Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1
RBF Neural Network Model of an UWB Channel
in a confined Mine Environment
N. Zaarour, N. Kandil, N. Hakem and C. Despins
Abstract— Modeling an ultrawideband (UWB) channel is an important and challenging task in wireless communications. An accurate
model of a channel is essential for conceiving and deploying a UWB communications network. Furthermore, modeling a channel in a
confined and a harsh propagation environment such as an underground mine presents additional challenges and difficulties already
investigated by a significant body of research. This paper presents an original approach based on artificial neural network to model the UWB
channel in this particular confined area. Results show the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed approach, as wel l the potential of
neural networks in modeling the channel transfer function and in predicting UWB signal behavior in a mine environment.
Index Terms— UWB channel, mine environment, propagation model, path loss, phase, RBF ANN, training process, testing phase.
—————————— ——————————
1 INTRODUCTION
WB is one of the major technologies used in wireless
communication; it has been employed for several and
various applications such as commercial communications ap
plications, system surveillance, medical applications, localiza
tion, military applications and newly wireless personal area
networks [1].
As the necessity of wireless communication in underground
mines is well understood, many companies have started to
deploy modern wireless networks in mine galleries to increase
safety and productivity [2], such as voice communication
among mine workers, and video surveillance through infre
quent snapshots in mine galleries [3]. Remote control applica
tion is also of interest to mine operators so that machinery op
erating in extreme conditions such as shearers can be con
trolled remotely, thus increasing safety and productivity. Nev
ertheless, conceiving these systems requires accurate know
ledge of the channel.
UWB radios mainly use frequencies from 3.1 GHz to 10.6
GHz; they offer many advantages and benefits such as large
throughput, covertness, fading robustness, capacity, flexibility
and coexistence with current radio services. The wide band
widths have attracted great interest and created many new
possibilities for mine environment communication systems [4].
However, radio wave propagation in an underground mine
is submitted to many physical phenomena such as reflection,
refraction, diffraction and scattering due to the natural geology
composition and significant roughness of the ground, walls
and ceilings in such a confined environment. Knowledge of the
channel is necessary to ensure highquality UWB network dep
loyments and to design a high performance transmission sys
tem [5]. Hence, accurate channel modeling in this environment
is an important and a complex issue.
Modeling a channel is achieved through mathematical ex
pressions, diagrams and algorithms to represent the characte
ristics and the behaviour of the channel. Ultimately, modeling
the channel in a mine environment targets many goals such as
the exploitation of mineral resources, localization of miners,
mobile terminals and equipment that is highly desirable for
operational and safety enhancements in the mining industry.
Approaches to channel modeling can be classified as (i) de
terministic models, (ii) statistical/empirical models and (iii)
semideterministic models.
Wellknown ray tracing/ray launching and FDTD (finite
difference time domain) models [6] are deterministic modeling
methods where the information of form and geography and
the electrical characteristics of the propagation environment
are used to compute the received signal, and to determine the
Maxwell‘s equation exact solution (FDTD). These techniques
require a large amount of calculation and their results may not
be very accurate [7]; also, they may require the importation of
specific data such as the location geometry of obstacles and the
electromagnetic parameters of all materials. Moreover, a draw
back of FDTD techniques is the requirement for storage space
and large computations, and as such, it can only be applied to a
small part of the entire target environment [7]. Thus, these
models are computationally inefficient for mining environ
ments where many galleries have various dimensions and
where the walls, the ground and ceilings present multiple irre
gularities leading to a huge number of diffracted and scattered
rays [2][8].
Statistical models are measurementbased; they have been
derived from intensive measurement campaigns. The stochas
tic parameters of these models are extracted from the mea
surement data. It has been shown that the measured amplitude
samples follow Rice, Rayleigh, or Weibull distributions [9]
thus, they are dependent on the measurement experimental
————————————————
 N. Zaarour is with the Institut national de la recherche scientifique
Montréal, QC, H5A1K6, Canada
 N. Kandil and N. Hakem are with Ingeneer School of Université du Québec
en AbitibiTémiscamingue, Vald’Or, QC, J9P1Y3, Canada
 C. Despins is with Propmt Quebec Inc., Montréal (Québec) H3B 3A7,
Canada
U
© 2014 JOT
www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
2
setups [10]. Semideterministic models combine both stochastic
and deterministic approaches. They use ray tracing to identify
the main rays in specific sites and superimpose statistical dis
tributions [9].
