5O: altitude )ould be the top of a cloud layer )ith
assu&ed icing conditions for e7a&ple#
Finally@ notice FL,*9 as the correct transition level for the +nited States#
Landin; 0ei;6t and "istance................................................................... E4#E0
1ress L":"T $6FM on the F8(# At the top
left@ our current gross )eight can be
identified# At this stage@ it should be
slightly &ore than /59 tons@ )hich is
already )ell belo) the aircraft?s structural
&a7i&u& landing )eight# Together )ith
the given run)ay distance I4SF6 29LJ of
&ore than ,9#999 feet or 0#/99 &eters@ )e
can use section 0 of the 182D &anual to verify our safety &argin for this landing
Landin; Flap Settin;............................................................................ "ETE+#NE
-e have t)o options here: 6ither use flaps /5 for a &ore fuel efficient@ less
noisy final approach or flaps 09 for a safer landing on )et or short run)ays due
to the lo)er speed# Although conditions are totally )ithin li&its for a Flaps /5
landing today@ use the standard setting of 09 degrees for this tutorial flight#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e 90
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
Auto Bra<es.......................................................................................... "ETE+#NE
+se of auto&atic brakes is reco&&ended for all nor&al operations# "t )ill result
in a shorter stopping distance and &ore efficient deceleration# -e have several
settings available:
Autobrakes , is not reco&&ended
Autobrakes / )ill provide &oderate braking@ suitable for nor&al r)ys
Autobrakes 0 5 4 should be used for )et or short run)ays
Autobrakes 8AS provides &a7i&u& deceleration rate 6but still less than
maimum manual bra4ing7
Auto Bra<es........................................................................... SET
Obviously@ setting / is )hat )e?re looking for# Open (O8
IpedestalJ panel panel@ right;click the selector three ti&es#
Autobrakes )ill kick in after &ain;)heel touchdo)n#
Seat Belt Si;ns................................................................................ ON
Ti&e for the passengers to reali!e that )e?re al&ost there###
Approach preparations )ere %uite ti&e;intensive and no)@ '0P'- #3$er $#0eo33@ )e?re
overflying 8ustang IF8DJ EO$ near $eno@ :evada# Shortly before reaching this
particular )aypoint@ AT( calls in:
A6ufthansa 4-4,
you#re cleared
direct to 6.&:".
4escend at your
discretion to
cross 6.&:" at
11000#.
!lti>eter *0.06E
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e 9'
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
Eery nice@ )e?ve been cleared for a shortcut 56en close to F+& 5a:point I)ithin
/9 &iles J open the F8( and press LL6DSM# Locate 3%G.T and click on the left side
to copy it to the scratchpad# :o) transfer it to the top line Iclick the button to it?s leftJ
and press L6S6(M# The aircraft )ill turn and fly directly to the intersection#
Taking a look at the nav display@ you should be able to see a green
circle@ labeled PT*DA roughly *9 &iles ahead# This is )here )e )ill start
our descent# 4ut before that@ there?s so&e &ore pre;descent )ork to do:
+CP Altitude 0indo5....................................................................................... SET
Select ,,999 feet@ the level )e?ve been cleared to@ on the 8(1 alt )indo)# This
is done to Pallo)A E:AE to descent to a lo)er altitude
aut&atically# 4ut keep in &ind that you have activated
Ppause at top of descentA#
Before descent t6e follo5in; iteBs s6all be perforBed on PF coBBandE
JAPPOAC$ #TE+SK
Landin; Altitude........................................... C$EC'
Open 6"(AS selector panel@ press L6:DM button
and check the additional info on the upper 6"(AS#
(urrent cabin and landing altitude are displayed there# LD: ALT should be 70
eet# Also notice differential pressure@ &elta P 9.0 1S"# 1ress L6:DM again
to blank lo)er 6"(AS in order to avoid distraction during final approach#
ecall S5itc6................................................................ P,S$
1ress L$(LM on the 6"(AS control panel and check for any
yello) &essages on the upper 6"(AS# This )ould be the
latest possibility to deal )ith any abnor&alities or discuss
