What effect does increasing the tension have on the number of segment formation? Explain your answer
If all other factors (length of the string, frequency, and linear mass density) to remain constant, increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation. Since the number of segments formed is directly proportional to the square root of the frequency, length, and linear mass density and inversely proportional to the square root of the tension, therefore increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation.

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What effect does increasing the tension have on the number of segment formation? Explain your answer
If all other factors (length of the string, frequency, and linear mass density) to remain constant, increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation. Since the number of segments formed is directly proportional to the square root of the frequency, length, and linear mass density and inversely proportional to the square root of the tension, therefore increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation.

© All Rights Reserved

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Department of Physics

Experiment 303

TRANSVERSE WAVE: FREQUENCY

OF VIBRATION

Name: Saccuan, April Jem H.

Program/Year: CpE/2

Course Code/Section: PHY12L/A1

Student No.: 2012100116

Group No.: 5 Seat No.: 502

Date of Performance: January 28, 2014

Date of Submission: February 4, 2014

Prof. Bobby Manlapig

Instructor

GRADE

GUIDE QUESTIONS

1. What effect does increasing the tension have on the number of segment formation? Explain your

answer

If all other factors (length of the string, frequency, and linear mass density) to remain

constant, increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation. Since the

number of segments formed is directly proportional to the square root of the frequency, length,

and linear mass density and inversely proportional to the square root of the tension, therefore

increasing the tension would decrease the number of segment formation.

2. If the length of the string and the tension in it are constant, what effect does changing the

frequency have on the number of segments formed? Explain your answer.

If the length of the string and the tension in it are constant, changing the frequency would

directly change the number of segments formed. Since the number of segments formed is directly

proportional to the square root of the frequency, length, and linear mass density and inversely

proportional to the square root of the tension, therefore increasing the frequency would increase

the number of segments formed and decreasing the frequency would decrease the number of

segments formed.

3. All the six strings on a guitar are of the same length but have different frequencies. Give 3

characteristic differences in the strings that give them differences in pitch.

Differences in pitch could be due to the strings linear mass density (thickness), tension,

and the velocity of propagation.

Problems:

1. A string has a mass per unit length of 3 x 10

-3

g/cm and is attached to an electrically driven

vibrator of frequency 100 Hz. How long is the string if the number of segments produced is 2

when under a tension of 1.96 N?

Given:

= 3 10

3

= 100

= 2

= 1.96 = 196000

Required:

Solution:

=

=

2

2(100)

196000

3 10

3

= 80.83

2. A 2-meter long wire vibrates with a frequency of 330 Hz when the tension is 500 N. What is the

new frequency if the tension on the wire is doubled?

Given:

= 2

1

= 330

1

= 500

Required:

2

Solution:

=

2

=

4

2

)

=

4

2

=

4(330)(2)

2

500

= 3484.8

When

2

= 2

1

,

2

=

2

4

2

)

2

=

(

2

1

4

2

)

2

= 3484.8(

2(500)

4(2)

2

)

2

= 466.69

MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSI CS

EXPERIMENT 303 : TRANSVERSE WAVE: FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION

Name Saccuan, April Jem H. Group No. 5

Program/Year CpE/2 Seat No. 502

Subject/Section PHY12L/A1 Date. 01/28/14

DATA and OBSERVATIONS

TABLE 1. Determining the frequency of vibration (constant linear mass density)

Diameter of wire = 0.022 in linear mass density of wire, = 0.0184 g/cm

(Please refer to Table 2 for the different size of the string and its equivalent linear mass density)

TRIAL

tension, T

(mass added + mass of pan) x

980 cm/s

2

number of

segments, n

length of string with complete

number of segments, L

frequency of

vibration,

=

1 53900 dynes 5 45 cm 95.09 Hz

2 63700 dynes 5 45 cm 103.37 Hz

3 73500 dynes 5 45 cm 111.04 Hz

4 83300 dynes 5 45 cm 118.21 Hz

5 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 99.97 Hz

average frequency of vibration 105.54 Hz

actual value of frequency of vibration 105 Hz

% error 0.51 %

MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSI CS

EXPERIMENT 303 : TRANSVERSE WAVE: FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION

Name Saccuan, April Jem H. Group No. 5

Program/Year CpE/2 Seat No. 502

Subject/Section PHY12L/A1 Date. 01/28/14

DATA and OBSERVATIONS

TABLE 1. Determining the frequency of vibration (variable linear mass density)

TRIAL

diameter

of wire

linear mass

density,

tension, T

(mass added + mass

of pan) x 980 cm/s

2

number of

segments,

n

length of string

with complete

number of

segments, L

frequency of

vibration,

=

1 0.010 in 0.0039 g/cm 93100 dynes 2 45 cm 108.58 hz

2 0.014 in 0.0078 g/cm 93100 dynes 3 45 cm 115.16 hz

3 0.017 in 0.0112 g/cm 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 128.14 hz

4 0.020 in 0.0150 g/cm 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 110.73 hz

5 0.022 in 0.0184 g/cm 93100 dynes 4 45 cm 99.97 hz

average frequency of vibration 107.50 hz

actual value of frequency of vibration 105 hz

% error 2.38 %

Approved by:

Prof. Bobby Manlapig

01/28/14

instructor date

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

Table 1. Determining the frequency of vibration (constant linear mass density)

= 0.0184

= 55 980

2

= 53900

= 5

= 45

=

=

5

2(45)

53900

0.0184

= 95.09 Hz

Average frequency of vibration = 105.54

Actual value of frequency of vibration = 105 Hz

% error =

| ....|

..

100% =

| 105 105.4 |

105

100% = 0.51%

Table 2. Determining the frequency of vibration (variable linear mass density)

= 0.0039

= 95 980

2

= 93100

= 2

= 45

=

=

2

2(45)

93100

0.0039

= 108.58 Hz

Average frequency of vibration = 107.50

Actual value of frequency of vibration = 105 Hz

% error =

| ....|

..

100% =

| 105 107.50 |

105

100% = 2.38%

ANALYSIS

For the first part of the experiment, the frequency of vibration is determined by

maintaining trials at constant linear mass density with varying tension using a guitar string.

From the data, it is shown that as the tension becomes greater, the number of segments

formed decreases and at the same time, the frequency increases. If we would to consider

all other factors to remain constant and only the tension to change, increasing the tension

would decrease the number of segment formation since the number of segments formed

is directly proportional to the square root of the frequency, length, and linear mass density

and inversely proportional to the square root of the tension.

For the second part of the experiment we kept constant the tension of the strings

and the length while varying the linear mass density by using different guitar strings.

Seeing the data in Table 2, it shows that as linear mass density increases, its frequency

will decrease when observed under the same number of segments formed. Using the

relationship stated in equation 3 of the manual, the data is consistent with the theory about

their directly proportional relationship.

A 0.51% and 2.38% errors for part 1 and part 2 respectively, it means that errors

rise in the performance of the experiment. Some errors would come from not having a

precise and accurate measurements in the number of segments, and the length. The string

must be ensured to be free to vibrate without obstructions.

CONCLUSION

Transverse waves shows the vibration of particles of the medium perpendicular to

the direction of wave propagation or motion along the medium.

In this experiment we determined the frequency of stretched strings, taking

consideration the factors like tension and linear mass density to have an effect to the

frequency of the strings producing different pitch. Formulating the frequency formula, it

shows the relationship that the tension is directly proportional to the frequency and

inversely proportional to the number of segments. On the other hand, the linear mass

density is inversely proportional to frequency and directly proportional to the number of

segments.

After conducting the experiment, the objectives are met and the data gathered are

consistent with the theory. Sources of error came from inaccurate measurement of length

and number of segments.

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