A large body of research results has been published on UWB
channel propagation based on the different approaches dis
cussed above e.g. modeling an UWB propagation indoor statis
tical channel [10], modeling based on the SV model [4], a
modeling approach based on the concept of degradation level
discretetime Markov chain [12], Ultra Wideband channel
modeling based on RayTracing [13], and FDTD Characteriza
tion of an UWB Indoor Radio Channel [14].
Our study proposes an original approach for modeling
UWB signal propagation in a harsh underground mine envi
ronment based on using the Radial Basis Function artificial
neural network (RBF ANN) method, which is classified as one
potential solution to reduce and overcome computation ineffi
ciency and measurement dependence drawbacks. The pro
posed approach combines the use of a small set of measure
ments and of a welldefined neural network structure in order
to produce a highly accurate channel model for the mine envi
ronment. The experimental results presented in this paper ex
tend some of the preliminary results published in [15].
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. After
this introduction, a second section describes the proposed
neural network model. Simulations and results are reported
and discussed in the third section prior to the conclusion in the
last section.
2 NEURAL NETWORKS
Over the last thirty years, the field of artificial neural networks
(ANN) has become an important research theme, as ANNs
have been developed as generalizations of mathematical mod
els of human cognition or neural biology. They are intercon
nected assemblies of simple process elements, neurons, units or
nodes that offer an alternative to conventional computing ap
proaches. Their operation is based on certain known properties
of biological neurons.
ANNs respond in parallel to a set of inputs and are more
concerned with transformations than algorithms and proce
dures. As such, they are able to respond with high speed. Fur
thermore, the redundancy of their interconnections ensures
robustness and fault tolerance, and they can be designed to
selfadapt and learn [16].
The ANN is a mesh of many neurons organized in layers.
The point where two neurons communicate is called a "connec
tion" (cf. Figure 1). The strength of this connection is defined by
its weight. Neural networks can achieve complicated input
output mappings, without explicit programming or prior
knowledge, and can extract relationships (both linear and non
linear) between data sets presented during a learning process
(or training).
The procedure used to perform the learning process is called
a learning algorithm whose function is to modify the synaptic
weights of the network to attain a desired design objective [17].
Many research results on neural networks have been pub
lished, since they have been used for modeling communication
systems [17] such as satellite channels [18] or for localization in
mines [19], for identity verification [20] and for modeling of
power amplifiers [21].
As well, ANNs have been used in channel modeling; MLP
was the first neural structure applied to channel equalization
[22]; researchers used ANNs to estimate a signal for multipath
mobile communications [23], to make a comparative study on
channel modeling using feed forward and recurrent neural
networks [24], and for wireless fading channel modeling based
on a radial basis function network [25]. Also, Wavelet neural
networks have also been used to model a mobile communica
tions fading channel [26]. In this approach, an RBF ANN is
used to find the best model with the lowest error to represent a
complex confined area such as an underground mine environ
ment.
2.1 Radial basis function networks (RBFN)
One of the most popular types of neural networks is the RBFN,
introduced to the design of neural networks in 1988 [20]. The
RBFN exhibits superior learning speed and ability for a strong
nonlinear function approach and modeclassification [22]. Real
wireless channels are nonlinear and the RBFN has good proper
ties for simulating nonlinear systems [25].
Their basic characteristic is that they are restricted to a sin
gle hidden layer which consists of a variable number of neu
rons whose activation function is a Gaussian function (Fig.1)
[27] [17]. RBF networks belong to the category of kernel net
works. Each hidden node (unit) computes a kernel function on
input data, and the output layer achieves a weighted summa
tion of the kernel functions.
When an X vector of input values is presented to the net
work (hidden neurons), it is shifted in R
n
space according to
some stored parameters (the centers) in the network. The
Euclidean norm is computed for each of these shifted vectors,
and then the RBF kernel function to this distance is applied
using the radius of the Gaussian [28].
Fig. 1. Architecture of a RBF neural network [11]
Fig. 1 presents the radial basis network architecture [11].
The output of the hidden neurons is given by the activation
function ) ( x h
j
in (1).
3
( ) ( )
¿
=
÷ ÷ =
l
k
jk jk j j
r C x x h
1
2 2
exp ) ( (1)
Where j
H ,...., 1 =
and H is equal the number of hidden neu
rons, and l is equal the number of input neurons. Also, rj is
equal to the radius vector of the j
th
hidden unit and models the
shape of the activation function rj =[ rj1, rj2, …, rjl]
T
, and the vector
cj represents the location.