their conse%uences for the approach#
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Training Manual "escent And Landin;
AltiBeter Subscale Settin;................................................................ PESELECT
S)itch alti&eter reference knob to IN IinchesJ for the
+nited States@ left; or right;click the selector and dial in
09#93 Idisplayed belo$ STD@ altimeter tape on the !#"J#
-e )ill later push this knob to &ake 09#93 inches the active setting#
+iniBuBs.......................................................................................................... SET
Eerify DA+6 has been selected on the &ini&u&s knob
and left;click the selector to dial in /,9 feet for our
decision altitude Idisplayed belo$ the attitude indicator
on the !#"J# 4A$O is based on pressure alti&eter readout for non;precision
approaches A22i$io%#ll&, 1i$/5 $5e 0%o. $o RAD:) 6le&t*clic47 #%2 2i#l i% 200
3ee$ 6right clic4s7# -hy t)o &ini&u&sT -hile 4A$O gives us a visual cue on the
alti&eter tape@ $A2"O &easures the actual height above the ground for
precision approaches and triggers a A8":"8+8SB callout for e7act reference#
The second ocean )e?re overflying on this trip can already be seen in the distance@
)hen )e finally reach our $o4 o3 2e/e%$ '0P20 #3$er $#0eo33 in Frankfurt# The
si&ulation )ill pause a fe) &iles before# This is the ti&e to recapitulate the arrival
once again or finish the preparations if you?re still busy )ith s)itch;flipping# $eady
for actionT +npause the si& and )ait for the aircraft to overfly the green T52 circle#
:otice that a descent path indicator appears on the nav display@ &uch like an "LS
glideslope# "t sho)s V5; 499 feet deviation fro& the co&puted path# :e) autothrust
&ode on the 1F2 is IDLE@ then H6LD Iallo)ing the pilots to adCust thrust &anuallyJ#
The engines spool do)n to flight idle after ,9 hours of continuous )ork# 5NA5 PTH
stays active and co&&ands descent# -ith a sufficient rate of descent@ notice the
green arc on the nav display once again# "f it?s &ore or less precisely over 3%G.T@ our
target altitude )ill be reached there# -hile descending through the upper flight levels@
there are so&e final ite&s to be done:
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e 9,
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
F+S Entries........................................................................................ SET D C$EC'
1ress L":"T $6FM for the APP+6ACH
+EF page# -e?ve already chosen Flaps
09@ no) that the gross )eight )on?t
decrease &uch &ore until landing@ it?s
ti&e to select the appropriate reference
speed IErefJ# Select 0-J*740 4T
Iyour actual speed &ight differ slightlyJ
by clicking on the button to the right of that# Then transfer it to the FLAP*SPD
line# (heck +EF 740 is no) displayed on the 1F2 Ilo)er leftJ#
1ress L:AE $A2M# (heck ILSFMLS displays 7-A.55*292 PA+4# The
independent "LS receiver has been auto;tuned and )ill beco&e active )hen
)e?re )ithin /9 &iles of the airport# -e )ill no) select appropriate EO$
stations for the approach: 6nter SF6 on the
56+ L line# 6nter 29- as the C+S belo)#
This )ould be our radial to follo) in case of
a go;around# 6nter 6A4 and 70A respec;
tively on the right side# This radial crosses
our flightpath at the point )here )e e7pect
"LS glideslope intercept#
One &ore thing to do here: 1ress LF"SM# Select EE+ASE FIX@ then enter 46A4
on page ,@ 4SMF on page / for %uick directions to our t)o destination alternates#
NA4 Accurac:.............................................................................................. 4E#F1
(heck that D1S updating is indicated on the nav display# "n case
)e could not rely on that for any reason@ a &ap integrity check
)ould have to be perfor&ed in order to use L:AE guidance for approach# "$S
drift is no factor due to D1S updating@ so one less thing for us to )orry about###
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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Training Manual "escent And Landin;
Approac6 Briefin;.................................................................................. PEFO+
-e have already covered &ost aspects )hen discussing the approach charts#
Let?s su&&ari!e the &ost i&portant facts:
GOLDEN G!TE 4 3++'632, crossing 6.&:" at 11000# inCound to ;'.,
entering a $rocedure turn to final a$$roach fiG !5N4 at *)00#
:6; )36 a$$ with decision alt )10# JC!" :K, na% radios set
5issed a$$roach on ;'. radial )30 inCound .6B55 and hold
Vref 14*kts, fla$s *0 full9sto$ landing, auto Crakes )
5;! -100# until ;'. V., then *-00#
(= clear skies, no rele%ant G9wind co>$onent, no
windshear,turCulence re$orted
AltiBeters................................................................................. SET AN" *@C$EC'
De/e%2i%+ $5ro"+5 '8.000 3ee$@ overflying the bay@ left;click the
alti&eter reference knob to activate the preselected baro setting
IO0.06 inchesJ
Cabin eport............................................................................................ ECE#4E
The lead flight attendant infor&s us that the cabin has been secured for landing#
0it6 t6e altiBeters setG t6e pilot calls for APPOAC$ c6eclistE
APPOAC$ C$EC'L#ST
ecall....................................................................................................... C$EC'E"
AltiBeters.............................................................................................. LLLL G LLLL
Announce pressure subscale reading I0-.-.J and current altitude to identify
possible instru&ent errors# The first officer )ill confir& this#
Auto Bra<es..................................................................................................... LLLL
$ead appropriate 6"(AS &essage# Should be A=T6D+A4ES 2
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e 9-
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
All right@ )e?re ready for the final approach phase# -hen )e reach 3%G.T@
so&e)here south of 1oint $eyes@ the aircraft turns al&ost .9 degrees to the left and
levels off at ,,999?# -e?ll fly over do)nto)n inbound to for the international airport#
(an you spot the Dolden Date bridge on the leftT This is one beautiful arrival routingQ
2 !ile #5e#2 o3 D7IBY@ AT( calls in Ithis ti&e it?s 4ay ApproachJ :
A6ufthansa 4-4, reduce s$eed to )-0 knots, descend and
>aintain -000 feet, cleared the $rocedure turn for :6;
runway )3 left.E
A$ D7IBY pus6 8left@
clic<9 t6e <nob belo5
t6e speed 5indo5 on the
8(1 and select 25- kts#
-hile the aircraft decelerates@ select 5--- feet in t6e
altitude 5indo5 and press =FLC$> button Iflight level
changeJ# A gentle descent begins@ beco&ing steeper as
the aircraft reaches target speed# -atch out for the green
circle on the nav display again it should re&ain on the
outbound leg of the procedure turn#
E:AE is disconnected and )e )ill fly the re&ainder of the approach using
AconventionalB flight director &odes# FL( )orks Cust like E:AE S12@ though# 1itch
is changed to &aintain the given 8(1 speed at idle thrust# This is the easiest )ay to
co&ply )ith ti&e;critical AT( instructions# Also@ De/e%2i%+ $5ro"+5 '0.000=@ don?t
forget to turn the lights back on:
Landin; D Lo;o Li;6ts......................................................................................... ON
-hen overflying SFO )aypoint@ the airport is right belo) us# -e have no) entered a
,3;&ile outbound leg@ headed for southern San Francisco and Silicon Ealley#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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Training Manual "escent And Landin;
De/e%2i%+ $5ro"+5 -200=@ a fe) &o&ents before leveling off at
5999?@ select speed 2'0 0%o$ and press =F.> to e7tend the 3l#4
$o ' degree# A good ti&ing for speed changes increases fuel
efficiency and reduces noise#
J5e% 3l#4 ' i 2i4l#&e2 i% +ree% on the 6"(AS@ i&&ediately
select speed '90 0%o$ and e7tend the 3l#4 $o - degrees# Also@
press the =LOC> button on the 8(1 to ar& locali!er capture
&ode# (heck L6C displayed in )hite belo) LNA5 on the 1F2#
)ver SF)0' 1#&4oi%$@ Cust as the airplane begins it?s left turn@
select final fi7 altitude 02-- on the 8(1 and press =4S># Left
click the upper part of the selector for the vertical speed )indo)
and set a shallo) F7--- feet per &inute descend#
Eertical speed is the preferred &ode for s&all@ controlled
altitude changes such as this one# +se )ith caution@
though: ES has no speed protection and &ay fly you right
into a stall or overspeed situation#
J5ile $"r%i%+@ select speed '70 0%o$ and
