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Mapa Institute of Technology

Department of Physics



Experiment 303
TRANSVERSE WAVE: FREQUENCY
OF VIBRATION



Name: Saccuan, April Jem H.
Program/Year: CpE/2
Course Code/Section: PHY12L/A1
Student No.: 2012100116
Group No.: 5 Seat No.: 502
Date of Performance: January 28, 2014
Date of Submission: February 4, 2014



Prof. Bobby Manlapig
Instructor
GRADE

GUIDE QUESTIONS
1. What effect does increasing the tension have on the number of segment formation? Explain your
answer
If all other factors (length of the string, frequency, and linear mass density) to remain
constant, increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation. Since the
number of segments formed is directly proportional to the square root of the frequency, length,
and linear mass density and inversely proportional to the square root of the tension, therefore
increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation.
2. If the length of the string and the tension in it are constant, what effect does changing the
frequency have on the number of segments formed? Explain your answer.
If the length of the string and the tension in it are constant, changing the frequency would
directly change the number of segments formed. Since the number of segments formed is directly
proportional to the square root of the frequency, length, and linear mass density and inversely
proportional to the square root of the tension, therefore increasing the frequency would increase
the number of segments formed and decreasing the frequency would decrease the number of
segments formed.
3. All the six strings on a guitar are of the same length but have different frequencies. Give 3
characteristic differences in the strings that give them differences in pitch.
Differences in pitch could be due to the strings linear mass density (thickness), tension,
and the velocity of propagation.
Problems:
1. A string has a mass per unit length of 3 x 10
-3
g/cm and is attached to an electrically driven
vibrator of frequency 100 Hz. How long is the string if the number of segments produced is 2
when under a tension of 1.96 N?
Given:
= 3 10
3


= 100
= 2
= 1.96 = 196000
Required:
Solution:
=

=
2
2(100)

196000
3 10
3

= 80.83
2. A 2-meter long wire vibrates with a frequency of 330 Hz when the tension is 500 N. What is the
new frequency if the tension on the wire is doubled?
Given:
= 2

1
= 330

1
= 500

Required:
2

Solution:
=

2
=

4
2
)

=
4
2

=
4(330)(2)
2
500
= 3484.8
When
2
= 2
1
,

2
=

2
4
2
)

2
=

(
2
1
4
2
)

2
= 3484.8(
2(500)
4(2)
2
)

2
= 466.69
MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSI CS
EXPERIMENT 303 : TRANSVERSE WAVE: FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION

Name Saccuan, April Jem H. Group No. 5
Program/Year CpE/2 Seat No. 502
Subject/Section PHY12L/A1 Date. 01/28/14
DATA and OBSERVATIONS
TABLE 1. Determining the frequency of vibration (constant linear mass density)

Diameter of wire = 0.022 in linear mass density of wire, = 0.0184 g/cm
(Please refer to Table 2 for the different size of the string and its equivalent linear mass density)

TRIAL
tension, T
(mass added + mass of pan) x
980 cm/s
2
number of
segments, n
length of string with complete
number of segments, L
frequency of
vibration,
=


1 53900 dynes 5 45 cm 95.09 Hz
2 63700 dynes 5 45 cm 103.37 Hz
3 73500 dynes 5 45 cm 111.04 Hz
4 83300 dynes 5 45 cm 118.21 Hz
5 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 99.97 Hz
average frequency of vibration 105.54 Hz
actual value of frequency of vibration 105 Hz
% error 0.51 %


MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSI CS
EXPERIMENT 303 : TRANSVERSE WAVE: FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION

Name Saccuan, April Jem H. Group No. 5
Program/Year CpE/2 Seat No. 502
Subject/Section PHY12L/A1 Date. 01/28/14
DATA and OBSERVATIONS
TABLE 1. Determining the frequency of vibration (variable linear mass density)

TRIAL
diameter
of wire
linear mass
density,
tension, T
(mass added + mass
of pan) x 980 cm/s
2
number of
segments,
n
length of string
with complete
number of
segments, L
frequency of
vibration,
=


1 0.010 in 0.0039 g/cm 93100 dynes 2 45 cm 108.58 hz
2 0.014 in 0.0078 g/cm 93100 dynes 3 45 cm 115.16 hz
3 0.017 in 0.0112 g/cm 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 128.14 hz
4 0.020 in 0.0150 g/cm 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 110.73 hz
5 0.022 in 0.0184 g/cm 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 99.97 hz
average frequency of vibration 107.50 hz
actual value of frequency of vibration 105 hz
% error 2.38 %





Approved by:



Prof. Bobby Manlapig



01/28/14
instructor date


SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Table 1. Determining the frequency of vibration (constant linear mass density)
= 0.0184


= 55 980

2
= 53900
= 5
= 45
=


=
5
2(45)

53900
0.0184
= 95.09 Hz
Average frequency of vibration = 105.54
Actual value of frequency of vibration = 105 Hz
% error =
| ....|
..
100% =
| 105 105.4 |
105
100% = 0.51%



Table 2. Determining the frequency of vibration (variable linear mass density)


= 0.0039


= 95 980

2
= 93100
= 2
= 45
=


=
2
2(45)

93100
0.0039
= 108.58 Hz
Average frequency of vibration = 107.50
Actual value of frequency of vibration = 105 Hz
% error =
| ....|
..
100% =
| 105 107.50 |
105
100% = 2.38%





ANALYSIS
For the first part of the experiment, the frequency of vibration is determined by
maintaining trials at constant linear mass density with varying tension using a guitar string.
From the data, it is shown that as the tension becomes greater, the number of segments
formed decreases and at the same time, the frequency increases. If we would to consider
all other factors to remain constant and only the tension to change, increasing the tension
would decrease the number of segment formation since the number of segments formed
is directly proportional to the square root of the frequency, length, and linear mass density
and inversely proportional to the square root of the tension.
For the second part of the experiment we kept constant the tension of the strings
and the length while varying the linear mass density by using different guitar strings.
Seeing the data in Table 2, it shows that as linear mass density increases, its frequency
will decrease when observed under the same number of segments formed. Using the
relationship stated in equation 3 of the manual, the data is consistent with the theory about
their directly proportional relationship.
A 0.51% and 2.38% errors for part 1 and part 2 respectively, it means that errors
rise in the performance of the experiment. Some errors would come from not having a
precise and accurate measurements in the number of segments, and the length. The string
must be ensured to be free to vibrate without obstructions.
CONCLUSION

Transverse waves shows the vibration of particles of the medium perpendicular to
the direction of wave propagation or motion along the medium.
In this experiment we determined the frequency of stretched strings, taking
consideration the factors like tension and linear mass density to have an effect to the
frequency of the strings producing different pitch. Formulating the frequency formula, it
shows the relationship that the tension is directly proportional to the frequency and
inversely proportional to the number of segments. On the other hand, the linear mass
density is inversely proportional to frequency and directly proportional to the number of
segments.
After conducting the experiment, the objectives are met and the data gathered are
consistent with the theory. Sources of error came from inaccurate measurement of length
and number of segments.