Next, the outputs from the hidden layer are forwarded to
the output layer where neurons implement a weighted sum of
hidden unit outputs (linear combination of hidden function)
[27].
The output of the third layer ok is linear (2):


.

\

=
¿
=
) (
1
x h w f o
j
H
j
jk k
. (2)
where O k ,...., 1 = and O is the number of nodes in the output
layer. In supervised learning, the weights wk are modified us
ing the cost function criteria of the sum of squared errors
minimization over the entire training set presented in (3):
( )
2
1
2
1
¿
=
÷ =
O
K
k k
o y E . (3)
In the preceding, yk are the targets, y (y = [ y1, y2, …, yo]
T
) and
ok are the outputs from the neural network. Weights are initial
ized using small random values and they are tuned at each
iteration round of supervised learning:
jk
old
jk
new
jk
w w w A + = . (4)
Where
( ) ) ( . ) ( x h x h o y
w
E
w
j j k jk
jk
jk
qo q q = ÷ =
c
c
÷ = A (5)
where η is a nonfixed learning rate. These operations are re
peated until the maximum number of iterations is reached or
until the prediction error is less than some given threshold.
2.2 Proposed neural network model
2.2.1 Experimental setup
Several measurement campaigns to characterize an UWB
channel in a mine were conducted at the ''Télébec Under
ground Communications Research Laboratory'' (LRTCS) lo
cated in Vald‘Or, 500 km north of Montreal, Québec, Canada.
This laboratory specializes in communications in underground
and confined areas and has been provided with an experimen
tal mine known as CANMET (Canadian Centre for Minerals
and Energy Technology) to perform measurements in a real
physical environment [8]. Results of some of these measure
ments campaigns are used in this work to model UWB channel
in the mine environment using RBF ANNs. Both line of sight
(LOS) and nonlight of sight (NLOS) measurements are consid
ered in two corridor depth levels of 40 m and 70 m, where the
environment consists of rough walls and bumpy floors pre
senting some puddles of water (Fig.2).
The purpose of these measurements was to study small
scale and largescale variations in the statistics of the channel.
A network analyzer (VNAAgilent E8363B) was used to
measure the radio channel frequency response, both in ampli
tude and phase. The VNA was used to measure and record the
complex frequency response, the S21 parameter, over a 7 GHz
bandwidth centered on 6.5 GHz.
Fig. 2. Photography of a CANMET underground gallery
The measurements were made between 1m and 10 m with
an interval of 1 m, and for each position, a specially con
structed grid was used to measure at 9 horizontallyspaced
points around the nominal receiver position (Fig.3). The dis
tance between spatial points is 1 cm, avoiding the correlation
between signals at very close frequencies. During measure
ments, the heights of transmitting and receiver antennas were
maintained at 1.5 m in the same horizontal plane and the chan
nel was kept stationary by ensuring there was no movement in
the surrounding environment.
An ARA directional antenna (DRG118/A) linearly polar
ized, covering the frequency range from 1 to 18 GHz, with a
gain varying from 9.1 to 12.2 dBi was used at the transmitter.
At the receiver, an omnidirectional antenna (EM6116) verti
cally polarized and covering the frequency range from 2 to 10
GHz with a gain equal to 1 dB and a low noise amplifier LNA
covering a frequency range from 0.1 to 18 GHz with a gain
equal to 30 dB were used. At port 1, a signal was transmitted
and the receiving antenna was connected to the other port of
the VNA. The transmitting port of the VNA swept 16001 dis
crete frequencies ranging from 3 GHz to 10 GHz uniformly
distributed over the bandwidth [8].
The scattering parameter S21 obtained by the VNA is com
posed of an amplitude and a phase and is proportional to the
frequency response of the transmission channel H(f,t).
Since the measurements were done on a stationary channel,
the time dependency is null and the frequency response is:
) (
) ( ) (
f j
e f H f H
u ÷
= (6)
These measurement campaigns were used to model an
UWB channel path loss in a mine environment using MLP neu
ral networks focusing on the path loss attenuation as a function
of distance and frequency [29].