e7tend 3l#4 $o '0 degrees a standard
configuration for "LS intercept phase# 2uring
the second half of the turn@ L6C &ode
beco&es active and auto&atically captures
the locali!er near $A8:2 )aypoint# aving
turned /99R@ )e?re no) established on an
inbound course to the field#
J5e% $5e $"r% i /o!4le$e2@ push =APP> button on the 8(1 to ar&
the autopilot?s "LS approach &ode# (heck :*S displayed in )hite belo)
ALT on the 1F2# -e?re )aiting for glideslope intercept#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e 97
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Training Manual "escent And Landin;
F#NAL APPOAC$
Ji$5 $5e +li2elo4e i%2i/#$or Q' 2o$R #.ove Isee
pictureJ@ select speed '60 0%o$ and e7tend 3l#4 $o 20
degrees# Si&ultaneously@ co&&and PGear doHnPA and
press =&> to do so# Flaps /9 and gear al)ays go together
to co&pensate for the slight balooning effect caused by
flap e7tension#
,/ &iles fro& the run)ay@ D5S &ode beco&es active and
tracks the glidepath )ith an appro7i&ate vertical speed of
*99 F18# -e?re no) 3"ll& e$#.li5e2 o% $5e :8SP
A6ufthansa 4-4, good afternoon, you#re cleared to land
runway )3 left.E
Speedbra<e Lever.......................................................................... A+
Open throttle console and right;click the speedbrake lever t)o ti&es
to &ove it to the Par&A position# Speedbrakes )ill auto&atically
deploy upon touchdo)n to destroy any re&aining lift#
Landin; Flaps............................................................ E*TEN"
06en descendin; on &S@ e7tend flaps to /5@ then )ithout
any delay to 09 and select speed ErefV5 IP )2I 4notsJ# -e
)ould like to be in this landing configuration at no less than ,599?#
+CP altitude...................................................................... SET D C$EC'
Select 0--- feet on the 8(1 alt )indo) for a possible go;around#
0ind Situation...................................................................... E4AL,ATE
Observe )ind readout on the top;left corner of the nav display#
Should be /'9595 or close to it# -atch for e7cessive speed and
direction changes Ias an indication &or $indshear or strong gustsJ
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e 98
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
After flaps 6ave reac6ed final positionG t6e pilot calls for F#NAL c6ec<listE
F#NAL C$EC'L#ST
Speedbra<e.................................................................................................. A+E"
&ear................................................................................................................ "O0N
Flaps.................................................................................................................... LLL
LAN"#N&
A$ '800 3ee$@ )hich is the /5e/0 5ei+5$ for this
approach@ noctice that )e?re overflying %>"-+
)aypoint and that the Outer 8arker sy&bol
illu&inates on the 1F2# This is a final check for our alti&eters@ pri&arily to avoid (F"T
Icontrolled &light into terrainJ incorrect alti&eter settings have been the reason for
&any fatal accidents#
A$ '-00 3ee$@ observe LAND0 &ode on the 1F2@
together )ith +6LL6=T and FLA+E ar&ed# "f )e
didn?t touch anything fro& no) on@ the aircraft
)ould land itself ICAT... autoland $ith three
autopilots engaged( providing redundancyJ#
A$ '000 3ee$@ disconnect the autothrottle first by
pressing =TAB> V =3> Ior your o)n key co&boJ#
:otice the &aster caution signal and cancel the
A=T6TH+6TTLE DISC &essage displayed on the 6"(AS by pressing the key co&bo
again# :e7t@ press =TAB> V =0> t)ice to take back control fro& the autopilot# ands
on throttle and yoke no) it?s ti&e to set up a poker face and earn your &oneyQ
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
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Training Manual "escent And Landin;
Only &ini&al control inputs and virtually no thrust changes are re%uired# -e?re rock
solid on the "LS due to the high &o&entu& of a heavy aircraft# 8ake sure that the
flight director?s crossbars re&ain centered# Speed should be nailed at Eref V 5 I)2I
4notsJ# Target engine :, is roughly 3'F# Keep your eyes focused on the 1F2 )ith
occasional gli&pses at 6"(AS and )indshield# -hen you hear the ?':VE 27N4E4?