Since the received signal in a multipath channel consists of
series of attenuated, timedelayed, and phaseshifted replicas
of the transmitted signal, the model of a radio channel is given
as a complex transfer function in the frequency domain, or as a
complex impulse response in the time domain. Once the com
plex impulseresponse function is determined, important
channelpropagation parameters can be extracted.
4
Fig. 3. Measurement Setup [8]
In this work, the study takes into consideration the estima
tion of the path loss as well as the phase of the received signal
in an underground mine using the Radial Basis Function neu
ral networks (RBFN).
2.2.2 Training and testing measurement data
The most important work in building an ANN is the selection
and the preparation of its input variables. The proposed model
of RBFN has two inputs in its input layer: f, the frequency
varying from 3 to 10 GHz and d, the distance varying from 1 to
10 m, a Gaussian hidden layer and two outputs: the path loss
in dB and the phase in degrees (Fig.4).
Measurements described in this work constituted the data
set. In fact, an average was done for the 9 measurements (9
horizontallyspaced points) for each frequency at each distance
(from 1m to 10 m). A portion of this data set is used to train the
ANN (training phase), and another portion, which was not
presented to the ANN during the training, is used to test the
ANN performance (testing phase).
During the training phase, the ANNs learn to build a rela
tionship (mapping) between the inputtarget pairs, and by ad
justing the weights during the process of learning to ultimately
reach the minimal tolerated error (by comparing the output of
the ANN with the desired target). Then, the testing phase
checks the performance and the accuracy of the ANN to pre
dict correctly the relation between the testing data and their
corresponding outputs.
After training the RBFN and testing its performance at 70 m,
we present, in a final step, a new data set at level 40m to the
RBFN to test its performance and its capacity to estimate and
predict the outputs of desired inputs in a new environment.
2.2.3 RBFN implementation
In the learning process, the Matlab© Neural Network Toolbox
function newrb was used [30]. Using this function, RBFN train
ing is based on the iterative increase of the number of RBFs in
the hidden layer until the sumsquared error minimization of a
training data set is satisfied. At each computational step, a new
RBF is created from the input vector that minimizes error. If
the initial conditions are not satisfied, a new neuron in the hid
den layer was added, and a new iteration was run and a new
error was computed.
Fig. 4. Structure of the proposed RBF network
The input data was scaled and the learning parameters were
selected as follows: the spread of the Gaussian is 10
2
and the
training parameter goal is 10
4
. A small portion of measure
ments was used with only 5% of the data constituting the
learning samples (8000 points of 160010 points). During this
phase, the network architecture is obtained by fixing the model
parameters and by determining the network's weights.
3. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS
3.1 Modeling the channel at 70 m using an RBF neural
network in LOS
At level 70, the dimensions of the mine corridors are approxi
mately 2.5 m in width, 3 m in height and 80 m in length. Fig. 5
presents the estimated path loss obtained from the S21 ampli
tude parameter. This estimation was done by the RBFN on a
large set of data used for testing; the blue curve presents the
real measured data in the mine environment, while the red one
presents the output of the ANNs representing the estimated
path loss.
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
P
a
t
h
L
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path Loss estimated by RBF NN
Measured Path Loss
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 9m 10m
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
frequency
(GHz)
distance(m)
310GHz
8m
Fig. 5. Estimated path loss by RBFN as a function of distance and fre
quency at 70m in LOS
To clarify the results, we present a small portion of testing
data (0.05%) used to estimate the performance of ANNs and
this is shown in Fig.6. The superposition of these two curves
with a mean square error equal to 0.0844 dB (error calculated
over the 0.05% of data) shows a great fitting of our model to
reality. ANN estimates the path loss as function of inputs with
frequency varying from 3 to 10 GHz and distance varying from
1 to 10 m. As the curves show, at each distance, the frequency
is varying from 3 to 10 GHz, so the phases of training and test
5
ing were done on the whole range of frequencies at each dis
tance.
Fig.7 shows the phase estimated by RBFN; the blue curve
shows the measured phase while the red one shows the esti
mated values. Fig.8 shows the clarification of the results by
presenting a portion of 0.05% of data set.
It‘s clear that the curve estimated by the RBFN follows the
real one, and we quantify this result by calculating the error
which is equal to 10.36°, the latter being obtained by dividing
the sum of the differences between the real values and the es
timated ones on the total number of estimated points.
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
P
a
t
h
L
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN
Measured Path Loss
310GHz
310GHz
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
10m 9m 8m 7m 6m 5m 4m 3m 2m 1m
310GHz
distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
Fig. 6. Estimated path loss by RBFN by using a portion of 0.05 % of data
set at level 70m in LOS
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated Phase by RBF NN
Measured Phase
1m
310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz
310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz
2 m 3m 4 m 5 m 7m 8m 9m 10m 6 m distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
Fig. 7. Estimated phase by RBFN at level 70m in LOS
150
100
50
0
50
100
P
h
a
s
e
(
D
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated Phase by RBF NN
Measured Phase
1m 2 m 3m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7m 8m 9m 10m
310 GHz 310 GHz
310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz 310 GHz
frequency
(GHz)
distance(m)
Fig. 8. Estimated phase by RBFN by using a portion of 0.05 % of data set
at level 70m in LOS
3.2 Testing the performance of the neural network in a
mine gallery at level 40m in LOS
To prove and to confirm the performance of the model ob
tained by a RBF ANN, we test it by using another data set
measured in another tunnel located at 40 m of depth in the
same mine environment.
At level 40 m, the dimensions of the mine corridors are 4 m
in width, approximately 5 m in height and 100 meters in
length. This gallery is broader and higher than the one at level
70 m [9].
The same ANN used in the previous section, obtained by a
training data set measured at 70 m, is used in this one to esti
mate the path loss and the phases at 40m. Hence, it can pro
duce the channel behaviour at a new level which is never used
in its building and learning process.
The results are plotted in Figs. 9 and 10. Fig.9 presents the
path loss at 40m, and the error calculated over 0.05 % of data
set is 8.1456 dB. The latter has increased, even though the
model is still able to predict correctly the variation of the path
loss as function of distance and frequency. Fig.10 presents the
estimated phase in degrees at 40m; the curves are not well su
perimposed. And this can be explained by the difference be
tween the two environments.
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
P
a
t
h
l
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN at level 40 m
Measured Path loss
distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 m
Fig. 9. Estimated path loss by RBF ANN at level 40 m in LOS
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated phase by RBF NN at level 40 m
Measured phase
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 m distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
Fig. 10. Estimated phase by RBF ANN at level 40 m in LOS
3.3 Modeling the channel at 70 m using RBF neural
network in NLOS
The structure of the mine environment leads to nonline of
sight propagation. Hence, the obstructions reflect certain radio
frequencies, while some simply absorb or garble the signals;
but, in either case, they limit the use of many types of radio
6
transmissions. In this subsection, we will present the UWB
channel modeling in NLOS situations.
This new RBFN is trained using a new data set obtained
from measurements at level 70m in NLOS. Fig.11 presents the
estimated path loss by RBFN at level 70m in NLOS propaga
tion; likewise, the blue curve presents the real measurements
and the red one presents the estimated values. Fig.12 presents a
small portion to clarify the results obtained in this simulation;
the MSE is calculated and is found equal to 0.2470 dB.
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
P
a
t
h
l
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN in NLOS
Measured path loss
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
6 m 5 m 4 m 3 m 2 m 1 m 7m 8 m 9 m 10 m
frequency
(GHz)
distance(m)
Fig. 11. Estimated path loss by RBFN as a function of distance and
frequency at 70m in NLOS
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
P
a
t
h
l
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN in NLOS
Measured path loss
distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
2 m 1 m 3 m 4 m 9 m 10 m 8 m 7 m 6 m 5 m
310GHz
Fig. 12. Estimated path loss by RBFN by using a portion of 0.05 % of data
set at level 70m in NLOS
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated phase by RBF NN in NLOS
Measured Phase
distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 m 9 m 10 m
Fig. 13. Estimated phase by RBFN at level 70m in NLOS
The quantification of results by calculating the error shows
that even in case of NLOS propagation which is considered
more complex than LOS propagation, the RBFN model is able
to predict the path loss of the UWB channel in a mine envi
ronment. Furthermore, the phase is modeled using RBFN
structure. In Figs. 13 and 14, we present the estimation of the
second RBFN output which is the phase. The red and blue
curves show the effectiveness of the model built using RBFN to
estimate this output. The value of the error calculated over the
number of estimated points is found equal to 8.8736°.