callout@ briefly look up fro& your instru&ents and verify run)ay in sight confir& )ith
PChecked L Continue!A# At /,9 feet@ you?ll hear the ?5:N:575;? callout#
<o1 loo0 "4 3ro! &o"r
i%$r"!e%$, +o vi"#l@
Landin; Tec6niHue
:or&al category aircraft@
including anything fro& a
(essna ,59 to@ let?s say@ a
4oeing '0'@ need to be
properly flared in order to
reduce the rate of descent
and therefore allo) a
s&ooth touchdo)n#
A different techni%ue is taught for landing <heavies<@ )idebody transport;category
aircraft such as '4'@ '''@ A049 etc# 2ue to the length of the fuselage@ e7cessive flare
can easily result in a tailstrike# "nstead@ the aircraft is si&ply flo)n onto the run)ay@
)hich also helps achieving safe and consistent touchdo)ns@ )ithout endless
<floating< Isa&e is &ore i&portant than smoothQQJ# -e?re purely relying on the so;
called ground effect to da&pen our touchdo)n# -hile aerodyna&ically rather
co&ple7@ one can i&agine ground effect as an <air cushion< belo) the )ings at very
lo) heights above the ground I,99 feet or lessJ#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e '00
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
Put into actionG t6is BeansE
-hen belo) &ini&u&s@ don?t track the
hypersensitive "LS glideslope signal
any&ore@ instead &aintain a /o%$#%$ H2.-G
%oe-"4 #$$i$"2e# "f you keep the speed
stable@ the resulting rate of descent )ill be
Cust right# +se the 1F2 for reference#
40 3ee$ above the run)ay Iaural calloutJ@
increase pitch attitude to about 4 5R by
+e%$l& 4"lli%+ .#/0 on the stickY do not
flare like you )ould in a (essnaQ
20 3ee$ above@ re$#r2 $5e $5r"$ lever $o i2le )ithout hesitation# Touchdo)n is
i&&inent# -e should hit the run)ay at less than /99 feet per &inute right on the
touchdo)n &arkers#
everse T6rust............................................................................... APPL1
"&&ediately after &ain gear touchdo)n@ press =F%> to activate reverse
thrust# (heck positive :, indication on 6"(AS# 1ush the yoke do)n
gently to put the nose gear on the tar&ac )ithout delay#
everse T6rust..................................................................... #"LE D STO0
-hen hearing the callout #$ 80 0%o$@ press =F1># $everse thrust )ill be
&odulated to reach idle at about '9 knots Iavoids engine stall at lo)er speedsJ
Bra<es PerforBance.............................................................. +ON#TO
8onitor autobrakes perfor&ance# 4elo) about 49 knots@ announce
P5anual Craking!A and press = . > to disengage the auto&atics#
old the brakes until )e have reached a safe ta7i speed Iless than /9 ktsJ#
Autopilots 8if en;a;ed9...................................................................... "#SEN&A&E
"n case an autoland )as perfor&ed@ )e )ould disconnect the A51 no) by
clicking the disengage bar# The A1?s A$OLLO+TB &ode )ould have provided
auto&ated tracking along the run)ay centerline for lo);visibility operations#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.60 * P#+e '0'
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual "escent And Landin;
TaAi......................................................................................................... PEFO+
-hen at ta7i speed@ $"r% le3$ o% $5e 3ir$ #v#il#.le $#6i1#&# After co&pletely
vacating the run)ay@ hold short# -e?re al&ost there#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
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PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1..0 After Landin; and Par<in;
AFTE LAN"#N&
old short on a ta7i)ay after vacating the active run)ay and
open the clock# Left;click on the elapsed ti&e knob to stop the
ti&er and note do)n your total airborne ti&e as )ell as the
landing ti&e# Looks like )e?re on scheduleQ
06en leavin; active run5a:G t6e follo5in; procedures s6all be perforBed on
t6e Captain7s coBBandE JAFTE LAN"#N& #TE+SK
Speedbra<e Lever...................................................................... "O0N
6Throttle console7 Left;click the speedbrake lever until in Ado)nB
position to sto) the spoilers#
StabiliIer TriB.......................................................................... - ,N#TS
$eset the stabili!er to it?s default hori!ontal position at 3#9 units#
Flaps.................................................................................................. ,P
1ress =F!> or left;click the flap lever to retract the flaps co&pletely#
Landin; D Stobe Li;6ts................................................................... OFF
6%verhead7 Ti&e to s)itch off the po)erful landing lights#
At night or in bad visibility@ )e )ould s)itch over to TAS"
lights# -hen leaving the run)ay@ strobes go off as )ell#
AP, Selector.............................................................. STATG t6en ON
4y starting the A1+ no)@ it )ill be ready for use at the gate#
Fli;6t "irector N Autot6rottle ArB S5itc6.................................... OFF
60lareshield7 S)itch off the flight director no)# This )ill clear the
1F2?s &ode display# Also fully disar& the autothrottle syste& no)#

Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '0,
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
Transponder +ode Selector...............................................G......... STB1
6!edestal7 4y s)itching the &ode selector to standby@ both T(AS
and transponder )ill be turned off for ground operations#
Autobra<es Selector........................................................................ OFF
Selector should already be in ?disar&? position right no)# S)itch off#
En;ines No.%D( Fuel Control 8cond. perBittin;9...................................... C,TOFF
-hen ta7iing at light gross )eights@ one or even t)o inboard engines should be
shut do)n for environ&ental reasons and fuel saving if conditions are favorable
I)eight@ ta7i)ay and ra&p condition etc#J Do <)( 5"$ 2o1% #%& e%+i%e i%
$5i /#e L 1e=re $ill ?"i$e 5e#v&.