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated phase by RBF NN in NLOS
Measured Phase
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m
frequency
(GHz)
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
10m distance(m)
Fig. 14. Estimated phase by RBFN by using a portion of 0.05 % of data set
at level 70m in NLOS
3.4 Testing the performance of the neural network in a
mine gallery at level 40m in NLOS
As done in subsection B, we now test the performance of the
RBFN model obtained by changing the mine level, i.e. in a new
environment. Fig. 15 presents the results of prediction the path
loss in NLOS propagation at level 40m, by the RBFN trained
and constructed using data at level 70m.
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
P
a
t
h
l
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN in NLOS at level 40m
Measured path loss
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m distance (m)
frequency
(GHz)
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
Fig. 15. Estimated path loss by RBFN at level 40m in NLOS
The curve presenting the estimated path loss follows the
blue curve on the first and the second meters. Nevertheless, a
big gap is noticed while passing to the third and the fourth
meters, showing an error in predicting the path loss at these
distances. Beyond the fourth meter, the model succeeds in pre
dicting the first output of the RBFN but with noticeable errors.
Moreover, fig. 16 presents the second output of the RBFN;
this simulation shows the inability of the RBFN trained at 70m
level in NLOS propagation to predict the channel behavior in a
new environment (at level 40m).
This problem may be linked to the structure of the mine at
40m. Some results obtained above show that the RBFN is some
times unable to properly assess the outputs and notably in the
case of testing in an environment different from that used for
training. This problem motivated us to seek a solution to re
7
duce errors, improve and refine our RBF neural network. For
this we suggest two solutions:
1. Design a neural network for each level separately, and
the choice of the network depends on the user‘s objec
tives.
2. Design a new network using mixed learning, by includ
ing the measurements made at both levels 40 and 70m.
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated phase by RBF NN at 40m
Measured Phase
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m distance(m)
frequency
(GHz)
310GHz
310GHz
310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz 310GHz
Fig. 16. Estimated phase by RBFN at 40m in NLOS
3.5 Mixed learning of RBFN
Measurements made in two different levels 40m and 70m in
NLOS propagation are used to construct the RBF network. The
architecture of the network in this case will be different. In
deed, the network receives three variables in the input layer,
the frequency, the distance and a flag that determines whether
the data is retrieved from the database at 40 m or at 70 m
(Fig.17). The spread of the Gaussian is equal to 0.1. The training
phase is accomplished using 5 % of data set, and the architec
ture of the network is obtained and saved.
Fig. 17. Architecture of RBFN in mixed learning
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
P
a
t
h
L
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN
Measured Path loss
Level 40m in LOS Level 70m in LOS
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m
Fig.18. Estimated path loss by RBFN in LOS
Simulation results in testing this RBFN with LOS and NLOS
propagation are presented below. The red curves, in Figs. 18
and 20, present the estimated path loss by this RBFN in LOS at
two levels, and the blue ones present the real values of path
loss; as is shown, a portion of data are retrieved from data at
70m and the second portion from data at 40m. The MSE are
calculated and are equal to 0.0016 dB and to 5.2749 dB in LOS
and NLOS respectively.
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
P
a
t
h
l
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
Path loss estimated by RBF NN
Measured Path loss
Level 70m in NLOS Level 40m in NLOS
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m 1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m
Fig. 19. Estimated path loss by RBFN in NLOS
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated phase by RBF NN
Measured Phase
Level 40m in LOS Level 70m in LOS
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m 1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m
Fig 20. Estimated phase by RBFN in LOS
1000
800
600
400
200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Estimated phase by RBF NN
Measured phase
Level 70m in NLOS Level 40m in NLOS
1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m 1m2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10m
Fig. 21. Estimated phase by RBFN in NLOS
Also, in figures 20 and 21, the real phase and the phase pre
dicted by RBFN show good performance of the new model in
estimating the path loss. The values of calculated errors are
equal to 8.3017° and 12° in LOS and NLOS respectively.
These results with low errors show the ability of this ap
proach to estimate and to model the UWB channel in a mine
environment regardless of the level of the gallery.
8
3.6 Channel capacity
To broaden our results, we also calculated the channel capaci
ty. The capacity of a channel can be defined as the maximum
flow of information that can support the channel while ensur
ing errorfree transmission. The capacity of a UWB channel is
defined by [31]:


.

\

+ =
¿
=
2
0 1
2
) (
1 log
1
W N
f H P
M
C
k
M
k
(7)
where M is the number of frequencydomain samples,
is the frequency response of the channel, P is the
transmitted power distributed on the frequency band , N0 is a
zeromean white Gaussian noise power spectral density, and
W is the bandwidth of the channel.