TaAi........................................................................................................... PEFO+
8ean)hile )e have contacted
Dround for our gate clearance#
$eco&&ence ta7i to a stand of
your choice# Ter&inals , and /
are reserved for international
operations# :otice that it takes
&uch less thrust than at
departure to keep us &oving#
,9;,5 knots is still the &a7i&u&
speed@ beco&ing slo)er as you
approach a gate# +nless you?re
using an add;on scenery for this
airport@ gate docking syste&s are not si&ulated ; so Cust co&e to a hold
so&e)here in front of the ter&inal building# The ground cre) is eagerly
a)aiting our arrival# And so are the passengers in the back###
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '04
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
PA'#N&
Par<in; Bra<e................................................................................................... SET
Set parking brake on throttle console and note do)n Ablock;onB ti&e# -e?ve
arrived at our destination at long last# Still@ there?s so&e final )ork to do:
T6e follo5in; iteBs s6all be perforBed on t6e Captain7s coBBandE
KPA'#N& #TE+SO
AP, &enerators................................................................................. ON
6%verhead7 AEA"L lights should be illu&inated# (onnect both
generators@ one at a ti&e#
"eBand PuBp Selectors 1G %G (G ).................................................. OFF
2epressuri!es hydraulic syste& i&&ediately after engine shutdo)n#
1lace all selectors to the OFF position@ notice P+ESS lights#
Fuel Control S5itc6es.............................................................. C,TOFF
6Throttle console7 S)itch one engine off at a ti&e and observe clean
shutdo)n on 6"(AS# 6DT and :, should decrease instantly#
Seatbelts Selector............................................................... OFF
6!edestal7 Seatbelt signs can be s)itched off i&&ediately
after shutdo)n# 0.9 hopefully satisfied passengers )ill no)
s%uee!e through the e7its )hile )e?re still busy up here#
Fuel PuBps....................................................................................... OFF
6%verhead7 S)itch the re&aining * pu&ps off# L6? P+ESS should
illu&inate on each pu&p e7cept 8ain / AFT Ipo)ers A1+J#
06eel C6oc<s..................................................................................... #N POS#T#ON
The ground cre) confir&s via interco& that all )heel chocks are in position#
Par<in; Bra<e.................................................................................................... OFF
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '0-
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
Nacelle D 0in; Anti@#ce S5itc6es..................................................................... OFF
:ot really used today@ Cust check that they?re all off#
Pac<s.............................................................................. AS E3,#E"
S)itch packs , V / off# :o# 0 pack should be sufficient for cooling
and air circulation on the ground#
TA*# D BEACON D NA4 li;6ts...................... OFF
LODO light &ay stay on for no)@ illu&inating
our blue crane on the tail###
#S +ode Selectors........................................................................ OFF
Left;click all "$S &ode selectors t)ice to allo) the gyros to spool
do)n# 1F2 attitude indicator and :2 )ill go blank since there?s no
inertial data available any&ore#
Status "ispla:........................................................................... C$EC'
Open 6"(AS subpanel@ select LSTATM page# :ote do)n all )hite
status &essages for &aintenance purposes# :one should be
displayed today#
&ear S:noptic.......................................................................... SELECT
Select D6A$ display# (heck for even brake te&perature distribution
to detect possible &alfunctions# 4rake te&perature is indicated by
the single digit nu&bers# 9 Z cold@ . Z glo)ing red hot#
EBer;enc: Li;6ts S5itc6............................................................ OFF
$ight;click the cover and place the s)itch to the off position if all
passengers have dise&barked# This prevents inadvertent
depletion of the batteries#
ACAS Event TiBes....................... C$EC' D COP1
Open F8(@ press L86:+M@ select ACA+S G@ then
E5ENT TIMES G and check our block ti&es#
These can be copied directly into the captain?s
logbook#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '06
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
PA'#N& C$EC'L#ST
#S..................................................................................................................... OFF
"eBand PuBps................................................................................................ OFF
Fuel PuBps....................................................................................................... OFF
Flaps.................................................................................................................... ,P
Speedbra<e................................................................................................... "O0N
Fuel Control............................................................................................... C,TOFF
Par<in; Bra<e................................................................................................... OFF
EBer;enc: Li;6ts S5itc6................................................................................ OFF
The aircraft is no) in a ?standby? status@ ready for the ne7t cre)# The follo)ing
procedure should be acco&plished )henever the airplane is left unattended by
%ualified personnel for a fe) hours#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '07
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
LEA4#N& A#PLANE
Pac<s.................................................................................................................. OFF
S)itch off all air conditioning packs before A1+ shutdo)n#
AP, D EAternal Po5er........................................................................................ OFF
A1+ selector goes to OFF to initiate shutdo)n procedure@ )hich takes a fe)
&o&ents but is also fully auto&ated#
Standb: Po5er Selector................................................................................... OFF
$otate selector to OFF# This )ill disconnect &ost electrics fro& the battery#
Batter: S5itc6................................................................................................... OFF
To return the cockpit to a ?cold and dark? status again# Then one last checklist:
LEA4#N& A#PLANE C$EC'L#ST
AP,DEAternal Po5er.......................................................................................... OFF
Standb: Po5er.................................................................................................. OFF
Batter:................................................................................................................ OFF
... #%2 $5#$= i$. Jel/o!e $o C#li3or%i#@
-e?ll no) do the inevitable paper)ork@ leave our ?office? and &eet up )ith the rest of
the cre)# +nfortunately@ this is )here the si&ulation ends# The privilege of a stay at
our destination is reserved for those lucky folks )ho actually fly the '4' for a living#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '08
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
1.1 Basic Procedures
1.1./0 "ebriefin;
:ice )ork@ (aptain# Hou have Cust flo)n .999 kilo&eters on a 4oeing '4';499 under
actual airline re%uire&ents# Hou have de&onstrated flying skills by &anually landing
the bird# Hou have &astered a highly co&ple7 technical syste&# And you have put
8icrosoft?s advertising slogan AAs real as it getsB into action I8ore than /9 years after
the release of Flight Si&ulator ,#9 this )as a bit overdue@ don?t you thinkTJ
Although )e?ve covered &ost operational aspects earlier@ let &e add a fe) things:
Ro"$e #%2 3li+5$4l#%# -hile you can use Flight Si&ulator?s built in flight planner@ "
reco&&end http:55rfinder#asalink#net for route planning# "F$ approach charts can
be obtained fro& various sources on the )eb@ such as http:55)))#airnav#co& Also
update your F8(?s navigation database fro& ti&e to ti&e http:55)))#navdata#at
is the source for current A"$A( cycles#
Je#$5er# "n real life@ )eather is never as predictable as in our tutorial flight# For a
&ore interesting e7perience@ you can either use Flight Si&ulator?s built;in realti&e
)eather generator I)hich is not fla)lessJ@ or get an add;on )eather inCector such
as the e7cellent tool ActiveSky Ihttp:55)))#hifisi&#co&J#
One thing )e haven?t discussed is the F8(?s ability to adCust flightti&e and fuel
predictions by entering cruise )inds on the $T6 2ATA page@ )hich can be
accessed fro& the L6DS page# Hou can si&ply enter a kno)n )ind figure at the
pro&pt to the right of any )aypoint#
A(C# For this flight@ the tutorial provided you )ith si&ple AT( instructions# "n
reality@ you )ould have to deal )ith a lot &ore ti&e;critical instructions and
&anage the re%uired fre%uencies# -hile Flight Si&ulator?s AT( is a good start@ try
online flying on EATS"8 or "EAO )ith real controllers on the ground and Coin a
virtual airline such as 4ritish Air)ays Eirtual I)))#bavirtual#co#ukJ#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '09
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
FMC #%2 AP !o2e# As you have noticed@ )e fle) the inital departure )ithout
L:AE guidance and also fed the F8( )ith arrival data &anually # "t is &uch &ore
practical to select the appropriate procedure fro& 2615A$$ page and have it
inserted auto&atically# For this tutorial@ ho)ever@ " )anted to sho) F8(
capabilities in ter&s of custo& )aypoints and speed 5 altitude restrictions# -ith
so&e thoughtfully placed )aypoints@ it is possible to re&ain in L:AE and E:AE
guidance for the co&plete flight fro& takeoff to landing# 4ut then again@ " also