The channel capacities are computed for each distance as
suming a SNR of 10 dB, and the results are shown in table I.
The table shows a low difference between the real and the es
timated values; hence errors can be qualified as minimal. The
results show the accuracy of neural network in channel model
ing; this is demonstrated by computing the channel capacity in
both LOS and NLOS propagation environments.
TABLE 1
UWB CHANNEL CAPACITY IN MINE ENVIRONMENT
4. CONCLUSIONS
Modeling a channel in a harsh and complex environment is a
complicated issue. Traditional methods present disadvantages
in terms of complexity, accuracy and storage capacity. Our
modeling process is based on a different approach i.e. an artifi
cial neural network which allows modeling complex problems
in different fields by using few measurements and ensuring
high accuracy.
In this work, a RBFN was used to model the UWB channel
in an underground mine, and a training phase was applied
using few experimental data measurements conducted in an
underground mine environment where the frequency varied
between 3 and 10 GHz, and the transmitterreceiver distance
varied between 1 and 10m.
The results of estimating the path loss and the phase of the
received signal show the capacity of the RBF ANN and the effi
ciency of this approach in estimating the radio channel fre
quency using few data sets.
To achieve higher performance and accuracy, a new neural
model architecture was proposed by increasing the number of
its inputs to three, by adding a flag as a third input and using
both data sets made at 40m and at 70m in the training phase.
Also, the channel capacity is computed by using the outputs
of the RBFN; a comparison between the real and the estimated
values again showed the accuracy of our neural network mod
els in channel modeling.
Moreover, this model presents another advantage owing to
its capacity to model the channel as a function of distance and
frequency; therefore for any frequency f and desired distance d,
the path loss and the phase can be estimated.
Nevertheless, the learning process may be slow (due to the
large number of neurons used in the hidden layer), but there is
no special requirement on time, since the model setup is done
offline. This work can be extended to estimate other channel
characteristics such as delay spread, coherence bandwidth,
Doppler spread, coherence time, etc.
Also, the ANN can be implemented in a hardware circuit
which then offers an emulator of the UWB channel in the mine
environment, thus supporting transceiver design.
REFERENCES
[1] V. Tabataba Vakili, D. AbbasiMoghadam, M. Yahyaabadi, "UWB Channel
modeling improvement in indoor lineofsight (LOS) Environments", Int. J.
Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2010,3, 870876.
[2] Chehri, P. Fortier, P. M Tardif ―Frequency Domain Analysis of UWB Channel
Propagation in Underground Mines‖, IEEE VTC'06fall, September 2528,
2006, Montreal, Canada.
[3] Srinivasan, K.; Ndoh, M.; Kaluri, K. Advanced Wireless Networks for Under
ground Mine Communications, First International Workshop on Wireless
Communications in Underground and Confined Areas (IWWCUCA 2005).
pp. 5154. June 2005. NRC 48303.
[4] J. TZUHO Chuang. ―Characterization of UltraWideband radio wave Propa
gation within the passenger cabin of Boeing 737200 Air craft‖, B.A S c , The
University of British Columbia, 2004.
[5] A. Guéron,‖ WiFi Déploiement et sécurité‖, éditions Dumont, 2006
[6] Huschka, T. ‗‘Ray tracing models for indoor environments and their computa
tional complexity‘‘, 5th IEEE International Symposium onPersonal Indoor and
Mobile Radio Communications, Wireless Networks Catching the Mobile Fu
ture, 1994.
[7] X. Mao, J. Jin, J. Yang, "Wireless channel modeling: classification, comparison
and application", the 5th Int. Conference on Computer Science & Education,
China, 2010
[8] B. Nakakanou,N. Hakem, G.Y. Delisle,"Experimental Evaluation of the Ultra
Wideband Propagation Channel in an Undergeround Mine, "Antennas and
Propagation Society International Symposium (APS/URSI), Jul 2011 , pp.2781
2784,2011
[9] J. Ledy, H.Boeglen, A.M. Poussard, B. Hilt, R. Vauzelle, ―A SemiDeterministic
Channel Model for VANETs Simulations‖, International Journal of Vehicular
Technology Vol. 2012.