)anted to get you ac%uainted )ith conventional flight director &odes such as
heading select@ flight level change and vertical speed#
Jei+5$ C S4ee2. Our gross )eight )as %uite high@ in fact )e )ere close to the
&a7i&u&# This has so&e nasty conse%uences: "nitial cruise altitude and speed
)ere %uite lo) I8ach #*3 is nor&alJ and fuel consu&ption )as slightly higher than
nor&al# The aircraft?s handling is also a bit ?heavier? and &ore de&anding due to
higher reference speeds# That?s e7actly )hy )e did it training###
For the approach speeds@ )e used si&ple round speed figures# This )as %uick
and safe for the high;)orkload phase before landing# 4ut here?s the full story:
The lo)est operating speed )ithout any flaps is Eref V *9@ &arked by a green
A+1B on the 1F2# o)ever@ it is not reco&&ended to fly at this speed due to
steep turns@ gusts etc# ; there?s Cust not enough safety &argin# At least ,9 knots
are al)ays added as a buffer# So your &ini&u& speed for Flaps +1 )ould be
Eref V *9 V ,9# Subse%uently@ for Flaps , it )ould be Eref V 39 V ,9@ then Eref
V49 V ,9 for Flaps 5 and so on# Flying faster than this is al)ays perfectly safe@
but re%uires &ore fuel Ihigher dragJ
For landing@ )e used Eref V 5# This is a safe approach speed in &ost cases#
4ut )henever gusting )inds are a factor for the approach@ the for&ula changes
to Eref V \ head)ind co&ponent V co&plete gust co&ponent# So if ,/ knots
)ith gusts at /9 )ere reported@ your safe approach speed )ould be Eref V 3 V *
Iassu&ing the )ind is co&ing fro& ?dead ahead?J# o)ever@ the total addition to
Eref should never e7ceed /9 knots#
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e ''0
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
Cre1 Reo"r/e M#%#+e!e%$# The &aCor safety factor on &odern transport
planes is the fact that there are al)ays at least t)o cre) &e&bers to fly the
aircraft# (onse%uently@ procedures and cockpits have been designed to be
applied by pilot and co;pilot )orking together# A great deal of training ti&e is
actually spent to &ake sure that student pilots beco&e tea& players )ho kno)
ho) to coordinate actions and checks# Should this concept fail@ the results can
be disastrous# "f it?s )orking@ though@ it can be a Coy to )atch a )ell;trained cre)
handling high;)orkload situations )ith ease#
Since Flight Si&ulator has been designed for a single user environ&ent@ it is
nearly i&possible to si&ulate ($8# $eal procedures are actually split up in
Apilot flyingB and Apilot not flyingB duties# There?s no )ay to avoid so&e co&ple7
situations )hen putting the& together like this tutoral does#
:o) that the flight is over@ the fun doesn?t end here# Hou are fa&iliar )ith your ne)
aircraft@ so there are ne) challenges )aiting: Fly fro& San Francisco to :e) Nealand
or >apan on a trans;pacific route# Or head north and fly the ne) '4' freighter to
Alaska in severe )eather conditions@ of course# Forget about the autopilot for a
second and fly a 4oeing like it?s &eant to by handQ 67plore the aircaft?s behavior in
steep turns or during high
angle;of;attack flight and
then deliberately stall it to
find out ho) to recover# Try
activating failures and see if
you can cope )ith the loss
of an engine at takeoff or a
cabin depressuri!ation at
cruise altitude@ follo)ed by
an e&ergency descent into
&ountainous terrain# The
possibilities are li&itless###
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e '''
PMDG 747 Advanced Operations Tutorial Basic Procedures
Training Manual After Landin; And Par<in;
F#NAL NOTES
1lease accept the fact that everything you?ve read so far is based on the kno)ledge
of an ,*;year old student )ith only a private pilot license# Of course it is a &atter of
co&&on sense@ but "?d like to e&phasi!e that none of this &aterial should be used for
real aviation training# 6ven though "?& not a professional pilot 6yet..7@ "?ve tried to
create an authentic e7perience )herever possible# Obviously it?s a balancing act
bet)een in;depth accuracy and si&plicity for the ine7perienced user#
Hou also &ay have noticed that " didn?t )rite in &y first language@ and although
Aviation 6nglish provides a good deal of standardi!ation@ " hope so&e passages
didn?t sound too strange to the native speaker#
Special thanks go out to the great guys at Lufthansa Flight Training in Frankfurt for
letting &e have an insight into their aircraft docu&entation during an internship last
year# -ithout it@ )riting this )ouldn?t have been possible#
So here ends our Courney# "f you believe your Flight Si&ulator and aviation
kno)ledge has been e7panded a bit since do)nloading this docu&ent@ then the
planning@ )riting and testing of the tutorial )as )ell )orth the effort indeed# "n case
you have any positive 5 negative feedback@ technical co&&ents@ or '4' cockpit Cobs
to offer@ please feel free to drop &e a &ail#
See you in the skiesQ
Holger Seilz
>A$ 11LIAJ S6L V :FU
6seilIP5eb.de
Rev 28 MAY 2006 (C)2006, H. Seilz
B747-400
For i!"l#$io% "e o%l& '.'.70 * P#+e ''2