[10] H. M. Abdulhadi AlTamimi, S. M. AlQaraawy,'' UWB Propagation Indoor
Statistical Channel Modeling'', ISECS International Colloquium on Compu
ting, Control, and Management, 2009
[11] P. Pavlovcic Preseren, B. Stopar ―GPS orbit approximation using radial basis
function networks‖, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic En
gineering, Jamova cesta 2, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia, Computers & Geosciences
35 (2009) 1389–1396
9
[12] F. De Rango, F. Veltri, S. Marano, '' Channel Modeling Approach Based on the
Concept of degradation level discreteTime Markov chain: UWB system case
study'', IEEE transactions on wireless communications, Vol.10, No. 4, April
2011.
[13] H.M. Asif B. Honary H. Ahmed, Multipleinput multipleoutput ultrawide
band channel modeling method based on ray tracing, IET Commun., 2012,
Vol. 6, Iss. 10, pp. 1195–1204.
[14] Y. Zhao, Y. Hao, C. Parini, ―Two novel FDTD based UWB indoor propagation
models,‖ in Proc. 2005 IEEE Int. Conf. UltraWideband, Sep. 2005
[15] N. Zaarour, N. Kandil, N. Hakem and C. Despins,‖ Comparative Experimen
tal Study on Modeling the Path Loss of an UWB Channel in a Mine Environ
ment Using MLP and RBF Neural Networks‖, Wireless Communications in
Unusual and Confined Areas (ICWCUCA), International Conference, August
2012.
[16] N. Kandil, V. Sood, M. Saad, '' Use of ANNs for short term load forecasting'',
Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Comput
er Engineering Shaw Conference Center, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada May 9
12 1999.
[17] S. Haykin, Neural Networks, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall,
1999.
[18] M. Ibnkahla, ―Applications of neural networks to digital communications—A
survey‖ J. Signal Process., vol. 80, pp. 1185–1215, 2000
[19] A. Taok, N. Kandil, S. Affes, ―Neural Networks for FingerprintingBased In
door Localization Using UltraWideband‖. JCM 4(4): 267275 (2009)
[20] F. Yang, M. Paindavoine, '' Implementation of an RBF Neural Network on
Embedded Systems: RealTime Face Tracking and Identity Verification'', IEEE
Transactions on Neural Networks, Vol. 14, No. 5, September 2003
[21] M. Isaksson, D. Wisell, and D. Rönnow, ―Wideband dynamic modeling of
power amplifiers using radialbasis function neural networks‖, Ieee Transac
tions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 11, November 2005.
[22] S. Chen, G. J. Gibson, C. F. N. Cowan and P. M. Grant, ―Adaptive Equalization
of Finite Nonlinear Channels Using Multilayer Perceptron‖. Signal Processing
20, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, pp: 107119, 1990.
[23] T.L Hemminger, ―Signal estimation with neural networks for multipath mo
bile communications‖, Neural Networks, 1997, International Conference on 9
12 June 1997
[24] W. Chagra, R. Ben Abdenour, F. Bouani, M.Ksouri, G. Favier, ―A comparative
study on the channel modeling using feedforward and recurrent neural net
work structures‖, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cy
bernetics, Oct. 1998, pp.3759  3763 vol.4
[25] J. Tian, M. Gao, S. Zhou, ―Research of wireless fading channel modeling based
on radial basis function network‖, 5th International Conference on Wireless
Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2009. WiCom '09
[26] M. Gao, J. Tian, S. Zhou, ―Modeling for Mobile communication fading channel
based on Wavelet Neural network‖, International Conference on Information
and Automation, 2008. ICIA June 2008, pp 1566 – 1570
[27] Bianconi,C.J. Von Zuben, A.B.de S. Serapiao, J.S. Govone,"Artificial neural
networks: A novel approach to analyzing the nutritional ecology of a blowfly
species, Chrysomya, megacephala", Journal of Insect Science: Vol.10, Article 58.
[28] Y. Hen Hu, JN Hwang, "Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing",
Boca Raton, Florida 33431
[29] M. Kalakh, N. Kandil, N.Hakem, "Neural networks model of an UWB channel
path loss in a mine environment", IEEE 76th VTC, 2012.
[30] Matlab R2010a, Neural Network Toolbox.
[31] F. Zheng and T. Kaiser, ―On the Evaluation of Channel Capacity of UWB
Indoor Wireless Systems‖, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol.56, Dec
2008, pp.61066113
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?